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History of Holland
by George Edmundson
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CHAPTER XXXV

THE REIGN OF QUEEN WILHELMINA, 1898-1917

THE Pierson-Borgesius ministry had not been long in office when Queen Wilhelmina attained her majority (August 31, 1898) amidst public enthusiasm. At the same time the Queen-Mother received many expressions of high appreciation for the admirable manner in which for eight years she had discharged her constitutional duties. The measures passed by this administration dealt with many subjects of importance. Personal military service was at last, after years of controversy, enforced by law, ecclesiastics and students alone being excepted. Attendance at school up to the age of 13 was made obligatory, and the subsidies for the upkeep of the schools and the payment of teachers were substantially increased. The year 1899 was memorable for the meeting of the first Peace Congress (on the initiative of the Tsar Nicholas II) at the Huis in't Bosch. The deliberations and discussions began on May 18 and lasted until June 29. By the irony of events, a few months later (October 10) a war broke out, in which the Dutch people felt a great and sympathetic interest, between the two Boer republics of South Africa and Great Britain. Bitter feelings were aroused, and the queen did but reflect the national sentiment when she personally received in the most friendly manner President Krueger, who arrived in Holland as a fugitive on board a Dutch man-of-war in the summer of 1900. The official attitude of the government was however perfectly correct, and there was never any breach in the relations between Great Britain and the Netherlands.

The marriage of Queen Wilhelmina, on February 7, 1901, with Prince Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was welcomed by the people, as affording hopes, for some years to be disappointed, of the birth of an heir to the throne.

The elections of 1901 found the liberal ministry out of favour through the laws enforcing military service and obligatory attendance at school. Against them the indefatigable Dr Kuyper, who had returned to active politics in 1897, had succeeded in uniting the three "Church" groups—the democratic anti-revolutionaries, the aristocratic Historical Christians (both orthodox Calvinists) and the Catholics of all sections—into a "Christian Coalition" in support of religious teaching in the schools. The victory lay with the coalition, and Dr Kuyper became first minister. The new administration introduced a measure on Higher Education, which was rejected by the First Chamber. A dissolution of this Chamber led to the majority being reversed, and the measure was passed. Another measure revised the Mackay Law and conferred a larger subsidy on "private" schools. The socialist party under the able leadership of Troelstra had won several seats at the election; and in 1903 a general strike was threatened unless the government conceded the demands of the socialist labour party. The threat was met with firmness; an anti-strike law was quickly passed; the military was called out; and the strike collapsed. The costly war in Achin, which had been smouldering for some years, burst out again with violence in the years 1902-3, and led to sanguinary reprisals on the part of the Dutch soldiery, the report of which excited indignation against the responsible authorities. Various attempts had been made in 1895 and 1899 to introduce protectionist duties, but unsuccessfully.

The quadrennial elections of 1905 found all the liberal groups united in a combined assault upon the Christian Coalition. A severe electoral struggle ensued, with the result that 45 liberals and 7 socialists were returned against 48 coalitionists. Dr Kuyper resigned; and a new ministry, under the leadership of the moderate liberal, De Meester, took its place. The De Meester government was however dependent upon the socialist vote, and possessed no independent majority in either Chamber. For the first time a ministry of agriculture, industry and trade was created. Such an administration could only lead a precarious existence, and in 1907 an adverse vote upon the military estimates led to its resignation. Th. Heemskerk undertook the task of forming a new cabinet from the anti-revolutionary and Catholic groups, and at the next general election of 1909 he won a conclusive victory at the polls. This victory was obtained by wholesale promises of social reforms, including old age pensions and poor and sick relief. As so often happens, such a programme could not be carried into effect without heavy expenditure; and the means were not forthcoming. To meet the demand a bill was introduced in August, 1911, by the finance minister, Dr Kolkmar, to increase considerably the existing duties, and to extend largely the list of dutiable imports. This bill led to a widespread agitation in the country, and many petitions were presented against it, with the result that it was withdrawn. A proposal made by this ministry in 1910 to spend 38,000,000 florins on the fortification of Flushing excited much adverse criticism in the press of Belgium, England and France, on the ground that it had been done at the suggestion of the German government, the object being to prevent the British fleet from seizing Flushing in the event of the outbreak of an Anglo-German war. The press agitation met, however, with no countenance on the part of responsible statesmen in any of the countries named; it led nevertheless to the abandonment of the original proposal and the passing of a bill in 1912 for the improvement of the defences of the Dutch sea-ports generally.

The election of 1913 reversed the verdict of 1909. Probably in no country has the principle of the "swing of the pendulum" been so systematically verified as it has in Holland in recent times. The returns were in 1913: Church parties, 41; liberals of all groups, 39; socialists, 15. The most striking change was the increase in the socialist vote, their representation being more than doubled; and, as in 1905, they held the balance of parties in their hands. With some difficulty Dr Cort van den Linden succeeded in forming a liberal ministry. The outbreak of the Great War in August, 1914, prevented them from turning their attention to any other matters than those arising from the maintenance of a strict neutrality in a conflict which placed them in a most difficult and dangerous position. One of the first questions on which they had to take a critical decision was the closing of the Scheldt. As soon as Great Britain declared war on Germany (August 4), Holland refused to allow any belligerent vessels to pass over its territorial waters. The events of the six years that have since passed are too near for comment here. The liberal ministry at least deserves credit for having steered the country safely through perilous waters. Nevertheless, at the quadrennial election of 1917 there was the customary swing of the pendulum; and an anti-liberal ministry (September 6) was formed, with a Catholic, M. Ruys de Beerenbronck, as first minister.

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EPILOGUE

The dynastic connection of Luxemburg with Holland ceased with the accession of Queen Wilhelmina. The conditions under which the Belgian province of Luxemburg was created, by the Treaty of Vienna in 1815, a grand-duchy under the sovereignty of the head of the House of Orange-Nassau with succession in default of heirs-male by the family compact, known as the Nassauischer Erbverein, to the nearest male agnate of the elder branch of the Nassau family, have already been related. With the death of William III the male line of the House of Orange-Nassau became extinct; and the succession passed to Adolphus, Duke of Nassau-Weilburg. How unfortunate and ill-advised was the action of the Congress of Vienna in the creation of the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg was abundantly shown by the difficulties and passions which it aroused in the course of the negotiations for the erection of Belgium into an independent state (1830-39). By the treaty of April 19, 1839, the Walloon portion of Luxemburg became part of the kingdom of Belgium, but in exchange for this cession the grand-duke obtained the sovereignty of a strip of the Belgian province of Limburg. This caused a fresh complication.

Luxemburg in 1815 was not merely severed from the Netherlands; it, as a sovereign grand-duchy, was made a state of the Germanic confederation. By virtue of the exchange sanctioned by the treaty of 1839, the ceded portion of Limburg became a state of the confederation. But with the revision of the Dutch constitution, which in 1840 followed the final separation of Holland and Belgium, by the wish of the king his duchy of Limburg was included in the new Fundamental Law, and thus became practically a Dutch province. The Limburgers had thus a strange and ambiguous position. They had to pay taxes, to furnish military contingents and to send deputies to two different sovereign authorities. This state of things continued with more or less friction, until the victory of Prussia over Austria in 1866 led to the dissolution of the Germanic confederation. At the conference of London, 1867, Luxemburg was declared to be an independent state, whose neutrality was guaranteed by the Great Powers, while Limburg became an integral portion of the kingdom of the Netherlands.

Since the middle of the last century the financial position of Holland has been continuously improving. The heavy indebtedness of the country, in the period which followed the separation from Belgium, was gradually diminished. This was effected for a number of years by the doubtful expedient of the profits derived from the exploitation of the East Indian colonies through the "Cultivation System." With the passing of the revised Fundamental Law of 1848 the control of colonial affairs and of the colonial budget was placed in the hands of the States-General; and a considerable section of the Liberal party began henceforth to agitate for the abolition of a system which was very oppressive to the Javanese population. It was not, however, until 1871 that the reform was carried out. Meanwhile, chiefly by the efforts of Thorbecke, the methods of home finance had been greatly improved by the removal, so far as possible, of indirect imposts, and the introduction of a free trade policy, which since his days has been steadily maintained. Such a policy is admirably suitable to a country which possesses neither minerals nor coal[15], and whose wealth is mainly due to sea-or river-borne trade, to dairy farming and to horticulture. For its supply of corn and many other necessary commodities Holland has to look to other countries. The fisheries still form one of the staple industries of the land, and furnish a hardy sea-faring population for the considerable mercantile marine, which is needed for constant intercourse with a colonial empire (the third in importance at the present time) consisting chiefly of islands in a far-distant ocean.

Between 1850 and 1914, 375,430,000 fl. have been devoted to the reduction of debt; and the Sinking Fund in 1915 was 6,346,000 fl. Since that date Holland has suffered from the consequences of the Great War, but, having successfully maintained her neutrality, she has suffered relatively far less than any of her neighbours. Taxation in Holland has always been high. It is to a large extent an artificial country; and vast sums have been expended and must always be expended in the upkeep of the elaborate system of dykes and canals, by which the waters of the ocean and the rivers are controlled and prevented from flooding large areas of land lying below sea level.

Culture in Holland is widely diffused. The well-to-do classes usually read and speak two or three languages beside their own; and the Dutch language is a finished literary tongue of great flexibility and copiousness. The system of education is excellent. Since 1900 attendance at the primary schools between the ages of six and thirteen is compulsory. Between the primary schools intermediate education (middelbaaronderwijs) is represented by "burgher night-schools" and "higher burgher schools." The night-schools are intended for those engaged in agricultural or industrial work; the "higher schools" for technical instruction, and much attention is paid to the study of the vier talen—French, English, German and Dutch. In connection with these there is an admirable School of Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry at Wageningen in Gelderland. To the teaching at Wageningen is largely due the acknowledged supremacy of Holland in scientific horticulture. There is a branch establishment at Groningen for agricultural training, and another at Deventer for instruction in subjects connected with colonial life. The gymnasia, which are to be found in every town, are preparatory to the universities. The course lasts six years; and the study of Latin and Greek in addition to modern languages is compulsory. There are four universities, Leyden, Utrecht, Groningen and Amsterdam. The possession of a doctor's degree at one of these universities is necessary for magistrates, physicians, advocates, and for teachers in the gymnasia and higher burgher schools.

In so small a country the literary output is remarkable, and, marked as it is by scientific and intellectual distinction, deserves to be more widely read. The Dutch are justly proud of the great part their forefathers played during the War of Independence, and in the days of John de Witt and William III. For scientific historical research in the national archives, and in the publication of documents bearing upon and illustrating the national annals, Dutch historians can compare favourably with those of any other country. Special mention should be made of the labours of Robert Fruin, who may be described as the founder of a school with many disciples, and whose collected works are a veritable treasure-house of brilliant historical studies, combining careful research with acute criticism. Among his many disciples the names of Dr P.J. Blok and Dr H.T. Colenbrander are perhaps the best known.

In the department of Biblical criticism there have been in Holland several writers of European repute, foremost among whom stands the name of Abraham Kuenen.

Dutch writers of fiction have been and are far more numerous than could have been expected from the limited number of those able to read their works. In the second half of the 19th century, J. van Lennep and Mevrouw Bosboom-Toussaint were the most prolific writers. Both of these were followers of the Walter Scott tradition, their novels being mainly patriotic romances based upon episodes illustrating the past history of the Dutch people. Van Lennep's contributions to literature were, however, by no means confined to the writing of fiction, as his great critical edition of Vondel's poetical works testifies. Mevrouw Bosboom-Toussaint's novels were not only excellent from the literary point of view, but as reproductions of historical events were most conscientiously written. Her pictures, for instance, of the difficult and involved period of Leicester's governor-generalship are admirable. The writings of Douwes Dekker (under the pseudonym Multatuli) are noteworthy from the fact that his novel Max Havelaar, dealing with life in Java and setting forth the sufferings of the natives through the "cultivation system," had a large share in bringing about its abolition.

The 20th century school of Dutch novelists is of a different type from their predecessors and deals with life and life's problems in every form. Among the present-day authors of fiction, the foremost place belongs to Louis Conperus, an idealist and mystic, who as a stylist is unapproached by any of his contemporaries.

No account of modern Holland would be complete without a notice of the great revival of Dutch painting, which has taken place in the past half century. Without exaggeration it may indeed be said that this modern renascence of painting in Holland is not unworthy to be compared with that of the days of Rembrandt. The names of Joseph Israels, Hendrik Mesdag, Vincent van Gogh, Anton Maure, and, not least, of the three talented brothers Maris, have attained a wide and well-deserved reputation. And to these must be added others of high merit: Bilders, Scheffer, Bosboom, Rochussen, Bakhuysen, Du Chattel, De Haas and Haverman. The traditional representation of the Dutchman as stolid, unemotional, wholly absorbed in trade and material interests, is a caricature. These latter-day artists, like those of the 17th century, conclusively prove that the Dutch race is singularly sensitive to the poetry of form and colour, and that it possesses an inherited capacity and power for excelling in the technical qualities of the painter's art.

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FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: Hollandais, Hollaender, Olandesi, Olandeses, etc.]

[Footnote 2: In French books and documents, Jacqueline.]

[Footnote 3: Bois-le-duc.]

[Footnote 4: By English and French writers generally translated Grand Pensionary.]

[Footnote 5: It must be remembered that the States-General and the Holland Estates sat in the same building.]

[Footnote 6: Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, I, 101.]

[Footnote 7: Busken Huet, Land van Rembrant, III, 175.]

[Footnote 8: Acte van Seclusie.]

[Footnote 9: Nassauischer Erbverein.]

[Footnote 10: Charles White, The Belgic Revolution, 1835, vol. 1, p. 106.]

[Footnote 11: Correspondence secrete des Pays-Bas. Julian received his report of the conversation direct from Count Bylandt by permission of the king.]

[Footnote 12: From Van Maanen's private papers. See Colenbrander's Belgische Omwenteling, p. 139.]

[Footnote 13: The ratification by the Powers took place on the following dates:—France and Great Britain, January 31; Austria and Prussia, April 18; Russia, May 4, 1832.]

[Footenote 14: The Prince of Orange had married Anna Paulovna, sister of Alexander I, in 1816.]

[Footnote 15: The Belgian coal field extends into Dutch Limburg.]

