History of Free Thought in Reference to The Christian Religion
by Adam Storey Farrar
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744 See Hundeshagen, Der Deutsch Prot. 12; Kahnis, p. 223.

745 This patriotism still lives in the poetry of Koerner.

746 This allusion is used by Kahnis (p. 220). He also (p. 221) refers the great outburst of historic study which followed, to the historic sense then awakened.

747 Harms (1778-1855). See Am. Saintes, part ii. ch. ix; Kahnis, p. 223 seq., where some of Harms's Theses are given. They are founded on the doctrinal spirit of the sixteenth century, and are full of force and humour. Some of them are directed against rationalism; others are the asseveration of high Lutheran tenets. The following are specimens: No. 3. "With the idea of a progressive reformation, in the manner in which it is at present understood, Lutheranism will be reformed back into heathenism." No. 21. "In the sixteenth century the pardon of sins cost money after all; in the nineteenth it may be had without money, for people help themselves to it." See Pelt in Herzog's Real. Encyclop. sub voc.

748 On this second period, see Schwarz's Geschichte der Neuesten Theologie, b. i.; and for brief notices of the whole of the German movement, see Hagenbach's Dogmengeschichte (period 5).

749 It has been more recently, for this reason, called the Mediation-Theology (Vermittellungs-Theologie).

750 Schleiermacher (1768-1834). His Leben in Briefen (1858) has been recently translated. His philosophical and religious stand-point is well discussed, and some portions of his works analysed, in the Rev. R. A. Vaughan's Essays and Remains (reprinted from the British Quarterly Review, No. 18). A brief explanation of his philosophy is seen in Morell's History of Philosophy, ii. 433, and Julius Scheller's Vorlesungen ueber Schleiermacher, 1844. His religious views are criticised, with extracts, in Amand Saintes, part ii. ch. xiv-xvi; Kahnis, 204 seq.; Luecke, Stud. und Krit. 1834, H. 4. The facts of his life are given in the Westm. Rev. for July, 1861.

751 He joined F. Schlegel in the plan of translation, and continued it after Schlegel had retired from it. He did not however complete the whole of Plato. The parts finished were published at intervals from 1804-27. The introductions to the dialogues are valuable.

752 J. H. Jung Stilling (1740-1817), a distinguished oculist in Westphalia, who employed himself in acts of religious usefulness. His works were published in 1835. His Autobiography, written by desire of Goethe, has been translated. See an article on him in the Foreign Quarterly Review; vol. xxi.

753 Oberlin (1740-1826), the interesting pastor of the Vosges mountains, who united efforts for civilization with piety, and the temporal improvement of his people with the spiritual. His memoir has been written in English. To the same class of saintly men about the end of the last century belonged Hamann, Lavater, and Claudius. See Kahnis, p. 80 seq.

754 Mr. R. A. Vaughan, in the Essay above cited, compares Schleiermacher with Hugo St. Victor (on whom see Ritter, Chr. Phil. viii. 9. 2). The analogy with Origen is close. Speaking technically, the difference would be, that the Neo-Platonic school, to which Origen belonged, was rather one of "Objective Idealism" like Schelling; Schleiermacher's of "Subjective Idealism" like Fichte.

755 The Rationalist and Socinian element was taught by Wegscheider.

756 In 1802.

757 Halle was taken by the French in 1806; the university of Berlin was founded in 1810.

758 He died in 1834.

759 See note 31 (p. 428).

760 Neander's witness to the effect produced by them is quoted in Kahnis, p. 208.

761 Cfr. Glaubenslehre, 3-6.

762 Selbst bewuszt-seyn.

763 Schleiermacher's views are rarely put with sharpness of form; and as they varied in the manner shown in Note 31, it is hardly possible to lay down a fixed account of his system. The following remarks are rather the spirit of his Glaubenslehre than an analysis of it. His psychological views are seen in 1-4 of that treatise (ed. 1842); but the Reden, pp. 58, 59, and the introduction by his pupil Schweizer to the Entwurf eines systems der sittenlehre, 1835, besides his posthumous philosophical works, ought also to be consulted. His psychological views are nearly reproduced in Morell's Philosophy of Religion, ch. iii.

764 7-10; and also 11-14.

765 129-131.

766 His views on sin are given 65-85; and on the work of Christ, 100-105.

767 68.

768 104.

769 The mode of reconciliation is treated in 106-112, and indirectly in the Weihnachtsfeier. Mr. Vaughan compares it with Osiander's view in the sixteenth century.

770 His views may be seen in 50-56, especially 54. His system in earlier life almost resembled pantheism, as in his praise of Spinoza. See Reden, p. 471.

771 170-172.

772 The person of Christ is discussed 93-99. Vaughan compares the view with that of Justin Martyr. See also Strauss's Leben Jesu, 148.

773 121-125.

774 See Note 24 (p. 421).

775 His critical is much less important than his philosophical position. The same spirit of seriousness marks his writings in this department. Two of his chief critical works are, his Ueber den sogenannten ersten Brief des Paulus an den Timotheus, 1807, and Ueber die Schriften des Lukes, ein Kritischer Versuch, 1817, translated into English 1825. The reasons given for his appreciation of the Gospel of St. John in the Weihnachtsfeier, also in his posthumous work, Hermeneutik und Kritik, 1838, and his Einleitung ins Neue Test. 1845, ought also to be taken into account in estimating his exegetical views.

776 The above remarks on Schleiermacher will perhaps be considered severe by those who know his works, and will be regarded as putting the worst face on his system. The criticism however of the late Mr. Vaughan, who deeply appreciated Schleiermacher, and had devoted much patient study to his works, and who viewed him from the stand-point of English orthodoxy, coincides with the above estimate of him. A criticism on Schleiermacher from Bretschneider's point of view may be seen in his Dogmatik, i. p. 93-115.

777 Especially at Bonn, which was founded in 1818.

778 The following theologians were influenced chiefly by the spirit of Schleiermacher: Tholuck, professor at Halle, author of various well-known works, (see the expression of his views in the tract, the Guido and Julius, or true Consecration of the Doubter, in reply to De Wette's Theodor); Twesten, successor of Schleiermacher at Berlin, author of the well-known Dogmatik; H. Olshausen, the commentator; Nitzch, author of the Handbook of Doctrine (translated); Julius Mueller, writer of the able work on the Nature of Sin; Ullmann, editor of the Studien und Kritiken, the organ of the party. Also Sach, Stier, Tittmann, Umbreit, Ebrart, Hagenbach, Baumgarten-Crusius, Hundeshagen, Bleek, Luecke, Lange, belong to the same party; and Gieseler also in the main. Their doctrine is called the Deutsche Theologie. Bunsen must also perhaps be classed with them, though much freer and less biblical than the others. The writings of the late archdeacon Hare are perhaps no inapt English parallel to the tone of these teachers.

779 More especially Moehler, named above (p. 239, note), was influenced. The modern Catholic theologians are to be treated in the forthcoming (3rd) edition of C. Schwarz's Gesch. der Neuesten Theologie.

780 For Neander's life and character as a theologian and church historian, see the interesting particulars gathered in the British Quarterly Review, No. 24, for Nov. 1850, and in the Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. viii. Neander (1789-1850) was a Jew by birth. About 1805 he embraced Christianity (his life at this period is seen in his letters to Chamisso); studied at Halle under Schleiermacher 1806; at Goettingen under Planck; was made Professor at Berlin 1812; author of various early monographs; of the Church History, 1825; History of the Planting of the Church, 1832; Life of Christ, 1837. His opinions may be learned from the Preface to the third edition of his Life of Christ, and the Preface to his Church History. On his position as a church historian, see Hagenbach in Studien und Kritiken for 1851.

781 His views on sin and redemption are chiefly to be gathered from criticisms on the Pauline doctrine in the History of the Planting of the Church (vol. ii.); and on the Christian doctrine in vol. ii. of his Church History.

782 Introduction to the Life of Christ, 6.

783 Preface to Church History (first edition).

784 On Fries' philosophy see Morell, ii. 418; Tennemann's Manual, 122. Accepting Kant's categories, he held the existence of an inward faith-principle, which gives an insight into the real nature of things; but only as subjective truths, and as tests of truth. The church historian Hase (see Kahnis, p. 236) is moulded by this philosophy.

785 Lect. II. p. 61. Similar discussions have arisen with regard to the integrity and purpose of the books of Job, Zechariah, and Isaiah. Particulars of these literary questions will be found in Hengstenberg's articles Job and Isaiah in Kitto's Bibl. Cycl., and in Davidson's Introduction to the Old Testament, in the chapters concerning these books. The classical student need hardly be reminded of the close analogy between these literary investigations in the Hebrew literature and those which were conducted by F. A. Wolf in respect to Homer, and by other scholars in reference to various classical authors.

786 Lect. VII.

787 Perhaps the clearest account of the controversy will be found in Michel Nicholas, Etudes Critiques sur la Bible, Essay i. 1862. See also Hengstenberg's Authentie des Pentateuches (Die Gottesnamen im Pentat. i. 181 seq.); Haevernick's Introd. to the Pentateuch (English translation), p. 56, &c.; Keil's Lehrbuch, p. 82, &c.; and Dr. S. Davidson's Introduction to the Old Testament (1862), pp. 1-135.

788 Conjectures sur les Memoires Originaux du livre de la Genese, 1753.

789 See Exodus vi. 3.

790 The older critics however think that the plural form relates to the plurality of persons in the divine Being.

791 Jehovah is translated in the English version, the LORD.

792 Independently of comparative mythology, which is still an hypothesis, there is evidence of the fact in the very derivations constantly offered of words in the Old Testament, as well as in the modern investigations concerning language. Ewald has shown in an interesting manner the means afforded by the Hebrew proper names for gaining a conception of Hebrew life (see his article on Names in Kitto's Bibl. Encycl.); and a similar analysis has recently been applied to the Indo-Germanic languages in Pictet's Les Origines Indo-Europeennes, 1859.

