History of Free Thought in Reference to The Christian Religion
by Adam Storey Farrar
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Secondly, we cannot fail to remark the abundant use of what is now called the philosophical argument for Christianity, the conviction that prejudice must be removed, and antecedent probabilities be suggested, before the hearer could be expected to submit to Christianity. The just inference from this is not that which some would draw, the depreciation of the argument from external evidence, but rather a corroboration of the importance of the emotional element, as an ingredient in the judgment formed on religion. The only practical inference that can be drawn in reference to ourselves is, that if it be true that our age resembles theirs, as has been suggested by Pressense (see Lecture VIII. p. 356), we must adopt the same plan; not because we admit that the external evidence is uncertain or unreal, but because the other kind of evidence is best adapted, from philosophical reasons, to such a state of society as ours.

Several centuries pass before we again meet with works of evidence. In the dark ages, the public mind and thought were nominally Christian; and at least were not sufficiently educated to admit of the generation of doubts which might create a demand for apologetic works. Accordingly we pass over this interval, and proceed at once to the middle ages.

II. The scepticism of the second period of free thought possessed so largely the character of a tendency rather than an attitude of fixed antagonism, that it gave no opportunity for direct works of refutation. But the spirit of apologetic is seen in two respects; in the special refutation of particular points of teaching, as in Bernard's controversy with Abelard, and more especially in the works of the scholastic theology.

This theology, especially as seen in the works of the great realist Aquinas, and of others who took their method from him, was essentially, as has been before said (pp. 11 and 92), a work of defence. In the two centuries before his time we already find the spirit of reverent inquiry working. Anselm's two celebrated works, the Monologium and Proslogium, a kind of soliloquy on the Trinity, and the Cur Deus Homo, or theory of the Atonement, are the work of a mind that was reconsidering its own beliefs, and restating the grounds of the immemorial doctrines of the church. (See J. A. Hasse, Anselm, 1843, 52.) In the following century (viz. the twelfth), the work of Peter Lombard, called the Sententiae, marks an age when inquiry was active; and the material was supplied for its satisfaction by means of searching amid the opinions of the past for the witness of authority. But in the thirteenth century, the grand advance made by Aquinas in his Summa, is no less than the result of the conviction that religion admitted of a philosophy; that theological truth was a science; and so, commencing with the plan of first discussing God; then man; then redemption; then ethics; he created a method, which had been indeed suggested by his predecessors, but was more fully displayed by him, for arranging the truths of theology in a systematic form, in which their reasonableness might appear, and through which they might commend themselves to the judgment of a philosophical age.

The most successful mode of replying to objections is not to refute the error contained in them, but to grasp the truth and build it into a system, where the doubter finds his mind and heart satisfied with the possession of that for which he was craving. If the twelfth century had not had its Abelards, its spirit of inquiry, of analysis, and of doubt; the church would never have had its champion philosopher Aquinas: but if it had not had its Aquinas, the succeeding ages would probably have produced many more Abelards. The scholastic theology accordingly must be regarded as the true rationalism, the true use of reason in defence. Like as the mind goes through the process of perceiving facts, then of classifying and generalizing, next of defining and tracing principles to practical results; so the church, in forming its theology, receives its facts as they were once for all apprehended by inspired men of old, and are corroborated by the experience of the Christian consciousness from age to age: but, after so receiving them, it exercises its office in creating a theology, by classifying and arranging them, and generalizing from them; and when new doubts or objections arise, it recompares its teaching with the faith once delivered to the saints; defines and prescribes the limits of truth and error; and thus absorbs into its own system whatever is true in the newly-presented doubts or objections. This is really the action of the church in moments of peril; and is that which was effected by the scholastic theologians,—Anselm, the two Victors, Aquinas, Bonaventura, and others. It is sufficient to refer to Ritter's Christliche Philosophie, iii. 502 seq.; iv. 257 seq.; Neander's Kirchengeschichte, vol. viii; Stein's Die Apologetic, 7 and 8; Hagenbach's Dogmengesch. 150; and Hase's Church History, 218, 277, 278; for information concerning these writers and their position.

III. At the time of the Renaissance, in the fifteenth century, which was the third period at which the Christian faith was in peril from doubt, we begin to meet with works of evidence of a more directly controversial kind. Defence is no longer a spirit, but a fact. Apologetic theology is severed from Dogmatic.

One work remains, written in the fourteenth century by Petrarch (Opp. de Otio Religiosor), which defends the truth of Christianity against Philosophers, Mahometans, and Jews: partly on the evidence of miracles, but mainly on the internal evidence of the purity and godliness of Christianity. In the early part of the fifteenth century, Raimond de Sebonde, professor of medicine at Barcelona, wrote his Theologia Naturalis, which was afterwards translated into French by Montaigne. It was charged with deism, but really was in spirit, as previously observed (p. 104), only like Locke's Reasonableness of Christianity. See Hallam's History of Literature, i. 138; Ritter's Christliche Philosophie, iv. 658 seq. Another exists by AEneas Sylvius; another by Ficinus, 1450, De Relig. Christiana, in which the evidence of prophecy and miracles is adduced; the arguments from the moral character of the apostles and martyrs, the wonderful spread of Christianity, and the wisdom of the Bible, are used; and a comparison is drawn between Christianity and other creeds.

In the close of the same century, as soon as printing became common, several similar treatises occur. One exists by Alphonso de Spina, Fortalitium Fidei contra Judaeos, &c. 1487; also by Savonarola, Triumphus Crucis, sive de Vera Fide, 1497; also by Pico di Mirandola; and by Ludovicus Vives, De Veritate Christiana, 1551. A carefully written account of all these is given by Stauedlin, in Eichhorn's Geschichte der Literatur, vol. vi. p. 24 seq. See also Fabricius, Delect. Argument, ch. xxx.

The preceding works were mostly directed against the first of the two species of unbelief which belonged to this period, viz. the literary tendency (see Lecture III. p. 93, 94). A few however exist which were directed against the second species, which was connected with the philosophy of Padua. They are not so much general treatises, as works written against particular opinions, of Pomponatius, Bruno, or Vanini. An account of them may be found in the memoirs respectively published concerning these writers; the references to which are given in the notes to Lecture III. (See pp. 101-103.) The work of Mornaeus, De Veritate Religionis Christianae adv. Atheistas, Epicureos, &c. 1580, was probably suggested by this species of philosophy.