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

GENERAL

(a) ARCHIVALIA. BOOKS OF REFERENCE

AA, A.J. VAN DER. Biographisch woordenboek d. Nederlanden bevatt. levensbeschrijvingen der personen, die zich in ons vaderland hebben vermaard gemacht, voortgezet door K.J.R. v. Harderwijk en G.D.J. Schotel. 27 vols. Haarlem. 1851-70.

BERGH, L. PH.C. VAN DEN. Over MSS betr. onze geschiedenis in het Britsch Museum bewaard. Arnhem. 1858.

BLOK, P.J. Onze archieven. Amsterdam. 1891. Verslag aangaande een onderzoek in Duitschland naar Archivalia, belangrijk voor de geschiedenis van Nederland. 2 vols. The Hague. 1888-9. Verslag aangaande een voorloopig onderzoek in Engelandt naar Archivalia, belangrijk voor de gesch. v.N. The Hague. 1891. Verslag aangaande een voorloopig onderzoek in Parijs naar Archivalia, belangrijk voor de gesch. v.N. The Hague. 1897.

BRINK, R.C. BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN. Overzigt van het Nederl. Rijk's Archief. The Hague. 1854.

KNUTTEL, W.P.C. Nederlandsche bibliographic voor kerkgeschiedenis. Amsterdam. 1889. Catalogus van de pamfletten-verzameling berustende in de koninklijke biblioteek. 6 vols. The Hague. 1899, 1900, 1902.

KOK, J. Vaderlandsch Woordenboek. 35 vols. Amsterdam. 1735-99.

PETIT, LOUIS D. Repertorium der verhandelingen en bijdragen betreff. de geschied. des Vaterlands in tijdschriften en mengelwerken tot op 1900 verschenen. Leyden. 1905.

RIEMSDIJK, TH.V. Het Rijk's Archief te's Gravenhage. The Hague. 1889.

SCHELTEMA, P. Inventaris van het Amsterdamsch Archief. 3 vols. Amsterdam. 1866-74.

UHLENBEEK, C.C. Verslag aangaande een onderzoek in de archieven van Rusland ten bate der Nederl. Geschiedenis. The Hague. 1891.

(b) GENERAL HISTORY OF THE NETHERLANDS

AREND, J.P. Algemeene Geschiedenis des Vaderlands van de vroegste tijden tot op heden, voortgezet.... 13 vols. Amsterdam. 1840-83.

BILDERDIJK, W. Geschiedenis des Vaderlands. 14 vols. Amsterdam. 1832-53.

BLOK, P.J. Geschiedenis des Vaderlands. 9 vols. Groningen. 1892-1908. English translation in five parts. London and New York.

DAVIES, C.M. History of Holland and of the Dutch. 5 vols. London. 1851.

FRUIN, R. Geschiedenis der Staat-Instellingen in Nederland tot den Val der Republiek. The Hague. 1893.

GROEN v. PRINSTERER, G. Handboek der Geschied. des Vaterlands. 2 vols. Leyden. 1846.

JONGE, J.C. DE. Geschiedenis v. het Nederlandsche Zee-Wesen. 6 vols. The Hague. 1833-45.

NIJHOFF, I.A. Staatkundige Geschiedenis van Nederland. 2 vols. Zutphen. 1891-3.

RIJSENS, F. Geschiedenis van ons Vaderland. Groningen. 1904.

ROGERS, J.E. THOROLD. History of Holland. London. 1888.

VOS, J.M. Geschiedenis van ons Vaderland van oude tijden tot heden. Groningen. 1915.

VREEDE, G.W. Inleiding tot eene Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche diplomatie. 6 vols. Utrecht. 1856-65.

WAGENAAR, J. Vaderlandsche Historie. 21 vols. Amsterdam. 1749-59.

WENZELBERGER, K. TH. Geschichte der Niederlande. 2 vols. Gotha. 1879-86.

WIJNE, J.A. Geschiedenis van het Vaderland. Groningen. 1870.

XVITH CENTURY

(a) CONTEMPORARY WORKS AND COLLECTIONS OF ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS

BOR, P. Oorspronck, begin en ende aenvang der Nederlandsche oorlogen, beroerten ende borgelijcke oneenicheyden. 6 vols. Amsterdam and Leyden. 1621.

BRUCE, J. Correspondence of Leicester during his Government in the Low Countries. London. 1844.

CARNERO, A. Historia de las guerras civiles que han avido en los estados de Flandes des del anno 1559 hasta el de 1609, y las causas de la rebelion de dichos estados. Brussels. 1625.

COLOMA, C. Las guerras de los Estados Baxos, desde el anno de 1588 hasta el de 1599. Antwerp. 1625.

GACHARD, P.L. Correspondance de Philippe II sur les affaires des Pays-Bas. 5 vols. Brussels. 1867-87. —Correspondance de Guillaume le Taciturne. 6 vols. Brussels. 1847-57 —Correspondance d'Alexandre Farnese, Prince de Parma, gouv.-gen. des Pays-Bas avec Philippe II, 1578-9. Brussels. 1850.

GROEN v. PRINSTERER, G. Archives ou Correspondance inedite de la Maison d'Orange-Nassau. I^e serie. 9 vols. Leyden. 2^e serie. 5 vols. Utrecht. 1841-61.

GROTIUS, HUGO. Annales et historiae de rebus belgicis. Amsterdam. 1637.

HOOFT, P.C. Nederlandsche Historien, 1555-87. Amsterdam. 1656.

JUSTE, TH. Charles Quint et Marguerite d'Autriche. Brussels. 1858.

LE GLAY, A. Maximilian I et Marguerite d'Autriche. Paris. 1855.

LETTENHOVE, J.M. KERVYN DE. Relations politiques des Pays-Bas et de l'Angleterre sous le regne de Philippe II. 5 vols. Brussels. 1882-6.

METEREN, E. VAN. Belgische ofte Nederlandsche historien van onzen tijden tot 1598. Delft. 1605.

PETIT, J.F. LE. Grande Chronique de Hollande, Zelande, etc. jusqu'a la fin de 1600. 2 vols. Dordrecht. 1601.

REYD, E. VAN. Vornaemste gheschiedennissen in de Nederlanden, 1566-1601. Arnhem. 1626.

WEISS, C. Papiers d'Etat de Cardinal Granvelle. 9 vols. Paris. 1841-52.

(b) LATER WORKS

BRINK, J. TEN. De eerste Jaren der Nederlandsche Revolutie, 1555-68. Rotterdam. 1882.

BRUGMANS, H. Engeland en de Nederlanden in de eerste jaren van Elizabeth's regeering, 1558-67. Groningen. 1892.

FRUIN, R. Tien jaren uit den tachtigjarigen oorlog, 1588-98. Amsterdam. 1861. Het voorspel van den tachtigjarigen oorlog. Amsterdam. 1866.

JUSTE, TH. Histoire de la Revolution des Pays-Bas sous Philippe II, 1555-71. 2 vols. Brussels. 1855.

Continuation, 1572-7. 2 vols. The Hague. 1863-7.

LETTENHOVE, J.M. KERVYN DE. Les Huguenots et les Gueux, 1560-85. 6 vols. Bruges. 1883-5.

MOTLEY, J.L. Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1555-84. 3 vols. London. 1856. History of the United Netherlands, 1584-1609. 4 vols. The Hague, 1860-7.

TREMAYNE, E.E. The first Governors of the Netherlands. London. 1908.

(c) BIOGRAPHICAL

BLOK, P.J. Lodewijk van Nassau, 1536-1674. The Hague. 1889.

BURGON, J.W. Life and times of Thomas Gresham, compiled chiefly from his correspondence. 2 vols. London. 1839.

HARRISON, F. William the Silent. London. 1897.

HUME, M. Philip II of Spain. London. 1902.

MONTPLEINCHAMP, B. DE. L'histoire d'Alexandre Farnese, duc de Parma, gouverneur de la Belgique. Amsterdam. 1692.

PIETRO, FRA. Alessandro Farnese, duca di Parma. Rome. 1836.

PUTNAM, R. William the Silent, prince of Orange. 2 vols. New York. 1895.

RACHFELD, F. Margaretha von Parma, Statthalterin der Niederlande, 1559-67. Munich. 1895.

XVIITH CENTURY

(a) CONTEMPORARY WORKS AND COLLECTIONS OF ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS

AITZEMA, L. v. Saken van Staet en Oorlog in ende omtrent de Vereen. Nederlanden, 1621-69. 7 vols. The Hague. 1669-71.

Verhael van de Nederlandsche Vredehandel, 1621-49. 2 vols. The Hague. 1650.

AITZEMA, L. v. Herstelde Leeuw of discours over 't gepassert in de Vereen. Nederlanden, 1650-1. The Hague. 1652.

ALBUQUERQUE, DUARTE DE. Memorias Diarias della guerra del Brasil per discurso de nueve afios desde el de 1630. Madrid. 1654.

Archief v. den Raadpensionaris Antonie Heinsius, 1683-97. 3 vols. The Hague. 1867-80.

AVAUX, COMTE D' (JEAN ANTOINE DE MESNIER). Negotiations en Hollande, 1679-88. 6 vols. Paris. 1750-4.

BARLAEUS, C. Rerum per octennium in Brasilia et alibi nuper gestarum sub praefectura Com. J. Mauritii Nassoviae historia. Amsterdam. 1647. Epistolarum liber. 2 vols. Amsterdam. 1667.

BURNET, G. (Bishop of Salisbury). History of my own times. 2 vols. London. 1724-34.

CAPELLEN, ALEX. VAN DER. Gedenkschriften, 1621-54, uitg. d. R.J. v. d. Capellen. 2 vols. Utrecht. 1777-8.

D'ESTRADES, COMTE G. Lettres, memoires, negotiations depuis 1637. 9 vols. London. 1743.

GARDINER, S.R. Letters and Papers rel. to the First Dutch War, 1652-4. 2 vols. London. 1899-1900.

GROEN v. PRINSTERER, G. Archives ou Correspondance de la Maison d'Orange. 2e serie. 3 vols. Utrecht. 1841-61.

GROTIUS, HUGO. Epistolae ad Gallos. Leyden. 1650.

HOOFT, P.C. Brieven (1600-47) met toelichtingen door v. Vloten. 4 vols. Leyden. 1655-7.

HUYGHENS, CONSTANTIJN. Dagboek, 1606-85. Ed. J.H. Unger. Amsterdam. 1885.

Memoires. Ed. T. Jorissen. The Hague. 1873.

HUYGHENS, CONSTANTIJN DE ZOON. Journael gedurende de veldtochten der Jaren 1673, 1675, 1676, 1677 en 1678. Utrecht. 1831.

LAET, J. DE. Historic ofte jaerlijck verhael van de verrichtingen der West Indische Compagnie, sedert 1636. Leyden. 1644.

Marie, Reine d'Angleterre, e'pouse de Guillaume III, Lettres et Memoires de Collection de doc. authent. inedits publ. par Mad. Comtesse Bentinck. The Hague. 1880.

Mary, Queen of England, Memoirs of. Ed. E. Doelmer. Leipzig. 1886.

TEMPLE, SIR W. Letters written by W. Temple and other ministers of State containing an account of the most important transactions that passed from 1665-72. 3 vols. London. 1702-3.

Letters written during his being ambassador at the Hague to the Earl of Arlington and John Trevor, Secretaries of State, by D. Jones. London. 1699.

THURLOE, J. Collection of State Papers, etc. 7 vols. London. 1702-3.

WICQUEFORT, ABRAHAM DE. Histoire des Provinces Unies des Pays-Bas depuis la paix de Munster, 1648-58. Edd. Lenting and Van Buren. 4 vols. Amsterdam. 1861-74.

WITT, J. DE. Brieven ...gewisselt tusschen den Heer Johann De Witt ... ende de gevolmagtigden v. d. Staet d. Vereen. Nederlanden, so in Vrankryck, Engelandt, Zweden, Denemarken, Poolen enz. 1652-69. 6 vols. The Hague. 1723-5.

( b)LATER WORKS

BEINS, L. Jean de Witt en zijne buitenlandsche politick, 1653-60. Groningen. 1871.

BRILL, W.C. Cromwell's strijving naar eene coalitie tusschen de Nederlanden en de Britsche republiek. Amsterdam. 1891.

EDMUNDSON, GEORGE. Anglo-Dutch Rivalry in the first half of the 17th century. Oxford. 1911.

FRUIN, R. De oorlogsplannen van Prins Willem II na zijn aanslag op Amsterdam in 1650. The Hague. 1895.

Het process van Buat, 1666. The Hague. 1881.

GEDDES, J. History of the administration of John De Witt. The Hague. 1879.

JAPIKSE, N. De verwikkelingen tusschen de Republiek en Engeland, 1660-5. London. 1900.

LEFEVRE-PONTALIS, A. Vingt annees de Republique parlementaire au xvii^e siecle. Jean de Witt, Grand Pensionaris de Hollande. 2 vols. Paris. 1884.

MULLER, P.L. Wilhelm III von Oranien und Georg Friedrich van Waldeck. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kampfes um das Euro-paische Gleichgewicht, 1679-92. 2 vols. The Hague. 1872-80. Nederland en de Groote Keurvorst. The Hague. 1879.

MUTZUKURI, G. Englisch-Niederlaendische Unionsstrebungen im Zeit-alter Cromwell's. Tubingen. 1891.

SIRTEMA DE GROVESTINS. Guillaume III et Louis XIV. 8 vols. Paris. 1868.

TREITSCHKE, H. VON. Die Republik der Vereinigten Niederlande. Historische und politische Aufsatze. 4 vols. Leipzig. 1870.

(c) BIOGRAPHICAL

BAUMGAeRTNER, ALEXANDER. Joost van den Vondel, zijn leven en zijne werken. (Trs. from German.) Amsterdam. 1886.

BRANDT, C. Leven en bedrijf van Michiel De Ruyter. Amsterdam. 1687.

DALTON, C. Life and times of Sir Edward Cecil, Viscount Wimbledon, Colonel of an English Regiment in the Dutch Service, 1605-31. 2 vols. London. 1885.

EDMUNDSON, G. Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. (Eng. Hist. Rev. 41, 264—1890.)

Louis de Geer. (Eng. Hist. Rev. 685—1891.)

Pieter Cornelisz. Hooft. (Eng. Hist. Rev. 77—1894.)

GEER, J.L.W. DE. Lodewijk de Geer van Finspong en Leufsta, 1593-1652. Utrecht. 1882.

KEMP, ... Maurits van Nassau, prins v. Oranje, in zijn leven en verdiensten. 4 vols. Rotterdam. 1843.

