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History of Free Thought in Reference to The Christian Religion
by Adam Storey Farrar
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321 Renan, id. (122-8.)

322 Renan, id. (353-67.)

323 He lived about A.D. 200.

324 On Pomponatius (1462-1530), see Ritter's Gesch. der Ch. Phil. V. pp. 390 seq.; Hallam's History of Literature, i. 315; Renan, Averroes, 353, &c.; Tennemann, Manual, 293; and the Life in the Biographie Universelle. His theological treatise which was chiefly suspected was De Immortalitate; but Brucker quotes from his other writings to prove atheism. As early as 1512 a Lateran council took notice of the disbelief of immortality.

325 In place of the scholastic philosophy, which was disappearing, but which lived in Padua nearly a century later than in the rest of Europe, three tendencies manifested themselves; viz., (1) a reconstruction of metaphysical philosophy, on a new, partially Platonic basis; (2) a reconstruction of logic, by P. Ramas in France (see Hallam, History of Literature, i. 388-90); (3) attention to experimental science, which led ultimately to the experimental method of Bacon. Telesius and Campanella belong to the first of these classes. The system of the former is briefly explained in Ritter's Christliche Philosophie, p. 561 seq.; Renouvier's Histoire de Philosophie, t. 2; and in Hallam, History of Literature, ii. 7; and of the latter in Hallam, id. (372-6); Tennemann's Manual, 317; and Ritter, id. vi. 3, seq. Both systems are metaphysical rather than theological. That of Cesalpini is also explained in Ritter, id. v. 653, seq.; in Hallam, id. ii. 5; that of Cardan in Brucker, period iii. part ii. lib. l. c. 3; Buhle, Gesch. der Neu. Phil. ii. 857, seq.; and in Morley's Life of Cardan (1853).

326 Giordano Bruno (1550-1600), Ritter's Chr. Phil. v. 595. &c. See Hallam's Hist. of Lit. ii. (8-14.) Buhle's Geschichte der Phil. ii. 703. His life and opinions have been described by Mr. G. H. Lewis in the Biogr. Hist. of Phil. p. 314, seq. A list of his works is given in Buhle Gesch. der Neu. Phil. ii. 703, seq., and more briefly in Tennemann's Manual, 300. They were collected and published in 1830. One of them, the "Spaccio della bestia trionfante," being very scarce, and only known by report, was formerly thought to be a translation of the celebrated work "De Tribus Impostoribus."

327 In his travels he reached Oxford, and was admitted to lecture in the university.

328 Lucilio Vanini (1586-1619.) His chief works were "Amphitheatrum AEternae Providentiae," and "De Admirandis Naturae Arcanis." The latter was condemned by the Sorbonne. Full particulars are given in Brucker's Hist. Phil. period iii. part ii. 1. i. ch. 6. See also Buhle, Gesch. der Neu. Phil. ii. 866, seq.; and the Life in the Biographie Universelle.

329 On this reaction, see Hallam, Hist. of Lit. i. (536-44).

330 This revival is at the same time the proof of the existence of doubt. Stauedlin, in Eichhorn's Geschichte der Lit. vol. vi. p. 24 seq. enumerates treatises of this kind by Ficinus, Alfonso de Spina, Savonarola, AEneas Sylvius, and Pico di Mirandola. The rare work of Sebonde also, which has been supposed to be deistical, is really a treatise on natural religion as an evidence of revealed. See Hallam's Hist. of Lit. i. 139, 40; Tennemann's Manual, 277.

331 On Socrates, see Grote's History of Greece, vol. viii. ch. 68.

332 On Bacon and Descartes see Ritter, Christliche Philosophie, v. 309 seq., and vii. 3 seq., Buhle iii. (1-86), Tennemann's Geschichte, x. 200 seq.; and the references given in Tennemann's Manual, 312 and 333. Among English sources, see Morell's History of Philosophy, i. 76, 166; Lewes' History of Philosophy, Hallam's History of Literature, vol. ii. part 3. ch. 3. On Descartes, see also Bouillet's Histoire de la Revolution Cartesienne (1842) p. 95-144; and on Bacon, the monograph by Kuno Fischer of Jena, translated 1857.

333 In chronological order Herbert and Hobbes ought to come before Spinoza. Indeed their works furnished suggestions to him; but as the forms of scepticism which follow are arranged by nations, it is more convenient to place Spinoza here alone previously to treating the others.

334 The best means of understanding Spinoza is the perusal of his own works. It is only in modern times that he has been understood. The old works against him, Reimannus (de Atheismo), Mansveldt, Cuperus, and Kortholt (de Trib. Impostoribus), are chiefly obsolete. A memoir exists by Colerus, 1706. Among the moderns he has been carefully studied by E. Saisset, both in Essais de Philosophie Religieuse, 1859, and in a dissertation prefixed to a translation of his works, 1861, and in a learned article in the Revue des Deux Mondes for Jan. 1862; also by Damiron, Essai sur Spinoza. Among English writers, see Hallam, History of Literature, iii. 344 seq., Lewes' History of Philosophy, and an article on the Theologico-Politicus in the British Quarterly Review, No. 16, for Nov. 1848, referring to Spinoza's theology. In Germany his opinions have been examined by Ritter, Chr. Phil. vii 169 seq.; Buhle iii. 503 seq.; Tennemann's Geschichte, x. 462 seq. Schleiermacher in early life expressed his opinion of him in words of extravagant eulogy, (Reden ueber die Relig., p. 47, quoted in Lewes' History of Philosophy.) Consult also the various references given in Tennemann's Manual, 338. A volume of Spinoza's writings has lately been found and published, which is made interesting by a photograph from a rare portrait of him.

335 In the admirable article in the Revue, quoted in the last note, Saisset discusses carefully the sources from which Spinoza derived his theology and philosophy. Cousin in earlier life had regarded his philosophy as borrowed from Descartes (Fragm. de Phil. Cartes., p. 428 seq.), and Ritter coincides in this opinion. More recently, in the new edition (1861) of his Hist. Gen. de la Philos., he regards it as borrowed from Maimonides (p. 457.) See on Maimonides' Philosophy, Adolph. Franck's Etudes Orientales, p. 318. Saisset after a careful examination comes to the conclusion that the theology was suggested by Maimonides' More Nevochim, but that the philosophy was derived neither from the Kabbala, nor Averroes, nor Maimonides, but from Descartes.

336 See the references given in a former note.

337 Compare the Essay on Cousin by Sir W. Hamilton (Dissertations, p. 32).

338 Ethica, part ii. prop. 1 and 2.

339 P. 100.

340 Theol. Polit. c. vi.

341 Ep. xxi. vol. iii. p. 195. (Lips. ed. 1846.) It will be hereafter seen how exactly this result is parallel to the religious philosophy and Christology developed in the Hegelian school. See Lect. VII.

342 A succinct account of the contests in Holland is given in C. Butler's Life of Grotius, c. 5, 6, 12. See also Amand Saintes, Histoire de la Vie Spinoza, p. 63; Hase's Church History, E. T. 356; Hagenbach, Dogmengeschichte, 235.

343 A good analysis for an English reader may be found in the article quoted above from the British Quarterly Review.

344 Theol. Pol. ch. 19, 20. The idea here is borrowed from Hobbes.

345 Ch. 1-6.

346 Ch. 7-12.

347 Ch. 13-15.

348 Ch. 1, 2.

349 Ch. 3.

350 Ch. 6.

351 Ch. 8.

352 Ch. 12-14.

353 De Veritate. See Lect. IV.

354 Great critical sagacity is evinced in describing the characteristics of prophecy (ch. i. and ii.), and the historic peculiarities of the Pentateuch (ch. viii.); which however, it would seem, had been observed partially by some of the learned Dutch theologians of the time.

355 This lay at the bottom of the opposition which Buxtorf and Owen offered to the view, now universally adopted, of Capellus and Morinus, that the vowel points were a late introduction in Hebrew, perhaps of the sixth to the tenth centuries A.D. The history of the controversy is given in Walch's Bibliotheca Theol. Select. vol. iv. p. 244, 268; and Wolf's Bibliotheca Hebr. part iv. p. 7; part ii. p. 25 and 270. The Formula Consensus of the Helvetic church (1675), (on which see Schweizer in Herzog's Real. Encycl. xi. 439 seq.; Henke's Kirchengeschichte, vol. iv. 34; Hagenbach's Dogmengesch. 222), was partly designed against the views of Capellus. On the question of the vowel points, consult the Prolegomena to Walton's Polyglot, iii. 39; Carpzov. Crit. Sacr. 242 seq. Wolf's Bibliotheca Hebraica, ii. 475; iv. 214 seq.; and among the moderns, Gesenius's Gesch. der Hebr. Sprache, 48.

356 E.g. in Le Clerc. See Sentimens de Quelques Theologiens d'Hollande sur l'Histoire Critique du pere Simon, and his Five Letters on Inspiration; and in the French Roman catholic critic, R. Simon, in reference to whom see note on p. 83.

357 E.g. by Dr. Lee on Inspiration, Lect. I.

358 Compare Dr. Lee's learned and valuable work on Inspiration, ch. iv. The writer of this lecture need hardly say, that he cordially and reverently believes in the miraculous character of scripture inspiration; and that the remarks here in the text are only aimed at the extravagant views held in the seventeenth century, such as that, above named, in reference to the Hebrew vowel points. No Christian however ought to fail to appreciate the deep reverence for holy scripture implied in the theory from which dissent is here expressed.

359 A note, giving proof of the fact here stated, will be found at the end of Lect. VIII.

360 Wordsworth, Ecclesiastical Sonnets, part ii. 47.

361 See above p. 11.

362 This computation regards lord Herbert of Cherbury as marking the commencement, and Hume the close; the doubters of the latter half of the eighteenth century, such as Gibbon, being excluded, because their writings are marked by the forms of French unbelief.

363 The former in the struggle of Arminians and Calvinists in the Puritan controversy; the latter in the revolution supposed to be caused in our literature by the influence of Dryden.

364 In addition to the references given in Lect. III. (p. 106) see Cousin's Hist. de la Phil. au 18e siecle (Lecon 3); and Remusat's Essai sur Bacon, 1857; but especially the sketch of the relation of Bacon's philosophy to religion in K. Fischer's monograph on Bacon. (c. x. and xi.)