IV. The fourth great period, marked by the unbelief connected with the activity of modern speculation and the influence of modern discovery, commenced in the sixteenth century. The works of defence are so numerous that we can only give a brief notice of the principal writers and writings. A list may be collected, down to the respective dates of their publication, from J. A. Fabricius's De Veritate Rel. Christ. c. 30; Pfaff's Hist. Litt. Theol. ii. 2; Buddeus's Isagoge, pp. 856-1237; Walch's Biblioth. Theol. Select. vol. i. ch. v. 5-7: and the principal arguments are summed up in Stapfer's Instit. Theol. Polem. 1744, vol. i. ch. iii. and vol. ii. Tholuck also has written a history of modern apologetic, Ueber Apologetik und ihre Litteratur (Vermischte Schriften, i. pp. 150-376), and the Abbe Migne has published a most important collection of the principal treatises on apologetic in all ages, arranged in chronological order. It is contained in twenty vols. 4to. 1843. The title of the work is given below.(1077)

The work of Grotius, De Veritate Religionis Christianae, is the one which opens the period of evidences which we are now considering; of which a notice may be found in Hallam's History of Literature, ii. 364, and in Tholuck, Verm. Schr. i. 158; but no very definite cause can be pointed out why it was written. It was merely indeed one of the class of treatises already described (Notes 4 and 5), which devoted a portion of space to the controversy with the Jews and Mahometans. It is when a new standpoint had been assumed by scepticism, and the causes, intellectual or moral, which have been pointed out in these lectures, had begun to create a real peril, that writings on the evidences begin to derive a new value and assume a new form.

We shall give an account of them according to countries. THE ENGLISH WORKS OF EVIDENCE.—Those which were called forth in England by Deism were of several kinds. Perhaps they may be arranged under four heads.

The first class consists of specific answers to certain books, published from time to time; of which kind are most of those which are named in the foot-notes to Lecture IV. Waterland's reply to Tindal is a type of this class. Occupied with tracking the opponent from point to point of his work, such replies, though important while the sceptical book is operating for evil, become obsolete along with the war of which they are a part, and henceforth are only valuable in literary history, unless, as in the special instance of Bentley's Phileleutherus Lipsiensis in reply to Collins, they are such marvellous instances of dialectical ability and literary acuteness that they possess a philosophical value as works of power, when their instructiveness has ceased.

A second kind consisted of homilies rather than arguments; sermons to Christian people, warning them against forms of unbelief, and regarding unbelief from a practical point of view rather than a speculative; and discussing, as would appropriately belong to such an object, the moral to the exclusion of the intellectual causes of doubt. Some of Tillotson's sermons are an example of the highest of this kind of works. The value of this class is twofold: in a purely pastoral point of view, the suggestions which they contain concerning the moral causes of doubt being founded on the real facts of the human heart, and on the declarations of scripture, have a lasting value; and in a literary point of view, these works contribute to the knowledge of the state of public feeling of the time. This is seen in this instance. Until about the end of the seventeenth century, there is no clear perception, except among the very highest of this class of writers, of the particular character of the forms of doubt against which their remarks are directed. The general name, Atheism, is used vaguely, to describe every form of unbelief. This fact tells its tale. It witnesses to the consciousness that they lived in an age of restlessness, when change of creed was going on, and doubt was prevalent; but when unbelief had not shaped itself into form, and found as yet few organs of expression. We are reminded of the works before named of the fifteenth century (p. 93 seq. 104.) At that time doubt and restlessness prevailed, as we learn from the frequent references to it; yet the works which transmit the knowledge of it to us are few, and the allusions to it vague: while the works of evidence then written are directed against antiquated forms of it,—Mahometan, Jewish, or philosophical. In like manner, in the seventeenth age, we see, as we look back, that the Christian sermons were mostly directed against older forms of unbelief,—the atheism of the ancients, or of the Paduan school; and that the contemporary unbelief had not become definite enough to enable the Christian writers to apprehend its nature. This fact too explains another circumstance. The preachers evince a bitterness, which is not merely the rudeness common in that age on all subjects, nor the indignation which arises from solicitude for souls, common in all ages on a subject so momentous as salvation; but it is the bitterness of alarm. There is a margin in their expression of vituperation, which is only to be explained by the fact, that the absence of a clear statement of the grounds of doubt, such as was subsequently given in the eighteenth century, deprived the preachers of the means of understanding the alleged excuse for the prevailing doubt. They appear not to be conscious of the causes which could create in the minds of others a restlessness which they did not feel themselves. They seem like persons living in a state of political society, who are conscious of a vast amount of general dissatisfaction, and a suspicion of a plot against society, the authors of which are unknown, as well as the causes of their supposed grievances; and where the danger is necessarily heightened from the very absence of knowledge as to its precise amount.

A third class of the English apologies consists of works which have neither the speciality of the first class, nor the vagueness of the second. They were directed against special writers and particular books; but instead of being adapted as a detailed reply, chapter by chapter, to the special work, the authors of them seized hold of the central errors of the unbeliever, or the central truths by which he was to be refuted. The works of the two Chandlers against Collins, and Leland's work on the deists, rise into this tone at times. Bishop Gibson's later Pastorals against Woolston are a good type of it; and still better, many of the courses of Boyle Lectures; and above all, Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses.

There is a fourth class of works, of a grander type, which resemble the one just named, in discussing subjects rather than books: but differ in that they are not directed against particular books or men, but take the largest and loftiest view of the evidences of Christianity. The first of this class, though a small one, is Locke's Reasonableness of Christianity. The best examples are, Things Divine and Human conceived of by Analogy, by Dr. Peter Browne, 1733; and the Analogy of Bishop Butler, in reference to the Philosophical Evidence of Christianity; with the works of Lardner and Paley in reference to the Historical. Books of this class are elevated above what is local or national, and are in some sense a κτῆμα ἐς ἀεί.

After this description of the different classes of works of evidence, it remains to give a brief notice of a few of the more important writers, especially of the two latter classes, in chronological order.

Omitting the repetition of those books named in the foot-notes of Lect. IV. which were directed against Herbert, Hobbes, and Blount, and which, as already remarked, belonged to the first of the four classes just named, and also the enumeration of the various sermons which belong to the second, we meet with the following writers:—Robert Boyle (1626-1691), an intelligent philosopher and devout Christian, who wrote works to reconcile reason and religion, suggested by the growth of new sciences; and with Ray, who first supplied materials for the argument for natural religion, drawn from final causes, 1691; and Stillingfleet, who investigated religion from the literary side, as the two just named from the scientific. Boyle not only wrote himself on the Evidences, but founded the Boyle Lectures,(1078) a series which was mainly composed of works written by men of real ability, and contains several treatises of value, as works of mind, as well as instruction. Among the series may be named those of Bentley (1692); Kidder, 1694; Bp. Williams, 1695; Gastrell, 1697; Dean Stanhope, 1701; Dr. Clarke, 1704, 5; Derham, 1711; Ibbot, 1713; Gurdon, 1721; Berriman, 1730; Worthington, 1766; Owen, 1769: all of which belong to the third of the classes named above, while one or two approach to the grandeur of the fourth.

Among separate treatises, the popular ones by the Non-juror Charles Leslie ([+]1722), Short Method with the Deists; Jenkins's Reasonableness of Christianity, 1721; Foster's Usefulness and Truth of Christianity, against Tindal; and Bp. Sherlock's Trial of the Witnesses, against Woolston; Lyttelton on St. Paul's Conversion; Conybeare's Defence of Revelation, 1732; Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses; are the best known. A complete list of the respective replies to deist writers may be found under the criticism of each writer, in Leland's Deists, and Lechler's Gesch. des Engl. Deismus. The great work of Bishop Butler, which appeared in 1736, has been sufficiently discussed in Lect. IV. p. 157 seq. It was the recapitulation and condensation of all the arguments that had been previously used; but possessed the largeness of treatment and originality of combination of a mind which had not so much borrowed the thoughts of others as been educated by them. Balguy's works also, though brief, are scarcely inferior. (See his Discourse on Reason and Faith, vol. i. serm. i-vii; vol. ii. serm. ii, iii, iv; vol. iv. serm. ii. and iii.)