LE CLERCQ, P. Het leven van Frederick Hendrick. 2 vols. The Hague. 1737.

MARKHAM, C.B. The fighting Veres. Lives of Sir Francis Vere and Sir Horace Vere, successively generals of the Queen's forces in the Low Countries. Boston. 1888.

MICHEL, E. Rembrandt, sa vie, son oeuvre et son temps. Paris. 1893.

MOTLEY, J.L. Life and death of John of Barneveldt. 2 vols. The Hague. 1874.

OOSTKAMP, J.A. Leven en daden van Marten Harpzn. Tromp en Jacob van Wassenaar van Obdam. Deventer. 1825.

SCHOTEL, G.D.J. Anna Maria van Schuurman. 'sHertogenbosch. 1853.

SIMONS, P. Johan De Witt en zijn tijd. 3 vols. Amsterdam. 1832-48.

TRAILL, H.D. William III. London. 1888.

TREVOR, A. Life and times of William III, 1650-1702. 2 vols. London. 1835-6.

VLOTEN, J. VAN. Tesselschade Roemers en hare vrienden, 1632-49. Leyden. 1652.

(d) COLONIZATION, COMMERCE, VOYAGES

DEVENTER, M.L. v. Geschiedenis der Nederlanders op Java. 2 vols. Haarlem. 1886-7.

DIJK, ..D. Nederland's vroegste betrekkingen met Borneo, den Solo Archipels, Cambodja, Siam en Cochin China. Amsterdam. 1862.

EDMUNDSON, G. The Dutch Power in Brazil (1) The struggle for Bahia, 1624-7. (2) The First Conquests. (Eng. Hist. Rev. 261—1896;676—1899.) —The Dutch in Western Guiana. (Eng. Hist. Rev. 640—1901.) —The Dutch on the Amazon and Negro in the 17th century. (Eng. Hist. Rev. 642—1903; 1—1904.) —The Swedish Legend in Guiana. (Eng. Hist. Rev. 71—1899.)

HUET, P.D. Memoires sur le commerce des Hollandais dans tous les etats et empires du monde. Amsterdam. 1717.

JONGE, J.K.J. DE. De Opkomst van het Nederl. gezag in Oost Indie. 13 vols. The Hague. 1862-89.

KAMPEN, N.G. VAN. Geschiedenis der Nederlanders buiten Europa. 4 vols. Haarlem. 1831-3.

LAUTS, G. Geschiedenis van de vestiging, uitbreiding ... van de magt der Nederlanders in Indie. 7 vols. Groningen and Amsterdam. 1853-66.

LEUPE, P.A. Reisen der Nederlanders naar het Zuidland of Nieuw Holland in de 17e en 18e eeuw. Amsterdam. 1868.

LUZAC, E. Holland's Rijkdom, behoudende den oorsprong van der koophandel en de magt van dezer Staat. 4 vols. Leyden. 1781.

NETSCHER, P.M. Les Hollandais au Bresil. The Hague. 1853.

NETSCHER, P.M. Geschiedenis van de Kolonien Essequibo, Demerary en Berbice van de vestiging der Nederlanders tot op onzen tijd. The Hague. 1888.

REES, O. VAN. Geschiedenis der Nederl. Volkplantingen in Noord America. Tiel. 1855.

—— Geschiedenis der koloniale politiek. Utrecht. 1868. VALENTIJN, F. Oud-en Nieuw-Oost-Indien, vervatt. eene verhandelinge v. Nederlands mogentheyd in die gewesten, also eene verhandelinge over ...Kaap der Goede Hoop. 5 vols. Dort. 1724.

(e) LITERATURE, CULTURE, FINE ARTS

BRINK, J. TEN. Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Letterkunde. Amsterdam. 1897.

BUSKEN HUET, C. Het land van Rembrandt. Studien over de Noord Nederlandsche beschaving in de VXII'e eeuw. 5 vols. Haarlem. 1890.

COLLOT D'ESCURY, H. Holland's roem in kunsten en wetenschappen. 10 vols. The Hague. 1824-44.

EDMUNDSON, G. Milton and Vondel. London. 1885.

HAAR, B. TER. Holland's bloei in schoone kunsten en wetenschappen by het sluiten van de Munstersche vrede. Leyden. 1849.

HARTING, P. Leven en Werken van Christiaan Huyghens. Amsterdam. 1868.

HAVARD, HENRI. L'art et les artistes hollandais. Paris. 1879.

HELLWALD, F. VON. Geschichte des hollaendischen Theaters. Rotterdam. 1874.

JONCKBLOET, W.J.A. Geschiedenis des Nederlandsche Letterkunde in de zeventiende eeuw. 2 vols. Groningen. 1881.

KONING, J. Geschiedenis van het Slot te Muiden en Hooft's leven op hetselve. Amsterdam. 1827.

KORTEWEG, D.J. Het bloeitijdperk der wiskundige wetenschappen in Nederland. Amsterdam. 1893-4.

MUeLLER, LUCIAN. Geschichte der klassischen Philologie in den Niederlanden. Leipzig. 1869.

SIEGENBEEK, M. Geschiedenis van der Leidsche Hooge School. Leyden. 1829-32.

STRAETEN, E. VAN DER. La musique aux Pays-Bas avant le 19'e siecle. Brussels. 1872.

VLOTEN, J. VAN. Het Nederlandsche Kluctspel van de 14'e tot de 18'e eeuw. 3 vols. Haarlem. 1878-80.

VONDEL, J. VAN DEN. Werken in verband gebracht met zijn leven en voorzien van verldaring en aanteekeningen d. J. v. Lennep. 12 vols. Amsterdam. 1855-68.

WILLEMS, A. Les Elzevier. Histoire et annales typographiques. The Hague. 1880.

WITSEN GEYSBEEK, P.G. Biographisch, anthologisch, en critisch woordenboek der Nederlandsche dicters. 6 vols. Amsterdam. 1821-7.

WYBRANTS, C.E. Het Amsterdamsch tooneel. Amsterdam. 1875.

(f) RELIGIOUS AND ECCLESIASTICAL

BRANDT, G. Historic der reformatie en andere kerkelijke geschiedennissen in en omtrent de Nederlanden tot 1600. 4 vols. Amsterdam. 1677-1704.

CHATELAIN, N. Histoire du Synode de Dordrecht des 1609 a 1619. Amsterdam. 1841.

FRUIN, R. De wederopluiking van het Katholicisme in Noord-Nederland omtrent den aanvang der 17'e eeuw. Amsterdam. 1894.

KNUTTEL, W.P.C. De toestand der Nederl. Katholieken ten tijde der Republiek. 2 vols. The Hague. 1892-4.

MONTANUS, A. Kerkelijke historic van Nederland. Amsterdam. 1675.

MONTIJN, G.G. Geschiedenis der Hervorming in de Nederlanden. 5 vols. Arnhem. 1858-64.

NUIJENS, W.J.F. Geschiedenis der kerkelijke en politieke geschillen in de Republiek der Zeven Vereen. Prov., 1598-1625. 2 vols. Amsterdam. 1886.

REGENBORG, J. Historic der Remonstranten. 2 vols. Amsterdam. 1774.

VEEN, A.J.V.D. Remonstranten en Contra-Remonstranten. 2 vols. Sneek. 1858.

XVIIITH CENTURY

(a) ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES AND COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

Actes, Memoires et autres pieces authentiques concernant la paix d'Utrecht. 6 vols. Utrecht. 1714-15.

BOWDLER, T. Letters written in Holland in the months of September and October, 1787, to which is added a Collection of letters and other papers relating to the journey of the Princess of Orange on June 29, 1787. London. 1788.

Brieven en negotiatien van L.L. van de Spiegel. Amsterdam. 1803.

Brieven van Prins Willem V aan Baron v. Leynden. The Hague. 1893.

DE JONGE, J.K.J. Documents politiques et diplomatiques sur les revolutions de 1787 et 1795 dans la republique des Provinces Unies. (Ned. Rijk's Archief.) The Hague. 1859.

Lettres et memoires sur la conduite de la presente guerre et sur les negotiations de paix, jusqu'a la fin des conferences de Geertruidenbergh. 2 vols. The Hague. 1711-12.

LINGUET, S.N.H. Lettres au Comte de Trauttmansdorf, ministre plenipotentiaire par Empereur [Joseph II] aux Pays-Bas, 1788 et 1789. Brussels. 1790.

MAGUETTE, F. Joseph II et la liberte de l'Escaut. Memoires couronnes et autres Memoires publies par l'Academie Royale des Sciences de Belgique. Vol. xv. Brussels. 1898.

Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence of James Harris, Earl of. 4 vols. London. 1844.

MANDRILLON, J.H. Memoires pour servir a l'histoire de la Revolution des Provinces Unies en 1787. Paris. 1791.

Marlborough, Despatches of John, Duke of. Ed. Sir G. Murray. 5 vols. London. 1845.

TORCY, MARQUIS DE. Memoires pour servir a l'histoire des negotiations depuis le traite de Rijswijck jusqu'a la paix d'Utrecht. Paris. 1850.

VREEDE, C.G. Correspondance diplomatique et militaire du duc de Marlborough, du grand-pensionaris Heinsius, et du tresorier-general J. Hop. Amsterdam. 1850.

(b) HISTORICAL NARRATIVES

BOSSCHE, E. VAN DER. Le traite de la Barriere. Bruges. 1880.

COLENBRANDER, H.T. De Patrioten Tijd, 1776-87. 3 vols. The Hague. 1897-99.

—— De Bataafsche Republiek. The Hague. 1908.

ELLIS, GEORGE. History of the late Revolution in the Dutch Republic. London. 1789.

History of the internal affairs of the United Provinces, from the year 1780 to the commencement of hostilities in June, 1787. London. 1787.

JORISSEN, T. De Patriotten te Amsterdam in 1791. Amsterdam. 1793.

KANE, RICHARD. Campaigns of King William and of the Duke of Marlborough. 2nd ed. London. 1747.

KLUIT, A. Historic der Hollandsche Staatsregering tot 1795. 5 vols. Amsterdam. 1802-5.

LEGRAND, L. La revolution francaise en Hollande; la republique batave. Paris. 1894.

LOON, H.W.v. The Fall of the Dutch Republic. London. 1913.

MEULEN, A.J.v.D. Studies over de ministrie van Van de Spiegel. Leyden. 1906.

ONDAATJE, Q. Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis der omwenteling van 1787. Dunkirk. 1791.

SCHIMMELPENNICK, RUTGER. J.S. en eenige gebeurtenissen van zijn tijd. Amsterdam. 1845.

VERENET, G. Pierre le Grand en Hollande, 1697 et 1717. Utrecht. 1865.

WEBER, O. Die Quadrupel-Allianz vom Jahre 1718. Vienna. 1887.

WREEDE, G.W. Geschiedenis der diplomatic van de bataafsche republiek. 3 vols. Utrecht. 1863.

(c) BIOGRAPHICAL

ARNETH, A., RITTER VON. Prinz Eugen van Savoyen. 3 vols. Vienna. 1856.

KOLLEWIJN, B. Bilderdijk. 2 vols. Amsterdam. 1891.

MENDELS, M.H.W. Daendels, 1762-1818. 2 vols. The Hague. 1890.

NIJHOFF, I.A. De Hertog van Brunswijk. The Hague. 1849.

SCHENK, W.G.F. Wilhelm der Fuenfte. Stuttgart. 1884.

SILLEM, J.A. Gogel. Amsterdam. 1864.

—— Dirk van Hogendorp. Amsterdam. 1890.

XIXTH CENTURY AND AFTER

(a) ORIGINAL AUTHORITIES AND COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

BARTHELS, A. Documents historiques sur la Revolution belge. Brussels. 1836.

BONAPARTE, LOUIS (COMTE DE ST LEU). Documents historiques et reflexions sur le gouvernement de la Hollande. 3 vols. London. 1820.

FALCK, A.R. Brieven 1796-1845 met levensberigt d.O.W. Hora Siccama. The Hague. 1860. —— Amtsbrieven, 1802-42. The Hague. 1878.

Handelingen van de Staten General (1'e en 2'e Kamer), 1815-47. 51 vols. The Hague. 1863-97.

Histoire parlementaire du traite de paix du 19 Avril, 1839, entre la Belgique et la Hollande, contenant tous les discours. 2 vols. Brussels. 1839.

KRAYENHOFF, C.R.T. Bijdragen tot de vaderlandsche geschiedenis van de belangrijke jaren 1809-10. Nimwegen. 1844.

LIPMAN, S.P. Nederlandsch constitutioneel archief van alle koninklijke aanspraken en parlementaire addressen, 1813-63. 2 vols. Amsterdam. 1846—64.

ROCQUAIS, F. Napoleon et le roi Louis d'apres les documents conserves aux archives nationales. Paris. 1875.

SOELEN, VERSTOLK VAN. Recueil de pieces diplomatiques relatives aux affaires de la Hollande et de la Belgique, 1830-2. 3 vols. The Hague. 1831-3.

THORBECKE, J.R. Brieven aan Groen v. Prinsterer, 1830-2. Amsterdam. 1873. —— Parlementaire redevoeringen. 6 vols. Deventer. 1856-70.

(b) HISTORICAL NARRATIVES

BEAUFORT, W.H.DE. De eerste regierings jaren van Koning Willem I. Amsterdam. 1886.

BOSCH KEMPER, J. DE. Staatkundige geschiedenis van Nederland na 1830. 5 vols. Amsterdam. 1873-82.

BRUYNE, J.A. Geschiedenis van Nederland in onzen tijd. 5 vols. Schiedam. 1889-1906.

COLENBRANDER, H.T. De Belgische Omwenteling. The Hague. 1905.

GERLACHE, E.C.DE. Histoire du royaume des Pays-Bas depuis 1814 jusqu'en 1830. 3 vols. Brussels. 1842.

HOUTEN, S. VAN. Vijf en twintig jaar in de Kamer, 1869-94. Haarlem. 1905.

KEPPERS, G.L. De regeering van Koning Willem III. Groningen. 1887. —— Het Regentschap van Koningin Emma. The Hague. 1895.

LASTDRAGER, A.J. Nieuwste geschiedenis v. Nederland in jaarlijksche overzigten (1815-30). 9 vols. Amsterdam. 1839-48.

NOTHOMB, BARON J.B. Essai historique et politique sur la revolution belge. 3 vols. 4th ed. Brussels. 1876.

NUYENS, W.J.F. Geschiedenis van het Nederlandsche Volk van 1815 tot op onze dagen. 4 vols. Amsterdam. 1883-6.