365 This inquiry was called forth in the disputes of the established church against popery and puritanism, and led to works in favour of toleration by Chillingworth, Bp. Jeremy Taylor (Liberty of Prophesying), and later by Milton; and towards the close of the century by Locke.

366 Hobbes's Leviathan was not published till 1651; but the thoughts were evidently suggested by the woes of the reign of Charles I.

367 Herbert (1581-1648). His works were, De Veritate, 1624, De Causis Errorum, 1645, De Religione Laici, De Religione Gentilium, 1663. An autobiography was published in 1764. He was answered by Locke (Reason. of Christianity), Baxter, Halyburton, Leland (Deists, lett. 1 and 2), and Kortholt; and his philosophy was attacked by Gassendi. On Herbert see Ritter's Christliche Philosophie, vi. 390 seq.; Tennemann's Gesch. x. 113 seq.; Eichhorn's Gesch. der Lit. 6, 95 seq.; Hallam's History of Literature, ii. 380 seq.; and Lechler's Geschichte des Englischen Deismus, p. 36-54; Remusat in Rev. des. Deux Mondes, 1854, vol. iii. His views in some respects seem to have resembled those of Pecock or Sebonde.

368 In its mode of treatment it has been compared to Bacon's Wisdom of the Ancients.

369 In the De Veritate.

370 De Relig. Gentil., 15. 199. App. to Relig. Laici, 2, 3.

371 There is a curious record in his journal (Autobiography, p. 171-3) of an earnest prayer for guidance on the subject of the publication of his first book De Veritate, which he no doubt saw was opposed to popular belief.

372 Lechler, Geschichte des E. D. p. 64.

373 Because they bear, as he thought, the great test of being self-evident. It will be remembered that the clearness of an idea was the test of the innate character of it in Descartes' system (Principia Philosophiae, 10). Such ideas are those which would be regarded in Kant's system as necessary forms of thinking, and in Cousin's as belonging to the impersonal reason.

374 Hobbes (1588-1679). The Leviathan is a philosophy of society, studied as the development of the individual. He first treats of the individual, book i.; then the commonwealth, book ii.; then the Christian commonwealth, book iii.; and the kingdom of error, book iv.; borrowing the idea from Augustin's De Civ. Dei. The brevity of the notice in the text prevents the possibility of doing justice to the grandeur and to the good sense shown in many respects in Hobbes's works. He was answered by Cudworth (Intellectual System); Cumberland (De Leg. Nat.); Dr. Seth Ward; Bramhall, (1658); Archbp. Tenison, 1760; and Lord Clarendon, in his Survey of Leviathan (1676). For an explanation and criticism on his philosophical principles, see Ritter, ch. vi. 453 seq.; Tennemann, b. x. 53 seq.; Lewes' History of Philosophy; Morell's Id.; Hallam, b. ii. 463 seq.; and on his religious opinions, Leland (ch. iii.), and Lechler (p. 67-107).

375 Part i. c. 12.

376 Part iii. c. 39.

377 Part iii. c. 33.

378 Coward (1657-1724 circ.) was a physician, who wrote in 1702 Second Thoughts on Human Souls, apparently intended to disprove the existence of spirit and natural immortality, but not of immortality itself as a divine gift from God to man, though opponents disbelieved him in this assertion. The list of answers written is given in Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary under Coward. The house of commons in 1704 condemned the book, and caused it to be burned.

379 Spinoza's view of religion is the part suggested by Herbert, and his view of the relation of the state to religion that suggested by Hobbes.

380 See Note 21 (p. 413).

381 C. Blount (1654-93) wrote the Anima Mundi, 1679; Life of Apollonius Tyana, 1680; Oracles of Reason, 1695. (See Macaulay, History of England, vol. iv. 352.) He was refuted by Nichols (1723) Conference with a Theist. See Lechler (114-124), and Leland, ch. iv.

382 The Licensing Act of 1662 concerning the press was allowed to expire in 1679. When James II. came to the throne (1685) the censorship was renewed for seven years; and again in 1693 was revived for two years, at which time it finally expired. See North British Review, No. 60, (May 1859.)

383 As proved by his work in 1705, The Deist's Manual.

384 The Oracles of Reason (1693) consists of sixteen papers in several letters to Mr. Hobbes and others, by Ch. Blount, Gildon, and others. Papers (No. 1-4) are a defence of T. Burnet's archaeology, or on subjects cognate to it. No. 5 is concerning the deist's religion; 6 on immortality; 7 on Arians, Trinitarians, and Councils; 8 that felicity is pleasure; 9 of fate and fortune; 10 of the original of the Jews; 11 of the lawfulness of marrying two sisters successively; 12 of the subversion of Judaism, and the origin of the Millennium; 13 of the auguries of the ancients; 14 of natural religion; 15 that the soul is matter; 16 that the world is eternal.

385 No. 14.

386 No. 5.

387 Attention had been called a little earlier to the consideration of the first principles of religion, by the Platonizing Cambridge party of More and Cudworth, followers partly of Descartes. See Burnet's Mem. of his Times, i. 187; and the Rev. A. Taylor's able introduction to the edition of Simon Patrick's Works, Oxford 1858, (p. 28-42).

388 On Locke's philosophy see Ritter Chr. Phil. vii. 449-534; Cousin's Hist. de Philos. au 18e siecle, ch. 15-25; Morell's Hist. of Phil., vol. i. p. 100 seq.; Lewes Id.: Lechler, 154-179. His work the Reasonableness of Christianity typified the tone of the writers on the Christian evidences for the next half century.

389 For this and the next named controversy, see Lathbury's Non-Jurors (1845), ch. iv., and History of Convocation, ch. 12-14.

390 On the Bangorian controversy (1717, 18), see Hallam's Constitutional History (vol. ii. 408). A list of the pamphlets which were written during the controversy was made by the antiquarian Thomas Hearne, and is printed in Hoadley's works (3 vols. fol. 1773). See vol. ii. 381, and the continuation in vol. i. 689.

391 Toland (1669-1722). He was born an Irish catholic, turned protestant, wrote his first deist book, 1696; fled for refuge to the court of Hanover, and found protection there; wrote political pamphlets, and lived abroad till near the close of his life. His chief theological writings are, Christianity not Mysterious, 1696; Amyntor, or Defence of the Life of Milton, 1699 (on the Canon); Nazarenus, 1718; Tetradymus, 1720; Pantheisticon, 1720, sive formula celebrandae sodalitatis Socraticae, 1720, a parody on the Christian service books. These are collected in his Miscellaneous Works (1726). (Vol. i. contains his translation of the Spaccio of Bruno.) He was answered by John Norris, Archbp. Synge, and Dr. Peter Browne; by S. Clarke, and by Jones in his work on the Canon. Consult Leland's View of Deistical Writers, Lett, iv.; Lechler (180-210), and (463-73), and note on p. 193.

392 In his Christianity not Mysterious.

393 In his Amyntor.

394 For these facts see the Memoir of Toland prefixed to his Miscellaneous Works, and also Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary.

395 This opposition increased Toland's bitterness, for, in the following year, 1698, in publishing a Life of Milton, and taking occasion to disprove that Charles I was the author of the Ikon Basilike, he threw out hints of similar forgeries in works attributed to the apostles. The hatred of churchmen was further increased by this work.

396 See Wilkins's Concilia, vol. iv., 631; Burnet's History of his own Times, vol. iv. 521; Lathbury's History of Convocation (1842), p. 288 seq.

397 Sect. i.

398 Sect. ii. ch. 1.

399 Id. ch. 4.

400 Ch. 1, 2.

401 Sect. iii. ch. 2.

402 Ch. 3.

403 Ch. 5.

404 Cfr. his Apology for Christianity not Mysterious 1697, and also a letter from Mr. Molyneux to Locke (Locke's Works, ed. 1723, vol. iii. p. 566), quoted in the memoir (p. 17) prefixed to Toland's Miscellaneous Works.

405 In his Life of Milton (1698) pp. 91, 92, he had alluded to works falsely attributed to Christ and the apostles. This was attacked by Blackhall as if intended against the canonical scriptures, and was defended by Toland by the publication of the Amyntor, a catalogue of books mentioned by the fathers as truly or falsely ascribed to Jesus Christ, his apostles, &c. The learned Pfaff calls it "insignem Catalogum" (Diss. Crit. Nov. Test. ch. i. 2).

406 A Memoir of Lord Shaftesbury (1671-1713), has been lately published (1860). His chief work was the Characteristics. On his religious views see Leland ch. 5 and 6; Lechler 243-265; and on his philosophical views, see Ritter vii. 535 seq.; Eichhorn, Geschichte der Literatur, vi. 424 seq.

407 On his moral system, see Mackintosh's Dissertation on Ethics, p. 158-166; and on Butler's ethical system, and its relation to Shaftesbury, see the same work, p. 171 seq.

408 Works, vol. ii. Inquiry concerning Virtue. Charact. ii. 272 etc.

409 The readings of the text had been disturbed by Courcelles (1658), and by Walton in his Polyglot, which caused an alarm, on which see Hody (De Bibl. Text. 563 seq.), but not widely till Mills, 1707. Mills' readings were attacked by Whitby in 1710, and the arguments of the latter were afterwards turned by Collins against Revelation.

410 In 1699. Daille's criticism on the Ignatian Epistles (1666) had shown similar sagacity to that afterwards displayed by Bentley, and bore to his inquiries the same relation which those just named in the test bore to those of Mills.

411 Collins (1676-1729). His works were on Immortality (1707, 8) in the Dodwell controversy; Freethinking, 1713, refuted entirely by Bentley in the Phileleutherus Lipsiensis. (See also Dr. Ibbot's Boyle Lectures, 1713, where the general subject is treated.) On Necessity, 1715. The Grounds of the Christian Religion, 1724 (occasioned by Whiston's work on Prophecy); answered by bishop Chandler, Samuel Chandler, T. Sherlock, and Moses Lowman; Scheme of Literal Prophecy, 1727, in answer to Chandler. See Leland, ch. vii., and Lechler, 217-240. Henke's Kirchengeschichte, vi. s. 29.