793 It is well known that the book of Psalms is divided, in the Hebrew and the Septuagint, into five books; viz. Psalms i-xli; xlii-lxxii; lxxiii-lxxxix; xc-cvi; cvii-cl; each of them ending with a doxology, which is now inserted in the text of the psalm. In the first book the name Elohim occurs 15 times, and Jehovah 272 times; in the second, Elohim 164 times, and Jehovah 30 times. This computation is stated on the authority of Dr. Donaldson, Christian Orthodoxy.

794 There are two exceptions, viz. i. 21, xii. 9, which Hengstenberg considers to prove the rule. On this subject see Hengstenberg's Dissertation on Job in Kitto's Bibl. Cyclop. ii. 122, now reprinted in a volume of his Miscellaneous Essays.

795 De Wette tries to exhibit traces in other books than Genesis, but unsuccessfully. It is in Genesis alone that the difference can be so clearly seen, that, even if the peculiar use had no theological meaning, which not even Hengstenberg denies, it must remain as a literary peculiarity. A list of the passages in Genesis which have been considered by these critics to represent the respective uses of the two names, is given in the learned and reverently written article Genesis, in Smith's Biblical Dictionary, by Mr. J. J. S. Perowne.

796 The references to these various authors will be found in M. Nicholas, Essay i.

797 Geschichte des Hebr. Volk. i. 75 seq.

798 In writing the history of this dispute, as being here viewed only in its literary aspect, it will be seen that my object has been simply to select it, for the purpose of exhibiting the gradual increase of taste as well as of learning shown by the German critics in reference to questions of the "higher criticism." Concerning the theological aspect of it we can all form an opinion, which would probably be in a great degree condemnatory; but concerning the literary, none but a few eminent Hebrew scholars. Some of the greatest of them, Gesenius, De Wette, Ewald, Hupfeld, Knobel, have given in their adherence to some form of the theory above described. The references to the works of Hengstenberg, Haevernick, and Keil, who have written on the other side, are given above. The rashness of some forms of criticism must not make us abandon a wholesome use of it; and a literary peculiarity such as that described, if it really exist, demands the reverent study of those who wish to learn the mind of the divine Spirit, as it was communicated to the ancient chosen people, or expressed in the written word. Compare McCaul's Essay, Aids to Faith, p. 195.

799 Tennyson's In Memoriam, 95.

800 Matt. v. 6.

801 Rev. xix. 6

802 Lect. VI. p. 218.

803 Hegel, 1770-1831, Professor at Berlin after 1818. The rudiments of his system are in the Phenomenology, written about 1806; the Logic gives the mature form of it about 1816; the Encyclopaedia its completion; the two former works being embodied in the latter. For the sources for the study of his system, &c. see Note 35 at the end of this book.

804 See p. 237.

805 Schleiermacher sought it in the consciousness of dependence, craving for an infinite object; and regarded Christianity as supplying the means for the perfect harmony of this principle with the opposing one of voluntary power. Hence, the solution of difficulties in religion would be sought in such a system by seeing the adaptation of the Christian scheme to human needs, not in the solution of the mysteries themselves.

806 Marheinecke (1780-1846), Professor of Theology at Berlin, the author of many works, chiefly on dogmatic theology, of which his Symbolik, 1810, and Dogmatik, 1827, are the most important. See Bretschneider's explanation and criticism on his system (Dogmatik, i. 115-140). Perhaps the name of K. Daub (1765-1836), Professor at Heidelberg, ought also to be added. Originally Hegel's teacher, he adopted his pupil's system. See Kahnis's remarks, p. 244 seq., and Amand Saintes, part ii. ch. xvii. It has been usual to classify the followers of Hegel under the analogy of political parties in foreign parliaments, thus:—in the extreme right, Heinrichs and Goeschel; in the right, Schaller, Erdmann, and Gabler; in the centre, Rosenkranz and Marheinecke; in the left centre, Vatke, Snellmann, and Michelet; in the left, Strauss, Bruno Bauer, and Feuerbach. See Morell, Hist. of Philosophy, ii. 199, 203. Several of these however are philosophers rather than theologians. A simpler classification of the Hegelian theologians is into three parties: the first, Daub and Marheinecke, and more recently Dorner; the second, Chr. Baur and the Tuebingen school; the third, Strauss, B. Bauer, and Feuerbach.

807 See the article by Scherer in the Revue des Deux Mondes, Feb. 1861, p. 841; and on the influence of Hegel see Kahnis, p. 244 seq., and Am. Saintes, P. II. ch. 17; and Bartholmess, b. xii.

808 See Note 24 (p. 412).

809 Leben Jesu, 1835.

810 The account of this controversy may be seen in bishop Marsh's Dissertation, 1807; and a continuation of the history subsequently to his work in the introduction to the Translation of Schleiermacher's Essay on St. Luke, 1825 (by the present Bp. Thirlwall). The controversy is also treated with great learning and reverence by Dr. S. Davidson, Introd. to New Test. i. (373-425). Important references and quotations in regard to it are given in the Appendix to Tregelles' edition of Horne's Introd. 10th ed. vol. iv.; also see Amand Saintes, Hist. p. ii. 12; Renan's Etudes de l'Hist. Relig. (Ess. 3); Hase's Leben Jesu; Quinet's review of Strauss (OEuvres, vol. iii). A series of studies on the subject is in course of publication in the Revue Germ. 1862, by Michel Nicholas.

811 Wetstein, with Mill, Calmet, and others, regarded St. Mark's Gospel to be the epitome of St. Matthew's. Griesbach and Dr. Townson thought that St. Luke as well as St. Mark had seen the one by St Matthew. A further list may be seen in Tregelles (as above), p. 642; and Davidson (as above).

812 Michaelis regarded the Greek translator of St. Matthew to have had access to the same Greek document as St. Mark and St. Luke. Semler and Lessing advocated a Hebrew or Syriac original. Eichhorn adopted the theory of an Aramaic original, which was adopted with slight alterations by bishop Marsh. (It was criticised by bishop Randolph, by Mr. Veysie, and in Falconer's Bampton Lectures, 1810.) Schleiermacher regarded the Gospels to be pieced together out of separate documents. Gieseler's hypothesis was put forward in 1818.

813 Probabilia de Evangel. et Epist. Joannis origine et indole, 1820. The theory suggested was, that it was written in the second century. It was well answered by Schott, Stein, and others. The controversy has been revived in more modern times; the Tuebingen school denying the authorship to St. John, Ewald and others, asserting it. The subject is discussed in Davidson's Introduction to the New Testament, i. 233-313. See also two articles in the National Review, No. 1, July 1855, and No. 9. July 1857.

814 On the spirit of Kant's philosophy in this respect, see Strauss's own remarks, Leben Jesu, Introd. 7.

815 On the contrast of myth and legend there are some good remarks in Strauss, who quotes George's Mythus und Sage for the explanation; also in the Westminster Review for April 1847 (p. 149), an article which, though written in favour of Strauss, gives an instructive account of the object and position of his work. The history of Strauss's work, with its antecedents and consequents, mainly based on Schwarz (b. ii.) and on Scherer, but bearing marks of independent study, is given in Mr. F. C. Cook's Essay on Ideology in the Aids to Faith, 1862. Theodore Parker has given an accurate analysis, and of course a defence, of Strauss (Miscellaneous Writings, p. 231).

816 The new view of the nature of myths is developed in Max Mueller's Essay on Comparative Mythology, Oxford Essays, 1856. See also Note 47 (p. 450).

817 Strauss, Leben Jesu, 152. (ii. p. 713.)

818 1-16. It contains a history of the different explanations of sacred legends among the Greeks; the allegorical systems of the Hebrews (Philo,) and Christians (Origen); the system of the Deists; and the Wolfenbuettel Fragmentist; the naturalist mode of Eichhorn and Paulus, and the moral of Kant; lastly, the rise of the mythic, both in reference to the Old and New Testaments. Then the discussion of the possibility of myths in the Gospels, and a description of the evangelical mythus.

819 1-142.

820 17-43.

821 44-110.

822 111-142.

823 143-152. The author gives the dogmatic import of the life of Jesus, criticising the Christology of Orthodoxy, of Rationalism, of Schleiermacher, the Symbolic of Kant and De Wette, the Hegelian; and draws his own conclusions.

824 This idea is well brought out in Renan's critique on Strauss. (Etudes Relig. Essai iii.)

825 One passage of this kind is quoted by Amand Saintes (p. 263) from Luecke in Stud. und Krit. vol. ii. p. 489.

826 Edgar Quinet (OEuvres, iii. 316, reprinted from Revue des Deux Mondes, Sept. 1838). His words are, "Un jeune homme plein de candeur, de douceur, de modestie, une ame presque mystique et comme attristee lu bruit qu'elle a cause." The unaltered view which Strauss now takes of his own work, after the interval of twenty-five years, is given in the Vorrede to his Gespraeche von Huetten uebersetzt und erlauetert, 1860. It is quoted in the National Review, No. 23, art. 7.

827 The effect which it produced is described, with details of the answers written, in book ii. of the excellent little work of C. Schwarz already named, Geschichte der Neuesten Theologie, 1856. This part of the work is translated into French, with some useful notes, in the Rev. Germ, vol. ix. parts ii. and iii. See Note 38. The most useful replies are those of Neander and Dorner. Dr. Beard also published a valuable series of papers called Voices of the Church (1845), containing translations of the Essay by Quinet above quoted, of one by A. Cocquerel (pere), and others. Dr. Mill's work on The Application of Pantheistic Principles to the Gospels (1840) is intended also as a reply. The Life of Christ, contained in vol. i. of Dean Milman's History of Christianity, also contains important remarks on Strauss's scheme.