RENGERS, W.J. VAN WALDEREN. Schets eener parlementaire geschiedenis van Nederland sedert 1849. 2 vols. The Hague. 1889.

WITKAMP EN CRAANDIJK. Vereeniging en Scheiding. Geschiedenis van Noord-Nederland en Belgie van 1813-80. Doesburgh. 1881.

WOLF, N.H. De regeering van Koningin Wilhelmina. Rotterdam. 1901.

WUePPERMAN, W.E.A. Geschiedenis van den Tiendagschen Veldtocht. Amsterdam. 1880.

(c) BIOGRAPHICAL

ABBINK, J.J. Leven van Koning Willem II. Amsterdam. 1849.

ARNOLDI, J. VAN. Leven en Karakter-Schets van Koning Willem I. Zutphen. 1818.

BOS, F. DE. Prins Frederik der Nederlanden. 4 vols. Schiedam. 1857-99.

BOSSCHA, J. Het leven van Willem II, koning der Nederlanden, 1793-1849. Amsterdam. 1852.

BRINK, J. TEN. Prins Frederik der Nederlanden. The Hague. 1881.

DESCHAMPS, P. La reine Wilhelmina. Paris. 1901.

MEES Az, G. Levenschets van G.K. Hogendorp. Amsterdam. 1864.

PIERSON, ALLARD. Onze tijdgenooten. Amsterdam. 1896.

THIJM, J.A. Alberdingk, door A.J. Amsterdam. 1893.

VOS, A.J. DE. Groen van Prinsterer en zijn tijd. Dordrecht. 1886.

(d) COLONIAL

BOYS, H. SCOTT. Some notes on Java and its administration by the Dutch. Allahabad. 1892.

DAY, C. The policy and administration of the Dutch in Java. New York. 1904.

PERSELAER, M.T.H. Nederlandsche Indie. 4 vols. Leyden. 1891-3.

PIERSON, N.G. Koloniale Politiek. Amsterdam. 1877. Staatsblad voor Nederl. Indie 1816-80. 46 vols. The Hague and Batavia. 1839-81.

Verslag van het beheer en der staat der Nederlandsche bezittingen in Oost-en West-Indie en ter kust van Guinea. 44 vols. The Hague. 1840-96.

(e) GENERAL

BOISSEVAIN, J.H.G. De Limburgsche Questie. Tiel. 1848.

BRINK, J. TEN. Geschiedenis der Noord-Nederlandsche letteren in de XIX^e eeuw.

EENDEGEEST, G. VAN. Over de droogmaking van het Haarlemmer meer. Vol. I. Leyden. 1842. Vol. II. The Hague. 1853. Vol. III. Amsterdam. 1860.

FRUIN, J.A. De Nederlandsche Wetboeken tot 1876. Utrecht. 1881.

HERINGA, DR A. Free Trade and Protection in Holland. London. 1914.

LOHMAN, A.F. DE SAVORNIN. Onze Constitutie. Utrecht. 1907.

MARIUS, G. HERMINE. Dutch painting in the 19th century. (Trans. by De Mattos.) London. 1908.

NIPPOLD, F. Die Roemische Katholische Kirche im Koenigreich der Niederlaende. Leipzig. 1877.

Painting, Modern Dutch. Edinburgh Review. July, 1909.

ROBERTSON SCOTT, J.W. War-time and Peace in Holland. London. 1914.

ROOT, E.W. DE. Geschiedenis van den Nederlandsche Handel. Amsterdam. 1856.

SECKENGA, F.W. Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Belastingen sedert 1810. The Hague. 1883.

VERSCHAVE, P. La Hollande politique. The Hague. 1910.

* * * * *



* * * * *



INDEX

Aachen, 13, 19

Aalst, 64

Abbatage, 382, 385 f.

Abel Tasman river, 164

Abjuration, Act of (1581), 76

Academie des Sciences (Paris), 199

Achin, 419 ff., 427

Adair, Sir Robert, 399

Admiralty colleges, 87, 117 f., 214, 236 f., 315, 317, 345

Adolf, Duke of Gelderland, 8 ff.

Adolphus, Duke of Nassau-Weilburg, 429

Adolphus of Nassau, 45

Advocate, Land's, or Council-Pensionary, powers and functions of, 116 f.

Aerschot, Duke of, 65, 67, 69

Aerssens, Cornelis van, lord of Sommelsdijk, 203

Aerssens, Francis van, lord of Sommelsdijk, 127, 131, 137, 142 f., 148, 152 f., 203

Agincourt, battle of, 2

Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry hool of, 431

Aine, 294

Aix-la-Chapelle, treaty of (1668), 245, 248; (1748), 313 f., 317

Alberoni, Cardinal, 302

Albert, Cardinal Archduke, 94, 96 f., 100 ff., 106, 140

Albert of Saxe-Meissen, Duke, stadholder, 13 f.

Albertina Agnes, wife of William Frederick, 153, 285

Albuquerque, Duarte de, 171, 173

Albuquerque, Matthias de, 171 ff., 174

Alcabala, 48

Aldenhoven, 341

Alexander I, Tsar of Russia, 366, 401, 406

Alexander, Prince, son of William III, 421

Alexander of Parma, see Farnese

Algemeene Nederlandsche Werklieden Verbond, 425

Algerian pirates, 317

Algiers, Dey of, 317

Alkmaar, 56, 112, 184, 207

All Saints, Bay of (Bahia de todos los Santos), 167, 175

Alliance, treaties of, 95 f., 283, 296, 302, 345 ff., 354

Almanza, 291

Almonde, Philip van, 289

Alsace, 309

Alva, Duke of, 34, 42-49, 51-54, 56, 67, 75, 186

Amalia von Solms, Countess, 141, 154, 203, 210, 213, 242

Amazon river, 177 f.

Amboina, 105, 124 f., 160, 162 f., 220

Amboise, 15

American Revolution, 332

Amerongen, 267

Amersfoort, 144, 299, 333

Amiens, peace of (1802), 354

Amortisatie-Syndikaat, the, 382

Amstel, the, 191, 351

Amstelland, 357

Amsterdam, passim; University of, 188, 431

Amsterdam, ship, 169

Anabaptists, 22 f.

Anastro, Gaspar, 77

Anglo-Prussian alliance, 338

Anjou, Duke of, 70, 72, 74, 76-79, 83

Anna Paulovna, 401, 406

Anne, Princess Royal, wife of William IV, 304, 316-319

Anne, Queen, 271, 273, 286

Anne de Beaujeu, regent, 15

Anne of Austria, wife of Philip II, 49

Anne of Austria, regent of France, 154, 280

Anne of Brittany, 15

Anne of Egmont, 30

Anne of Saxony, wife of William, Prince of Orange, 33, 49 f., 61

Anthony, Duke of Brabant, husband of Duchess Elizabeth of Goerlitz, 2

Anthony of Burgundy, younger brother of John the Fearless, 2

Antonio Vaz, island, 172

Antwerp, passim; treaty concluded at (1715), 297

Appeldoorn canal, the, 379

"April Movement," the, 413 f.

Archangel, 98, 121, 275

Architofsky, Colonel, 176

Aremberg, Count of, stadholder, 40, 45

Arlington, Lord, 242, 244

Armada, 86, 89, 92

Armed Neutrality, League of, 325, 329

Armenteros (Argenteros), secretary of the Duchess of Parma, 34 f.

Arminius (Jacob Harmenz), 128, 188

Arnhem, 113

Arnhem cape, 164

Arnold of Egmont, Duke, 7

Arras, diocese of, 32 f.; Union of (1579), 71 f.

Arreyal de Bom Jesus, 172, 174

Artois, 1, 5, 9, 21, 29, 45, 71, 232, 292

Ath, 290, 310

Auchmuty, General, 364

Augereau, General, 353

Augsburg, 22, 49

Augustus of Saxony, 303

Australia, 164

Austrian Netherlands, insurrection in, 338

Austrian Succession War, 305, 306-315

Austruweel, 42

Axel, 311

Ayscue, Vice-Admiral, 214, 216 f., 240

Aysma, agent of Leicester, 89

Backhuizen, Ludolf, 200

Baden, 8, 297

Bahia, 167, 169 f., 173, 175

Bakhuysen, artist, 432

Balance of power in Europe, 266, 283 f., 294, 303

Baltic trade, 6, 25, 98, 120, 180, 182, 216, 229, 275, 301, 329

Banckers, Vice-Admiral, 252

Banda islands, 124 f., 160, 162 f.

Baner, 182

Bank of the Netherlands, 379

Banking houses, 320

Bantam, 124, 161, 275

Barendtsz, William, 99

Barlaeus, Caspar, 188, 197

Barlaymont, Baron de, 29, 31, 37 f., 44

Barra, the, 171 f.

Barrier treaties, 293, 296 f., 318

Bart, Jean, 264

Barthels, 387, 391

Basel, 8, 368

Batavia, Java, 161, 164 f., 275, 364

Batavian legion, 341 f.

Batavian Republic, the, 344-356

Bavaria, 283, 288, 307 f., 331

Beachy Head, 278

Beauharnais, Eugene, 398

Beerenbronck, Ruys de, 428

"Beggars of the Sea," 50 f., 56, 58 ff., 82

Belgian Limburg, 400

Belgian Netherlands, 272, 331, 336

Belgian Revolution, 387, 389-404

Belgium, 310, 314, 338, 340, 369, 371 ff., 389, etc.; union of, with Holland, 376-388

Bender Abbas, 275

Bengal, 328

Bentinck, Count William, 313, 316, 319

Bentinck, William, Earl of Portland, 263, 269, 272, 284

Berbice, 276, 320, 328, 347, 376

Berbice river, 177

Berchem, Nicolas, 200

Beresina, the, 364

Bergen, 237 f., 353

Bergen-op-Zoom, 140, 312

Berghen, Marquis of, 31, 36, 38

Berkeley, Vice-Admiral, 240

Berlin, 308, 321, 341, 371, 406; Decree of (1806), 358

Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, 141

Berwick, 291

Bethune, 13, 294

Beukelsz, William, of Biervliet, 6, 24

Beverweert, 233 f., 244

Biberibi river, 171

Bicker, Andries, 207 f., 226

Bicker, Cornelis, 207 f., 226

Bicker, Wendela, 225, 247

Bilderdijk, 358, 407

Bilders, artist, 432

Binnenhof, the (at the Hague), 107, 134 f., 210, 333, 336, 348

Bishoprics, creation of, 31 f.

Bismarck, 417

Blaeu, Willem Jansz, 201

Blake, naval commander, 215-219

Bleiswijk, council-pensionary, 332, 337

Blenheim, 288

Blok, Dr P.J., 431

Blood, Council of, 43, 47, 49

Blood-placards, 23, 38 f.

"Blossoming Eglantine," 191, 201

Bluecher, 371

Boer War, 426

Boers, revolt of the, 420

Bogerman of Leeuwarden, Johannes, 136 f., 188

Bohemia, 126, 307, 361

Bois-le-Duc, 32, 143 f.

Boisot, commanding the Sea Beggars, 58 ff.

Bol, Ferdinand, 200

Bolduc la pucelle, 144

Bolingbroke, Viscount, see St John

Bologna, 20

Bonn, 259, 288

Bontekoe, Willem, 164

Bor, chronicler, 195

Borgesius, Catholic minister, 423, 426

Borinage, the, 393

Borkelo, lordship of, 238

Borneo, 124, 163

Borselen, Wolferd van, lord of Veere, stadholder, 10

Bosboom, artist, 432

Bosboom-Toussaint, Mevrouw, 432

Bosse, P.P. van, 417

Bossu, stadholder, 52, 55 f.

Both, Andreas, 200

Both, Jan, 200

Both, Pieter, governor-general, 161, 164

Bouchain, 294, 296

Bouches de Issel, 361

Bouches de l'Escaut, 361

Bouches de la Meuse, 361

Bouches du Rhin, 361

Boudaen, Admiral, 317

Boufflers, Marshal, 279, 287, 292

Bouillon, duchy of, 374

Bourges, 90

Boyne, battle of the, 278

Brabant, passim

Brandenburg, 108, 262, 264 ff., 268, 272, 296

Brandenburg, Elector of, 119 f., 210, 230, 238 f., 270

Brandt, biographer, 196

Brantsen, envoy, 342

Brazil, 99, 157 f., 160, 166, 168 ff., 175 ff., 229, 276

"Bread and Cheese Folk," 13

Breda, 42, 61, 73, 92, 140, 150, 156, 231, 242 ff., 247, 341, 413; congress of, 311 f.; treaty of, 243, 245, 248, 261

Brederode, field-marshal, 210, 227, 238

Brederode, Frans van, 12

Brederode, Henry, Count of, 33, 36-39, 42

Brederode, Lancelot, 55

Brederoo, Gerbrand Adriansz, 192, 197

Breedevoort, 95

Brest, 278, 347

Brill, 51 f., 62, 84, 112, 123

Brink, Bakhuizen van der, 408

Brittany, 15

Broeck, Pieter van der, 161

Broglie, Maurice de, Bishop of Ghent, 377, 380, 384

Broemsebro, treaty of, 183

Bronkhorst, Dirk van, 60

Broodhuis, the (at Brussels), 46

Broukere, Charles de, 385

Brouwer, Adrian, 200

Brouwershaven, 12

Browne, Scottish official, 125

Bruges, 6 f., 11, 13, 16, 23 f., 70, 73, 77, 79, 82, 97, 153, 290 ff., 310

Brugghen, J.J.L. van der, 414 f.

Brun, Spanish envoy, 157

Brune, General, 353

Brunswick, 121, 272, 354

Brunswick, Charles, Duke of, 335 f.

Brunswick-Lueneburg, 239

Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel, Lewis Ernest, Duke of, 315, 316-320, 321, 328

Brussels, passim; congress of, 396 f.; Union of, 67, 69

Buat, the lord of, 242

Bubble companies, 301

Buchhorn, 354

Bulbs, trade in, 184

Burchgrave, Daniel de, 86

Buren, Count of, 30

Burgos, 15, 17

Burgundian Netherlands, 1-11

Burgundy, 1, 9, 12, 30, 42

Burnet, Bishop, 271

Bushey Park, 284

Buys, Paul, Advocate, 50, 83 f., 87, 90

Buys, pensionary, 290, 294

Bylandt, Count, Lieut-General, 387, 390 f.