412 In the two works named below in the text.

413 E.g. that of Buckle in History of Civilization.

414 P. 71.

415 P. 5-27.

416 P. 32, &c.

417 P. 56.

418 P. 86.

419 P. 92.

420 P. 100, &c.

421 Part i. 1-5.

422 Id. 6, 7.

423 Id. 11.

424 Id. (8-10.)

425 Two other writers, Mandeville and Lyons, have been omitted; Mandeville (Fables of the Bees, 1723), because his speculations did not bear directly on religion; Lyons, because his work is not important. In 1723 he published the Infallibility of Human Judgment, in which he analysed the mind, and applied the results of his analysis to the first principles of natural religion, and to discredit the evidences and doctrines of revealed. It bears more resemblance to Toland and Chubb than to any other writers, but is a feeble work, interesting only as showing the prevalence of psychological inquiries, and the tendency to examine psychologically the subject of religion.

426 E.g. Some of those in Germany, see Lect. VI and VII.

427 In the Moderator, or controversy between the author of the Grounds, &c. and his reverend opponents, 1727. (Woolston's Works, vol. v.)

428 Woolston, 1669-1733. His works are collected in five volumes, with a life prefixed. His pamphlets on Miracles were refuted by bishops Pierce, 1729, Gibson, and Smabroke, by Lardner, and by Sherlock in the Trial of the Witnesses. On Woolston, see Leland (Let. 8), Lechler (289-311), Henke, vi. 49.

429 Sydney Sussex.

430 A Free Gift to the Clergy, or the Hireling Priests challenged, 1722, (Works, vol. iii.).

431 See Memoir prefixed to his Works, pp. 5 and 22.

432 In Discourse iii.

433 Disc. i. Div. i.

434 Strauss (Leb. Jes. Introd. 6) thinks that his bitterness manifests that he did not.

435 Disc. iv, and Defence, sect. i.

436 Voltaire, OEuvres Crit. vol. xlvii. pp. 346-356.

437 Swift's Poem on his Death, Works, vol. xiv. p. 359.

438 The latest Pastorals of Gibson are not only against Woolston, but other deists also, such as Tindal.

439 His friends would have found money for the fine; but Woolston could not find securities for his good behaviour if released.

440 Matthew Tindal, (1657-1733), a follow of All Souls' college, wrote in 1706 The Rights of the Christian Church asserted, probably suggested by Spinoza's writings, to show that the absolute subjection of the church to the state was the only safeguard for public happiness; and in 1730, Christianity as old as the Creation, which was answered by Conybeare 1732, Leland 1733, and by Waterland. The reply of the latter was attacked by Conyers Middleton. On Tindal, see Lechler, 326-341; Leland, Lett. 9; Henke, vi. 57.

441 Ch. i-vi.

442 Ch. iii.

443 Ch. iv.

444 Ch. v.

445 Ch. vi.

446 Ch. ix-xii.

447 Ch. xiii. p. 258 seq.

448 P. 272 seq.

449 Ch. xiv.

450 See the remarks in Essays and Reviews, 1860, p. 272.

451 Morgan died 1743. His chief work was the Moral Philosopher, 1737, with two volumes more in reply to opponents. It was refuted by Leland, and the controversy was carried forward in Tracts which are described in Leland's Deists, vol. i. Lett. 11 and 12. See also Lechler, 370-390; Henke, vi. 70.

452 Vol. i. p. 86, 96. vol. ii. 1.

453 P. 145 seq.

454 Vol. i.

455 Id. p. 272, &c. ii. 6.

456 Id. 7.

457 Id. 10.

458 T. Chubb (1679-1747), of whom a brief memoir was published 1747. He was the author of various tracts, of which a list is given in Darling's Cyclopaedia Bibliographica, 1852. The account of Chubb's views given in the text is brief, partly because of their similarity to others previously named, and partly because the author has been able to see only very few of Chubb's works. But they are explained in Lechler, p. 343-356, and Leland, ch. 13. Chubb's earlier writings seem to be Socinian, his later deistical. His best known works are, A Discourse concerning Reason, 1731; the True Gospel of Jesus Christ, 1739; and Posthumous Works, 2 vols. 1748.

459 Posthumous Works, i. 287.

460 Id. i. 292.

461 Id. ii. sect. 6.

462 Posthumous Works, ii. 152.

463 Id. 177, &c.

464 Id. i. 22.

465 Another work was published anonymously in 1742, entitled Christianity not founded on Argument, supposed to be written by the younger Dodwell, son of the learned nonjuror. Its aim is to show that Christianity never propagated itself by argument, but that the evidence of it depends upon a personal illumination of each person who believes it. The work was supposed to be a satire on Christianity. If earnest, it marked the truth that emotional causes are intertwined with intellectual in the formation of belief. See Lechler, pp. 411-421; Leland, Lett. xi. The book of Jasher, published in 1751, is a forgery, written probably by some deist (Horne's Introduction, vol. ii. part ii. p. 142. ed. 8).

466 He was imprisoned in the King's Bench, and kept from starvation by money from the benevolent archbishop Secker. He died in 1768. See Lechler, pp. 313-22; Leland, ch. x.

467 Bolingbroke (1678-1751). See Schlosser's History of the Eighteenth Century, vol. i. ch. i. 3 (transl.); Lechler, pp. 396-405; Leland, ch. 22-34.

468 On Pouilly, see Sir C. Lewis, Inquiry into the Credibility of Roman History, vol. i. ch. i. p. 5, note, Pouilly published in 1722 his Dissertation sur l'Incertitude et l'Histoire des quatre premiers siecles de Rome. (See Mem. de l'Academ. des Inscr., vol. ix.) Beaufort followed out the same line of inquiry in 1738. The two writers are considered to have laid the basis of the modern historical criticism of ancient history.

469 They are chiefly, A Letter on one of Tillotson's Sermons in vol. iii. of his works; the Essays, in vols. iii. and iv.; viz. Essay 1 on Human Knowledge, (2) on Philosophy, (3) on the rise of Monotheism, (4) on Authority in Religion; and Fragments in vol. v.

470 Vol. iii. Letter on Tillotson, also Letter to Pouilly.

471 Vol. v. No. 57, 58.

472 Cfr. Remusat's Angleterre au 18e Siecle i. 22, for remarks on Bolingbroke's influence on Pope. The following lines of Pope exactly express Bolingbroke's philosophy:

"The universal Cause Acts not by partial, but by general laws, And makes what happiness we justly call, Subsist not in the good of one, but all." (Ep. iv. 35.)

473 Instances are to be found in Leland, who discusses his opinions at great length. The reader who compares Leland's quotations with Bolingbroke's works will perhaps think that he has pressed their meaning rather far; but further consideration will show that he has correctly expressed Bolingbroke's spirit and purpose.

474 Letter on Tillotson.

475 Ch. iv. 328.

476 Ch. iv. 227, 8.

477 Ch. iv. 405, 272.

478 The history of Apologetik passes through the same phases, and when it devotes itself to the later forms, becomes of less general interest, and is more simply literary; which illustrates the fact that the later doubts are of a much less practical and more recondite character than those hitherto named.

479 Hume (1711-1776). For his philosophy, see Tennemann, Geschichte, xi. 425; Ritter, Christliche Philosophie, viii. b. 7. ch. ii.; Cousin, Histoire de la Philosophie Moderne, Lecon xi.; Morell, History of Philosophy, i. 338; Lord Brougham's Preliminary Discourse to Paley's Natural Theology, p. 248. For his religious opinions, see Leland, Lett. 16-21; Lechler pp. 425-34. His views on miracles were answered by Paley, Bp. John Douglas, Campbell, and Chalmers.

480 Works, vol. iv. Inquiry Concerning the Human Understanding; Essay xi. on Providence and Future Life; Essay x. on Miracles.

481 The miracles connected with the Abbe Paris were defended in La Verite des Miracles de M. Paris, by C. de Montgeron, 1745. See concerning them, C. Butler's Church of France, (Works, v. pp. 135-142); Bp. John Douglas's "Criterion by which the true miracles contained in the New Testament may be distinguished from those of Pagans and Papists;" Tholuck's Vermischte Schriften, i. 183.

482 E.g. by Professor Powell, in Essays and Reviews.

483 This line of thought concerning the necessity of establishing the antecedent probability of the fact, in order that the evidence may be logically convincing, is adopted by two writers of very different opinions, by Mr. Mansel (Essay in the Aids to Faith, 18-23), and Mr. J. S. Mill (Logic, vol. ii. b. iii. ch. 25. 2). The distinction between wonder and miracle is allowed by Dean Lyall (Propaedia Prophetica); and Mr. Penrose (The use of Miracles in proving a Revelation). Cfr. also Doederlin's Instit. Theol. Christ, 9, 10.

484 See Aids to Faith, Mansel's Essay, 22.

485 There follows hence another peculiarity in reference to miracles; viz., that we require an interpreting mind to explain them. This is the reason why so many thoughtful men believe that the outburst of fire when Julian tried to rebuild the Jewish temple, and the wonder of the thorn in the history of Port Royal, were nothing more than natural wonders. If the final cause be considered to have been sufficient in these cases to warrant divine interposition, at least there was no interpreter to explain them, nor any revealed message to be taught. It must be conceded that this trait is wanting in some miracles recorded in scripture, but not in those which are wrought to attest a revelation, those which we use in proof of a special message from the unseen world. Werenfels (Opusc. Theol. 1718, Diss. v.) has given tests for the discrimination of miracles which are quoted by Van Mildert (Boyle Lect. II. p. 584).

486 Cfr. Dean Trench's remarks on the apologetic value of miracles, (Notes on Miracles, Introd. ch. vi). In the same work will be found an excellent and interesting account of the various assaults made on the argument from miracles. He classifies the assaults as follows: (1) the Jewish, (2) the heathen (Celsus, &c.), (3) the pantheistic (Spinoza), (4) the sceptical (Hume), (5) that which regards miracles as such only subjectively (Schleiermacher), (6) the rationalistic (Paulus), (7) the historico-critical (Woolston, Strauss). With Dean Trench's remarks. Compare also Pascal, Pensees, part ii. art. 19. 9; Lyall, Prop. Proph. p. 441; Dr. Arnold's Lectures on Modern History, pp. 133, 137.

487 E.g. Lessing, &c. Reimarus, &c. See Lect. VI.

488 Butler (1692-1752). The Analogy was published in 1736. The reader's attention is invited to the excellent edition of it by bishop Fitzgerald (1st ed. 1849), and the able memoir and criticism which precede. Mr. Bartlett has also written a memoir of Butler. Cfr. also Blunt's Essays, p. 490 seq.