828 P. 241.

829 Scherer clearly brings out this relation of Strauss's work, in 5 of the article before quoted.

830 Accordingly it will be understood that the mention of "the old Tuebingen school" of the last century denotes a Pietist school like that of Bengel or Pfaff; the mention of "the new Tuebingen school" means one of ultra-rationalism.

831 The materials for the following sketch have been largely supplied by the work of Schwarz, and partly by an article before cited in the Westminster Review for April 1857. Schwarz, after devoting the first chapter of book ii. to the Straussian contests, devotes the second and first three chapters of book iii. to the history of these four movements.

832 See Amand Saintes, book ii. ch. 18; Hase, 450; Hundeshagen, Der Deut. Prot. 17. Bruno Bauer, born 1809, was once Professor at Bonn, and teacher at Berlin. In his first manner he showed himself to be a disciple of Hegel, in works published from 1835 to 1839, such as a criticism on Strauss, and also on the Old Testament. From 1839 to 1842 he exhibited a destructive tendency directed against the sacred books; e.g. a work on the Prussian church and science, and a criticism on St. John's Gospel. The persecution which he encountered stimulating his opposition, he showed in his next works (in 1842 and 1843) a spirit of defiance in his Das Eklekte Christenthum. From 1843 to 1849 he connected himself with questions of politics, and wrote largely on social science. Since that period he has again written, both in theology, criticisms of the Gospels and Epistles, and on politics. A list of his works and a sketch of his mental character may be found in Vapereau, Dict. des Contemp. 1858.

833 On this movement see Schwarz, b. iii. ch. i.; and on the German political socialism see the North British Review, No. 22, for Aug. 1848. Feuerbach (see Vapereau) was author of many works on the history of philosophy about 1833 to 1845. His chief works on religion were Das Wesen des Christenthums (1851), and Das Wesen der Religion, 1845. The former work was translated in 1854, and contains a discussion (1) of the true or anthropological essence of religion; (2) of the false or theological. His collected works have been published. The Hallische Jahrbuecher was his organ. Criticisms on his school are given by Bartholmess (Hist. Crit. des Doctr. de la Phil. Mod. b. xiii. ch. ii.), and by E. Renan (Etudes de l'Hist. Relig. p. 405).

834 Ruge, once a teacher at Halle; went into voluntary exile at Paris, like Heine, in 1843; was mixed in the revolutionary schemes of 1848; and in 1850 became an exile in England. See Vapereau.

835 See above, note on p. 16. Gutskow and Mundt belonged to the same school. The former a dramatic poet, whose works against religion were about 1835, in the Prefaces to Letters of F. Schlegel, &c.; the latter, librarian at Berlin, was noted for his political connexion with the party of young Germany, rather than for any assault on religion. See Vapereau for an account of his works. The spirit of this school was tinged with bitterness against existing institutions.

836 Gaspard Schmidt (1806-1856) wrote in 1845, under the pseudonym of Max Stirner, Der einzige und sein Eigenthum. His later works were on political economy.

837 As schools of thought have been occasionally named in this narrative in connexion with universities, it may facilitate clearness to collect together the few hints which have been given concerning the subject. In the first period previous to 1790, we showed the theological tendencies of the four universities, Goettingen, Leipsic, Halle, and Tuebingen: next, in the period after 1790, the state of Jena as the home of rationalism and of the Kantian philosophy. In our second period we pointed out the condition of Berlin as the seat of philosophical reaction under Schleiermacher and Hegel; and indirectly of the universities which represented the school of De Wette. In the third period, the school of Lutheran reaction has specially existed in Berlin, Leipsic, Erlangen, Rostock, and the Russian university of Dorpat; the school of "Mediation" chiefly at Berlin, Heidelberg, Halle, and Bonn; and the historico-critical at Tuebingen. It may be useful to add, for the completion of the account, that the Tuebingen school is now almost extinct in its original home; and that the two universities which at the present time represent the freest criticism are supposed to be Giessen and Jena. The latter is marked by the realistic school of philosophy described in Note 41. Hilgenfeld, the best representative of the Tuebingen school, is Professor there; see Note 39, at the end of this volume.

838 E.g. Th. Mommsen.

839 Viz. the Epistles to the Romans and Galatians, and the two to Corinth.

840 An explanation and criticism of some of these opinions are given in Davidson's Introduction to the New Testament.

841 Vermittellungs-Theologie, and sometimes called Deutsche Theologie. See Schwarz, book iii. ch. ii. The organs of this party are the Studien und Kritiken and the Neue Evangel. Kirchenzeitung.

842 Dorner, born in 1809; successively Professor in several universities: he has recently gone to Berlin. It is a matter of gratification that his great work, described in the text, is now in course of translation. The account of the successive steps through which it passed may be seen in the American Bibliotheca Sacra for 1849. Also an account of it is given in Theodore Parker's Miscellaneous Works, p. 287. Lange, author of the Leben Jesu, ought perhaps to be named along with the two in the text, as belonging to this school.

843 Perhaps these two theologians ought to be regarded apart from the average of the members of the Mediation school, as being of a grander type. They approach the subject from a higher stand-point, and also are more largely moulded by philosophy. On Rothe, see. Note 40 (p. 437).

844 In the Einleitung.

845 Id.

846 Vol. i. period i. ch. i.

847 Id. ch. ii. and iii.

848 Epoche, Abth. 2.

849 Vol. ii.

850 If the reader follows out the pedantic but useful mode before named, of arranging the actual schools of theology after the fashion of foreign assemblies, he will place in the right, the friends of the confessional theology; in the centre, those of the mediation theology; in the left, the old critical school of De Wette; and in the extreme left, the school of Tuebingen. The first has its chief seat in Prussia, and the third probably in Thuringia and central Germany.

851 See Kahnis, p. 262, &c.; Am. Saintes, part ii. ch. x; Hase, 453; Schwarz, book iii. ch. iii.

852 The dissenters from the union were not recognised legally by the state till 1845. (See the references given in the last note.) The principal of those who dissented were Kellner, Scheibel, and Huschke.

853 Hengstenberg, born in 1802; professor at Berlin. His works are well known. His work on Christology (1829), Introduction to the Pentateuch (1831), Commentary on the Psalms (1842), and several others, are translated.

854 Haevernick, Professor at Koenigsberg; died a few years since. His chief works are, a Commentary on Daniel (1838); and an Introduction to the Old Testament, which is translated.

855 The Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, the organ of his opinions, was Pietist till about 1838; after which it favoured the reaction; especially since the theological disputes of 1845 and the political revolution of 1848. See Hase, 451; Schwarz, book i.

856 Stahl, who died in 1861, was eminent for piety as well as learning. His views may be learned from an address, Ueber Christliche Toleranz, 1855. The Kreuz Zeitung is the journal which has supported this political reaction. The "Theology of the Confessions" (i.e. of Augsburg, &c.) is the name which is given to the movement by its friends. See Kahnis, p. 311 seq. Much interesting information in reference to it, though occasionally expressed in a rude manner, together with references to the German authors from which it is drawn, will be found in the North British Review, No. 47, Feb. 1856, and British Quarterly Review, No. 46, April 1856. The extracts there quoted are the authority for several of the statements here made. See also Schwarz, iii. 3; Hundeshagen, Der Deutsche Protestantismus, 22.

857 In enumerating a few names among those that belong to this reactionary party, it is fair to state that some of them have not taken open part in the political aspects of it, and do not teach all that is described in the last few lines, which rather express the teaching of the more violent, and mark the tendencies to which the others only approximate. Some of the best known are, Harless, Delitzch, Keil, as biblical investigators; Rudelbach, Guericke, Schmid, Kurtz, and Kahnis, as historical; and Kliefoth in practical doctrine. (Kahnis has however lately adopted free views in criticism. See Colani's Nouvelle Revue de la Theologie, July 1862.) Vilmar in Hesse Cassel, and Leo at Halle, belong to the most ultra section of the school. The universities where it predominates are named at p. 277. Those however who dissent from the views of the theologians here described ought not to forget to render a tribute to the reverent piety and high motives of many of them. They are men who know and love Christ, and are striving to lead men to love him.

858 It is a remarkable circumstance that the Oxford movement in the church of England was at first an anticatholic movement. The Catholic Emancipation Bill and the liberality of the parliament after the Reform Bill created an alarm, which led to the study of the non-juring divines and Anglo-catholics who had asserted the rights of the church, and to the reproduction of their opinions. Deeper causes were however at work; among which was the wish to find a more solid groundwork for church belief: but the political circumstances contributed the stimulus, though they were not truly the cause.

859 The names of Stilling and Oberlin have been already cited, as instances of devoted Christians who realised the truth and tried to spread it. A writer in the Foreign Quarterly Review, vol. xxv. p. 132, attests from personal experience his knowledge of the existence of earnest faith in parishes at the time when the universities were nurseries of doubt.

860 The missions existed previously, having been commenced by the Moravians in the last century, and carried on by several detached missionary associations in the present. On the recent improvement in Germany, see articles in the North British Review, No. 31 for Nov. 1851, and No. 40 for Feb. 1854.

861 Die Innere Mission, founded by Dr. Wichern.

862 The Kirchentag arose out of the Kirchenbund, and met first at Wittenberg, in the church which contains the bones of Luther and Melancthon, in 1848, while war and revolution were raging around.

863 In addition to those named in the text, mention ought to be made of the association of the "Friends of Light," founded by Uhlich, which represents the individual principle like the Quakers, and has resulted in forming some free congregations in Koenigsberg and Magdeburg. (Consult Die Deutsche Theologie, p. 26; Hase's Church History, 456.) The movement was accused of rationalism by its opponents. Also the Gustavus Adolphus Association, begun in 1832 for the relief of all classes of protestants, was one of the first means of promoting Christian union, and indirectly produced the Kirchentag. An account of these two last associations may be found in a pamphlet (1849) by C. H. Cottrell, Religious Movements of Germany in the Nineteenth Century. Kahnis notices the great facts of this revival, but with a slight sneer (p. 276, &c.).