We have already pointed out (p. 207), that in the latter half of the century, the historical rather than the moral evidences were developed. The philosophical argument preceded in time, as in logic. First, the religion of nature was proved: at this point the deist halted; the Christian advanced farther. The chasm between it and revealed religion was bridged at first by probability; next by Butler's argument from analogy, put as a dilemma to silence those who objected to revelation, but capable, as shown in Lect. IV. of being used as a direct argument to lead the mind to revelation; thirdly, by the historic method, which asserted that miracles attested a revelation, even without other evidence. The argument in all cases however, whether philosophical or historical, was an appeal to reason; either evidence of probability or of fact; and was in no case an appeal to the authority of the church.

Accordingly, the probability of revelation having been shown, and the attacks on its moral character parried, the question became in a great degree historical, and resolved itself into an examination either of the external evidence arising from early testimonies, which could be gathered, to corroborate the facts, and to vindicate the honesty of the writers, or of the internal critical evidence of undesigned coincidences in their writings. (See Note 48.) The first of these occupied the attention of Lardner (1684-1768). His Credibility was published 1727-57. The Collection of Ancient Jewish and Heathen Testimonies (1764-7.) The second and third branches occupied the attention of Paley; the one in the Evidences, the other in the Horae Paulinae.(1079)

Before the close of the century the real danger from deism had passed, and the natural demand for evidences had therefore in a great degree ceased. Consequently the works which appeared were generally a recapitulation or summary of the whole arguments, often neat and judicious, (as is seen at a later time in Van Mildert's Boyle Lectures, vol. ii. 1805; and in a grander manner in Chalmers's works, vol. i-iv.); or in developments of particular subjects, as in Bishop Watson's replies to Gibbon and to Paine; (See p. 198, 199, note); or in Dean Graves's work on the Pentateuch, 1807.

It is only in recent years that a new phase of unbelief, a species of eclecticism rather than positive unbelief, has arisen in England, which is not the legitimate successor of the old deism, but of the speculative thought of the Continent; and only within recent years that writers on evidences have directed their attention to it. In the line of the Bampton Lectures, for example, which, as one of the classes of annually recurring volumes of evidences, is supposed to keep pace with contemporary forms of doubt, and may therefore be taken as one means of measuring dates in the corresponding history of unbelief; it is not until about 1852 that the writers showed an acquaintance with these forms of doubt derived from foreign literature. The first course(1080) which touched upon them was that of Mr. Riddle, 1852, on the Natural History of Infidelity; and the first especially directed to them was that in 1858 by Dr. Thomson, on the Atoning Work of Christ; since which time only two courses, those of Mr. Mansel, 1858, on The Limits of Religious Thought; and of Mr. Rawlinson, in 1859,(1081) on The Historical Evidences of the Truth of Scripture, have been directed to the subject, the one to the philosophy of religion studied on its psychological side, the other to the historical evidences.

Among isolated works on evidences not forming parts of a general series, it is hard to make a selection without unfairness. We can only cite a few, premising that silence in reference to the rest is not to be considered to be censure, nor to mark the want of a cordial and grateful acknowledgment of the utility of many smaller works of evidences in the present day, dictated by deep love for Christ; whose authors, though omitted in this humble record, have their reward in being instruments of religious usefulness by means of their works, and are doubtless not unnoticed by a merciful Saviour, who looks down with love on all who strive to spread his truth.

The following seem to merit notice. First, the arguments in favour of natural religion, drawn from physical science, stated in the Bridgewater Treatises, analogous to the earlier works of Derham and Paley; the connection of science with revelation, in Cardinal Wiseman's Lectures delivered in Rome, 2d ed. 1842, (which are a little obsolete, but very masterly;) several works by Dr. M'Cosh, Divine Government,—Typical Forms, &c. in which the author takes a large view of the world, and of the province of revealed religion in the scheme of general truth, founded mainly on Butler; also a work of Dr. Buchanan, Modern Atheism, valuable for its literary materials as much as for its argument; and of T. Erskine on the Internal Evidences, 1821. The Bampton Lectures of Mr. Miller in 1817 also deserve to be singled out as a thoughtful and original exhibition of the argument in one branch of the internal evidence; The Divine Authority of Scripture asserted from its adaptation to the real state of human nature; also Mr. Davison's Warburton Lectures on Prophecy, 1825. Among works directed to special subjects, we ought to specify, The Restoration of Belief, by Mr. Isaac Taylor, intended indirectly against speculations such as those of the Tuebingen school; and an able and thoughtful work on the subject of the superhuman character of Christ, The Christ of History, by Mr. Young; also E. Miall's Bases of Belief; with the two Burnett Prize Essays by Thompson and Tullock; and a reply to Mr. Newman's Phases of Faith, viz. The Eclipse of Faith, and Letters of E. H. Greyson, by H. Rogers, constructed however partly on the argument of the dilemma.(1082) The replies written to Essays and Reviews, especially Aids to Faith, ought to be added.

We have reserved for separate mention one work, which ascends to the philosophy of the religious question, Mr. Mansel's Bampton Lectures, 1858, The Limits of Religious Thought, because it is a work which is valuable for its method, even if the reader differs (as the author of these lectures does in some respects) from the philosophical principles maintained, or occasionally even from the results attained.(1083) It is an attempt to reconstruct the argument of Butler from the subjective side. As Butler showed that the difficulties which are in revealed religion are equally applicable to natural; so Mr. Mansel wishes to show that the difficulties which the mind feels in reference to religion are parallel to those which are felt by it in reference to philosophy. Since the time of Kant a subjective tone has passed over philosophy. The phenomena are now studied in the mind, not in nature; in our mode of viewing, not in the object viewed. And hence Butler's argument needed reconstructing on its psychological side. Mr. Mansel has attempted to effect this; and the book must always in this respect have a value, even to the minds of those who are diametrically opposed to its principles and results. Even if the details were wrong, the method would be correct, of studying psychology before ontology; of finding the philosophy of religion, not, as Leibnitz attempted, objectively in a theodicee, but subjectively, by the analysis of the religious faculties; learning the length of the sounding-line before attempting to fathom the ocean.

These remarks must suffice in reference to the history of Evidences in England. We shall now give an account of those which existed in France; which will be still more brief, because the works are considered to be of small general value, at least they have not a general reputation.

2. THE FRENCH WORKS OF EVIDENCE.—In the middle of the seventeenth century we meet with Pascal and Huet; both of them, metaphysically speaking, sceptics, who disbelieved in the possibility of finding truth apart from revelation;(1084) and with whom therefore the object of evidences was to silence doubt rather than to remove it. (On Pascal, see Rogers's Essays, Essay reprinted from the Edinburgh Review, January 1847; and on Huet, an article in the Quarterly Review, No. 194, September 1855, and the reference given p. 19. Also see Houtteville, introduction to La Religion Chretienne prouvee par des Faits, 1722.)