489 For example, some of the physical proofs of immortality in part i. ch. i. are weakened by the discoveries of physiology; and those in favour of the miraculous character of creation, in part ii. ch. ii. would be regarded as of small value by those who hold the hypothesis either of the transmutation of species, or of their occurrence according to a law of natural selection. Some things of a different kind in Butler, which need correction, are pointed out in Fitzgerald's edition. See e.g. p. 184, note.

490 This is the objection taken by Tholuck (Vermischt. Schrift. p. 192, 3.) A somewhat similar objection is quoted by Fitzgerald from Mackintosh, Introd. p. 49, upon both of which he offers criticisms. A kindred objection has been stated (probably by Mr. Martineau) in the National Review, No. 15. Jan. 1859, (pp. 211-214,) and another by Miss S. Hennell in the Sceptical Tendency of Butler's Analogy, 1857, in which she traces doubt in Butler's life as well as teaching. Others may be found stated and examined in bishop Hampden's Philosophical Evidence of Christianity, 1827. (pp. 229-291.)

491 This conjecture is given by Fitzgerald in the life prefixed to his edition of the Analogy (p. 36), where also two passages are quoted, one from Foster, and the other from Berkeley, which certain passages of Butler resemble. It would be interesting to know whether the work of Dr. Peter Browne on Things Divine and Natural conceived of by Analogy, 1733, had come under Butler's notice. Many similar passages, as well as references to the sources of the difficulties which Butler answers, are given in the notes to Fitzgerald's edition. Mr. Pattison also (Essays and Reviews, p. 286) has expressed an opinion that Butler was much assisted by the works of his predecessors. The probability is, that in all great works their authors assimilate an amount of information current in the age, as well as create new material. This was probably the case even in works like Euclid's Geometry and Aristotle's Natural History and Organum.

492 The value of Butler's argument is fully discussed in the admirable work on Butler by bishop Hampden before quoted, which is the best existing commentary on the author: second to it are Chalmers's Natural Religion and Bridgwater Treatise.

493 Hampden's Phil. Evid. (131-228.)

494 The revival in the early part of the century was due to the agency of Wesley and Whitfield outside the church; in the latter to those of such men as Romaine, Newton, and ultimately Simeon, within it.

495 E.g., W. Law's Serious Call, and Christian Perfection.

496 Viz., by means of the Moravians of Herrnhut, whose founder, Zinzendorf, himself sprang from the pietist movement.

497 Zech. iv. 6.

498 The most effective sketch of the intellectual and social state of France in the last century is given in Buckle's History of Civilization, vol. i.; especially in ch. 8, 11, 12, and 14. His narrative only sets forth the dark side of the picture, and the Christian reader frequently feels pained at some of his remarks; but it is generally correct so far as it goes, and the references are copious to the original sources which the author used. I have therefore frequently rested content with quoting this work without indicating further sources. An instructive account of the centralization under Louis XIV is given in Sir J. Stephens's Lectures on the History of France, Lect. 21-23. The reign of Louis XV is treated in De Tocqueville's Histoire Philosophie du Regne de Louis XV. A brief view of the history may be seen in the works of the liberal Roman catholic, C. Butler, vol. v. on Church of France.

499 The passages from Benoit's Histoire de l'Edict de Nantes, vol. v. p. 887 seq., and Quick's Synodicon, i. p. 130 seq., respecting the cruelties of the dragonnades, are quoted at length in Buckle, i. p. 624, note.

500 This occurred in the contest concerning the Gallican liberties, and the dispute about the Bull Unigenitus. Concerning the former see C. Butler's Church of France (Works, vol. v.) p. 34 seq., and Hase's Church History, 424; and, on the latter, Butler ut sup. 188-249, and Hase, 420.

501 The nature of the literature of the reign of Louis XIV, and the alteration of position of authors in the new reign, are explained in Buckle, i. ch. 11 and 12.

502 1715-1723.

503 Literature really became a political power, and exercised a similar influence to that of the modern newspaper press.

504 Professor Webb of Dublin, in his work, The Intellectualism of Locke, has given evidence which establishes this point.

505 On Condillac see Cousin, Cours de la Philosophie Morale, lecon 3; Renouvier, Philosophie Moderne, v. 2. 4 Villemain, Cours de Literature, ii. 20; Morell's History of Philosophy, i. 148 seq.; Lewes' History of Philosophy.

506 It may prevent ambiguity to state that the term materialism, when employed in these lectures, is not used in its modern popular sense of mere animalism, the obedience to the lower side of human nature; but in its technical sense, as the kind of philosophy which so regards spirit to be a property of matter as to produce inferences unfavourable to the belief in immortality or moral obligation.

507 On the scepticism of Montaigne (1532-1592) see Tennemann's Geschichte der Philosophie, ix. 443; Vinet's Essai de Philosophie Morale; Sainte-Beuve Critiques et Portraits Litteraires, vol. iv.; Hallam's History of Literature, ii. 29; Emerson's Representative Men; and R. W. Church in Oxford Essays, 1857.

508 On Charron (1541-1603) see Tennemann, Id. ix. 527. Sainte-Beuve, t. xi.; Hallam, i. 570, ii. 362, 511; and the article in the Biogr. Univ.

509 On Bayle (1647-1706) see Tennemann, xi. 268 seq.; Renouvier, Phil. Mod. iii. 3. 6; Sainte-Beuve, iii. 392.

510 On Fontenelle (1657-1757) see Sainte-Beuve, iii. and the Biogr. Univ. Another writer, Dolet (1509-1546), was also suspected, at an earlier period, not only of scepticism but of atheism. See his Life, by J. Boulmier, 1857.

511 On R. Simon see Lect. III. p. 83.

512 See Lechler's Gesch. des Eng. Deismus, p. 445.

513 On the great eagerness for English literature in France at that time, see the facts collected by Buckle, i. (658-670).

514 A list of those that are said to have been translated is given by Lechler, Id. 446. On the comparison of English and French deism see Henke's Kirchengeschichte, vi. s. 131.

515 1726-1729. Cfr. Villemain, Cours de Litt. i. (168-177). A letter of Fleury, quoted from Schlosser by Lechler (Id. 446), proves that his fears were excited by the influence which English literature was producing.

516 On this charge of attack about 1750 see Buckle, i. 716-718; and on the origin of the attack on the church, and the causes why it preceded that on the state, Id. 684 seq. Cfr. also De Tocqueville's Louis XV, t. ii. ch. 10.

517 Voltaire lived 1694-1778. The Life by Lord Brougham, in Lives of Men of Letters, is not only very full of facts, but contains some very able criticism, especially on the dramatic works of Voltaire. More biographies have been given in this lecture than in others, in accordance with the reasons explained in Lec. I. p. 33, because in this period the infidel influence was the result of the teachers, as much as of the ideas taught. See concerning Voltaire, Henke's Kirchengesch. vi. 166; Schlosser, Hist. of Eighteenth Century, i. 2. 1, iv. 1. Bartholmess, Hist. Crit. des Doctr. Relig. de la Phil. Mod. i. 211 seq.; Bungener's Voltaire.

518 In 1726.

519 Sirven was condemned in 1762, on an unjust suspicion of causing his daughter's death, to prevent her becoming a protestant.

520 La Barre was a youth of seventeen, who, on the suspicion of having injured a crucifix on the bridge of Abbeville, was condemned (1763) to be tortured on the rack, to have his tongue cut out, and to be put to death; which sentence was literally executed. See Biographie Universelle, sub Voltaire, vol. xix. p. 484, and Brougham's Life of him (94-99).

521 The Calas were a family at Toulouse, the father of which was put to death (1762) by catholic fanaticism. Voltaire investigated the facts with care; and, by instituting legal proceedings at Paris, got the sentence of the Toulouse court reversed, and all the reparation that was possible made to the family. Money to defray the expenses was sent to him from all the reformed parts of Europe. The English queen (Charlotte) and the archbishop of Canterbury (Secker) headed the English subscription list. The facts have lately been reinvestigated by the accomplished A. Coquerel fils., Jean Calas et sa Famille, 1858. The narrative is told in the Westminster Review, No. 28, for Oct. 1858. See also Henke's Kirchengeschichte, vi. 298 seq.

On the tomb of Voltaire, now a cenotaph, in the vaults of the Pantheon, is an inscription, "Il defendit Calas, Sirven, De la Barre, et Montbailly." Since the Pantheon has been converted into a church, the side of the tomb which bears this inscription has been concealed by a screen, so that visitors are only permitted to view one of the other sides.

522 Carlyle's Miscellaneous Works, vol. ii. It will be observed that many of the following remarks are abbreviated from this source.

523 Carlyle, Id. p. 113.

524 i.e. the age of Louis XV. See Id. pp. 180-185.

525 On Voltaire's power of ridicule, see Id. 120, 167; and on his power of order, 163 seq.

526 Id. p. 161.

527 Id. p. 119.

528 The question of Voltaire's blasphemy is treated by lord Brougham (Life, p. 7).

529 The four volumes are xxxii-xxxv of the OEuvres Completes, 8vo. 1785. Vol. xxxii contains the philosophical works, of which ch. 2, 6, 7, 9, of the Traite de Metaphysique, relate to religion; also the Profession de Foi des Theistes; the Homelies prononcees a Londres. Vol. xxxiii contains the Examen de Milord Bolingbroke; and the Epitre aux Romains. Vol. xxxiv, La Bible enfin Expliquee, where the notes contain Voltaire's views fully. Vol. xxiv, Histoire de l'Etablissement du Christianisme.

530 On the persecutions which fell on literary men, see Buckle, i. (672-684.)

531 The proof of this assertion is clear in his Traite de Metaphysique, c. 2. (OEuvres, vol. xxxii); in Letter iii of Memmius to Cicero; in the Profess. de Foi des Theistes; and is shown by the fact of his opposition to the Encyclopaedists on the ground of their atheism; which is confirmed by the inscription on his tomb, "Il combattit les athees." It is his blasphemous tone which has, not unnaturally, given rise to the idea of his atheism.