864 It is enough to mention Schleiermacher's Glausbenslehre, and the works of Ewald; e.g. the prefaces to the poetical and prophetical books, and his work, the Geschichte des Hebr. Volkes.

865 In Lecture V. (p. 194.)

866 See Damiron, Essai sur l'Histoire de la Philosophie en France au 19me siecle, 1828; and Nettement's Hist. de la Litt. Franc. sous la Restoration, 1853, and Hist. de la Litt. Franc. sous le Gouvernement de Juillet, especially b. v, vi, vii, xi; and a review of Nettement in the British Quarterly Review, No. 37; also H. J. Rose's Christian Advocate's Publication for 1832.

867 See Morell's Hist. of Philosophy, i. 543-72, and Damiron, pp. (1-105).

868 Chateaubriand (1768-1848) wrote his Genie du Christianisme in 1802. See Nettement, first work, quoted above, vol. i. b. x.; and, second work, vol. ii. p. 330; and the criticism by Villemain, La Tribune Moderne, ch. v.; and Sainte-Beuve's Portraits, vol. x.

869 In his Genie du Christianisme.

870 The sources for understanding the systems of Socialism, besides the works of its founders, are Alfred Sudre's Histoire et Refutation du Communisme, 1850, (especially ch. xvi-xx,) which obtained the Monthyou prize, and gives a history of communism in all ages; also Nettement, second work, ii. b. vii.; Morell's Hist. of Philosophy, ch. vii. 2; an article in the Quarterly Review, No. 90, July 1831; and in the Westminster Review, 1832; and two very valuable articles in the North British Review, No. 18, May 1848, and No. 20, Feb. 1849. Those who are aware how much Socialism has influenced French philosophy and literature, as well as politics, will see that it is at once the index of certain forms of religious thought and the cause of subsequent ones, and will pardon the space bestowed in the text upon these visionary schools.

871 1760-1825. See Morell, as above.

872 Fourier, 1768-1818. See the same sources for information, and Nettement's second work, ii. 30. One of the chief Fourierists was Considerant.

873 It was a system in fact which has been tried in the mode of working the Cornish mines.

874 The St. Simonians separated about 1831 into two parties; one led by Bazard, showing a logical tendency, and including Leyroux; and the other led by Enfantin at Menilmontant, showing an emotional, among whose adherents was Michel Chevalier. The source of dispute was the emancipation of the working classes and of woman; Enfantin going beyond the other school in reference to these points. In 1832 the government interfered, and dispersed his supporters. On the relation of French journalism to the political movements, see two articles in the British Quarterly Review, vols. iii. and ix.

875 The novels of such writers as George Sand, Victor Hugo, &c. give expression to these aspirations for social improvement, and the disposition to attribute all evil to social disarrangement.

876 The systems of St. Simon and Fourier did not demand the abrogation of social inequality between man and man. Both would revolutionise the present state of things; but the one would replace it by a graduated scale of functionaries, the other by a more democratic and less federal system of corporations. But communism is founded on the idea of entire social equality as regards the material advantages of life. The old schemes of Baboeuf and the first French revolution hardly existed in 1848, but were replaced by two forms of communism; the theoretic or "Icarian" of Cabet, and the practical of Louis Blanc. On these systems, with that of Proudhon, see the sources before described, especially Sudre and the North British Review, No. 20, where this new phase is well described. Also Hase's Church History, 493.

877 Comte's chief work, the Philosophie Positive, has been well translated in an abridged form by Miss Martineau, 1853. In reference to him see Morell, History of Philosophy, i. 577, &c. and important criticisms on his system in the following reviews, Revue des Deux Mondes, by E. Saisset, 1850, vol. iii; North British Review, No. 30, Aug. 1851; No. 41, May 1854; British Quarterly Review, No. 38, April 1854. Comte's later religious views are given in the Catechisme Positiviste, 1852, and the Culte Systematique de l'Humanite ou Calendrier Positiviste (1853).

878 Introduction, ch. i. (English translation.)

879 Id. ch. ii. and books i-v.

880 Book vi.

881 See note on the subject in Lecture VIII.

882 On Cousin, see Morell's History of Philosophy, ii. 478 seq.

883 Mr. Morell, who was formerly a disciple of this school has brought out this thought in his work on the Philosophy of Religion, 1849, ch. vi.

884 During the reign of Louis Philippe an attack was made on the university of Paris by the Jesuits, on the ground that the views taught there were pantheistic. The same view was adopted in an article in Fraser's Magazine, No. 170, Feb. 1844, which is valuable in giving quotations of passages which indicate the tendency of this philosophy, though the writer fails to appreciate the value of it as a reaction against the old Voltairism. The same charge is expressed in the sketch which H. L. C. Maret gives of the philosophy of the nineteenth century (in Essai sur le Pantheisme, 1845). See also Nettement's second work, vol. i. book vi; Saisset, Revue des Deux Mondes, 1850, vol. iii; and Damiron's Essai, pp. 105-197.

885 It has not been thought necessary to name Salvador the Jew, author of Hist. des Institutions de Moses, 1828; Jesus Christ et sa Doctrine, 1839; Paris, Rome, et Jerusalem. His writings were criticised by Mr. H. J. Rose's Christian Advocate's Publication, 1831, and have been lately reviewed by the Semitic scholar A. Franck, in a series of papers in the Journal des Debats, Jan. 24, Feb. 12, May 29, June 4 and 6, 1862; and by Renan in the Etudes de l'Hist. Relig. p. 189, &c. Salvador's view is both Jewish and sceptical. Magnifying the Jewish system, he regards Christianity as an offshoot of it, imperfect in its kind; and looks to the spirit of Judaism as the future hope for the world. He professes a creed which is called by Franck Infinitheism. Whatever in his opposition to Christianity is not derived from the eclectic school is the result of his Jewish prejudices.

886 No mention has been made of several aggressive writers who publish in the French language, mostly in Belgium, works on infidelity resembling in tone those of the last century, such as Volney. There are two such works by P. Larroque, viz. a destructive one, Examen Critique des Doctrines de la Religion Chretienne, first, as they are stated in the dogmas of the church, and secondly, in the scriptures; in which he makes a collection of difficulties in the Bible, book by book: and another work, constructive in tone, Renovation Religieuse, 1860. A work of similar intention by P. Renand, Christianisme et Paganisme, identite de leurs origines ou nouvelle symbolique, 1861, is a kind of reproduction of Dupuis and Volney, modified by Feuerbach. In the preface to the last-named work, the writer refers to works by Eenen and Proudhon, similarly directed against Christianity.

887 The Conferences originated with Frayssinous in a kind of public catechising about 1802. Being changed into sermons in 1807, they were transferred from the Carmes to St. Sulpice, but closed by the government in 1809. They were resumed in 1815, and were transferred about 1830, through Ozanam's intercession with the archbishop of Paris, De Quelen, to Notre Dame; where Lacordaire opened his course in 1836. He, Ravignan, and Felix, respectively made themselves distinguished. A. Pontmartin has pointed out the adaptation of each teacher to the phase of public thought. (Pere Felix, 1861, pp. 26-32, quoted in the Christian Remembrancer, Jan. 1862). These particulars are partly taken from Nettement's works above cited.

888 The church during the Bourbon restoration was more Gallican than Ultramontane. See Nettement's first work, t. ii. book vii. For a survey of French literature during the present reign, see Reymond's Etudes du second Empire.

889 This idea is well expressed in the passages quoted in Note 9.

890 One of the modern young French writers most distinguished for power of analysis, is H. Taine, who deserves mention in connexion with the tendency which is in a different manner represented by Renan. Taine's literary character was sketched, but not with the praise which he deserves, in the Westminster Review, July 1861; and also with a special reference to his religious opinions in Scherer, Melanges, ch. xi. He was supposed to be a positivist, but now declares himself to favour Spinoza.

891 E. Renan, born 1823. His chief works are, Histoire Generale et Systemes Compares des Langues Semitiques, 1845; De l'Origine du Langage, 1849; Averroes, 1851; Job, 1859; Cantique des Cantiques, 1860; and Essays collected, viz. Essais de Critique et de Morale, 1859; and especially Etudes de l'Histoire Religieuse, 1859, which contains a remarkable preface on the office of modern criticism. A true criticism on the last two works may be seen in Blackwood's Magazine, Nov. 1861, used in these remarks; and another by Scherer, Melanges de la Critique Religieuse, ch. xv. He is now writing on Les Origines du Christianisme. See Fraser's Magazine, October 1862.

892 This will be seen to be the enumeration of the essays in the Etudes de l'Histoire Relig. The essay on the future prospects of Christian churches alluded to is in the Revue des Deux Mondes for Oct. 15, 1860, where Renan examines the prospects of the centralised system of papacy, of the national system of the English and Russian churches, and of the individual system of free churches; and argues that the tendency of society is to adopt the latter, both in freedom of creed and of constitution.

893 At the close of La Chaire d'Hebreu, 1862, he has however assumed a view of the world and of nature, less negative and more definite.

894 See the preface to Etudes Relig. especially pp. 14, 15. It is hoped that injustice is not done to M. Renan by these statements. Perhaps they interpret his thoughts more pointedly than he himself would do, and attribute to him as positive conclusions what rather are incipient tendencies. They are the result however of a careful study of his various works, and were written before his recent Discours d'Ouverture; De la part des Peuples Semitiques, which seems to confirm them.

895 In Lect. V.

896 Some remarks will be found a few pages farther, in reference to the subjective spirit and stronger consciousness of the ethical element in human nature, which are evinced in the literature of the present century.