Among the Roman catholics, at the close of the same century, were the following: Le Vassor([]1718); the two Lamy [] 1710 and 15, and Denyse; and in the eighteenth century, Houtteville, whose preface to his own work, an historical view of evidences and attacks to his own time, has been just named; Bonnet; D'Aguesseau, [] 1751; and Bergier [] 1790: and among the Protestants,—Abbadie, [] 1727; and Jacquelot, [] 1708; nearly all of whom are treated of by Tholuck (Verm. Schr. i. p. 28) and Walch (Bibl. Theol. Sel. ch. v. sect. 6). Several more will be found in the Demonstrations Evangeliques; among which are Choiseul du Plessis, Praslin, Polignac, De Bernis, Buffier, Tournemine, and Gerdil; the Lives of several of whom are in the Biographie Universelle.

Though some of these were men whose works were of ordinary respectability, they were by no means a match in greatness for the intellectual giants who prostituted their powers on behalf of unbelief; and on one occasion, when a prize essay had been offered for a work in behalf of Christianity, no work was deemed worthy of it. (Alison, History of Europe, i. 180.) Since the beginning of the present century, however, there has been a change. Whatever may be thought of the line of argument adopted, the skill with which it has been put forward, and the ability of the minds that have given expression to it, is undoubted. Chateaubriand may be considered as the first who, with a full appreciation of the tastes and wants of modern society, tried to show not only the compatibility of Christianity with them, but that the perfection of society was only realized in it. The work of the Christian labourers who had to bring back France to Christianity was hard. It was not the apologist, acting, as in England, from the vantage ground of a powerful church against the Deist, who was making an attack on it; but it was a weak and feeble minority acting against a powerful mass of educated intellect. The apologists were indirectly aided by philosophy. The philosophers did not aim primarily at religious truth, and we have had reason to take exception to many of their views; yet they rekindled in France the elements of natural religion, on which the Christians then proceeded to base revealed. The works of Jules Simon are the highest expression of it. (See Note 44.)

The school of evidences that has existed, has been the church school of De Maistre, already described. (See Note 45, and the references given there.) With somewhat of the spirit of the writers of the fifteenth age, they have directed their efforts to reestablish the catholic church as the condition of re-establishing the Christian religion. To this we have already taken exception, Lecture VII. p. 300; and the remarks there given may suffice in reference to the movement. Yet the literary appreciation of the line of argument used by the older apologists, is perceptible in the large publication of Migne, already named.

The other attempt in France to re-establish Christianity by Protestant apologists, noticed in Lecture VII. p. 304, of which the ablest was Vinet, is rather directed against rationalism than against full unbelief; and aims to turn the flank of the rationalist argument, and, while accepting its premises, deny its conclusions. (On Vinet, see Note 46.) The problem which is now before the apologists is, not to show that Christianity is not imposture, but rather that it is not merely philosophy. (Compare the remarks of Strauss, at the close of his work on Reimarus, alluded to in Note 29. p. 427).

There now only remains the history of Apologetic in Germany.

3. THE GERMAN WORKS OF EVIDENCE.—As early as the end of the seventeenth century, we find the attention of Kortholt directed to Spinoza; and in the early part of the eighteenth we see, in the grand attempt of Leibnitz to find a philosophy of religion; in Haller, 1705-77; in Euler, 1747, (for which see Tholuck, V. Schr. ii. 311-362, together with a list of others there given,) a proof of the attention which the Evidences received. The existence of works like J. A. Fabricius's Delectus Argumentorum, 1725; Reimannus, Historia Atheismi, 1725; Buddeus, De Atheismo, 1737; Stapfer, Inst. Theol. Polem. 1752; as well as the attention shown by the bibliographers, Pfaff, Walch, Fabricius, to the literature of Evidences, is a proof of the same fact.

The replies were still directed against Deism, as in England or France. It is not till later in the century that rationalism appears. When however it arose, writers were not wanting who opposed it. The history of the German theology has been treated so largely in Lectures VI. and VII. that it is only necessary to indicate the steps. The early deistic rationalism of Reimarus and Lessing met its opponents in contemporary writers named in the notes to Lecture VI. The critical rationalism of Eichhorn and Paulus was really answered by the later critics, as was shown when we noticed that criticism gradually abandoned their view, and rescued itself from their extravagant opinions (p. 257 seq.), while the dogmatic rationalism which was connected with it was dispersed by the discussion on the province of the supernatural already described (p. 418). In the present century the aspect of the attack and of the defence has changed. The question had been as to the existence of the supernatural.

In the present the question has been, If the supernatural be admitted, what is the capacity of man to discover it by the light of feeling or reason respectively, without revelation? Therefore, while in the last century it was important to show that the supernatural exists, and that the religion that taught it was not deception; in the present the endeavour has been, to bring men from the supernatural to the biblical, and to make them feel that the Christian religion is not a mere mistake. Thus they have been led from the natural to the supernatural; from the supernatural to the revealed; from the ideal to the historic.(1085) The steps of this process in the present century have been twofold:—the philosophical Christianity of Schleiermacher, and the revival of biblical religion. Neander has been already adduced (p. 364) as the type of the Christian movement which sought to unite the two: wishing to appropriate that which he believed, he strove to present Christianity as the highest form of the religious life; as a life based on a doctrine; the doctrine itself being based on a revealed history. It must suffice thus to have indicated, without tracing into detail, the apologetic literature which has been partly named in the Notes of the lectures, and may be found by consulting the references there given.


In all ages the purpose of Evidences has been conviction; to offer the means of proof either by philosophy or by fact. In arguing with the heathen in the first age, the former plan was adopted; the school of Alexandria trying to lead men to Christianity as the highest philosophy: in the middle ages the same method was adopted under the garb of philosophy, but with the alteration that the philosophy was one of form, not matter. In the later middle ages the appeal was to the Church: in the early contests with the Deists to the authority of reason, and to the Bible reached by means of this process; in the later, to the Bible reached through history and fact: in opposing the French infidelity the appeal was chiefly to authority; in the early German the appeal was the same as in England; in the later German it has been a return in spirit to that of the early fathers, or of the English apologists of the eighteenth century, but based on a deeper philosophy; an appeal to feeling or intuition, and not to reflective reason; and through these ultimately to the Bible.

Note 50. p. 373. On The History Of The Doctrine Of Inspiration.

The subject of the history of inspiration has been named both in Lect. III. and VIII. It may be useful therefore to point out the sources for the study of it.

The history of it is briefly sketched in Hagenbach's Dogmengeschichte, 32, 121, 161, 243, 292. A valuable catena of passages relative to the primitive doctrine of inspiration is given in Mr. Westcott's Introduction to the Gospels, Appendix B. second edition, 1860; and a continuation of the history to more recent periods in Dr. Lee's important work on Inspiration, especially in Appendices C and G; and in Tholuck's Doctrine of Inspiration, translated in the Journal of Sacred Literature, July 1854.

It appears that the theories held respecting inspiration in different ages may be arranged under three classes:

1. The belief in a full inspiration was held from the earliest times, with the few exceptions observable in occasional remarks of Origen, Jerome, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Euthymius Zigabenus (in the twelfth century).