532 "Ecrasez l'infame" are the words, the initials of which, signed at the end of his letters to infidel friends, baffled the French police. Buckle considers them to have been designed against the French church, but offers no proof. It is to be feared that they were rather intended against the Christian religion, if not against the sacred person of our blessed Lord.

533 See his Commentary (OEuvres, vol. xxxiv.), the Homelies (vol. xxxii,), and the Histoire (vol. xxxiv.).

534 On the contrast of his historic tone to that of Bossuet, see Buckle, i. 726, and Schlosser, History of the Eighteenth Century, (English translation), vol. i. ch. iv. 2. p. 273.

535 Compare Carlyle's remarks ut sup. p. 175.

536 Id. 105.

537 On Frederick's entertainment of these French refugees, see Henke, Kirchengesch. vi. 180; Schlosser, vol. i. 2. 3.

538 La Mettrie (1709-1751). His views are seen in the Discours Preliminaire to his Hist. Nat. del ame, and in the L'homme machine (1748). See a criticism on him in Ph. Damiron's Memoires pour servir a l'Histoire de Philosophie au 18e siecle (vol. i. pp. 1-49), reprinted from the Report of the Academie des Sciences; also Henke, vi, 13.

539 De Prades (1720-1782). See Henke, vi. 201; also the article in the Biographie Universelle.

540 D'Argens (1704-1771). See Damiron, Id. ii. 256-376.

541 On the old coteries of Rambouillet, &c., see Hallam's Hist. of Literature, iii. 137.

542 D'Alembert (1717-83). For particulars of his life, see Brougham's memoir in Lives of Men of Letters. For his philosophy, see Damiron, ii. 1-114; Henke, vi. 218; Schlosser, i. 4. 7. His infidelity was known to friends, but not openly avowed.

543 Marmontel (1723-99). See Sainte-Beuve, Portraits, vol. iv.; Schlosser, ii. 2. 1.

544 Grimm, 1723-1807. See Sainte-Beuve, vol. vii. The Correspondance Litt. par le Baron Grimm et Diderot is the great source for the knowledge of his character.

545 St. Lambert (1717-1803). See Damiron, ii. 144-256.

546 Abbe Raynal (1711-96). See Schlosser, ii. 2. 1. Henke, vol. vi. enumerates many more of the same class. Particulars of all are given in the Biographie Universelle.

547 The following refer to places where the tendency and spirit of this whole movement are described, as well as literary information supplied. Henke, vi. 208, &c.; Bartholmess, i. 117-210; Lerminier's Influence de la Phil. du 18e siecle (1833); Morell's Hist. of Phil. i. 158, &c.; Maurice, Mod. Phil. p. 527-59; H. Martin's Hist. de France, vol. xv. and xvi. liv. 96, 99, 100, 101; Renouvier, Mod. Phil. b. v. ch. 2. 6-8; also Kuno Fischer's Bacon, p. 451, and the references above given to Schlosser and to Damiron; Tennemann (Manual, 378, &c.) also gives many literary references.

548 Diderot (1713-84). His life and character have been sketched by Carlyle, (Misc. Works, vol. iv.); also by Damiron, ii. (227-324); St. Beuve, i. 355. Also see Villemain, Tableau de la Litt. au 18e siecle, lec. xix. 20. His novels are the parent of the impure novel of modern times. See Schlosser, i. 4. 5, ii 2. 1.

549 In the Essai sur le Merite et la Vertu, pp. 73, 87, he allows deism, the God of moral order. Similarly in the Pensees Philos. 46, but it is the God of nature. But in the Dialogue with D'Alembert he teaches atheism. On his theological views see Damiron, ii. 261 seq.

550 25, &c.

551 See Carlyle, Misc. Works, iv. 322.

552 Helvetius (1715-1771). See C. Remusat in Rev. des Deux Mondes, Aug. 15, 1858. On the circle of Helvetius see Carlyle ut sup. 287 seq.; and on their atheism Buckle, i. 786 seq. Concerning Helvetius himself see Ritter's Christliche Philos. viii. b. ix. ch. 2; Cousin's Hist. de Phil. Morale, lecon 7; Schlosser, i. 4. 6.

553 Viz., De l'Esprit et de l'Homme (OEuvres compl. 1818, vol. i. and ii.). Both treatises are excellently analysed in the table of contents prefixed to the work. The allusions in the text here may be thought to fail from their brevity in showing that Helvetius's opinions were a logical corollary from his principles; they cannot at least give any notion of the great power of analysis exhibited by him in expressing his own views.

554 In Discourse ii.

555 Id.

556 D'Holbach (1723-89). The Systeme de la Nature bears the name of a Mirabaud, secretary to the Academy. Some have thought it to be written by Robinet, author of a similar work. (His works are discussed in Damiron, ii, 480 seq.) Concerning the work see Villemain, iii. lec. 38; Damiron, i. (93-177); Ritter, Christ. Philos. viii. b. 9. ch. 3; Schlosser, i. 4. 1. On D'Holbach's view of God see Damiron, Id. p. 155, &c.; Buckle, i. 787, note. The Systeme de la Nature is partly analysed and criticised in Brougham's Discourse on Natural Theology, pp. 232-47. It comprised two volumes, and is followed by a volume containing three small treatises relating to the natural principles of morals, and social philosophy. The work was refuted by Bergier (1771).

557 Partie 1ere ch. iii. and iv.

558 Part ii. ch. vii.

559 Part ii. ch. xi.

560 Part i. ch. xiii.

561 Part ii. ch. i.

562 Id. ch. iv. and v.

563 Damiron discuses, in addition to the writers already named, two or three others, viz., Naigeon, Sylv. Marechal, and De la Lande, whose names are not introduced here into the text.

564 On Rousseau see Villemain ii. lecon (23-24); Brougham's life of him in Men of Letters; Bartholmess, i. 233-270; Henke, vi. 232, especially p. 253, which refers to his theology; Schlosser, i. 4. 4, and ii. 2; St. Marc Girardin on the Emile in Rev. des Deux Mondes, Dec. 1854; and an article, too favourably written, but full of information, in the Westminster Review, Oct. 1859, which has been of much use for this lecture.

565 The chief facts of Rousseau's life are these:—Born 1712; came to Paris, 1741; wrote Sur les Sciences et les Arts, 1750; L'inegalite parmi les hommes, 1753; lived in the Paris coteries, 1754-60; wrote Nouvelle Heloise, 1760; Le Contrat Social, 1761, and Emile; an exile in Switzerland 1762, where he wrote Lettres de la Montagne; accompanied Hume to England 1776; wrote his Confessions; returned to the Continent 1767; died 1770.

566 There are some good remarks on this theory in the article in the Westminster Review before quoted, the substance of which is to show that Rousseau's doctrine was false in its method and in its tendencies. It marked the stage of inquiry, indicative of the last part of the last century, when men, ignoring the teaching of history, strove to solve problems by means of abstract speculations; the attempt to study the origin of phenomena instead of the facts of their progressive manifestation. The social contract is nothing but the description of the collective development to which society tends. The scheme was visionary: but, as a protest against unjust monopolies which existed in that age, it woke up a response in society (cfr. Mill on Liberty, p. 47-50); and in its tendency it made Rousseau the precursor of the French revolution; but in typifying that movement it represented only its transient aspect of subversive energy, not its work of political reformation.

567 Emile, b. iv. (See OEuvres, vol. iv. p. 14-119, ed. Paris, 1823, by Musset-Pathay.)

568 Id. p. 17-20.

569 Id. p. 22-30.

570 Emile, p. 33: "Si la matiere mue me montre une volonte, la matiere mue, selon de certaines lois me montre une intelligence. C'est mon second article de foi."

571 P. 34, 36.

572 P. 40-49.

573 P. 50-53.

574 P. 57-75.

575 P. 83-86.

576 P. 75-119.

577 P. 86, &c.

578 P. 86.

579 Emile, pp. 105-107.

580 The comparison of the statements of the Confessions with fragments of Rousseau lately published, shows that many statements which they contain in reference to other persons is false. The statement in the text is made in deference to the opinion latterly stated (e.g. in Heine's Allemagne), that there is a general air of romance pervading the work. If the statements in reference to himself are untrue, the narrative is only a greater proof of the immorality of the author. The supposition however seems groundless. The defender of Rousseau, G. H. Morin (Essai, 1851), does not exculpate his author by impeaching the historical truthfulness of the Confessions.

581 The high moral standard is not of course seen in the Confessions, which show Rousseau to have been the incarnation of selfishness, and much worse than most of the other unbelievers, but is exhibited in the Emile. The fact that the author of the latter work could write the former is a sad example of a man knowing, like the ancient heathens, how to do good and doing it not.

582 Henke (vi. p. 267 seq.) draws out the comparison of Voltaire with Rousseau in an excellent manner. Coleridge (Friend, vol. i. 165-186) has given a comparison of Voltaire with Erasmus, and of Rousseau with Luther.

583 See Villemain, i. 14, 15., ii. 22; Schlosser, i. 2. 2., 4. 3, and ii. 2. 2.

584 See Buckle, i. (772-783).

585 Compare Macaulay's remarks in reference to the Revolution, Essays (ed. 8vo. 1843), ii. 215, &c.

586 For the causes of the revolution compare the statements of Alison, Hist. of Europe, i. ch. ii. and iii., and Buckle, i. (836-850).

587 On the incipient hostility to religion in the National Assembly, see Alison, vol. ii. ch. v. 46, Id. 32-35. On the full development of it in the Convention, see Id. iv. ch. xiv. (45-48).

588 Nov. 9.

589 Concerning this act of Robespierre, see Alison, iv. ch. xv. 23, 24, 27.

590 On the state of religion under the Directory, see Alison, vol. v. ch. xix. 41, and vol. vi, ch. xxiv. 19.

591 See M. Gregoire's Histoire de la Theophilanthropie, forming part of his Histoire des Sectes Relig., and the notice of it in the Quarterly Review, No. 56. Also the references in Alison, vi. ch. xxiv. 19; Stauedlin, Geschichte des Rationalismus und Supernat. 1826, (44-54.)

592 On the state under Napoleon, see Alison, viii. ch. xxxv. 1, and 30-40.

593 April 11, 1802.

594 See Morell, Hist, of Phil. vol. i. ch. iv. 2.

595 Les Ruines ou Meditations sur les Revolutions des Empires (1791.) A similar view of religion is taken in Dupuis, Origine de tous les Cultes, 1795.