897 Such as Herbert and Morgan.

898 On the influence of the Lake school of poetry, see D. M. Moir's Sketches of the Poetical Literature of the past half century, 1851, ch. i. and ii. The Lake school being a reaction against the materialist school, which almost degraded spirit to matter, traced a soul in nature, and was in danger of elevating matter to spirit. Other branches of art besides poetry exhibit a similar change of tone. This is remarkably manifest in the modern landscape art of England, and is developed incidentally in Mr. Ruskin's work, The Modern Painters. We have already had occasion, in Lecture VI, to advert to the similarity in result of the Lake school of English poetry to the Romantic school of Germany. Both were spiritual schools; but the former strove to learn from the freshness of nature, the latter from the freshness of an earlier stage of civilization.

899 A very able analysis of the mental character of Wordsworth, to whom the words in the text allude, was given in the National Review, No. 7, Jan. 1857.

900 Two very valuable essays occur, on Bentham and Coleridge respectively, in Mr. J. S. Mill's Essays and Dissertations, vol. i. (reprinted from the Westminster Review, Aug. 1838 and March 1840). See especially the comparison of these two philosophers at p. 395 seq.

901 This is shown in a very striking manner in the National Review, Oct. 1856, in which a comparison is instituted of the effects on the English mind of the three teachers, J. H. Newman, Coleridge, and Carlyle.

902 This is the arrangement adopted in Mr. Pearson's work on Infidelity, named on p. 13, note.

903 Concerning Comte's philosophy see the note on p. 295. The Westminster Review is the periodical which at present embodies its spirit. The works of Mr. G. H. Lewes, his History of Philosophy, and his exposition of Comte (Bohn 1853), may be noticed as books in which the philosophical, and, to some extent, the theological spirit of positivism prevails. The mind of Mr. J. S. Mill has been largely influenced by this philosophy, to which his tastes for natural science disposed him; though the influence on him of the philosophy of his father, James Mill, and of Bentham, as well as his own originality of mind, prevents him from being a mere disciple of Comte. These writers however have almost abstained from touching directly on the subject of religion. The character of Positivism, as an intellectual tendency, has been sketched by Mr. Morell, in the Lectures on the Philosophical tendencies of the Age, 1848.

904 The view of religion as a worship of the ideal of humanity, in the form of practical ethics and social study, which is taken by the better class of Positivists, is stated at length in the Westminster Review for April 1858, together with an explanation of the extravagant views of Comte, in the Catechisme Positiviste, which has been translated by one who was formerly highly respected as an indefatigable teacher, in one of the public schools, and afterwards in one of the universities.

905 Secularism is the name adopted a few years ago by Mr. G. J. Holyoake. See Christianity and Secularism; Report of the Public Discussion between the Rev. B. Grant and Mr. Holyoake; also, Modern Atheism, or the Pretensions of Secularism examined; a course of Four Lectures, delivered in the Athenaeum, Bradford, by the Rev. J. Gregory, &c. 1852; Secular Tracts, by the Rev. J. H. Hinton; The Outcast and the Poor of London, Whitehall Sermons, by the Rev. F. Meyrick, p. 91 seq. In its social aspect it is the form of naturalism which has been borrowed from Owen and Combe; in its religious, from Comte. The political tone of this system is expressed in a poem, The Purgatory of Suicides; a Prison Rhyme, by Thomas Cooper the Chartist, 1858; and the religious in the Confessions of Joseph Barker, a Convert from Christianity, 1858. Also in the tracts of Mr. Holyoake, e.g. The Logic of Death, written in 1849, during the cholera. These last two writers are the chief teachers of the system. Some small magazines are devoted to its propagation. A criticism on these tendencies among the working classes will be found, from the Unitarian point of view, in the National Review, No. 15, Jan. 1859, where this class of political and religious obstacles, encountered in dealing with the working classes, is contrasted with the mere animalism described in Miss Marsh's English Hearts and Hands; and from a more sceptical point of view, in the Westminster Review for Jan. 1862, where an extract is given (p. 83) concerning Holyoake's view of Deity. The following terrible utterance, taken from his Discussion with Townley (p. 68), will give an idea of his tone: "Science has shown us that we are under the dominion of general laws, and that there is no special Providence. Nature acts with fearful uniformity: stern as fate, absolute as tyranny, merciless as death; too vast to praise, too inexplicable to worship, too inexorable to propitiate; it has no ear for prayer, no heart for sympathy, no arm to save."

906 The chief points against which the objections have been taken are, the scriptural account of the character of Christ, the doctrine of atonement, and the necessity of faith to salvation. See the Report of the discussion which is referred to at the commencement of the last note.

907 Mr. Buckle's work on the History of Civilization is an instance to which these statements apply.

908 The difficulties alluded to are, those suggested by geology, concerning the narrative of creation, the deluge, and the date of the creation of man; or by physiology, concerning the longevity of the patriarchs; or by ethnology, concerning the unity of mankind.

909 T. Carlyle. The character of his writings and philosophy is explained and criticised in Morell's History of Philosophy, ii. 249 seq.; and in an able manner in the Westminster Review, Oct. 1839; both which sources have been much used in the following brief account. The latter article would be considered probably to need a slight alteration, in consequence of the slight change of character in Carlyle's more recent works.

910 Cfr. his Life of Sterling, 1850, pp. 126, 7.

911 It may be enough to refer to such a passage as Past and Present, pp. 305-9.

912 Past and Present, pp. 193, 4.

913 Id. pp. 271, 2.

914 Mr. Emerson: it ought to be noticed however that the following remarks are applicable mainly, if not wholly, to his earlier works; on which there is a criticism, similar to that cited in reference to Carlyle, in the Westminster Review, March 1840.

915 "I am nothing—I see all—the currents of the universal being circulate through me—I am part or particle of God."—Nature, p. 13. These were the words which this author formerly used. The same tendency can probably be traced in the characters of Plato and Goethe in his Representative Men. See also the Oration on the Christian Teacher.

916 R. W. Mackay, whose two works are, The Progress of the Intellect as exemplified in the Religious Development of the Greeks and Hebrews, 2 vols. 1850, and The Rise and Progress of Christianity, 1854. (No. 7 of Chapman's Quarterly Series.)

917 Progress of Intellect, vol. i. ch. ii. on "Mythical Geography and Cosmogony."

918 Ch. iii.

919 Ch. iv.

920 Vol. ii. ch. v. 3 and 9. He illustrates from natural processes; such as the decay of nature.

921 Ch. vi.

922 Ch. vii.

923 Ch. viii. The types of thought which he traces in it are, the conception of prophet as taught by Moses; the idea of a supernatural incarnation; the Davidic conception of a temporal sovereign; and the suffering Messiah of the book of Daniel.

924 Ch. ix. and x.

925 Rise of Christianity, parts i. and ii.

926 Part iii.

927 Part iv.

928 Parts v. and vii.

929 The Creed of Christendom, its Foundation and Superstructure, by W. Rathbone Greg. 1851. A review of it by Mr. Martineau may be seen in Studies on Christianity (reprinted from the Westminster Review), and by Remusat in Revue des Deux Mondes, Jan. 1859.

930 Ch. i. and ii.

931 Ch. iii.

932 Ch. iv.

933 Ch. v.

934 Ch. vi.

935 Ch. vii.

936 Ch. viii-xii. He adopts the view of the new Tuebingen school, in exaggerating the contrast between the description of the character and teaching of Christ in the "Synoptical" evangelists, and in the fourth Gospel.

937 Ch. xiii.

938 Ch. xiv.

939 Ch. xv.

940 Ch. xvi.

941 Ch. xvii. He quotes the beautiful lines of Wordsworth, (Ode on Intimations of Immortality, 5,) "Heaven lies about us in our infancy," &c. as illustrative of the instinctive feeling of man in reference to immortality.

942 Page 303.

943 Miss S. Hennell, whose chief writings are, Christianity and Infidelity, a prize essay, an exposition of the arguments on both sides, 1857; The Sceptical Tendency of Butler's Analogy, 1859; The Early Christian Anticipation of the End of the World, 1860; Thoughts in Aid of Faith, gathered chiefly from recent works in Theology and Philosophy, 1860. Her views originally were the same as those of her brother, a deceased unitarian minister, author of a work on Theism (1852), in which the use of miracles as an evidence was depreciated. It is hoped that it will not be considered improper to have named a writer, whose sex might be expected to shelter her from remark; but her writings are too able to be unproductive of influence.

944 Thoughts in Aid of Faith, ch. i. This work was reviewed in the Westminster Review, July 1860, and the North British Review for Nov. 1860.

945 Ch. ii.

946 E.g. ch. v.

947 Ch. vi. and vii. It is a result not unlike that of positivism, but reached from the ontological instead of the physical side.

948 Mr. Theodore Parker of Boston.

949 Mr. F. Newman. The wide spread of the works of these two writers, especially of the latter, is the reason why it is thought desirable to exhibit their views at some length. The pathos and eloquence which belong to their writings impart to them a fascination which makes it the more necessary that readers should be on their guard, by understanding the position which these authors hold in relation to faith and to unbelief.

950 The particulars are obtained from the account of Mr. Parker's ministry, prefixed to his Sermons on Theism. He was at first a unitarian minister; but, changing from unitarianism into deism, he left that body, and became a preacher in Boston, until he was compelled to visit Europe on account of enfeebled health. He died at Florence, 1860. His doctrinal views may be learned from the Discourse on Matters pertaining to Religion, written in 1846, and the Sermons on Theism, Atheism, and the Popular Theology, 1853; and his critical and literary views, from the Introduction to the Old Testament, based on De Wette; and from his Miscellaneous Writings, 1848. A comparison of him with Strauss, which has been here used, was given in the Westm. Rev. for April 1847. His character and life have also been sketched in the Nat. Rev. Jan. 1860, and especially by A. Reville in the Revue des Deux Mondes, Oct. 1861.

951 E. Renan. See p. 303.

952 In the Discourse pertaining to Matters of Religion, books ii, iii, iv. The writer is unable to put the exact references to this work in the remarks which follow; having omitted to note them down when he had the book at hand.