2. Traces after a time begin to appear of a disposition, (α) to admit that the inspiration ought to be regarded as appertaining to the proper material of the revelation, viz. religion; but at the same time to maintain firmly the full inspiration of the religious elements of scripture. This view occurs in the allusions of the writers just named, and existed in the seventeenth century in the Helmstadt school of Calixt in Germany, and the Saumur school of Amyrault, Cameron, and Placaeus, in France; and is stated decidedly by a series of writers in the English church. Some of the latter go so far as to avow, (β) that the value of the religious element in the revelation would not be lessened if errors were admitted in the scientific and miscellaneous matter which accompanies it. This admission increased after the speculations of Spinoza and the pressure of the Deist objections.

3. A third theory was suggested by Maimonides, which was revived by Spinoza, and has been held among many of the rationalists in Germany, and has lately appeared in English literature: this theory is, that the book does not, even in its religious element, differ in kind from other books, but only in degree. It will be observed that a wide chasm separates this view from either of those named under the second head; the only point in common being, that in all alike the writers agree that the nature of inspiration must be learned from experience, and not be determined antecedently by our own notions of optimism, without examining the real contents of revelation. Coleridge would by many be considered to give expression to this third theory in his Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit. Perhaps however he hovered between it and the one previously named; being anxious rather to identify inspiration psychologically with one form of the Νοῦς or "Reason," than theologically to confound the material of revelation with truth acquired by natural means.

It is not the purpose of this note to discuss the true view of inspiration; but merely to state the historic facts. The writer may however be allowed to repeat what has been already implied in the preface, that he dissents entirely from the third of these views. To him there seems evidence for believing that the dogmatic teaching implied on religious subjects in holy scripture is a communication of supernatural truth, miraculously revealed from the world invisible. Cfr. p. 29.

On the subject of inspiration, in addition to the works above named, instruction will be derived from the sources indicated in the Essay on Inspiration in Bp. Watson's Tracts, 1785, vol. iv. pp. 5 and 469; and from Dean Harvey Goodwin's Hulsean Lectures, first course, lectures vii. and viii. The first of the above-named views is stated in Gaussen's work on Theopneustie, and on the Canon; the third in Morell's [Philosophy of Religion], c. iv; and in the first three essays of Scherer's Melanges de Crit. Religieuse.

A list of those theologians who have held the second class of views above named, together with the extracts from their writings, is given by Dr. S. Davidson in his Facts, Statements, &c. concerning vol. ii. of ed. x. of Horne's Introduction, 1857; and Mr. Stephen, in his defence of Dr. R. Williams, 1862, has quoted some of the same passages, and added a few more (Def. pp. 127-160.(1086)) As the reader was referred hither from Lecture III. p. 114. for the proof of the assertion there made, that this theory had been largely held in the last century in England, it seems fair here to add the references. At the same time this list is not given with the view of endorsing the views of these writers, but merely to prove the accuracy of the assertion in the text of Lectures III. and VIII.

Among English divines, those who have asserted the form of the theory named above as No. 2 a, are, Howe (Div. Author. of Scripture, lecture viii. and ix.); Bishop Williams (Boyle Lect. serm. iv. pp. 133, 4); Burnet (Article vi. p. 157. Oxford ed. 1814); Lowth (Vind. of Dir. Auth. and Inspir. of Old and New Testament, p. 45 seq.); Hey (Theol. Lect. i. 90); Watson (Tracts, iv. 446); Bishop Law (Theory of Religion); Tomline (Theology, i. 21); Dr. J. Barrow (Dissertations, 1819, fourth Diss.); Dean Conybeare (Theolog. Lect. p. 186); Bishop Hinds (Inspir. of Script. pp. 151, 2); Bishop Daniel Wilson (lect. xiii. on Evidences, i. 509); Parry (Inq. into Nat. of Insp. of Apost. pp. 26, 27); Bishop Blomfield (Lect. on Acts v. 88-90).

Among those who have gone so far as to hold the form of the theory above given as No. 2 b, are, Baxter (Method. Theol. Chr. part iii. ch. xii. 9. 4.); Tillotson (Works, fol. iii. p. 449. serm. 168); Doddridge (on Inspir.); Warburton (Doctr. of Grace, book i. ch. vii); Bishop Horsley (serm. 39 on Ecc. xii. 7. vol. iii. p. 175); Bishop Randolph (Rem. on Michaelis Introd. pp. 15, 16); Paley (Evidences of Christianity, part iii. ch. ii); Whately (Ess. on Diff. in St. Paul, Ess. i. and ix; Sermons on Festivals, p. 90; Pecul. of Christianity, p. 233); Hampden (Bampton Lect. pp. 301, 2); Thirlwall (Schleiermacher's Luke, Introd. p. 15); Bishop Heber (Bampt. Lect. viii. p. 577); Thomas Scott (Essay on Inspir. p. 3); Dr. Pye Smith (Script. and Geol. 276, 237. third ed.); Dean Alford (Proleg. to Gosp. ed. 1859) vol. i. ch. i. 22.(1087)

It will be observed however, that both these classes of writers are separated by a chasm from those which belong to the third class above named; inasmuch as they hold inspiration to be not only miraculous in origin, but different in kind from even the highest forms of unassisted human intelligence.


The figures refer to the pages, without distinction of text from foot-notes.

Abbe Paris, miracles of, 150.

Abelard; a nominalist, 9; character of, 81; works of, 81; Sic et Non, 82-84; different opinions concerning his scepticism, 84; a Biblical critic, 85.

Accommodation, principle of, 222; used by English divines, 223.

Acts, book of, controversy in Germany concerning, 367.

Ahmed Ibn Zain Elebedin, a Mahometan writer against Christianity, 389.

Alexander Hales (Alesius), a scholastic, 90.

Alexander of Aphrodisias, Pantheism at Padua derived from, 101.

Alexander of Pontus, named by Lucian, 47, 51.

Alexander VII. pope, prohibits Lucian's Peregrinus, 50.

Alexandrian school of Fathers, 59; opinions held concerning the relation of Christianity to other religions, 386.

Allegory, distinguished from myth and parable, 269.

Allen's Modern Judaism, 387.

Alphonso de Spina, treatise against Mahometans, 388.

Amyntor of Toland, 129.

Angelo Mai, edition by, of Fronto, 48; of Porphyry's letter to Marcella, 71.

Annet Paul, a Deist writer, 143.

Anselm, view of the Atonement, 69; works of, 461.

Apollinaris, 455, 456.

Apollonius of Tyana, 47, 62 seq. 408.

Apologetic, office of, 159.

Apologetic Lectures. See Lectures.

Apologies of early fathers, 453; Pressense's mode of classifying, 453; sources for studying, 454, 460; table of, 455; African school of, 457; Alexandrian school of, 457; peculiarity of and inferiority to modern, 460.

Apprehend, how distinguished from comprehend, 369.

Aquinas, his dogmatic position defensive, 9, 462.

Argens. See D'Argens.

Arian tendency in English church, 392.

Ariosto, sceptical jests in, 95.