Cabelliau, Abraham, 121

Cabo Corso, 235

Cadiz, 275, 289

Cadsand, 254, 311

Caerden, Paulus van, 106

Calais, 16, 28, 94, 216

Callantroog, 352

Callenberg, 289

Calmar, 182

Calvin, Calvinism, Calvinists, 22, 38 ff., 42, 49 f., 128, 407, 413

Cambray, 20; League of, 18; peace congress at (1508), 18

Camisaders, 54

Camperdown, 347, 350

Canal of Holland, 416

Canals, 379, 420, 430

Canary islands, 171

Capadose, Calvinistic leader, 407

Cape Breton, 313

Cape colony, 165, 376

Cape of Good Hope, 98, 100, 166, 275, 328, 346, 376

Capibaribi river, 171

Carib tribes, 178

Caribbean sea, 170

Carleton, Sir Dudley, 123, 130, 143, 163

Carnot, 342

Caroline, Princess, regent, 319 f.

Caroline, Queen, 316

Carolingian empire, tripartite division of, 1

Caron, Francis, 164

Caron cape, 164

Carpentaria, Gulf of, 163 f.

Carpentier, Pieter, 163 f.

Carrying-trade, 6, 25, 85, 97 f., 159, 214, 218, 274 f., 298, 319, 379

Cartagena, 42

Cartesian system, the, 190

Castel-Rodrigo, Spanish governor, 244

Castlereagh, Lord, 366, 368 f., 376

Castricum, 353

Castro, Alphonso de, 105

Catalonia, 291

Cateau-Cambresis, treaty of (1559), 28, 30

Catherine II, Empress, 325, 329

Catholic episcopate, establishment of, 412 f.

Catholique, the, 387, 391

Cats, Jacob, council-pensionary, 148, 192, 194, 197, 205, 211, 214; Hofwijck, Cluijswerck, Voorhout and Zeestraet of, 194

Cautionary towns, 84, 96, 104, 121, 123

Ceylon, 105, 124, 165, 229, 275, 328, 346, 354

Chamber of Accounts, college of, 345, 368

Chambers of Rhetoric, 201

Champagney, governor of Antwerp, 66

Charleroi, 245, 258, 278, 310

Charles I of England, 142 f., 152, 154 f., 163, 203 f., 215, 262

Charles II of England, 203 f., 208, 212, 231-234, 236, 238, 242, 244 f., 248 f., 252 ff., 261-266

Charles II of Spain, 280 ff.

Charles V, Emperor, 16-23, 25, 27-30, 32, 67, 191, 196, 281, 294

Charles V of France, 4

Charles VI, Emperor, 295, 297, 306

Charles VII (Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria), Emperor, 282, 290, 306 f., 309

Charles VIII of France, 15

Charles IX of France, 51, 57

Charles IX of Sweden, 121

Charles X Gustavus of Sweden, 141, 229 ff.

Charles X of France, 389

Charles XII of Sweden, 291, 301

Charles, Archduke, 282, 286, 289 ff., 293 f.

Charles Christian, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg, 319

Charles Edward, the young Pretender, 310

Charles of Egmont (Gelderland), 14, 18f., 21

Charles of Lorraine, 310 f.

Charles the Bold (le Temeraire), 3 ff., 7-10

Charlotte, Princess of England, 366, 398, 406

Charlotte de Bourbon, 61, 77

Charnace, French ambassador, 149

Chasse, General, 395, 402

Chatham, 248

Chatham, Lord, 359

Chatillon, conference of (1814), 368

Chatillon, French commander, 149

Chatillon, French envoy, 135

Chaumont, 368

Cheribon, 275

Chesapeake bay, 166

Chesterfield, Lord, 303

China, 105, 124

Christian IV of Denmark, 120 f., 180-183

"Christian Coalition," 427

Christianopel, treaty of, 183

Christina of Sweden, 229

Christopher, Duke, son of the Elector Palatine, 59

Church Association Act, 414

Churchill, John, see Marlborough

Clancarty, Lord, 369, 387

Clarendon, 244

Claude, sister of Philibert, Prince of Orange-Chalons, 30

Clement VII, Pope, 20

Cleves, 120

Cloppenburch, 201

Coburg, Austrian commander, 341 f.

Coccaeus, 188

Cochon, member of National Convention, 345

Cockayne, Alderman, 125

Cockerill, of Seraing machine factory

Code Napoleon, the, 358, 362

Cods of Holland, 14

Coehoorn, 279

Coelim, 275

Coevorden, 93, 258

Colberg Heath, 181

Colbert, 249

Colenbrander, Dr H.T., 388, 431

Coligny, Admiral, 47, 53, 78

Coligny (Teligny), Louise de, 78 f., 83, 130, 135, 138

Collegium Philosophicum, 381, 383, 386

Cologne, 8, 32, 192, 248 f., 252 f., 258f., 261, 272, 368

Cologne, Archbishop of, 8

Cologne, Elector-Archbishop of, Bishop of Liege, 249

Colombo, 165

Colonies, 177, 276, 328, 347, 358, 376, 430, etc.

Commercial and economic expansion, 159-185

Commissioned Councillors, college of, 114, 345

"Compromise," the, 37-40

"Concept of Harmony," 246, 248, 250

Conde, 249, 262

Conde, Princess of, 120

Conperus, Louis, 432

Constance, League of (1474), 8

Constantine the Great, 193

Constantinople, 121, 183

Constitution, revision of the, 405-410

Consulta, 29, 35

Consultation, Act of (1766), 321, 328

Contarini, Tommaso, 121

Continental system, 358, 362, 379

Contra-Remonstrants, 129 ff., 133 f., 137

Contra-Remonstratie, 129

Cook's strait, 164

Coornheert, Dirk Volkertz, 191

Copenhagen, 230 f.

Coromandel, 165, 320

Council of State, powers and functions of, 110 f.

Council-pensionaries, powers and functions of, 116 f.

Coursier des Pays Bas, the, 391

Courtrai, 40, 245, 290, 309

Crecy, battle of, 1

Cromwell, 163, 215, 218-224, 229, 234, 236

Cuba, 170

Culemberg, Count of, 36 f., 44

Cultivation-system, 415 f., 430, 432

Cumberland, Duke of, 309, 311 f.

Curacoa, 276, 323, 327

Cuyp, Albert, 200

D'Affry, French ambassador, 317 ff.

D'Allegne, Marquis, 290

D'Alphonse, Baron, 361

D'Argenson, French minister, 310 f.

D'Avaux, French ambassador, 266, 268, 272

D'Avila, Sancho, 59, 66, 106

D'Ellougue, 385

D'Estrades, Count, 203, 208, 232 f., 265

D'Estrees, 252, 259, 278

D'Hoogvoort, Baron Emmanuel, 391-395

D'Hoogvoort, Baron Joseph, 393

D'Oultremont, Countess Henriette, 405

D'Ursel, Duke, 378

Daendels, General, 341 f., 344 f., 347, 350-353, 364

Dale, Sir Thomas, 161

Danube, the, 288

Danzig, 25, 229

David, son of Philip the Good and Bishop of Utrecht, 2, 14

Davis' straits, 124

De Beaufort, Admiral, 239, 241

De Beauharnais, Hortense, 356, 360 f.

De Berg, Count, 144 f.

De Breze, French commander, 149

De Celles, prefet, 361, 381

De Cocq, preacher, 407

De Costa, Calvinistic leader, 407

De Fenelon, French ambassador, 307, 309

De Foere, Abbe, 384 f.

De Gerlache, Catholic leader, 385

De Graeff, governor of St Eustatius, 323

De Groot, pensionary, 131-136, 142 f.

De Haan, pensionary, 131

De Haas, artist, 432

De Hembyze, Calvinist leader, 73

De Heze, Baron, 65

De Klundert, 341

De la Vauguyon, Duke, 323 f.

De la Ville, Abbe, 311

De Laet, historian, 166

De Larrey, Count, 310

De Maulde, French ambassador, 341

De Mean, Count, 380 f.

De Meester, ministry of, 427

De Mist, leader of the federalists, 349

De Nemours, Duc, 397 f.

De Neufville, 320

De Neve, printer, 387

De Perponcher, envoy, 365

De Rosne, Seigneur, 94

De Ryhove, Calvinist leader, 73

De Standaart, prefet, 361

De Verac, Count, 332

De Vries, Admiral, 241

De Vrij Temminck, 323

De With, Cornelisz Witte, Vice-Admiral, 152, 182 f., 217, 219 f., 230

De Witt, Cornelis, Ruwaard, 226, 236, 241, 243, 252-255

De Witt, Jacob, 207, 209, 212, 226

De Witt, John, 117, 198, 212-224, 225-235, 236-250, 252-257, 298, 301, 317, 320, 431

Deane, commanding English fleet, 219

Dedel, Belgian minister, 403

"Defensive Confederacy," the, 331

Deforgues, 353

Dekker, Douwes, 415, 432; Max Havelaar of, 415, 432

Delacroix, Charles, 350

Delft, 62 f., 79 ff., 83, 99, 112, 157, 159, 183, 207, 277

Delftware, 183

Delfziil, 92

Demerara, 328, 347, 376

Denain, 296

Dendermonde, 41, 82, 290, 310

Deputed-Estates, functions of, 114

Descartes, Rene, 190

Dettingen, 308

Deventer, 87 f., 92, 114, 226, 407

Deventer, Gerard Prounick, 86, 89

Devolution, law of, 233, 244

Diamond industry, 183

Dieden, Colonel, 144

Dieren, 208 f.

Diest, 149

Dietz, 371, 374

Dijkveld, 267, 271, 274, 280

Dillenburg, town and principality of, 42, 44, 47, 49, 54, 371, 374

Djapara, 161

Doce river, 172

Does, Jan van der, 60

Doesburg, 87, 252

Doggerbank, the, 329

Dohna, Swedish ambassador, 244 f.

Dokkum, 118

Dolhain, the lord of, 50

Dolman, Colonel, 218

Donker, 385

Donker-Curtius, 408 f., 411, 414

Dordrecht, 51 f., 54, 98, 112, 135 ff., 178, 194, 207, 209 f., 212, 226, 247, 253 f., 274. 279, 335, 341

Doreslaer, Dr, 203 f., 212 f.

Dort, synod at, 87, 162, 184 f., 407

Dorth, Colonel Jan van, lord of Horst, 167 f.

Dortmund, 354

Douat, Merlin de, 345

Douay, 21, 71, 294, 296

Douw, Gerard, 200

Dover, 215, 217; secret treaty of, 248 f.

Downing, George, 234, 249

Downs, battle of the, 151 f., 175, 212, 215, 217

Drake, 175

Drebbel, Cornelius, 199

Drente, 5, 21, 73, 93, 96, 115, 138, 153, 238, 251, 304, 354, 357, 367

Du Chattel, artist, 432

Ducpetiaux, 394

Dudley, Robert, Earl of Leicester, 77, 84-91, 95, 97 f., 110, 115, 117, 432

Duiveland, 62, 359

Dumonceau, General, 347

Dumouriez, 340 f.

Duncan, Admiral, 347, 352

Dungeness, 217 f.

Dunkirk, 82, 100 ff., 145, 149, 151 f., 171, 228, 232, 240, 264, 292, 296

Dueren, 368

Dutch Brabant, 312

Dutch Flanders, 156, 185, 311, 330 f., 342, 345 f., 397

"Dutch mission," 412

Dutch Republic, beginnings of the, 82-109

East Friesland, 357

East India Company (Dutch), 105, 124, 147, 155, 159-185, 233, 252, 261, 275, 305, 339 f., 345

East India Company (English), 159, 233, 320

East Indies, 98 ff., 106, 124, 143, 158, 160 f., 229, 248, 275, 328, 346, 379, 407, 415 f., 430

Edam, 112, 207

Education Act (1878), 424

Educational affairs, 380, 391, 409, 414, 420, 422, 424 f., 427, 431

Edward I of England, 16

Edward, Prince, of Bohemia, 213

Effingham, 175

Egmont, see Lamoral

Elba, 371, 384

Elbing, 229

Elburg, 334

Elizabeth, Queen of England, 50, 57, 62, 70 f., 74, 77, 83-86, 88 f., 95 f., 102, 122 f.

Elizabeth of Bohemia, 141

Elizabeth of Goerlitz, Duchess of Luxemburg, 2

Elizabeth of Parma, 302

Elsass, 8 Elseviers, the, 201

Elsinore, 230

Emma of Waldeck-Pyrmont, Princess, queen-regent, 421

Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, regent, 27 f.

Ems, the, 45

Ems Occidental, 361

Ems Oriental, 361

Enghien, Duke of, 155

English Muscovy Company, 121, 123, 166

Enkhuizen, 56, 89, 98, 112, 118, 159

Enschede, 96

Episcopius, Simon, 136, 188

Ermerius, 352

Ernest Casimir of Nassau, stadholder, 101, 138, 146

Ernest of Austria, Archduke, 93 f.

Erp, Christina van, 196

Essequibo river and colony, 177, 276, 328, 347, 376

Eternal Edict, 246 f., 253

Eugene of Savoy, Prince, 387 f., 290-296

"Evangelicals," 128

Evertsen, Cornelis, Admiral, 240 f., 261, 278

Evertsen, Jan, Vice-Admiral, 218, 220, 237

Exclusion, Act of (Acte van Seclusie), 222-225, 232

Exeter, 273

Exhibition at Brussels, 389 f.

Fadrique de Toledo, Don, 168

Fagel, Caspar, council-pensionary, 246, 255 f.

Fagel, Francis, council-pensionary, 260, 264, 267, 277, 303, 319, 365

Falck, Captain of the National Guard, 364 f., 369, 380, 396

Farnese, Alexander, Prince of Parma, 70-74, 77-80, 82, 84 ff., 88 f., 92 f., 192

Federation, Act of (1576), 63

Femern, 182

Ferdinand I, 306

Ferdinand, Cardinal Infante, 148 ff., 153

Ferdinand of Aragon, 14 ff., 18 f.

Ferrara, 97

Fiji archipelago, 164

Fijnje, member of Executive Council, 350

Finance, Chamber of, 52, 86

Finspong, 179

Fisheries, 6, 16, 97, 122, 218, 430

Fishing rights dispute, 16, 122-125, 143, 166, 214

Fivelingoo, 114

Flanders, passim

Flemish Belgium, 378

Fleurus, 278, 342

Fleury, Cardinal, 303, 307

Flinck, Govaert, 200

Florence, 195

Floriszoon, Vice-Admiral, 218, 230

Flushing, 28, 30, 51 f., 58, 77, 84 f., 123, 331, 346, 357, 359, 428

Flushing and Veere, marquisate of, 113, 304

Fokker, member of Executive Council, 350

Fontainebleau, 138; treaty of (1785), 331

Fontenoy, battle of, 310

Formosa, 164

Fort Zelandia, 164

Forth, Firth of, 243

"Forty-Eighters," 315

Fox, 329

France, treaty with (1482), 12

Franche-Comte, 1, 9, 30, 34, 245

Franchise, reforms of the, 421-424

Francis I, 19 f.