953 Discourse, book i.

954 The steps through which he considers that the idea of God is developed into a conception are, Fetishism, Polytheism, and Monotheism; Dualism and Pantheism being errors which lead astray from Monotheism.

955 Sermons on Theism, sermons i. and ii.

956 Id. sermons ix. and x.

957 Discourse on Religion, books ii. and iv.

958 E.g. in Discourse, book iii. and several passages in the Introduction to the Old Testament.

959 Mr. F. W. Newman.

960 The Phases of Faith, 1850.

961 Ch. i.

962 Ch. ii.

963 Ch. iii.

964 Ch. iv.

965 Ch. v. and vi.

966 To complete this account it is necessary to add, that Mr. Newman has developed some portion of the critical investigations of his studies of Jewish history in the History of the Hebrew Monarchy, 1847. It is a treatment of the Old Testament analogous to that to which we are accustomed in classical history; the answer to which would be by denying that the records of the Hebrew history are amenable to criticism, inasmuch as they do not partake of the ordinary conditions which appertain to human literature.

967 The Soul, her Sorrows and her Aspirations, 1849. In the date of publication this preceded the Phases. Mr. Newman has subsequently published, Theism, Doctrinal, Practical, or Didactic, 1858. The most complete view of his scheme, but of course wholly favourable to him, is in the Westminster Review, Oct. 1858.

968 Ch. i.

969 Ch. ii.

970 Ch. iii. and iv.

971 Ch. i. The scheme much resembles that of Schleiermacher.

972 Deism and Unitarianism are both monotheistic; but the latter allows the existence of a revelation, the former denies it. The modern school of Unitarians, however, nearly approach to the position of Mr. Newman. See end of Note 6, at the close of this book.

973 In many respects it resembles the "Mediation school" of Germany, described in Lectures VI and VII, and the modern school of the French protestant church, described in p. 304, and in Note 46, p. 448.

974 It would be more delicate perhaps to leave to the reader the application of these tendencies, and to omit the mention of names; but as the practice in this work has been to give the names even in contemporary history, fairness requires the enumeration. The tendencies in the text however are rather a combination from the views of different modern authors, and cannot be definitely referred as a whole to any one single writer. Probably the reader will himself conjecture that the first tendency is meant in the main to describe the teaching of Mr. Maurice and Mr. Kingsley; the second, of Professor Jowett; the third, of some of the writers in Essays and Reviews. But if this be approximately true, it must not be supposed that every specific statement in the following account is intended to be charged upon these respective authors. The description is meant to indicate certain tendencies of free thought, of which their writings among others seem to exhibit instances. It is always hard to judge of a movement which is in progress, and of which we are ourselves spectators. The view here taken is the result of the attempt which the writer of these lectures has made in his own studies, to adjust the existing forms of free thought into their true position in the history of speculation. If injustice is done, it is at least not intended.

975 It may be useful to draw attention to a book on the relation of Coleridge to recent theological thought, Modern Anglican Theology, by the Rev. J. H. Rigg, 1857. The book is by a Wesleyan minister, and is written from that point of view. The tone of censure on the writers criticised is in some parts severe, and has, it is understood, caused pain to some of them. Apart from its tone, objection may perhaps be taken to it, as discovering in their works as positive teaching, doctrines which probably only exist as incipient tendencies. Nevertheless it contains material suggestive of serious thought; and certainly gives the clue to the interpretation of many points which are usually felt to be obscure in the systems of several of the writers described. The author does not however appear to have distinguished sufficiently between the two forms of modern historical inquiry (see Note 9 of these lectures, at the end of the book). He consequently makes the last of the list of writers whom he criticises (ch. xiii.) to be a disciple of Coleridge; whereas he rather belongs to the other form of the historico-philosophical school.

976 Page 310.

977 The reference to Mr. J. S. Mill's dissertation on Coleridge has been already given (p. 310.) See also the Essay by Mr. Hort in the Cambridge Essays, 1856; the British Quarterly Review, Jan. 1854; Morell's History of Philosophy, ii. 343 seq.; and Remusat in Revue des Deux Mondes, Oct. 1856. Coleridge's philosophy of religion is especially to be found in his Aids to Reflection; and his critical views of inspiration in the Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit.

978 The distinctness of the "reason" (νοῦς) from the "understanding" (λόγος or διάνοια) has been allowed in these lectures; but only as guaranteeing the reality of the objects of intuition, not as allowing the mind to create a religion a priori. The objection in the text is accordingly not so much directed against the psychological theory as its theological application.

979 The sources for studying Neo-Platonism have been given in Note 10 (p. 399). Among writers influenced by Coleridge, the element of thought which is derived from Neo-Platonism is stronger in the writings of Mr. Kingsley than in those of Mr. Maurice; but it is sufficiently observable in both to form a separation, by marked philosophical features, between their teaching and the system of Schleiermacher.

980 The Λόγος of Philo and of the Neo-Platonists is not to be contrasted with the faculty called reason by Coleridge, and νοῦς by other authors, but to be identified with it. For Philo's views, see Gfroerer, Philo, and Daehne's article Philo in Ersch and Grueber's Encyclopaedia: see also Jowett's Commentary on St Paul's Epistles, vol. i. (Essay on Philo, 1).

981 The existence of a divine teacher in the human mind in the faculty of conscience would be generally allowed; especially by those who adopt the theory of the distinctness of the faculty of reason from that of understanding; but the idea implied in the hypothesis referred to in the text is the existence of a faculty which is supreme over revelation.

982 Cfr. Biogr. Lit. p. 321, and Aids to Reflection, vol. i. 204 seq.

983 On the school of the Alexandrian fathers, see note on p. 59.

984 Cfr. the note on p. 29, where we have conceded the probability that inspiration is, if analysed psychologically, a form of the "reason;" but considered it, if viewed theologically, to be an elevated state of this faculty, brought about by the miraculous and direct operation of God's Spirit: so that in this view it differs in kind, and not merely in degree, from human genius.

985 Lect. VI. pp. 245-48.

986 Cfr. note (80) on p. 329.

987 Cfr. Note 9, at the end of the book, and the remarks in the Preface on the historic method of study.

988 It is a truth indeed to which all will assent, that we must learn from scripture what is meant by inspiration: but the difference between the view here described and the view of the church of Christ is this: the Church discovers in scripture the statements of the writers concerning the reality and nature and authority of their own inspiration; and considers henceforth that the character of the revelation is in its substance removed beyond the limits of critical investigation; and can only admit that an empirical inquiry can be useful in settling the limits to which inspiration extends, and determining the question as to the writings to be accounted the subject of it.

989 Pages 330 and 334.

990 The existence of this movement in foreign churches is stated in Lect. VII, and also in Notes 43 and 46, pp. 444, 448. In America, besides those instances which have occurred in this lecture, the writings of Mr. Bushnell are thought to exhibit a free spirit. They however deviate very slightly from traditional dogmas, and may be compared with the writings of the late archdeacon Hare. In England, in the established church, there have been several works, besides those referred to in p. 330. They chiefly belong to the first and third classes of the three named in the text. The sermons of the late F. W. Robertson of Brighton, matchless in freshness, but most unsound in questions of vital doctrine; the sermons, &c. of the Rev. J. L. Davies; bishop Colenso's Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1861); and the Tracts for Priests and People (1861, 62), may be considered to be examples of the first type of thought; but, if breathing the same spirit as Coleridge, they express his thoughts with a clearness which was wanting in him. The doubts of Blanco White and Sterling; and of Mr. Macnaught, in his work on Inspiration (1856); Mr. Foxton's Popular Christianity (1849); bishop Colenso's work on the Pentateuch (1862); and the Christian Orthodoxy (1857) of Dr. Donaldson, a name honoured by the philological student; are instances of the third tendency named in the text. A tribute of acknowledgment is nevertheless due to many of these writers, for the earnest and truth-seeking tone which pervades their works. The movement of free thought exists also outside the national church. The recent work of Dr. S. Davidson, Introduction to the Old Testament (second edition) is an instance. The views however of this eminent biblical scholar met with so little sympathy in his own denomination, that he was made to suffer for an earlier edition (1856) of the same work, which deviated in a much slighter degree from received opinions. In the Unitarian body also free thought has wrought a change. (See Note 7, at the end of this book.) The influence of Cousin has expelled the old utilitarianism. Mr. Martineau and Mr. W. J. Fox (see his Religious Ideas, 1849,) are illustrations of the new spirit.

991 Cfr. p. 312, and the note to it. Positivism only differs from Naturalism (see Note 21, at the end of this book), in that it expresses a particular theory concerning the limits and method of science, as well as the disbelief in the supernatural implied by the latter term.

992 Cfr. p. 317.

993 An instructive sketch of the tendencies of modern thought was given by principal Tullock, in his Inaugural Lecture at St. Andrew's, 1845.

994 See p. 10. This crisis has occupied our attention since the middle of Lecture III, p. 105.

995 Lect. I. page 1.

996 Page 7.

997 Page 7.

998 This was treated in Lecture II.

999 Lecture III, page 76 seq.

1000 Lecture III. page 92 seq.

1001 Lectures IV. to VIII.

1002 Page 2.

1003 Page 13.

1004 Pages 16, 17.

1005 Pages 14-17.

1006 Page 20.

1007 Page 21.

1008 Cfr. remarks in Note 9, at the end of this volume.

1009 This remark does not apply to the principal writers (named in Note 49), nor to the literature called out by the "Essays and Reviews" controversy; but it applies to many of the popular manuals which are directed against old deist literature, and are not adapted to modern critical doubts.

1010 See note on p. 22.

1011 Van Mildert so exclusively adopted this latter view in his Boyle Lectures, that his opponents charged him with Manichaeism. See remarks on him in the Preface to this volume.