Aristotle, criticism on Plato by, 42.

Arminius, 392; Arminians, Ib.

Arndt, J. a Pietist, 424.

Arnobius's Apology, 458.

Arnold of Brescia, 85.

Arnold, German church historian, pref. xvii.

Ass, worship of, imputed to Christians, 405.

Association mental, works on, 355.

Astroc, first to distinguish documents in Genesis, 254.

Atheism, causes of in modern times, 358; history of the uses of the term, 413.

Athenagoras, apology of, 456.

Atonement, 335, 360, 366, 369, 386; literary history of, 368.

Aufkluerung-zeit, 227.

Augustin on Porphyry, 62; De Civ. Dei, 459; comparison with Aquinas, 460.

Aurellus, Marcus, views of, 45.

Averroes, influence of, 90; altered tone of Christians towards, ib.; pantheism derived from, 100; threefold influence of, 101.

Avesta Zend, 382.

Bacon, influence of, 10; works respecting, 105; his philosophy of method, 117.

Bahrdt, disciple of Semler, 227.

Balguy, Dr. works on the Christian evidences, 467.

Bampton, John, 207.

Bampton Lectures, 37, 39, 366, 368, 385, 469.

Bangorian Controversy, 125.

Baronius, the church historian, pref. xvi.

Barre. See La Barre.

Bartholmess, le Scept. Theol. 19; Hist. Crit. 25.

Bartollocci, Lexicon, 386.

Basedow, institutions of, 219, 227.

Basle, theology of the university of, 444.

Bauer, Bruno, 275.

Bauer, L. 441.

Baumgarten-Crusius, 41, 442.

Baur, Chr. of Tuebingen, work on Gnosis, 39; on Celsus, 50; on Apollonius, 62; theological position, 278; life and works, 436.

Bautain, abbe, 448.

Bayle, 168.

Bazard, the Simonian, 294.

Beard's Voices of the Church, 273.

Beaufort, critic of Roman history, 144.

Bello, Italian poet, 95.

Bembo, cardinal, 96.

Benedictines on Abelard's Sic et Non, 83.

Bengel, 17, 132.

Bentham, Jeremy, remarks on by J. S. Mill, 310.

Bentley, Phalaris, 132; Phileleutherus Lipsiensis, 464.

Berkeley, Bp. 149, 236.

Berlin, university of, 218, 241, 244.

Bernard, St. contest of with Abelard, 81, 82.

Berry Street Lecture, 466.

Beugnot, Les Juiss, 385.

Bhagavat Gita, 382.

Bible, statement of modern difficulty on, 372.

Biblia Pauperum, 222.

Bibliander, collection of works against Mahometanism, 388.

Bibliolatry, origin of the term, 233.

Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum, 391.

Bibliotheca Sacra, 45, 250, 279, 436, 439, pref. xvii.

Biddle, J. the English unitarian, 392.

Bilderdyk, Dutch poet, 446.

Bini Carlo, Italian poet, 16.

Biographical treatment of doubt, use of, 32 seq.

Biran. See De Biran.

Blackball, against Toland, 129.

Blackwood's Magazine on Renan, 302.

Bleda's Defensio Fidei, 388.

Blount, C. the deist, 64, 123, 124.

Blount, Prof. works of, 369, 466.

Boccaccio, Le Tre Aunella, 89.

Boethius quotes Porphyry on predication, 56, 79.

Bolingbroke, works and opinions, 144 seq.

Bolton, Hulsean Prize Essay, 73, 451.

Bonald, 448.

Boone, Shergold, argument on divine attributes, 26.

Boulmier, Life of Bayle, 168.

Boyle, Robert, 207, 466.

Boyle Lectures, 466; list of several, 467.

Bretschneider, German Theologian, 231, 234, 268.

Bridgewater Treatises, 469.

British Quarterly Review, on Italian Renaissance, 94; on Spinoza, 106; on German theology, 232; on Schleiermacher, 241; on modern German theology, 284; on Comte, 295.

Browne, Dr. Peter, 466.

Brucker on Scholastic philosophy, 77.

Bruno Giordano, 102.

Buchanan on Atheism, 469.

Buckle, on the state of France in the eighteenth century, 164; on office of free thought, 349.

Buddeus, 419.

Buddhism, 46, 383, 385.

Buddhist pilgrims, 382.

Bunsen, Chevalier, 250.

Burgh, reputed a deist, 202.

Burnouf, Eugene on Zend, 381.

Burton, Dr. on Gnostics, 39, 40.

Butler, Bp. relation to Shaftesbury, 131; account of his works, 157 seq.; points in his Analogy weakened, 157; attacks on the Analogy, 158; his originality, 158; his position, 362; Whewell on his Ethics, 369; value of, 451, 466, 467.

Butler, Charles, works of, 110, 164, 165.

Buxtorf, on Hebrew vowel points, 113.

Byron, Vision of Judgment, 95; his scepticism, 203.

Cabanis, 191, 290.

Cabbala, Franck on, 39.

Calas, the family of, 171.

Calderon, 95.

Campanella, 102.

Canon, date when fixed, 58; works on, 58; Toland on, 129.

Cantacuzene, 388.

Canz of Tuebingen, 216.

Capellus, on Hebrew vowel points, 113.

Cappadose, 445.

Cardan, 102.

Carlisle, an unbeliever in the present century, 202.

Carlyle, T. his works and influence, 315 seq.

Carmen Memoriale, 385.

Causes in Christianity for a struggle with free thought, 1, 2; in the nature of man for ditto, 13-32; moral causes of doubt, pref. vii.; 13, 14-18, 348, 464; intellectual of ditto, 30; instances of, 17; why selected for study, pref., 345; peculiarity of analysis of them, 346; of unbelief in old heathens, 71; of ditto in the present age, 358; why the work is written, pref. xii.

Celsus, named, S; character and life, 50, 76; work of analysed, 50 seq.; discussed, 403; Pressense on, 403.

Century, nineteenth, comparison of with third century A.D. 356, 357.

Chaldee letters, when introduced into Judaea, 385.

Chalmers's works, 468.

Chandlers, the, against Collins, 466.

Change of tone in modern doubt, 308.

Channing, 392.

Charron, 168.

Chateaubriand, 291.

Chissuk Emuna, 386.

Christianity not Mysterious, of Toland, 127; ditto as old as Creation, of Tindal, 138.

Christianity, peculiarities in it which are the ground of attack by free thought, 1, 2. See Cause.

Christian Remembrancer, on French preachers, 300.

Christology of Strauss, 433.

Chronicles, Books of, works on, 17.

Chrysostom, compared to Bernard, 460.

Chubb, T. the deist, 142.

Church, see History, English, French.

Classification of German theologians, 439.

Claudius, 243.

Clement, the apology of, 457.

Clementines, the, 47, 400.

Clergy, education of in reference to doubt, 344.

Cocceius, allegorical interpretation of, 222.

Cocquerel, the two, 449.

Colani, 305, 448.

Coleridge, 25, 316; Mill on, 310; his system described, 330 seq.; literature concerning, 331; on inspiration, 474.

Collard, Royer, 447.