Francis, Emperor, 368

Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, 306

Franco-German War (1870), 417

Franeker, University of, 188, 190

Frankfort, 294

Franklin, 325

Frederick II the Great, of Prussia, 274, 306 f., 321

Frederick III, Emperor, 7 f., 13

Frederick III of Denmark, 218, 230 f.

Frederick, Elector Palatine, King of Bohemia, 139, 142

Frederick, Prince, second son of King William I, 375, 392, 394, 421

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, stadholder, 103 f., 116, 121, 130, 138 f., 141-144, 146-150, 153-157, 178, 181 f., 186, 192, 194, 199, 202, 209, 232, 298 f., 312

Frederick Henry bay, 165

Frederick Henry cape, 165

Frederick of Toledo, Don, 53, 55 f.

Frederick William I of Prussia, 306

Frederick William II of Prussia, 335, 366

Frederick William of Brandenburg (the Great Elector), 157

Frederikshald, 301

French annexation, 357-366

"French Fury," 78

French Revolution, 340

Friendly or Tonga islands, 164

Friesland, passim

Frise, 361

Friso, John William, of Nassau-Siegen, 285, 299, 304

Fruin, Robert, 431

Fryscell, 182

Fuchs, Paul, 270

Fuentes, Count of, 93 f.

Fulda, Bishopric of, 354

Fundamental Assemblies, 351

Fundamental Law, 366 f., 370, 372 f., 375 f, 378, 380, 384 f., 391 f., 394, 405, 412, 420 f., 429 f.

Funen, 230 f.

Furnes, 297

Fuerstenberg, Cardinal Archbishop, 272

Gabbard, the, 219

Galle, 165

Ganges, the, 275

Gecommitteerde-Raden,114

Gedeputeerde-Staten, 114

Geer, Louis de, 178 ff., 181 f.

Geertruidenberg, 14, 93, 293 f., 341

Gelder, 88

Gelderland, passim

Gembloux, 70

Gendebien, Alexandre de, 391 ff., 395

Genlis, Huguenot leader, 53

Gennep, 149

Genoa, 42

George II of England, 304, 307 f.

George of Saxe-Meissen, 21

Gerard, Balthazar, 80

Gerard, Marshal, 402

Gevangenpoort, the, 255

Ghent, 6, 9, 11ff., 16, 24, 28, 45 f., 65 f., 69, 71, 73, 82, 97, 156, 264, 290ff., 310, 377, 379f., 385, 391; Pacification of, 66f., 71f., 81, 94

Gibraltar, 106, 289

Gilds, 5

Gilles, Jacob, 310f.

Goa, 106

Goch, 149

Godolphin, 286, 294

Goeman-Borgesius, 424

Goerce, 254

Gogel, finance minister, 342, 349, 355, 357f.

Golden Fleece, Order of the, 7

Gomarus, Franciscus, 128, 188

Gomez, Ruy, 49

Gondomar, Count of, 123

Gonzales de Cordova, Don, 146

Gooiland, 195

Gorkum, 112, 251, 335

Gotheborg, 121

Gouda, 99, 112, 129, 259, 335, 420; convention at (1610), 129

Goyen, Jan van, 200

Graeff, Cornelis de, 226, 234

Graeff, Jacob van der, 253

Grain, traffic in, 85f.

Grand Alliance (1689), 273f., 281f., 286, 289, 291, 294f.

Granson, battle at, 8

Granvelle, Anthony Perrenot de, Cardinal, Bishop of Arras, Archbishop of Mechlin, 22, 28f., 31-35, 49, 75, 80

Grave, 102, 258, 262

Grave, Admiral, 308

Gravelines, 28, 70

Great Assembly, the, 209-213

Great Fire of London, 242

Great Privilege, the, 9f., 14

Great Rebellion, the, 152

Great War (1914), the, 428, 430

Greenland, 123

Grobendonc, governor of Hertogenbosch, 144

Groenloo, 95

Groll, 104

Grondwet, 366

Groningen, passim; University of, 181, 431

Groot, Hofstede de, 407

Groot, Pieter de, pensionary, 246, 248f., 252ff.

Groote Eylandt cape, 165

Grotius, Hugo (Huig van Groot), 122, 188f.; Mare Liberum of, 132, 189

Guadeloupe, 376

"Gueux, les," 38

Gueux de mer, 50

Guiana, 99, 177 f., 276, 340, 376

Guinea, 99, 234 f., 328, 418

Gustavus Adolphus, 147, 178 ff., 229

Guyon, Francis (Balthazar Gerard), 80

Gymnasia, 431

Haarlem, 55 f., 58, 60, 62, 74, 90, 112, 131, 183 f., 207, 246, 314, 341, 357, 413

Haarlem lake, 55, 412

Haasrecht, 335

Habsburg rule in the Netherlands, 12-26

Hadamar, 371, 374

Haersolte, 226 f.

Haga, Cornells, 121, 183

Hagen, Steven van der, 105

Hague, the, passim

Hahn, leader of the moderates, 349

Hainault, 2, 9, 21, 52, 65, 71, 228, 244, 262

Hals, Frans, 199 f.

Hamburg, 25, 320

Hanover, 272, 283, 286, 302

Hanse League, Hanse towns, 6, 25, 120 f.

Harderwijk, University of, 188

Harlingen, 118

Harmensz, Jacob, see Arminius

Harmignies, 53 f.

Harris, Sir James (Lord Malmesbury), 332, 335 ff.

Harwich, 84

Harwood, Colonel, 147

Hattem, 334, 341

Haverman, artist, 432

Havre, commander, 66

Heemskerk, Th., 427

Heidelberg, 90, 119

Heidelberg catechism, 128, 137

Heiligerlee, 45

Heim, Antony van der, council-pensionary, 303 f., 309 ff.

Hein, Piet, Vice-Admiral, 167, 169 ff.

Heinsius, Antony, council-pensionary, 277, 280, 282 f., 285 ff., 290 f., 294, 300

Heinsius, Daniel, 188

Heinsius, Nicolas, 188

Helder, the, 352, 367, 379

Hellemans, Heleonore, 196 f.

Helst, Bartolomaus van der, 199 f.

Helvoetsluis, 273

Hendrikszoon, Boudewyn, 168 f.

Heneage, Lord, 85

Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans, 248

Henrietta Maria, 154 f.

Henry III of France, 62, 83 f., 92

Henry IV of France (Henry of Navarre), 92, 94 ff., 104, 109, 120, 122, 195

Henry VII of England, 16 f.

Henry, stadholder of Luxemburg, 421

Henry Casimir, stadholder, son of William Frederick, 238, 264, 266, 268, 270, 277, 285

Henry Casimir of Nassau, 146, 153

Henry of Bavaria, Bishop of Utrecht, 21

Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Prince, 426

Henry of Nassau, brother of the Prince of Orange, 47, 59

Henry of Nassau, friend and adviser of Charles V, 30

Herbert, Admiral, 273

Heresy, extirpation of, 23, 31 ff., 35 ff., 39, 42 f., 67

Herring fisheries, 6, 24, 254

Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-duc), 32, 102, 143-146, 150, 156, 171, 253, 315, 328, 413

Hesse, 272

Hesse-Cassel, 283

Het Loo, 333, 358

Higher education, 380, 427, 431

"High-Mightinesses," 112

"Historical Christians," 425, 427

Hobbema, Meindert, 200

Hochstaedt, 288

Hoeth, 352

Hohenlo, Count of, 84

Holland, passim; incorporation of, with Zeeland in the Burgundian dominion, 2; union of, with Belgium, 376-388

Holmes, Admiral, 234 f.

Holstein, 181

Honthorst, Gerard, 200

Hooft, burgomaster of Amsterdam, 323

Hooft, Cornelis Pietersz, 195

Hooft, party leader, 264, 266

Hooft, Pieter Cornelisz, 194-197; Geerard van Velzen, Warenar and Baeto of, 195; Netherland Histories of, 196

Hoogerbeets, pensionary, 131-136,142

Hoogh, Pieter van der, 200

Hooghley, the, 320

Hooghly on the Ganges, 275

Hoogstraeten, Count of, 31, 33, 41 f., 44 f., 47

Hook faction, 12 ff.

Hook of Holland, 416

Hoorn, 56, 98, 112, 118, 159, 166

Hoorn, Count of, see Montmorency

Hoorn, dowager Countess of, 45

Hop, Jan, 285, 316

Houtman, Cornelis, 99

Hudde, Johan, 267

Hudson, Henry, 166

Hugonet, the lord, 10

Huguenot refugees, 269 f., 276

Huis in't Bosch, the, 426

Hulst, 92, 94, 153, 156

Humbercourt, the lord, 10

Hume, 323

Hunsingoo, 114

Huy, 67, 288, 310

Huyghens, Christian, 198 f.

Huyghens, Constantine, 192, 194, 196 f.



India, 99, 317

Indies, trade in the, 107 ff., 145, 147, 155 ff., 160, 165, 189, 275, 313, 336, 339

Infamy, Order of, 385

Inquisition, 36-39, 49, 54, 128

Isabel, Queen of Portugal, 15 f.

Isabel Clara Eugenia, Infanta, Archduchess, 94, 96 f., 100, 140, 145-148

Isabel of Castile, 14 ff., 19

Isabel of Portugal, wife of Philip the Good, 7

Isny, 354

Israels, Joseph, 432

Issel superieur, 361

Ita, Pieter Adriansz, 170

Itamarca, 173

Jacatra, 161

Jacoba, heiress of William VI of Holland, 2

Jacobin clubs, 348 f.

James I of England, 104, 121 ff., 125, 139, 142, 162 f., 189, 212

James II of England, Duke of York, 203, 234, 236 f., 242, 252, 262 f., 269-273, 283

James III of England, son of James II so termed, 271, 283, 285

Janssens, governor-general of Java, 364

Japan, 124, 164

Japara, 275

Jarnac, battle of, 47

Jaureguy, Juan, 77, 79 f.

Java, 99, 161 ff., 165, 328, 339, 347, 363 f., 376, 379, 415 f., 432

Jeannin, President, 108 f.

Jemappes, 340, 393

Jemmingen, 45, 47

Jever, 357

Joachimi, 204, 212

Joan Maurice of Nassau, 175 ff., 210, 227, 238, 245, 251

Joanna, Duchess of Brabant, 2

Joao IV of Portugal, 176

John II of France, 1

John III, Count of Namur, 2

John IV, son of Anthony of Burgundy and husband of Tacoba of Holland, 2

John Casimir, 71 f.

John de Marnix, lord of Thoulouse, 42

John of Austria, Don, 64, 66—70

John of Bavaria, husband of Duchess Elizabeth of Goerlitz, 2

John of Leyden, 22

John of Nassau, Count, stadholder, 41 f., 45, 59, 61, 72, 79, 83, 146, 285

John the Fearless, 1 f.

Jones, Paul, 325

Joseph I, Emperor, 290, 294, 306

Joseph II, Emperor, 330 f., 338

Joseph Ferdinand, 281 f.

Joubert, General, 350, 352

Jourdan, 342

Juan, Infante, son of Ferdinand and Isabel, 15

Juan de Vargas, 44 f.

Juana, Infanta, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabel and wife of Philip the Fair, 14 ff., 17

Julian, French secret agent, 387

Juelich, fortress of, 120

Juelich and Cleves, Duke of, 119

Juelich-Cleves duchies, question concerning succession to, 119 f., 122

Junius, 128

Jutland, 181

Kaiserwerth, 287 f.

Kampen, 114, 335

Kandy, 165

Kantelaur, leader of the moderates, 349

Kappeyne, Joannes, 420; Education Act of (1878), 422

Katwijk, 220, 358

Kempenaer, 408, 411

Kemper, 365 f.

Kennemerland, 13

Kentish Knock, 217

Keppel, Earl of Albemarle, 284

Kerkoven, Jan van der, lord of Heenyliet, 152

Kijkduin, 259

Kitzingen, 179

Klein-Schnellendorf, convention of, 307

Knocke, 297, 309

Knodsenburg, 92

Koen, Jan Pieterzoon, governor-general, 124, 161 ff., 164

Koehler, General, 419

Kolkmar, Dr, 428

Koning, Salomon, 200

Koningh, Pieter de, 200

Koopman, Rear-Admiral, 402

Korvey, abbey of, 354

Kragenhoff, Minister of War, 358

Kraijenhoff, revolutionary leader, 342

Kronborg, 230

Krueger, President, 426

Kuenen, Abraham, 431

Kuyff, head of city police, 390

Kuyper, Dr Abraham, 419 f., 422, 424-427

L'Oyseleur, Pierre, Seigneur de Villiers, 75

La Hogue, 278

La Motte, 71

La Rochelle, 50

Laaland, 182

"Ladies' Peace," the (1529), 20

Lafayette, 322

Lalaing, George, Count of Renneberg, stadholder, 65, 71, 73

Lamoral, Count of Egmont, stadholder, 28 f., 31, 33-37, 39-43, 45 f., 68

Lamoussaye, French minister, 388

Landrecies, 296

Land's Advocate or Council-Pensionary, office of, 116 f.

Landskrona, 230

Language decree (1819), 383, 386

Lauffeldt, 312

Law, Edward, 301

Lawrence, Henry, 325

Le Brun, Duke of Piacenza, 361, 365

League of the Beggars, 385

Ledenburg, 133 f.

Lee, 325

Leeuwarden, 136

Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van, 199

Leffingen, 101

Leghorn, 218

Leicester, Earl of, see Dudley

Leipzig, 364 f.

Leopold I, Emperor, 290

Leopold II, Emperor, 338

Leopold, Archduke, Bishop of Passau, 119 f.

Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, King of Belgium, 398 ff., 403

Leuchtenberg, Duke, of 398

Lewis Ernest, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel, see Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel

Lewis of Baden, 288

Lewis of Nassau, 36 f., 39,41,44 f.,47, 49, 51-54, 58 f.