1012 Cfr. the notes on pp. 26 and 32.

1013 Pages 14, 71, &c.

1014 Page 3.

1015 This is seen in their scrupulous care against heresy, and is attested by the very complaint of their opponent Celsus. (Orig. Contr. Cels. i. 9, iii. 44.)

1016 H. T. Buckle, the news of whose death, at the end of May 1862, had just reached England when this lecture was delivered.

1017 History of Civilisation, vol. i. ch. iv.

1018 History of Civilisation, ch. xii and xiii.

1019 An article by a distinguished scientific writer appeared in the North British Review for Nov. 1860; in which the question of Galileo's trial was discussed in reference to the recent re-examination of the subject.

1020 Cfr. Grote's History of Greece, vol. viii. ch. lxvii; Lewes, History of Philosophy (chapter on Sophists); Grant, Aristotle's Ethics, vol. i; essay ii.

1021 See above, Lecture IV. p. 159.

1022 Cfr. Mill's Logic, vol. i. book iii. ch. xiii. 7.

1023 The allusion is to the discoveries, such as that of Kirchoff, of the existence of some of the material elements in the solar atmosphere, which exist in our own; also of the connexion between the periodic recurrence of the solar spots, and terrestrial magnetism; and especially to the discussion on "the correlation of physical forces," contained in Mr. Grove's work, and in Sir H. Holland's Essays (essays i. and ii.), reprinted from the Edinburgh Review, July 1858 and Jan. 1859.

1024 The discoveries of the distinction between the sensational and motor nerves, by Sir C. Bell; of the phenomena of reflex action, by Dr. M. Hall; of the connexion of the same phenomena with those of sensation, by Dr. Carpenter; and the identification of the centres of conscious activity with separate departments of the cerebral organism, by Dr. Laycock; are instances of hints toward the solution of this problem. Many continental physiologists, such as Mueller, Carus, Wagner, and Brown-Sequard, have worked toward the same end. J. F. Herbart in Germany, and Mr. H. Spencer in England, are writers who have approached the psychological problem from the physiological side.

1025 Bayn's Senses and Intellect, 1855; Emotions and Will, 1859; and Spencer's Principles of Psychology, 1855, are works in which analysis of this character is carried farther than in former works. A popular view of past attempts of this kind is given in an article on Mental Association, in the Edinburgh Review for Oct. 1859.

1026 An example is seen in Strauss. No one can be more inimical to the dogmatic and historical Christianity of the church than he; yet he asserts firmly that Christ and Christianity is the highest moral ideal to which the world can ever expect to attain. (Soliloquies, E. T. 1845, part ii. 27-30.)

1027 E. de Pressense. Histoire 2e Serie, ii. 524.

1028 Pressense has devoted attention to this point. (vol. iv. book iv.)

1029 Cfr. Pressense, vol. iv. book iv. 161, 521.

1030 This is the view at which Guizot arrives; Hist. de la Civil. lecon v, vi, x.

1031 E.g. in Kant, Jacobi, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. See Lectures VI. and VII.

1032 References for the study of Neander's life are given in a note on page 250.

1033 See Acts xvii. 22-31.

1034 Cfr. Pressense on Clement and Origen, Hist. iv. pp. 203, 360, and the references there given.

1035 Page 73.

1036 E.g. Justin Martyr, who gives the account of his own conversion to Christianity in the introduction to the Dialogue with Trypho; and Clement of Alexandria.

1037 Cfr. Lect. I. p. 28. Suggestions on this point are given in Miller's Bampton Lectures, 1817. "The Divine Authority of Holy Scripture asserted from its adaptation to Human Nature."

1038 See above, p. 277.

1039 The question of the attacks made on the historic character of the Acts was not noticed in Lecture VII. The statement of the difficulties which have given rise to them may be seen in Baur's Paulus, der Apostel Jesu Christi, 1845, and in an article in the National Review, No. 20, for April 1860; and a refutation of them in Dr. S. Davidson's Introduction to the New Testament, vol. ii.

1040 Observations on the Conversion and Apostleship of St. Paul, by Lord Lyttleton, 1747. Cfr. also the note above, on p. 209.

1041 The history of the doctrine of the atonement is given in Bp. Thomson's Bampton Lectures, 1853 (lectures vi. and vii.), and in the essay on the Atonement in Aids to Faith, 1862; also in Hagenbach's Doqmengeschichte, 68, 134, 180, 268, and 300. The two chief works on the subject are, Chr. Baur's Lehre von der Versoehnung, 1838, and Dorner's Lehre von der Person Christi. The fair conclusion in respect to the doctrine of the early church on the subject seems to be the one stated in the text. The doctrine of the atonement was believed and taught; but for the reason here named it was not drawn out into such explicit statement as in modern times. Anselm developed it by eliciting what was already contained in it, not by superadding any human elements which did not exist there before. It is Baur, to whom allusion is made in the text, who implies the contrary; and some English writers have followed him.

1042 The work of the late Professor Blunt on the right use of the Fathers may be consulted for a true and right view of their value.

1043 We apprehend a fact when we recognise its existence; we comprehend it when we can refer it to the cause which produces it.

1044 Cfr. the remarks in Dr. Whewell's preface to his edition of Butler's first three sermons for some suggestions on the nature of conscience. His object is to show that Butler taught only its psychological supremacy, not its moral infallibility. Cfr. also his Lecture on Moral Philosophy in England, p. 129 seq.

1045 Page 84. Cfr. also bishop Thomson's Bampton Lectures (lect. v. p. 125).

1046 Page 245 seq.

1047 Similarly, an innate law of thought is logically prior as a condition in attaining knowledge; but experience is chronologically prior.

1048 It has been shown above (p. 310) that this very reaction is itself indirectly a result of the subjective tendency.

1049 E.g. in R. E. H. Greyson (H. Rogers) Correspondence. Cfr. the remarks on it in the National Review for Oct. 1857.

1050 Matt. xxviii. 20.

1051 E.g. Augustin, Anselm, and in modern times such men as Bengel and Neander.

1052 Rev. xii. 11.

1053 1 Cor. iii. 12.

1054 In the able work on Tite Live by H. Taine, (Couronne, 1856,) will be found a study of Livy as a critic and as a philosopher; which illustrates not only the scientific aspect of history, but the influence of science in the special determination of the facts, which has frequently been attributed to art.

1055 Voyage dans l'Inde par C. Fakian, traduit par A. Remusat, 1837. and Hist. de la Vie de Hiouen Thsang, being vol. i. of Memoires sur les Contrees Occidentales, 1858. by Stan. Julien. The former travelled about A.D. 400: the latter in the seventh century.

1056 The abbe Migne is publishing in French, Livres Sacres de toutes les Religions sauf la Religion Chretienne.

1057 In the work quoted above, Science in Theology, the date of this Rabbin was erroneously given as the seventeenth century (p. 123). This was the date when Wagenseil by great good fortune obtained a copy of his work, and first made it public. The writer avails himself of this opportunity, in which he has occasion to name his own volume, to correct a few mistakes, and make a few alterations where subsequent study has convinced him that he was in error. E.g. In Sermon IV. the illustration from Indian history (p. 111) is based on the view, now known to be wrong, that Buddhism preceded Brahminism in origin. Also the view (p. 109) of the date of the introduction of the Chaldee character has been rendered doubtful by the arguments which Hupfeld has directed to the subject (Ausfuehrliche Hebraische Grammatik), in which he shows that the corruption of the language was gradual, and that the adoption of the square Chaldee character did not take place till after Christ. (See a brief account of his views in Davidson's Introd. to Old Test. 1856, ch. ii.) Also, p. 121, the use of the word "surnamed" for Jarchi disguises the origin of the name. In Sermon I. (2d div.) the order of chronology is not sufficiently observed in the quotations from the Old Testament. In Serm. VIII. (p. 244) the apologetic worth of miracles (suggested by a remarkable speech of Bp. Wilberforce in the Town Hall, Oxford, Nov. 28, 1846. See Oxford Herald of Dec. 5) is perhaps hardly sufficient. In Serm. VI. the view that the early church held the doctrine of atonement implicitly rather than explicitly, in life rather than dogma, till Anselm's time, is insufficient and liable to convey an erroneous impression. (See Bp. Thomson's restatement of the historic question in Aids to Faith, pp. 339-352.) The revelation of God in the New Testament is most express on the subject of substitutional atonement. Of this the writer of these Sermons never had any doubt; but he now thinks that there are clearer evidences of it in the fathers than he had stated. Reasons are perceivable in the circumstance of the constant struggle against heathen religions, in which the fathers were involved, which led them to dwell on the incarnation rather than on the atonement. Anselm only gave expression to the doctrine which the apostles had clearly taught.

1058 There are congregations of reformed Jews in some countries who reject the Talmud as a system of interpretation. They are Jewish protestants. Their standpoint only differs from that of the old Jews in laying stress on the ethical aspect of religion. Sermons by one of them, the Rabbin Marks, have lately been published in England. It will be understood from the above account that the modern Jews include three parties; the orthodox Jews, the reformed, and the rationalistic.

1059 Cfr. Haevernick's Introd. to Old Test. (E. T.) 23, 24.

1060 Cfr. Bp. Horsley's Letters against Priestley, Lett. xvi, p. 264.

1061 The nearest English parallel to the teaching of Arminius personally (as distinct from that of his successors), on the quinquarticular controversy, is the doctrine of John Wesley. The nearest parallel to the general views of Episcopius and Limborch was Hey of Cambridge at the close of the last century.

1062 A sketch of Priestley is given in Mr. Martineau's Miscellanies.

1063 But see Pressense, Hist. de l'Eglise, 2e Ser. t. ii. p. 154.

1064 The transition of the word miscreant from its original meaning of misbeliever (mecroyant, miscredente), to its modern use as a mark of opprobrium, is a similar instance. This change is a proof of the instinctive association of the dependence of right conduct on right belief. It is about the time of Shakspeare that the change of meaning begins to appear. See Richardson's Dictionary, sub voc.