Collins, the Deist, on Daniel, 60; views of explained, 133 seq.

Combe, 312.

Communism, French, 292, 294.

Comparative study of religions, see Religion.

Comte, 32; system explained, 295 seq. 312.

Condillac, 148, 167.

Conferences in Paris, history of, 300.

Congregational Lectures, 466.

Consciousness, the Christian, 246, 372.

Constant, Benjamin, Polytheisme, 44, 88; De la Religion, 387, 447.

Convocation, proceedings of against Toland, 128.

Cosmas Indicopleustes, 70.

Costa, see Da Costa.

Coteries in Paris in eighteenth century, 178, 421.

Courcelles, disturbs readings of the Text, 132.

Cousin, 22, 26, 27; on Spinoza, 107; system explained, 296 seq. 396, 447.

Coward, a materialist, 122.

Coward Lecture, 466.

Crescens, attack of on Christianity, 48.

Creuzer, on mythology, 450.

Criticism, two kinds of, pref. ix.; standard for in this work, pref. xi.; science of created by the Germans, 210.

Cyril, work of against Julian, 410, 459.

Da Costa, converted Jew at Amsterdam, 445.

Daille, on Ignatian Epistles, 132.

D'Alembert, 178.

Damascenus, J. 388.

Damiron, pref. xx.; 191.

Daniel, Book of, Porphyry's attack on, 60 seq.; commentators on, ib.; Greek words in, ib.; peculiarities of, ib.; difficulties concerning it stated, 407.

Dante on Averroes, 90.

D'Argens, work on Julian, 65, 177.

Darwin's theory of species, 79.

Daub, German theologian, 265.

D'Aubigne of Geneva, 444.

Davidson, Dr. S. on Job, 5; on Inspiration, 474.

De Biran, 394, 447.

De Bonald, 448.

D'Eckstein, 448.

Deism, in England, 11; division of, 116, 126, 144; name explained, 118; peculiarities of English, 154; introduced into Germany, 214, 216, 217, 338, 415; compared with unitarianism, 328.

De la Monnaie, on the De Tribus Impostoribus, 412.

Deluge, difficulties on, 18.

De Maistre, 19, 300, 447.

Demoniacs, Semler on, 223.

Demonstrations Evangeliques, a collection of works on Evidences, 464.

De Prades, 177.

De Pressense, see Pressense.

Descartes, 10; works on, 106; method of, 117.

De Tracy, 191.

Dewar on German theology, pref. xxiv.

De Wette, 18, 252, 429.

D'Holbach, 181 seq.

Διαλεκτική of Plato, 78.

Diderot, life and works, 179 seq.

Difenbach's Jud. Convert. and Jud. Convers. 386.

Difficulties, chief in the present day, 357, 366 seq.

Disputatio Jechielis, 385.

Dodwell, a deistical pamphlet of, 143.

Dogmatic theology in Germany in seventeenth century, 212.

Dolet, 168.

Doellinger's Judenthum, 42.

Donnellan Lecture, 466.

Dorner's Person Christi, 280; pref.

Dort, synod of, 212.

Doubt, causes of, see Cause, Biographic, Change, Utility.

Douglas, Bp. J. Criterion, 151.

Dragonnades, 165.

Dura, image of, 407.

Ecclesiastes, book of, 5.

Eclectic school in France, 297, 446; new school of, 301.

Ecrasez l'infame, explained, 175.

Edelmann, 227.

Edinburgh Review on Correlation of Force, 354; on mental association, 355.

Education of the clergy at the present time, 344.

Education of the World, Lessing not the real author of, 87.

Eichhorn, rationalism of, 232.

El, in composition of proper names, 431.

Eleatic schools, 84.

Ellis on Divine Things, 470.

Elohim, 255.

Emerson, remarks on, 317.

Encyclopaedists in France, 180.

Enfantin, the St. Simonian, 294.

England, unbelief in, Lect. IV. and V.; modern forms of, Lect. VIII. and 329 seq.; books of, 338.

English church, subdivisions of the history of, 467.

English divines, seven chief, 289.

English, works of Evidences in, 465 seq. works on Inspiration, 475.

Epicureans, opinions of on religion, 42, 43.

Episcopius, 392.

Ernesti, 220.

Erskine's Evidences, 469.

Esprit fort, compared with freethinker, 416.

Essays and Reviews, 330, 336.

Este, Alphonso de, 228.

Ethical school, rise of in England, 146.

Eusebius on Porphyry, 56 seq.; reply to Hierocles, 408, 459, 460.

Euthymius Zigabenus, 388.

Evanson on the Gospels, 422.

Everlasting Gospel, Franciscan book so called, 86 seq.

Evidences, history of, 362; in early church, 453, 455; in the Alexandrian school, 364; alteration in, according to time and place, 41, 460; in the middle age, 461; at the Renaissance, 462; in France in eighteenth century, 194, 207, 470; in Germany, 365, 472; in England, 464; Butler, 157; modern books on, 343, 433; subdivision of history of, 452; two modes of studying, 451; external, 73, 451, 453; why less used in early church, 73, 453; internal, 444; value of in eighteenth century, 370; instances of value, 362, 364; logical force of, 15, 451; opposition to, whence, 208.

Ewald, 252, 258, 430.

Ewing, Greville, on Jews, 387.

Fabricius, J. A. 13; works on Jewish controversy, 386.

Fabricius, J. Consid. Var. Controv. 387.

Fairness necessary in the inquiry, 346.

Farmer on Demons, 202.

Fathers of the fourth century, 460.

Feeling used as a test of truth, 29, 30.

Felix, Pere, 300.

Ferrara, court of, 228.

Feuerbach, 275.

Fichte, 236.

Ficinus, De Rel. Christ. 462.

Fiction modern, pantheistic character of, 318.

Fleury, the historian, pref. xvii.

Fleury, opinion on English literature, 169.

Fontenelle, 168, 193, 201.

Foreign Quarterly Review on Tholuck, 285.

Formula Concordiae, 212.

Formula Consensus, 113.

Foscolo on Romantic epic, 94.

Foster, 467.

Fourier, 293.

Fox, W. J. Religious Ideas, 338.

Foxton, Popular Christianity, 338.

France, state of when infidelity arose in eighteenth century, 164; sources of freethinking in, 178; school at beginning of century, 290; evidences in, 470.

Franck on Cabbala, 89, 382; on Salvador, 299.

Francke, A. H. the Pietist, 424.

Fraser's Magazine, on utilitarianism, 27; on pantheism in the university of Paris, 299; on Renan, 302.

Frederick II, blasphemy concerning three impostors, 88.

Frederick II, of Prussia, 176, 217.

Freethinker explained, 416.

Freethought, critical history of, pref. ix.; three kinds of, pref. v.; law expressing the mode of its operation, 6-11; four epochs of its action, 7-11; office of in history, 348, 352; political character of in middle ages, 76, 91; change in modern forms of it, 307, 352; use of inquiry into, 35 seq. 342; causes which made it turn into unbelief, 13 seq.

French church under Bourbons, 301.

French protestant church. See Protestant.

French revolution, religious aspects of, 188.