Ley, the, 156

Leyden, 12, 24, 55 f., 58-61, 74, 89 f., 112, 128, 131, 183 f., 187 f., 190, 195, 201, 314, 341, 358, 360, 365, 408; University of, 60, 187, 190, 431

"Libertines," 128

Libri-Bagnano, 387, 389 f.

Liefkenshoek, 82, 402

Liege, district and town of, 13 f., 21, 39, 178 f., 249, 287 f., 310, 374 f., 378, 380, 385, 393, 399

Lievens, Jan, 200

Ligny, 371

Lilienrot, Count, 280

Lille, 15, 21, 71, 245, 292, 309

Lillo, 403

Limburg, 2, 21, 149, 158, 288, 383, 397 f., 400, 402 f., 416 f., 429 f.

Linden, Cort van den, 428

Lindhoven, 82

Lingen, 96, 104

Linschoten, Jan Huyghen van, 99

Lionne, French minister, 245

Lipsius, Justus, 188

Lisbon, 159 f., 167 f., 173 f., 176, 229

Listerdiep passage, 181

Literary gilds, 190, 201

Literature, 431 f.

Livonia, 178

Loevestein, 136, 143, 188, 207

Lohman, Jonkheer Savornin, 425

Lombardy, 20

Lonck, Hendrik Cornelisz, 171 f.

London, 122, 126, 396 f., et passim; Articles of (1814), 395; conferences at, 162, 429; Conventions of, 376, 402

Loos, Admiral, 175

Lorraine, 7 ff., 42, 282, 306

Lothaire, 1

Louis II, Count of Flanders, 1

Louis XI of France, 8 ff., 12, 15

Louis XIII of France, 149, 154, 195

Louis XIV of France, 232, 239, 243 ff., 248 f., 252 ff., 260 f., 263 ff., 266-270, 272, 277 f., 280-283, 285, 290-293, 396

Louis XV of France, 280, 311

Louis XVI of France, 321, 331

Louis, King of Hungary, 20

Louis Bonaparte, 355-361, 363

Louis de Male, Count of Flanders, 1

Louis del Rio, 44 f.

Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, King of the French, 389, 397, 407 f.

Louise Henrietta, wife of Frederick William of Brandenburg, 157

Louise of Savoy, 20

Louvain, 53, 90, 149, 290, 310, 380 f., 388, 393, 399

Louvois, Minister of War, 249

Loewenthal, Count, 311 f.

Luebeck, 25

Lucas, Rear-Admiral, 346

Luis de Requesens, Don, 56 f.

Lumbres, the lord of, 50 f.

Lueneburg, 283

Luther, Martin, 19, 22 f.

Luetzen, 147, 179

Luxemburg, duchy and town of, 2, 21, 42, 66, 102, 267, 330, 371, 373 ff., 378, 396 ff., 400, 402 f., 416, 421, 429

Luxemburg, French marshal, 249, 258 f., 265, 278 f., 286

Luzac, 408

Maas, the, 51, 59, 62, 159, 220, 251, 360

Maasland, 357

Maatschappij van Weldadigheid, 380

Macassar, 229, 275

Mackay, Baron, 422 f.

Mackay Law, 423, 427

Madagascar, 99

Madrid, 29, 31, 33 ff., 37, 39, 41 f., 44, 49, 51, 64, 70, 75, 89, 94, 108, 113, 156, 167 f., 171, 286

Maerlandt, 190

Maes, Nicholas, 200

Maestricht, 45, 59, 74 f., 146, 149 f., 156, 253, 258 f., 262, 264 f., 312, 330 f., 341 f., 346, 368, 397 f., 400

Magellan, Straits of, 99 f., 166

Magnus Intercursus, 16 f., 122, 214

Main, the, 308

Malacca, 105, 275, 346

Malaga, 289

Malay Archipelago, 105, 160 f.

"Malcontents," the, 71

Malines, 380

Malmesbury, Lord, see Harris

Malplaquet, 293

Mains Intercursus, 17

Manhattan, 166, 177

Mansfeld, Count of, 33, 40, 93

Maranhao, 175

Marcelis, Gabriel, 182

Margaret, Archduchess, daughter of Mary and Maximilian, regent, 11 f., 15, 17-20, 22 f., 29

Margaret, daughter of Louis de Male, Count of Flanders, and wife of Philip the Hardy, 1 f.

Margaret, dowager Countess of Flanders, widow of Louis II, 1

Margaret, Duchess of Parma, regent, 28 f., 31, 33 ff., 37, 39, 41 ff., 70

Margaret, sister of William VI of Holland and wife of John the Fearless, 1

Margaret of Burgundy, wife of William VI of Holland, 1

Margaret of York, wife of Charles the Bold, 7, 9

Maria cape, 164

Maria island, 165

Maria Louisa of Hesse-Cassel, 304, 320

Maria Theresa, queen of Louis XIV, 233, 239, 244, 281

Maria Theresa of Austria, 303, 306-309

Maria van Diemen cape, 165

Marie de' Medici, regent, 120, 154

Marie Louise, wife of Napoleon, 360, 363

Maris brothers, 432

Marlborough, Duke of (John Churchill), 283, 286 ff., 290-295

Mary, princess royal, wife of William II of Orange, 152, 210, 234

Mary, Princess, wife of William III of Orange, 263, 271, 273, 279, 284

Mary, regent, queen of Louis of Hungary, 20, 22 ff., 26 f., 29 f., 85

Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Charles the Bold and wife of Maximilian of Austria, 8-12

Mary of Modena, 262

Mary Tudor, Queen, 27 f.

Massa, Isaac, 121

Matanzas bay, 170 f.

Matelief, Cornelis, 105 f., 160

Matsjan, 124

Matthias, Archduke, 69 f., 72, 78

Maure, Anton, 432

Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, stadholder, 83 ff., 87-93, 95, 101-104, 106-109, 113, 115 ff., 120, 122, 127-138, 139 ff., 143, 195, 198, 202, 205, 249, 257, 314

Maurice of Nassau-Ouwerkerk, Count, 308

Maurice of Saxony, 33, 49

Maurier, Aubrey du, 135

Mauritius, 105, 164 f.

Mauritshuis, the Hague, 199

Mauritsstad, 175 f.

Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of Bavaria, 281

Maximilian Joseph, Emperor, 309

Maximilian of Austria, Emperor, King of the Romans, 8, 10-15, 17 ff., 45

May, Job, 365

Mazarin, Cardinal, 154 f., 203, 208, 232

Mechlin, 1, 5, 10, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24, 32, 53 ff., 82, 310

Medemblik, 112

Medina-Coeli, Duke of, 54, 56

Medway, the, 243, 252

Meer, Jan van der, 200

Meerman, John, 244

Meeus, Ferdinand, 393

Meghem, Count of, 31, 37, 39 f., 42

Melliton, General, 365

Mendoca Furdado, Diogo de, 167

Mendoza, Admiral of Aragon, 100, 102

Menin, 290, 297, 309

Mennonites, 22, 185

Mercantile Marine, Dutch, formation of, 24

Merchant Adventurers, Fellowship of, 125

Merode, Count Felix de, 392 f., 395

Mesdag, Hendrik, 432

Mesnager, 295

Metzu, Gabriel, 200

Meurs, 95, 102

Meuse, the, 59, 74, 102, 144, 146, 288, 361, 368 f., 399 f., 402

Mexico, 170, 275

Meyer, envoy, 345 f.

Michigan, 408

Middelburg, 51, 58, 70, 82, 98, 125, 160, 247, 311 f., 359

Midderigh, revolutionary leader, 349 f.

Middle kingdom, restoration of, 1 f., 7 f.

Mijer, colonial minister, 416

Milan, 56

Milanese, the, 282, 297

Military service, 362, 423, 426

Million de l'industrie, the, 383

Milton, John, 188, 193

Miranda, General, 341

Mississippi Company, 301

Moerdijk, the, 341

Mohacs, battle of, 20

Moluccas, 99, 105, 124 f., 160-163, 233, 275 f., 330, 346

Moncontour, battle of, 47

Mondragon, Spanish commander, 58 f., 64, 94

Monk, commanding English fleet, 219 f., 239-242

Monmouth, commanding English force, 264

Monnikendam, 112, 207

Mons, 52, 70, 245, 264 f., 293, 310

Mont-Cassel, 263

Montesquieu, 323

Montigny, the lord of, 31, 34, 39, 44, 71

Montmorency, Philip de, Count of Hoorn, Admiral of Flanders, 31, 33 ff., 37, 41 ff., 45 f., 68

Montpensier, Duke of, 61

Mook, 59, 66, 272

Morat, battle at, 9

Moreau, General, 342

Morgan, Colonel, 146 f.

Moscow, 364

Moucheron, Balthazar de, 98, 121

Mouture, 382, 385 f.

Mozambique, the, 106

Muiden, 195 ff., 251

Muidener Kring, 196

Mulder, Staffel, 407

"Multatuli" (Douwes Dekker), 415, 432

Muenster, 22, 238 f., 248 f., 252 f., 258 f., 261; congress of, 156; treaty of (1648), 157 f., 165, 177, 186, 202, 205, 280, 330 f.

Muscovy, 301

Music, modern development of, 201

Naarden, 55 f., 258 f.

Namur, 2, 9, 21, 67 f., 71, 149, 228, 279, 297, 310, 378

Nancy, 8 f.

Nantes, the Edict of, Revocation of, 269

Naples, 49, 297, 390

Napoleon III, 417

Napoleon Bonaparte, 353-364, 371 f., 376, 379, 384

Napoleon Louis, 361

Nassau, 335

Nassau river, 164

Nassauische Erbverein, the, 429

Nassau-Siegen, house of, 116, 138

National, the, 387, 389 f.

National Assembly, formation of, 348 ff.

Navigation Act, 214, 233, 242 f., 274

Nederlandsche Handelsmaatschappij, De, 379

Neer, Aart van der, 200

Neerwinden, 279, 341

Negapatam, 328, 330

Negro slave trade, 276

Negumbo, 165

Netherland confession, 128, 137

Netherlands, the revolt of, 47-68; formation of the kingdom of, 367-375, 376-388

Netscher, Caspar, 200

Neuss, battle at, 8

Nevers, 1

New Amsterdam, 166, 177

New England, 177

New Guinea, 164

"New Lighters," 407

New Netherland, 166, 177, 235; Company of, 166

New South Wales, 164

New York, 261, 325, 343

New Zealand, 164 f.

Newfoundland, 166, 325

Ney, commanding French force, 371

Neyen, Father John, 106, 108

Nicholas II, Tsar, 426

Nicolas de Harnes, 36

Nieuport, 82, 101 f., 310, 318

Nieuwenaar, Count, stadholder, 83, 86, 91

Nieuwenhuis, Domela, 421 f., 425

Nieuwerbrug, 259

Nieuwpoort, 222 ff.

Nijmwegen, 92, 113, 258, 263 ff., 287, 299, 333, 335, 341, 360; treaty of (1678), 265-268, 270, 280

Nobles, league of, 33-38, 41

Noel, French ambassador, 348 ff.

Noircarmes, royalist noble, 44

Noerdlingen, battle of, 148

Nore, the, 243

Norrkoeping, 179

North American colonies, British, revolt of, 322 f.

North Brabant, 144, 146, 185, 258, 409

North Holland, 56, 353

North Holland Canal, 379

North Quarter, the, 87 ff., 159

Northern or Greenland Company, 124, 166

Nova Zembla, 124

Nyborg, 231

Nymphenburg, 307

Obdam, see Wassenaer

Oberstein, Count, 66

Observateur, the, 385

Ogle, Colonel, 133

Oldenbarneveldt, John van, Advocate, pensionary, 83, 85-91, 96, 100 ff., 104, 106 ff., 117, 119 ff., 123, 127-138, 140 ff., 165, 188, 193, 225, 257

Oldenzaal, 96, 104

Olinda, 171 f., 174

Oliva, peace of, 231

Ommelanden, 73

Ondaatje, party leader, 333

Oostergoo, 114

Ootmarsum, 96

Oquendo, Antonio de, Admiral, 151 f., 173 ff.

Orange, Princes of, see Fred. Henry, Maurice, Philip William, William

Orange-Nassau, house of, 115 f., 396 f., 421, 423, 429

Orchies, 21, 71

Orinoco, the, 170, 177

Orleans, Duke of, see Louis Philippe

Orloff, Count Alexis, 401

Ormonde, Duke of, 289, 295 f.

Ostade, Adrian van, 200

Ostade, Isaac van, 200

Ostend, 82, 101 ff., 290, 292, 302, 308, 310, 318, 330

Ostend Company, 302 f.

Otto, branch of house of Nassau, 374

Oudenarde, 291, 309 f.

Oudinot, Marshal, 359 ff.

Ouwerkerk, field-marshal, 288

Overyssel, passim

Oxenstierna, Axel, 148, 179-182, 188

Oxford, Earl of, Colonel, 147

Painting, art of, 199 f., 432

Palembang, 275

Palmerston, Lord, 396, 400-403

Pangeran, the, native ruler, 161

Pappenheim, commanding Imperialist army, 146

Para, 178

Paris,passim; treaties of, 319, 369, 373, 376, 396

Parker, Hyde, Vice-Admiral, 329

Parma, 43

Partition treaties, 281 f.

Pater, Adrian Jansz, 170, 173 f.

Patrician oligarchy, 113, 300, 304, 315, 332, 344

Patriot party, 332-336, 344

Paul IV, Pope, 32

Paul of Russia, Emperor, 352

Paulus, Pieter, 344, 347 ff.

Pauw, Adrian, pensionary, 145, 148, 157, 204, 209, 214 f., 218

Pauw, Reinier, 131, 137

"Pays de par deca," 3 f.

Peace Congress, the first (1899), 426

Pecquinius, Chancellor of Brabant, 140

Penaranda, Spanish envoy, 157

Penn, naval commander, 216

Pennington, Vice-Admiral, 151 f.

Pernambuco, 171, 173 f.

"Perpetual Edict," the, 67

Perre, Paulus van der, 214

Perrenot, Nicholas, 28

Peru, 170, 275

Peter the Great, Tsar, 302

Philibert, Prince of Orange-Chalons, 30

Philip II of Spain, 6, 22, 25-36, 39-42, 45, 47 ff., 49, 52, 57, 61-64, 67, 70, 73-76, 80, 83 f., 86, 92 ff., 96 f., 99, 183, 187, 281

Philip III of Spain, 108, 140, 280

Philip IV of Spain, 148, 170, 232 f., 239, 244

Philip V of Spain, 282 f., 286, 290-293, 296 f., 302

Philip de Marnix, lord of Sainte Aldegonde, 36, 44, 50, 52, 56 f., 77, 79

Philip of Anjou, Duke, 281 f., 291

Philip of Baden, Bishop of Utrecht, 14

Philip of Cleef, 13

Philip of Hesse, 33, 41

Philip of St Pol, 2

Philip the Fair, Archduke, 11-17, 21

Philip the Good, 1 ff., 5 ff., 48

Philip the Hardy, Duke of Burgundy, 1 f.