596 Ch. ii.

597 Ch. iii.

598 Ch. v.

599 Ch. vii-xii.

600 Ch. xv.

601 Ch. xix.

602 Ch. xx. &c.

603 Ch. xxii. p. 218.

604 P. 226.

605 P. 232.

606 P. 238.

607 P. 255.

608 P. 262.

609 P. 268.

610 P. 274.

611 P. 277.

612 P. 285.

613 P. 286.

614 P. 287.

615 P. 288.

616 Ch. xxiv. p. 320.

617 Such as the idea of the plurality of worlds suggested by Fontenelle.

618 The apologetic literature of this period of the French church is not powerful. See Buckle, i. 692, note; and Alison, i. 2. 62.

619 The influence on Germany will be seen in Lect. VI.

620 In Lect. IV.

621 Gibbon (1737-1794). See Autobiography (Milman's edition 1839), ch. iii. p. 73, &c.

622 Cfr. some remarks (p. 27, 28,) in an instructive paper on Gibbon in the National Review, No. 3, on the relation of his method and style to his age.

623 Milman and Guizot.

624 The first of these is explained by Dr. Milman, Preface to edition of Gibbon, p. 10, and the article in the Quarterly Review, No. 100.

625 Cfr. Mackintosh (Life, i. 244), quoted by Milman in his edition of Gibbon, c. xv. first note.

626 The remarks which follow are partly taken from the above-named article in the National Review (pp. 33-36). Nearly the same thing is said by Miss Hennell in the fifth Baillie Prize Essay on the early Christian anticipation of the end of the world, 1860, a treatise which in other respects is very objectionable.

627 Bp. Watson's Apology for Christianity was a reply to Gibbon, 1776. Dean Milman's notes to chapters xv. and xvi. of Gibbon are an excellent comment and criticism.

628 Byron, Childe Harold, iii. 105-108.

629 Paine (1737-1809), published Rights of Man, 1790; Age of Reason, 1794. See the life by Cheetham, 1809, and Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary. Bp. Watson's Apology for the Bible was a reply to Paine (1796).

630 Anacharsis Clootz.

631 The danger arising from republican clubs is described in Alison, iv. ch. xvi. 6; and in W. Hamilton Reed's Rise and Dissolution of Infidel Societies in the Metropolis, 1800. See also the Report of the Committee of the House of Lords on them, 1801. The works of Godwin on Political Justice, 1793, and of Mary Woolstencraft on the Rights of Women, are generally adduced as illustrations of the prevalence of French political principles at that time in England.

632 Part i. pp. 3-19, and part ii. pp. 8-83.

633 Part i. pp. 3, 4; 21-50; part ii. pp. 83-93.

634 P. 44.

635 Part ii. pp. 10-83.

636 Part i. pp. 37-44. This difficulty, first suggested by Fontenelle, is met in the eloquent Astronomical Discourses (1822) of Chalmers. The controversy has been newly opened by the brilliant essay on the Plurality of Worlds (1853), supposed to be by Dr. Whewell, and pursued by Dr. Brewster (More Worlds than One), Professor Baden Powell (Essays on the Order of Nature), and by Professor H. S. Smith in the Oxford Essays, 1855.

637 Page 20.

638 Part i. pp. 3, 4; p. 50.

639 Robert Owen (1771-1858). About the year 1800 he became known in connexion with schemes of industrial reform at the Lanark mills; and from 1813-19 conducted them as a social experiment to carry out his views. He attempted also to spread his opinions in America. After his return to England, by means of lectures and his work, The New Moral World, he taught them in the manufacturing towns; and they were widely spread about the time of the Chartist movement (1839-41). His opinions may be learned from his Essays on the Formation of Character (1818), which explain his Lanark system; and especially his New Moral World, published about 1839. His religious opinions may be gathered from the Debate on the Evidences and on Society with A. Campbell, 1839. His autobiography was published in 1857, and a review of his philosophy by W. L. Sargeant, 1860. An article also related to him in the Westminster Review for Oct. 1860. See also Morell's History of Philosophy, i. 386 seq. Mr. R. Dale Owen, son of the above, published several deist tracts in America, from about 1840-44.

640 It has been considered unnecessary to name three other unimportant writers, Burgh, Farmer, a writer on the subject of Demoniacs, and Carlisle, who was prosecuted in 1830.

641 Byron (1788-1824). The Vision of Judgment, written in 1821, has been already referred to in Lecture III. as a vehicle for sceptical banter. For a brief comparison between the scepticism of Byron and Shelley, see remarks in the Westminster Review, April 1841, by Mr. G. H. Lewes.

642 Bacon, Nov. Org. Aph. 52, 53.

643 Shelley (1792-1822). The materials are abundant for understanding the character and works of Shelley, in biographies both friendly and hostile. The second edition of the Shelley Memorials, by lady Shelley, 1859, contains an essay on Christianity by him. Several important articles in Reviews have been published in reference to him, among which it is desirable to call attention to the one in the National Review, No. 6, Oct. 1856, which contains a very instructive analysis of his mental and moral character. It has been used in the few remarks which follow.

644 The pamphlet appears to have been an anonymous statement of the weakness of the argument for the existence of deity; negative rather than positive. See the account of the transaction and its results in T. J. Hogg's Life of Shelley, 1858, vol. i. pp. (269-286).

645 E.g. in the Ode to Liberty ( 15 and 16), written in 1820.

646 In the Adonais, 49-51. For Shelley's own cremation and burial, see the Memorials by lady Shelley, p. 201.

647 This is well put in the Review above quoted, (p. 356).

648 The Reviewer thinks that the first stage was in tone like Lucretius, i.e. Epicureanism. The second and third are described here in the text. The Queen Mab (end of the first division) expressed the first stage; the first speech of Ahasuerus in the Hellas is a specimen of the second; and the Adonais (43 and 52) of the third.

649 This contrast however in the evidences, though true in a general way, must not be pressed so as to imply an absolutely defined line of chronological separation between the two classes of evidence.

650 Robert Boyle died in 1692, and founded the lecture by his last will. The lectures commenced in the same year. Bampton's were founded in 1751; but none delivered till 1780. Hulse died in 1790; but the lectures did not commence till 1820. A list of the lectures delivered in each series may be found in Darling's Cyclopaedia Bibliographica.

651 The remarks on evidence in Nos. 73 and 84 of the Tracts for the Times, and the tone assumed by the ultramontane writers of France, are instances of the undervaluing evidences from the former causes. The deist literature of the last century, and the writings of Carlyle in the present, are instances of that which arises from the latter.

652 I.e. they belong essentially to the protestant stand-point in theology.

653 See above, p. 160. The view which Blunt took of the evidences is given in his Essays, p. 133, reprinted from the Quarterly Review, April 1828.

654 The controversy raised by the Tuebingen school refers to the date of books of the New Testament which testify to facts and doctrines. Supposing this primary question settled in favour of our commonly received view, then the further question follows concerning the honesty and opportunity of information of the narrators; and it is here that the arguments of Lyttleton, Lardner, and Paley, in the last century, find their proper place. See below, Lect. VIII.

655 John iv. 37, 38, 36.

656 On Rationalism see Note 21 at the end of this volume.

657 The sources for the knowledge of this period are briefly stated in the Preface to these lectures.

658 See p. 9, 99. Hundeshagen (Der Deutsche Prot. 13) insists on the prime importance of the spiritual element as the moving force in the Reformation.

659 Melancthon and Camerarius, Calvin and Beza, represent the union of learning with theology; the second Scaliger, the Stephenses, Casaubon, and others, are instances of the great lay scholars.

660 The date of the former is 1577; of the latter 1618. These are named as the events from which the theology in the Lutheran and Calvinistic churches respectively became fixed. Buddeus (Isagoge, p. 239) dates it rather from the confession of Ratisbon, 1601. On this dogmatic period see Der Deutsche Prot. 9; Hagenbach's Dogmengesch. 216-18; Amand Saintes' Critical History of Rationalism (transl.) ch. v. and vi; Pusey's Historical Inquiry, part i. pp. (1-52), part ii. ch. viii. and ix. (1830). It was this period which produced the various books of Loci Communes Theologici. The only exception to this scholastic spirit was Calixt. and the school of Helmstadt, which in tone was like the school of Saumur, (Cameron, Amyrauld, and Placaeus,) or like Baxter, the controversies connected with which prove the rule. On it see Schroeckh, Christliche Kirchengeschichte seit der Reformation (1804), viii. 243 seq. On the theologians of this period see Weismann, Introd. in Memorabilia Eccles. Hist. (1718), p. 919 seq.

661 This view of inspiration is stated in Quenstedt's Syst. Theol., and Calov's Syst. Theol. i. 554 seq., about the end of the seventeenth century. Dr. Pusey (part i. 140) refers to passages of Semler's Lebens-Beschreibung illustrative of these opinions in the German church of that period. On the similar controversy which existed in the French protestant church see note above, p. 113. This is only one instance among many of the close analogy which exists in the development of thought between the reformed churches in different lands.

662 These are the chief influences which the German writers enumerate. See Tholuck ii. 2-5, Kahnis, History of German Protest. (transl. 1856) i. 1.

663 On Leibnitz and his system see Tennemann, Geschichte xi. 93 seq.; Ritter's Christliche Phil. viii. 47 seq.; Renouvier, Phil. Mod. (278-90); and especially Maine de Biran's Life of Leibnitz in the Biographie Universelle. Also Morell's History of Philosophy, i. 220, and H. Rogers's Essays (Essay on Leibnitz,) reprinted from the Edinburgh Review, July 1846.

664 On these canons see Sir W. Hamilton's Lectures on Logic, vol. i. lect. vi.; Mansel's Prolegomena, ch. vi.; and Mills's Logic, vol. ii. b. v. ch. iii. 5.