1065 It is hardly necessary to state, that when the tone of the English theological writers of the eighteenth century is described as rationalism, it is used in a good sense. (E.g. Essays and Reviews, Ess. vi.) The writers of that century would be classified under the school of supernaturalists here named.

1066 In the time of Napoleon I. the circumstance that the ideological philosophers sympathised with the Revolution, in opposition to his regime, led to an application of the term as synonymous with Republican.

1067 These references to Guhrauer were kindly suggested by the Rev. E. H. Hansell, Praelector of Theology in Magdalen College, who studied the Fragments a few years ago for lectures which he delivered on Lessing.

1068 For a description of the division of Theological study implied by this term, see Credner's Introduction to Kitto's Bibl. Cyclop.; and the translation of Tholuck's Lectures, given in the American Bibloith. Sacra, 1844.

1069 Hegel used to claim that his doctrine was merely giving expression to the ancient speculations of Heracleitus concerning the union of opposites. It is probable that the fundamental idea was the same, but Hegel supplied an interpretation and application of the principle which the ancient philosopher could not contemplate. Both in truth committed the same fundamental mistake, of making the mind the measure of things. The union of opposites is an act of thought, not a fact relating to things.

1070 This statement is taken from a paper on the history of German Theology, in the Spectator, May 24, 1862.

1071 His work on Dogmatique is in his earlier manner.

1072 The strict difference would be, that analogy is the resemblance of ratios, where the objects, in which the ratios are perceived, are not known to be referable to the same general class; παράδειγμα on the contrary where they are so.

1073 A plan of arrangement of this kind is used by Mr. Bolton in the Hulsean Prize Essay for 1852, The Evidences of Christianity, as exhibited in the writings of the Apologists down to Augustine.

1074 Cfr. Gerard, Compendium of Evidences, 1828, part ii. ch. i.

1075 Notes 14, 15, 17, 19, afford illustrations bearing upon the same subject.

1076 This remark is only intended to apply to the apologetic writings, which are not the best works, of the fathers. In the fourth century we meet with a group of fathers of a higher type of mind than those of the first three; e.g. Eusebius Athanasius, Basil, the Gregories, Ambrose, and Jerome. Speaking generally, however, the three writers, Origen, Chrysostom, and Augustin, are probably the only ones who had minds of the highest class, and who thoroughly exceed the contemporary heathen writers of their day in mental penetration, freshness, and compass, respectively. If we have compared Origen in mind with Hugo St. Victor, and Schleiermacher, as a Christian philosopher (Lect. VI.), we might also venture to compare Augustin with Aquinas or Calvin, in power to grasp systematic truth; and Chrysostom with Bernard, and in some respects with Bossuet, in eloquence, learning, and vigour. Eusebius perhaps almost demands a place with these three, but he was a man of knowledge rather than originality.

1077 Demonstrations Evangeliques: (tome 1.) de Tertullien, Origene, Eusebe (Praep. Ev.); (2.) Eusebe (Dem. Ev.), S. Augustin, Montaigne, Bacon, Grotius, Descartes; (3.) Richelieu, Arnauld, De Choiseul du Plessis-Praslin, Pascal, Pelisson, Nicole; (4.) Boyle, Bossuet, Bourdaloue, Locke, Lami, Burnet, Malebranche, Lesley, Leibnitz, La Bruyere, Fenelon; (5.) Huet, Clarke; (6.) Duguet, Stanhope, Bayle, Leclerc, Du Pin; (7.) Jacquelot, Tillotson, De Haller, Sherlock, Le Moine, Pope, Leland; (8.) L. Racine, Massillon, Ditton, Derham, D'Aguesseau, De Polignac; (9.) Saurin, Buffier, Warburton, Tournemine, Bentley, Littleton, Seed, Fabricius, Addison, De Bernis, J. J. Rousseau; (10.) Pard du Phanjas, Le roi Stanislas, Turgot, Stattler, West, Beauzee; (11.) Bergier; Gerdil, Thomas, Bonnet, De Crillon, Euler, Delamarre, Caraccioli, Jennings; (12.) Duhamel, S. Liguori, Butler, Bullet, Vauvenargues, Guenard, Blair, De Pompignan, De Luc, Porteus, Gerard; (13.) Diessbach, Jacques, Lamourette, Laharpe, Le Coz, Du Voisin, De la Luzerne, Schmitt, Pointer; (14) Moore, Silvio Pellico, Lingard, Brunati, Manzoni, Paley, Perrone, Lambruschini, Dorleans, Campien, Fr. Perennes; (15.) Wiseman, Buckland, Marcel de Serres, Keith, Chalmers; (16.) Dupin Aine, Gregoire XVI; (17.) Cattet, Milner, Sabatier; (18.) Bolgeni, Morris, Chassay, Lombroso et Consoni—contenant les apologies de 117 auteurs, repandues dans 180 vol.; traduites pour la plupart des diverses langues dans lesquelles elles avaient ete ecrites; reproduites integraiement non par extraits. Ouvrage egalement necessaire a ceux qui ne croient pas, a ceux qui doutent, et a ceux qui croient, 20 vol. in 4to. Prix: 120 fr. Chaque volume se vend separement, 7 fr. The references in the above title are to the volumes of the work.

There is an important article on the literature of Apologetics in the North British Review, No. 30, August 1851, the writer of which says that the claim that the above works are translated "integralement" is not literally correct; passages which assault the church of Rome being omitted. He considers that among the works of the above-named series which are not known in England, the most important are, Stattler, Certitude de la Religion revelee par Jesus Christ; Beauzee, Exposition des Preuves Historiques de la Religion Chretienne; Abbe Para du Phanjas, Les Principes de la Sainte Philosophie concilies avec ceux de la Religion; Cardinal de Vernis, La Religion Vengee; Cardinal Polignac, Anti-Lucretius.

1078 In naming the Boyle Lectures, it may be permitted to the writer of these lectures to express the regret which he has often felt, that there is no history written of the various apologetic Lectures, and of the works which they called forth, such, e.g. as the Boyle (1692), Lady Moyer (1719), Warburton (1772), Bampton (1760), Donnellan (1794), and Hulsean Lectures (1820), in the Church; and the Lime Street (1730), Berry Street (1733), Coward (1739), and Congregational Lectures (1833), among the Dissenters; and more generally that there is no history of English theology and of English theological literature. Much as we need a fair account of the English Church, viewed in its external and its constitutional history, we still more need a history which would enter into the inner life, and give its intellectual and spiritual history. Such a work would not only give a detailed account of the various works on evidence and of the other literature, but would enter into the causes and character of the various schools of thought which have existed in each age,—e.g. of the struggle of semi-Romanist and Calvinistic principles in Elizabeth's reign:—in the next age, the reproduction of the teaching of the Greek as distinct from the Latin Fathers in Andrewes and Laud; the Arminianism of Hales and Chillingworth; the Calvinism of the Puritans: again, later, the rise of the philosophical latitudinarianism of Whichcote, More, and Cudworth; the theological position of the non-jurors; the Arian tendencies of Clarke and Whiston; the cold want of spirituality of divines of the type of Hoadley; the reasoning school of Butler, the evangelical revival of Wesley and Simeon; and, in the nineteenth century, the philosophical revival under Coleridge, and the ecclesiastical in the Tracts for the Times. Subjects like these, if treated not only in a literary manner, but in connection with their philosophical relations, would lift the history above a merely national purpose, and make it a lasting contribution to the history of the human mind. If executed worthily, such a work might take a rank along with the grand works on literature of Hallam. Much as the present taste for documentary history is to be commended, and the publication of ancient historic documents to be desired, it is to be hoped that it will not lead to the divorce of history from philosophy. History becomes mere antiquarianism, if the philosopher is not at hand to build its parts into the general history of humanity. Philosophy becomes an hypothesis, if it is disconnected from the actual exemplification of its principles on the theatre of the world.

1079 Paley's argument has been extended to the Gospels and other parts of Scripture by the lamented Professor Blunt. (Cfr. also his Essay on Paley, reprinted from the Quarterly Review, Oct. 1828.)

1080 The course for 1849, on the Evidences, by Mr. Michell, marked the commencement of the consciousness of the spread of free thought; but was not directed to the novel foreign forms of it.

1081 The Lectures however of Dr. Hessey in 1860, though directed to a different subject, evince a knowledge of the literary studies of foreign theologians.

1082 The writer hopes that the note on p. 374 will not be considered an ungenerous censure of Mr. Rogers, who is selected because he is the ablest and wisest of those writers who have used this argument.

1083 It is hardly necessary to state, that Mr. Maurice and Mr. Goldwin Smith, besides others, have criticised this work in distinct publications.

1084 Ellis's work on The Knowledge of Divine Things, 1811, breathes a similar spirit in modern times. Cfr. Note 44.

1085 The anti-Straussian Literature described in Note 38 is an illustration of the German apologetic.

1086 Dr. Pusey also, in his Hist. Inq. on German Theol. p. 2. ch. v, quoted many passages illustrative of the history of the same fact. He has, however, subsequently disavowed all concurrence in the opinions of the writers cited.

1087 Among writers who lived earlier than the periods alluded to in the passages of Lectures III. and VIII., the following are also cited in the works before named: Origen (Comm. in Joan. ii. 151. ed. Huet), Jerome (Comm. in Gal. iii. vol. iv); Augustin (in Joan, iv. 1); Zuinglius (Schrift.-von Usteri, ii. 247); Calvin (Comm. on Hebr. ii. 21. Rom. iii. 4. Rom. ii. 8); Bullinger (on 1 Cor. x. 8). Castellio (Dial. ii. de Elect. on Rom. ix), Erasmus (on Matt. ii); Grotius (Vot pro Pac. art. de Can. Script.); Episcoplus (Inst. Theol. iv. 1). Passages of Hooker and Chillingworth were also cited by Mr. Stephen.


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