Philip William, Count of Buren, Prince of Orange, 30, 44, 113, 137

Philippines, the, 106

Picardy, 9, 95

Piccolomini, commanding Imperialist troops, 149

Pichegru, commander, 342

Piedmont, 293

Pierson, N.G., 423 f., 426

Pijman, Minister of War, 352

Pitt, 341

Pius IV, Pope, 32

Pius IX, Pope, 412 f.

Plancius, Petrus, 98

Plessis-les-Tours (1580), 74, 76

Plymouth, 217

Poeloe-Rum, 162, 233, 243

Poictiers, battle of, 1

Pondicherry, 275

Portland, 218

Portsmouth, 324

Potgieter, 408

Potter, Louis de, 385 ff., 391, 395; Lettre de Demophile au Roi of, 386

Potter, Paul, 200

Povo, or the Reciff, 171

Pozo, 171 f.

"Pragmatic Army," the, 308 f.

Pragmatic Sanction, the, 303, 306

Prague, 139, 307

"Precisians," 128

Press laws, 384 ff., 391, 409

Price, Richard, 323

Priestley, 323

Primary education, 355, 380, 409, 414, 420, 422, 425, 431

Prins Willem, ship, 173 f.

Prinsenhof, Delft, 79 f.

Provincial Estates, powers and functions of, 112 ff.

Provintie van Utrecht, ship, 174

Prussian invasion, 335 f.

Pultova, 301

Purmerend, 113

Putte, Fransen van de, 416, 419

Putten, 226

Pyrenees, peace of the (1659), 228, 231 f., 274

Quadruple Alliance, 302

Quatre Bras, 371 f., 406

Quesnoy, 295 f.

Quotisatie, 4

Raad-Pensionaris, powers and functions of, 117

Railways, 415

Ramel, member of National Convention, 345

Ramillies, 290

Rammekens, 84, 149

Rastatt, peace of (1714), 297

Ratisbon, truce of (1684), 268

Reading-societies, 342

Reciff, the, 171-175, 177

"Reduction, Treaty of," 93

Reformation movements, 2 ff.

"Reformed" congregations, 128

Regnier, lord of Groeneveldt, 140

Reingoud, Jacques, 86

Reinierz, 165

Rembrandt van Rhyn, 199 ff., 432

Remonstrants, 129, 132 f., 136 f., 142, 193

Remonstratie, 129

Rene of Lorraine, Duke, 8 f.

Rene of Nassau, 30

Repartitie, 111

Repelaer, envoy, 342

Requesens, 61 f., 64

"Request," the, 37 f.

Reveil movement, 407

Rewbell, plenipotentiary, 345 f.

Rheims, 32

Rheinberg, 95, 100, 102, 104, 288

Rhetoric, Chambers of, 190 f.

Rhine, the, 59, 62, 82, 102, 119, 149, 288, 291, 293, 358, 361, 368, 371, 379

Rhineland, 40, 49, 58, 139

Ricardot, president of the Privy Council, 107

Richelieu, Cardinal, 142 f., 148 f., 154

Rights of Man, the, 332

Rijks Museum, Amsterdam, 199

Rio de Janeiro, 169

Rio Grande, the, 175

Rio Negro, the, 178

Ripperda, ambassador, 302

Ripperda, Calvinist leader, 55

Robert de la Marck, 13

Rochefoucault, 360

Rochussen, artist, 432

Rochussen, J.J., 415

Rocroi, 155

Roda, 65

Rodney, Admiral, 327, 346

Roell, Jonkheer Johan, 424

Roell, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 358, 380

Roemerswaal, 14, 58

Roeremonde, 53 f., 146, 288, 413

Roeskilde, 230

Rogier, Charles, 393 ff.

Rome, 19, 361, 419

Ronkens, burgomaster, 299

Rooke, Sir George, Admiral, 289

Rotterdam, 12, 59, 83, 90, 98 f., 112, 118, 129, 131. 136 f., 159, 300, 334, 341, 364, 379

Roucoux, 310

Rouille, French agent, 290

Rouppe, burgomaster, 393

Rousseau, 323, 332

Royal Academies of the Arts, 380

Royal African Company, 234

Royal Charles, flag-ship, 243

Royal James, flag-ship, 252

Royal Netherland Institute for Science, Letters and the Fine Arts, 358

Rudolph II, Emperor, 119

Rump Parliament, the, 219

Rupert, Prince, 216, 239-242, 259

Russell, Admiral, 271

Russian trade, 98, 121, 275, 301

Ruysch, Nicholas, 226

Ruysdael, Jacob, 200

Ruyter, Michael Adriansz de, Admiral, 194, 216 ff., 219 f., 228 f., 231, 234 f., 237 f., 240 f., 243, 252, 259, 289

Ryswyck, 107, 140, 280; peace of, 280

Saba, 328

Sadowa, 416

Saftingen, 331

Sainte Aldegonde, see Philip de Marnix

Salamanca, 15

Saldanha bay, 346

Sallant, 114

Salmasius, 188

San Francisco fort, 171 f.

San Jorge fort, 171 f.

San Salvador, 167 ff.

San Thome de Guiana, 170

Sandwich, Earl of, 237

Sasbout, councillor of state, 65

Sas-van-Gent, 82, 156

Savoy, 286, 296

Saxe, Maurice de, Marshal, 309-312

Saxe-Weimar, Duke of, 368

Saxony, 272

Scaliger, Josephus Justus, 188

Schaep, Gerard, 204, 214

Schaepman, Dr, 422, 424 f.

Scheffer, artist, 432

Scheldt, the, 23, 79, 82, 89 f., 150 f., 156, 158, 248, 259, 311, 330 f., 359, 361, 379, 399, 401 f., 428

Schenck, 149

Schepens, or sheriffs, 6

Scheveningen, 155, 220, 232, 343, 366

Schiedam, 112, 207

Schieringers, 14

Schimmelpenninck, Count, 408 f.

Schimmelpenninck, Rutger Jan, council-pensionary, 344, 349, 353-356

Schleswig, 181

Scholte, preacher, 407

Schomberg, Marshal, 272

Schoenbrunn, treaty of, 359

Schonen, 230

Schools, 414 f., 420, 422 f., 425 ff., 431

Schoonhoven, 112, 335

Schouburg (theatre), the, Amsterdam, 201

Schout, or chief judge, 6

Schouten, Willem, 168

Schouwen, 62, 359

Schutterij, 255 f.

Schuurman, Anna Maria, 197 f.

Scribe and Auber, La Muette de Portici of, 390

"Sea Terror of Delft," the, 169

Secondary and technical education, 416, 431

Seeland, 230

Selden, Mare clausum of, 189

Semonville, French ambassador, 353

Seneff, 262

Senlis, treaty of (1493), 13

"Separatists," the (de Afgescheidenen), 407

Seraing, 380, 383

Settinge, 4

Seven Bishops, acquittal of (1688), 271

Seven Years' War, 320, 323

Seventeen, College of the, 100

"Sharp Resolution," the, 131

Sheerness, 243, 273

Shetlands, the, 216

Ship-money, 215

Siam, 105, 163

Sicilies, the two, 306

Sidney, Sir Philip, 87

Siegen, 371, 374

Sieyes, 345 f.

Sigismund of Austria, Duke, 8

Silesia, 306 ff., 406

Simonszoon, Menno, 22

Six, burgomaster, 200

Skagerak, the, 182

Slaak, the, 146

Slangenburg, General, 288

Slave trade, 276; abolition of, 415 f.

Slingelandt, pensionary, 226

Sluis, 12 f., 82, 89, 103, 254, 311, 330, 342

Social Contract, the, 332

Social-Democratic Bond, the, 425

"Social-Democratic Workmen's Party," the, 425

"Socialist Bond," the, 425

Sommelsdijk, lord of, see Aerssens

Sonoy, Diedrich, stadholder, 50, 87 ff.

Sophie, Queen, 417, 421

Sound, the, 180 ff., 229 ff.

South Beveland, 58, 345

South Brabant, 383

South Holland, 58, 60, 62, 64

South Sea Company, 301

Southampton, treaty of (1625), 163

Southwold bay, 237, 252

Spa, 93

"Spanish Fury," the, 66

Spanish Succession, War of the, 280 ff., 285-297, 299

Spectateur Belge, the, 384 f.

Spice trade, 105, 161 ff., 276

Spiegel, Hendrik Laurensz, 191 f.

Spinola, Ambrosio de, 103 ff., 107, 120, 139 f., 145, 150

Spinoza, Baruch, 190

Spinozan system, the, 190

Spitsbergen, 99, 123 f., 143, 166

St Agatha, convent of, 79

St Anthony fort, 144

St Antonio de Padua, 174

St Bartholomew, massacre of, 53, 78

St Denis, 265

St Dizier, 30

St Eustatius, 323, 327

St Germain, 283

St Germain-en-Laye, 245

St Isabella fort, 144

St Jago, ship, 174

St John, Henry, Viscount Bolingbroke, 294 f.

St John, Oliver, 212 ff.

St Martin, 328

St Omer, 40

St Quentin, battle at (1557), 28

St Trond, 39

St Venant, 294

St Vincent, 171

Stad en Landen, 93, 111

Stadholders, powers and functions of, 4f., 115 f.

Stair, Lord, 307

Standdard, De, 420

Stanley, Sir William, 87 f.

Staten river, 164

States-Flanders, 103

States-General, constitution of, 3 f., 111 f., 345

Steen, Jan, 200

Steenbergen, 82

Steenwijk, 93, 258

Steinkirk, 279

Stevin, Simon, 198

Steyn, council-pensionary, 316, 318 f.

Stock-dealing, 322

Stockholm, 121, 201, 230

Stoke, Melis, 190

Story, Rear-Admiral, 352

Strafford, Earl of, 152

Strafford, Lord, 295

Strasburg, 267, 280

Strickland, Walter, 203 f., 212 f.

Strickland, William, 154

Stuyvesant, Peter, 177

Suffren, French admiral, 328

Sugar plantations, 276, 340

Sumatra, 163

Surat, 275

Surinam, 243, 248, 261, 276, 327, 347, 416, 418; Society of, 345

Survivance Acte de (1631), 145, 202

Swammerdam, Jan, 199

Sweden and Holland, relations of, 178-182

Swedo-Dutch Company, 179

Swiss Cantons, the, 8

Tableau sommaire des pretensions, 330

Tagus, the, 289

Tallard, Marshal, 288

Talleyrand, 349, 352, 396, 400 f.

Tasman, Abel, 164

Tasmania, 164 f.

Tasman's head, 165

Tasman's peninsula, 165

Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata, Dutch translation of, 197

Teligny, Louise de, see Coligny

Teligny, Sieur de, 78

Temple, Sir William, 244 f., 248 f., 265

Ten Days' Campaign, 399 f., 406

Terburg, Gerard, 200

Termonde, 53

Ternate, 124, 160

Terneuzen, canal of, 379

Terschelling, island, 241

Terscholen, 146

Texel, the, 220, 237, 243, 329, 347, 352

Textile industries, 183

Thames, the, 238, 241, 243, 252, 259

Thijssen, Marten, 173 f., 181 f.

Thirty Years' War, 139, 143, 148, 155, 178, 188, 201

Tholen island, 146

Thomas of Savoy, Prince, 149

Thorbecke, Johan Rudolf, 408, 411 ff., 415-419, 424, 430

Tichelaer, barber, 255, 257

Tidor, 105, 160

Tielemans, 387

Tilburg, 410

Tilly, Count, 255 f.

Tilsit, peace of (1807), 359

Tonga islands, 164

Torbay, 273, 277

Torcy, French minister, 294

Torre, Count de, 175 f.

Torrington, Admiral, 278

Torstensson, General, 141, 180 ff.

Toulon, 278, 289 ff.

Toulouse, Count of, 289

Tournay, 21, 32, 40, 245, 293, 297, 309 f., 380

Tourville, Admiral, 278

Towerson, Gabriel, 163

Trade and industries, prosperous state of, 6, 23 ff., 120 ff.

Transvaal, 420

Treaty of the XVIII Articles, 398 ff.

Treaty of the XXIV Articles, 400 f., 403

Trent, Council of, 35 f.

Treves, 32

Trevor, English ambassador, 245

Trier, 7 f.

Trip, Elias, 178, 182

Triple Alliance, 245, 248

Troelstra, 425, 427

Tromp, Cornelis, 237 f., 240 f.

Tromp, Martin, Admiral, 151 f., 175, 194, 216-220, 289

Troubles, Council of, 43, 45

Tulip mania, 184

Turenne, General, 141, 249, 258, 286

Turkish advance, 19, 287

Turnhout, 95

Tuscany, Grand Duchy of, 306

Twelve years' truce, 109 f., 119-126, 139, 196

Twente, 114, 226

Uilenburg, Saskia, 201

Uitgeest, Dirk Simonsz, 170

Ulrum, 407

Union, Act of, Utrecht, 210

Union, the, association, 384 f.

United East-India Company, creation of, 100

"United States of Belgium," 338

Universities, 60, 181, 187 ff., 380, 431

Upper Gelderland, 297

Usselincx, Willem, 165 ff.

Utrecht, town, bishopric, and district of, passim; treaties of, 285-301, 331; Union of, 72 f., 89, 115; University of, 188, 190, 380, 431

Uyttenbogaert, Johannes, 128, 130, 188

Valckenier, Gillis, 246, 260, 264, 266 f.

Valckenier, revolutionary leader, 349

Valdez, commander, 59 f.

Valenciennes, 40, 52 f., 263

Vallecilla, Francisco de, Vice-Admiral, 174

Valmy, 340

Van Alphen river, 164

Van Asperen, 256

Van Bankhem, banker, 256 f.

Van Berckel, burgomaster, 323

Van Beuningen, diplomatist, 230, 245 f., 248, 264, 266 f.

Van Beverningh, treasurer-general, 221-224, 245, 258, 260, 264 f., 267

Van Blauw, envoy, 342, 345 f.

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