665 Wolff, 1679-1754. Professor of Philosophy at Halle; in 1723 expelled; restored in 1741; Lange and Buddeus were his great opponents (see Hagenbach's Dogmengesch. 274). His philosophy consisted of an attempt to deduce a priori a system of (1) cosmology, (2) psychology, (3) natural theology. The latter relates to God, His attributes in Himself and in creation. See some remarks by Mr. Mansel on his scheme (art. Metaphysic. Encycl. Brit., 8vo. ed. p. 603). On his philosophy see Ritter, Christ. Phil. vii. b. x. ch. i.; Tennemann's Manual, (363-5); Morell, i. 228; Rosenkrantz, Gesch. der Kantischen Schule, b. i. part iii. ch. i. His religious opinions are found in the Theol. Nat. 1736, and Philos. Moralis, 1750, and in his Vernuenftige Gedanken von Gott. 1747 (p. 604). See on them Henke, Kirchengesch. viii. 3; Mangel's Bampton Lectures, note 3. And on the effects of his philosophy, and the state of theology in Germany at the time of its influence, see Tholuck's Vermischte Schriften, ii. 2 and 1.

666 In 1723, in consequence of the petition from the pietist professors, Frederick I, deposed Wolff. See Kahnis (Engl. Transl.) p. 114.

667 In reference to the introduction of Wolff's philosophy, the reference to Tholuck has been already given. See also Schroech's Gesch. viii. 26; Lechler, 448; Amand Saintes' Critical History of Rationalism, i. ch. ix.; Hagenbach's Dogmengesch. 274; Kahnis, p. 110. Kahnis (115) names Baumgarten, Canz, and Toellner, as Wolff's pupils. Mosheim and the Walches were too exclusively literary to be affected by the new philosophy. Canz of Tuebingen was the first to apply the system to doctrinal theology (1728). See Pusey, part i. 116.

668 Locke's philosophy in a distorted form was introduced by the French philosophers who lived at the court of Frederick II.

669 On the introduction of English deism, see Tholuck, 3. A few only of the deist writings were translated, (e.g. Tindal by Schmidt in 1741,) but very many of the replies; which proves how much attention they excited. See the list in Lechler, p. 447. Up to 1760 no fewer than 106 answers had been written to Tindal alone. Kortholt, in his work De Tribus Impostoribus, (viz. Herbert, Hobbes, Spinoza,) 1680, was the first to notice English deism. The appeal to reason in these replies had the same effect as that noticed in the philosophy of Wolff.

670 For Maupertuis see Biographie Universelle. The others have been named in the notes to Lect. V.

671 See Tholuck, 4 and 5. He considers that the French literature, with the exception of Bayle, did not affect the Germans, on account of its shallowness; but doubtless it did so indirectly.

672 This division does not essentially differ from the threefold one adopted by Kahnis, into the illumination period, that of the renovation, and of the church renovating itself.

673 We place the limit at 1810, because it is the date of the foundation of the university of Berlin, which was the home of the reaction.

674 This date marks the spread of the Kantian philosophy, as will be shown below.

675 There were thus three chief phases within the church; the dogmatic at Leipsic, the critical at Goettingen, the pietistic eclecticism of Semler at Halle. If to this we add the pietism which still reigned at Tuebingen, as seen in Pfaff, &c., we have the condition of the four universities which were at that time the chief centres of intellectual activity in Germany.

676 Lessing, along with Nicholai, conducted the Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek from 1765.

677 On the purpose and nature of these institutions, which arose at Dessau about 1774, see Schlosser, i. 5, 3; ii. 3, 2; Kahnis, p. 47. On Basedow (1724-1790), see Rose on Rationalism, p. 66, note (second edition), and Schroech, viii. 52.

678 J. A. Ernesti (1707-1781), was author of Inst. Interpret. Nov. Test. 1761 (translated by bishop Terrot). His chief labours were the editions of several classical authors, among which the most valuable was Cicero. See Schlosser, ii. 187; Kahnis, 120; Pusey, 132; Am. Saintes, part ii. ch. ii. The Rosenmuellers (the father, J. G. Rosenmueller, on the New Testament; the son, E. F. Rosenmueller the antiquarian on the Old,) manifest much the same spirit as Ernesti.

679 Joh. Dav. Michaelis (1716-1791). His chief works were, Gruend-liche Erklaerung des Mosaischen Rechts, and the Einleitung in die Schrift, des Neuen Bundes. The former handled the Hebrew legislation in a free spirit. The latter work was translated by bishop Marsh, and led to the controversy about the composition of the Gospels, to which allusion will be made in the notes of Lecture VII. See Kahnis, p. 121; Henke, viii. part ii. 2. Jerusalem and Spalding manifest the same spirit as Michaelis.

680 Semler (1725-1791), Professor at Halle. His Lebens-beschreibung, published 1781, is the great source for studying his mental development and the history of his times. His works are numerous, consisting chiefly of Commentaries and Ecclesiastical History. He was one of the first to open up the study of the history of doctrine (dogmengeschichte). The works which exhibit his rationalism are chiefly the Frei Untersuchen des Canons, 1711; Versuch einer freiern lehrart, 1777; Introduction to Baumgarten's Dogmatik; Institutiones ad Doctrinam Christianam liberaliter docendam, 1774. His character is discussed at length in Tholuck. 6; Pusey, 138, &c.; Schlosser, ii. 187; Am. Saintes, b. ii. ch. ii. and iii. On the successors of the writers recently named, see Am. Saintes, b. ii, ch. iv.

681 In the work on the Canon named in the last note.

682 See the historic sketch of interpretation given in Planck's Introduction to Sacred Philology, (English translation, 168-186). Interesting information is supplied in Credner's article Interpretation in Kitto's Biblical Encyclopaedia; J. J. Conybeare's Bampton Lecture for 1824 on the Secondary Interpretation of Scripture; Dr. S. Davidson's Sacred Hermeneutics (5-7); and an article in the North British Review for August 1855 on the Alexandrian school.

683 These tendencies must be considered only to express the average. Thus the school of Antioch, of which Theodore of Mopsuestia is a type, leaned to the grammatical mode; (see some remarks on it in Neander's Church History, vol. iv. init. Germ. ed.; vol. iii. fin. Engl. Tr.) In the middle ages the Franciscans showed an inclination to the mystical or allegorical; and the typical system of the Miracle Plays and of the Biblia Pauperum illustrates the allegorical spirit of those times.

684 The allegorical is seen in the school of Cocceius (1603-1669) in the Dutch church. The dogmatic has been alluded to above.

685 The system is called variously, in works of Hermeneutics, συγκατάβασις, condescensio, demissio, obsequium. It is developed in Semler's Prolegomena to some of St. Paul's Epistles; in the Vorbereitung zur Theol. Hermeneutik, 1762; and in the Apparatus ad lib. Nov. Text. interpr. 1767. Tholuck quotes many instances of it in reference to him (ii. 61). Concerning the subject see Planck's Introduction to Sacred Philology, (E. T.) 152-168; Wegscheider, Inst. Theol. 25; Bretschneider, Hist. Dogm. Auslegung des N. T. 1806. A list of foreign works in reference to it is given at the end of the article Accommodation, in Kitto's Biblical Encyclopaedia. For a criticism on it see J. J. Conybeare's Bampton Lecture for 1824. (Lect. VII.)

686 Mark x. 5.

687 E.g. by Kidder in his Testimony of the Messias, 1694; Nicholls, Conference with a Theist, 1733; and by Sykes, in several works from about 1720-40.

688 Dr. Pusey speaks (Inquiry, p. 139, n.) of two works by Semler on Demons, (of which I have seen only the second, 1779,) the first directed against the belief in the occurrence of possessions in the present day; the second to show that some of the Greek words descriptive of such phenomena in the New Testament need not necessarily imply superhuman agency.

689 Because it seemed to involve the notion of dissimulation on the part of the scripture writers, or even of the divine Being.

690 Introd. ad Doctr. Christianam, b. i. See Am. Saintes, p. 107.

691 E.g. The Wolfenbuettel Fragments. See Am. Saintes, p. 86, and Niemeyer's Letzte Aeusserungen ueber religioese Gegenstaende zwei Tage vor seinem Tode, which he quotes.

692 His doctrinal views are seen in the Lebens-beschreibung, part ii. p. 220, &c.

693 Lessing (1729-1781). In 1754 he joined Nicholai and Mendelssohn in literary criticism; in 1757, in the Bibliothek der Schoenen Wissenschaften; and in 1765, in the Allgem. Deutsche Biblioth. An account of his life and literary character may be seen in the Foreign Quarterly Review (No. 50) for 1840, and an able criticism on him by C. Dollfus in the Revue Germanique for 1860 (vol. ix.). Consult also Menzel's Deutsch. Litt. iii. 291, &c.; Metcalfe's work based on Vilmar, p. 400 seq. A separate study of his theological opinions was made by C. Schwartz in 1854, entitled Lessing als Theolog, especially c. iv.; see also Bartholmess, b. ii. ch. ii.

694 Published in 1766.

695 H. S. Reimarus (1694-1768). See Schlosser, ii. 26, &c., and the article Reimarus in the Conversations Lexicon.

696 See Note 29 at the end of this volume.

697 The Fragments are here named according to the order of their original publication; not that in which they are usually printed, as, e.g. in the Berlin edition, 1835.

698 Compare Strauss's description of them in his Leben Jesu, Introd. 5. Lessing's own object in their publication is expressed in the concluding pages of his edition of them.

699 The chief opposition arose from Goeze, a pastor of Hamburg, who attacked Lessing even before the last and most obnoxious fragment was published; but both Semler and Jerusalem also wrote against him. See Boden's Lessing und Goeze, Ein Beitrag zur Lit. und Kirchengesch. des 18 Jahrh. 1862; also the references given at the end of Note 29 (p. 427); especially Hagenbach's Dogmengesch. 275, note.

700 See the note on p. 87.

701 Die Erziehung des menschlichen Geschlechts, lately partially translated into English. It conveyed the thoughts suggested by the perusal of some apologies for religion.

702 The theologians Steinbart and Teller represented a similar spirit.

703 On Edelmann, who died 1767, see Kahnis, p. 126; and on Bahrdt (1741-92), Id. pp. 136-145; and Schlosser, ii. 211. The life of Bahrdt is a sad subject for study. Kahnis (p. 125 seq.) enumerates other deists, some of them earlier than those whom we are now considering, e.g. Knuzen, Dippel (1673-1734).

704 See the reference above, p. 219.

705 The contrast of the English, French, and German periods of illuminism is well drawn out by Kuno Fischer (Bacon, ch. xi. 2, 3, and xiii. 3). I have been unable to discover positively whether the term in its first use meant merely Renaissance (cfr. the Italian term illuminati), or whether it meant the philosophy which makes its appeal to common sense, being connected with the Cartesian principle, wahr ist, was klar ist. The former appears almost certain; but some of the German writers seem to favour the latter. On its nature, see Kahnis, p. 61-63.

706 A very interesting article on Weimar and its celebrities appeared in the Westminster Review for April 1859. The illustration about the court of Ferrara, just below, is taken from it. Mr. G. H. Lewes, in his Life of Goethe, gives incidentally sketches of the intellectual and moral influence of the court of Weimar.

707 Alfonso d'Este reigned from 1505-34. He was the husband of Lucrezia Borgia.

708 i.e. from about 1790 to 1810.

709 Kant's great work, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, appeared in 1781, but was not known out of Koenigsberg until one of his disciples, Schulze in 1784, elucidated it in a separate work. The Jenaische Litertur-Zeitung also favoured it. In 1786 Reinhold became Professor at Jena, and began to teach Kant's system. See Schlosser, vol. ii. p. 182-4.

710 Herder did not adopt the new philosophy of Kant. His theological writings were rather earlier than 1790. They created a love for the literature of young nations, and for the Hebrew religion, in a literary rather than a spiritual point of view. On Herder's religious influence, see Schlosser, ii. 278, &c.; and the article by Hagenbach in Herzog's Real. Encyclop., also Hagenbach's Gesch. des 18 Jahrh. 4 and 5; and Quinet's OEuvres, vol. ii.

711 Kant lived 1724-1804. On his philosophy see Chalybaus, Hist. of Speculative Philosophy (translated 1854); Am. Saintes' Philos. de Kant, 1844; Cousin, Lecons de la Phil. de Kant, 1843. A good account of it also is given in Morell's Hist. of Philosophy, i. 233-63, in R. Vaughan's (sen.) Essays, and in a Lecture by Professor Mansel on the Philosophy of Kant, 1860. See also the references in Tennemann's Manual, 387-94. In reference to its theological effects, see Am. Saintes' Critical History of Rationalism, ii. 5 and 6; Bartholmess, b. V. and vi. The parts of Kant's writings which are of special importance for ascertaining his theological views are, his work Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft, 1793, and his criticism on natural theology in the Kritik der reinen Vernunft, b. ii. div. 3. See Strauss, Leben Jesu, introd. 7. Stauedlin, Ammon, and Tieftrunk, were Kantist theologians.

712 In the Kritik der reinen Vernunft above named, which was so called because he strove to analyse the pure reason, before it is defiled by contact with the world through experience.

713 The categories, the test of the existence of which is necessity and universality.

714 This appears in his Kritik der practischen Vernunft.

715 Illuminism is used as the translation of Aufklaerungs-Zeit.

716 The difference between Wolff and Kant is, that while the former sought a philosophy of religion ontologically, the latter sought it psychologically, by first ascertaining the functions of the mind in reference to religion.

717 Such as Schleiermacher.

718 Paulus, 1761-1851; Professor at Jena, and from 1811 at Heidelberg. Some of his works are named below.

719 K. G. Bretschneider, 1776-1848; General Superintendent at Gotha. A short autobiography was published after his death, which is translated in the Bibliotheca Sacra for 1852-3. His best work is the Handbuch der Dogmatik, 1814, 1838. He was the writer of the Probabilia concerning St. John's Gospel, named in Lect. VII.

720 F. Reinhardt (1753-1812) of Saxony. His supernaturalism was perhaps rather ethical than biblical. (See Kahnis, 187, Am. Saintes, c. viii.) Storr (1746-1805) was Professor at Tuebingen. The belief in the supernatural had never died out. A philosophical supernaturalism was seen in Flatt, Planck, Schroech and a truly biblical kind in Knapp. Along with Reinhardt ought perhaps to be reckoned Morus and Doederlein; at a little earlier period Seiler, and a little later Steudel: on this school see Am. Saintes, ch. iv.

721 i.e. Rationalismus Vulgaris. On Rationalism, see Note 21 (p. 413.) On this particular kind see Kahnis, p. 169. It is distinguished from naturalism chiefly by being connected with the church, and by the opinion that it is the very essence of Christianity. It was represented by Paulus in criticism, Wegscheider in dogma, and Roehr in preaching.

722 As Woolston, Bolingbroke, and Voltaire. Cfr. Strauss, Leb. Jes. Introd. 5.

723 Eichhorn (1752-1827), one of the most learned men of his age. For illustrations see his Einleitung, 435, and cfr. 421. The instances cited in the text, from one of his works which the writer could not consult, are quoted from the British Quarterly Review, No. 26; cfr. also Strauss, Leben Jesu, 6.

724 In his Exeget. Handb. des Neuen Test. The account will be found by referring to the respective narratives. See also his commentary on the miracle of the tribute money, and of the feeding the multitudes. See Kahnis, pp. (171-6). Eichhorn stopped short when he came to apply his principles to the New Testament. L. Bauer (Hebr. Mythol.), Gabler, Vater, Bertholdt, Von Lengerke, and Von Boehlen, though some of them were affected by later influences, belonged in the main to this rationalist critical school.

725 The difference of legend and myth is now well known. "Myth is the creation of a fact out of an idea; legend the seeing an idea in a fact." Strauss, Leb. Jes. Einl. 10. The myth is purely the work of imagination, the legend has a nucleus of fact.

726 Henke, 1752-1809, Professor at Helmstaedt, is said to have been the first who made use of the term "Bibliolatry" in the preface to his Lineamenta Instit. Fidei Christianae. He probably however only brought it into use. (The writer remembers to have seen it occur somewhere earlier, but cannot recall the reference.) He was a church historian of great learning, whose works have been frequently used for reference in Lect. V. Kahnis speaks with great respect (p. 177) of his earnestness. For Henke's position as a church historian see a note in the Preface to these Lectures.

727 Concerning Bretschneider see a preceding note on p. 231. Bretschneider shows in his reply to Mr. Rose, and in his Autobiography, that he was much hurt at being classed with the rationalists. In truth the dogmatic tendency which we are here describing admits, as is shown more fully in Note 21, (p. 413), of a twofold subdivision. (1) "Rationalists" proper, who are pure Socinians, but hardly believe in the supernatural element of revelation: such were Wegscheider and Roehr; also Echermann and C. F. A. Fritsche may be reckoned with the same school (see Kahnis, 177 seq.; Am. Saintes, ch. vii.); and (2) "Rational Supernaturalists," like Bretschneider, Schott of Jena (1780-1835), and Tzchirner of Leipsic (1778-1828), who believed in a supernatural revelation, but held to the supremacy of reason;—a position not very unlike Locke's in the Reasonableness of Christianity. The tone of opinion changed so much in Germany after 1830, that Bretschneider, who in earlier life had been considered to lean towards orthodoxy as opposed to rationalism, appeared in later life, though really standing still, to side with the rationalists against the reaction which took place in favour of supernaturalism. A volume of sermons, translated by Baker in 1829, called The German Pulpit, contains, along with a few sermons of more spiritual tone, many sermons by preachers of this school. See on this school Am. Saintes, ch. viii. Mr. Rose also has collected many facts in reference to this part of the subject; also Stauedlin in his Gesch. des Rat. und Supernat., and P. A. Stapfer (Arch. du Christianisme, 1824), quoted by Rose (second edition).

728 J. F. Roehr (1777-1848), Superintendent at Weimar; noted as a preacher. His Historical Geography of Palestine has been translated.

729 Wegscheider (1771-1848); Professor at Halle. His chief work is Inst. Theol. Chr. Dogmat. 1813.

730 Hundeshagen calls Kant a second Moses, on account of the moral revolution which his teaching effected.

731 i.e. Kant, Jacobi, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel; on whom see Morell, ii. ch. v. 2, and Chalybaues, History of Speculative Philosophy.

732 J. G. Fichte (1762-1814); Professor at Jena; deprived for the supposed atheistic tendency of his philosophy (1799); afterwards Professor at Berlin. His great work is his Wissenschafts-lehre, 1794. He was the author of the celebrated patriotic addresses to the German people. The educational institutions of Pestalozzi were founded on Fichte's philosophy, as Basedow's on Rousseau. See Kalnis, p. 216.

733 Jacobi (1743-1819); President of the academy of sciences at Munich.

734 On Fichte see Chalybaues, ch, vi. and vii.; Tennemann, Manual 400-5; Morell, ii. p. 89-122; Lewes, History of Philosophy; Mansel's art. on Metaphysics in Encycl. Britan. p. 607. On Jacobi see Chalybaues, ch. iii.; Tennemann, 415; Morell, ii. 402; Am. Saintes, part ii. ch. xiii.

735 This atheistic corollary is not deducible from Berkeley's system, and was not designed by Fichte.

736 See Chalybaues, ch. viii.; and Morell, ii. 118.

737 Schelling (1774-1854), Professor at Munich and Berlin. See Chalybaues, ch. ix-xii.; Tennemann, 406-11; Morell, ii. 122-161; Bartholmess, Hist. Crit. des Doctr. Relig. b. ix.

738 1770-1831. See Lect. VII.

739 See some remarks on this point in Mr. Mansel's Lecture on the Philosophy of Kant.

740 Lect. VII.

741 The Romantic school included L. F. Stolberg, the Schlegels, Tieck, Novalis (Hardenberg), Fouque. See Kahnis, p. 202; Morell, ii. 421; Vilmar. (English translation), p. 500 seq.; Carlyle's Essay on Novalis (Misc. Works, vol. ii.); and Bartholmess, ii. b. xi.

742 Herder, 1744-1803. See a previous note. His most interesting works were, the Spirit of Hebrew Poetry (translated 1802), and the Philosophy of History (translated 1800).

743 The influence of the movement extended into the Roman catholic church; and Hermes, Moehler, and Goerres, were affected by it. Hermes (1775-1831) was Professor at Bonn; and, endeavouring to find a philosophy for Romish doctrines, was opposed by his own church. Moehler, 1796-1838, author of the Symbolik, which revived the controversy with Protestantism, and was answered by the most learned Protestant theologians, has been pronounced (by Schaff) to be the ablest Romish theologian since Bellarmine and Bossuet. Goerres (1776-1848), a mystic writer in Bavaria. See Am. Saintes, c. xx.; and on Goerres see Quinet, OEuvr. vi. ch. vii.

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