Fries, German philosopher, 252.

Fronto's attack on Christianity, 48.

Galen, speaks of Christianity, 401.

Galileo, 350.

Gallican liberties, 165.

Gaussen, writer on Theopneustie, 444, 474.

Geddes, Dr. works of, 422.

Gellius Aulus, remark on Peregrinus, 49.

Genesis, De Wette on, 256.

Genthe, F. W. De Impost. Relig. 412.

Geology, difficulties arising from, 315.

Gerard on evidences, 55, 452.

Gerhardt, German hymn-writer, 424.

Germany; works of evidence in, 472; literature of, 210; patriotism in liberative war, 240; philosophy of, 235 seq.; theology of, subdivision of, 211; three periods in its history, 218; sources of, 439; classification of, 440.

Gfroerer, 436.

Gibbon, works criticised, 196 seq.

Gibson, Bp. Pastorals of against Woolston, 137, 466.

Gildon's Oracles of Reason, 124.

Gnostics 8, 40.

Godwin, Political Justice, 200.

Goerres, German mystical philosopher, 241.

Goettingen, university of, 219.

Goeze, opponent of Reimarus, 226.

Gospels, controversy on explained, 267, 268.

Graffito blasfemo, 405.

Grant, Sir A. on stoics, 45, 351.

Graves, on Pentateuch, 468.

Greece, state of in fifth century B.C. 351.

Greek words in the book of Daniel, 60.

Greg, W. R. Creed of Christendom of, 321.

Gregory IX. pope, remark on Frederick II. 88.

Grimm, baron, 178.

Groen Van Printsterer. See Printsterer.

Groeningen party in Dutch church, 445.

Grote on Greek mythology, 5; on sophists, 42; on state of Greece in fifth century B.C. 351.

Grotius, De Ver. Chr. Relig. 464.

Grove on correlation of force, 354.

Guadagnoli, a writer against Mahometanism, 355.

Guhrauer, on Lessing, 426.

Guizot on Prayer, 395.

Gurlitt on Wolfenbuettel Fragments, 426.

Gustavus Adolphus association, 286.

Gutskow, 276.

Hadrian, mention of Christianity, 401.

Haevernick, 283.

Hagenbach, pref. xxiv.

Hallam, subdivision of historical inquiry by, 379.

Halle, pietistic oppostion to Wolff at, 215; university of, 219, 244; orphan-house at, 424.

Hamilton, sir W. criticism on Cousin, 28, 433.

Hampden, Bp. Philosophical Evidences of Christianity on Butler, 157.

Hardwick, Christ and other Masters, 381, 382.

Harms's Theses, 201.

Hartley, 148.

Haureau on scholasticism, 80.

Heathens, ancient, opposition to Christianity, Lect. II,; religious tendencies among, 42 seq.; reaction in favour of, 44; parallel to the struggle with, 40, 73; few references to Christianity among, 400.

Hebrew monarchy, F. Newman on, 326; people, Ewald's history of, 430.

Hegel, 237, 268; compared with Heraclitus, 433.

Hegelian philosophy, 263; contrasted with that of Schleiermacher, 265.

Hegelian school, subdivided, 266; young school of, 438.

Heine, H. the poet, 16, 276.

Helvetius, works, 181 seq.

Hengstenberg, 283; on Job, 5; on Pentateuch, 254.

Henke, pref. xvii.; 233.

Hennell, S., 198, 322, 323.

Herbart, German philosopher, creator of a realistic tendency, 438.

Herbert of Cherbury, works. 118 seq.

Herder, 228, 239.

Hermes, professor at Bonn, 240.

Hermias, apology of, 457.

Herzog's Real-Encycl. 17, 228, 241.

Hey, professor at Cambridge, 392.

Hierocles. 62; Eusebius's work against, 408.

Hieronymus, see Jerome.

Hieronymus Xavier, see Xavier.

Hilgenfeld, professor at Jena, 436.

Hindu, literature, 382; philosophy, 383.

Historic evidences of Christianity, 147.

Historic method of study in philosophy, 31, 379, 380, 396; the peculiarity of this age, pref. xiii.

History, threefold phase of, 2, 3, 379.

History of church, writers on, pref. xvii.

Hobbes, works, 121 seq.

Holland, sir H. on force, 354.

Holland, modern theology of, 445; remonstrants, 110.

Holsten, Vita Porphyrii, 56.

Holyoake, G. J. 312.

Hoornbeek, Summa Controv. 296, 382, 386, 393.

Hottinger, Historia Orientalis, 386, 389.

Houtteville, pref. xv.; 41, 62, 470.

Huet, 19, 59, 450, 470.

Huetten, Ulric von, 99

Hulse, founder of the Lecture, 207, 466.

Hulsius, 386.

Hume, 148 seq.; Essay on miracles, 150.

Hundeshagen, 10; pref. xxiv.

Hyper-Lutheranism, 284.

Iamblichus, life of Pythagoras by, 64.

Idea, first used in a subjective sense by Descartes, 422.

Idealism, difficulties arising from school of, 312.

Ideology explained, 185, 421.

Ignatian epistle, 49.

Illgen's Zeitschrift, 87; on Reimarus, 426.

Illuminism, name explained, 227.

Imbonati, 386.

Impostoribus, De Tribus, legendary book so called, 89, 412.

Infidel, word discussed, 413.

Infidelity in France, 11; division of, 169; summary of, 193 seq.; in England after the French revolution, 200.

Infinity, different theories on our knowledge of, 108.

Inspiration, psychological analysis of, 29; view of in Germany in the seventeenth century, 113, 212, 333, 337, 373; history of, 473; opinions of English divines concerning, 475; literature of, 475.

Interpretation, history of, 221; Semler's historic method, 221; methods of, 222; Strauss's account of, 271.

Intuition, relation of to religion as a test of truth, 27-29, 394; compared with νοῦς, 331.

Isaac, Rabbin, 385.

Jacobi, German philosopher, 236, 238.

Jehovah, discussion on name, 255, 430; used in composition of Hebrew proper names, 431.

Jena, university of, 228.

Jenkins, writer on evidences, 467.

Jerome, passages of about Porphyry, 58 seq.

Jerusalem, temple of, Julian's attempt to rebuild, 67.

Jerusalem, German theologian, 226.

Jewish controversy against Christianity, 12, 384 seq.

Jews, reformed, 387.

Joachim, author of Everlasting Gospel, 86.

Job, Book of, 5.

John of Parma, author of the preface to Everlasting Gospel, 86.

Jouffroy, French philosopher, 447.

Journal, Kitto's; on inspiration, 473.

Journalism, French, 294.

Jowett, Professor, 62, 330, 382.

Julia Domna, 63.

Julian. S; life of. 64, 65, 72; acts of, 66; book against Christians by, 68, 410; rebuilding of temple by, 67.

Justin Martyr, 354, 384; apologies, 456.

Kahnis, work on German protestantism, pref. xxv.; 218.

Kant, relation of his view to religion, 27; compared with Abelard, 84; spread of his philosophy, 228; spirit of it, 269; theology of, 229 seq.; division of rationalists by, 416.

Keil on Chronicles, 17.

Kidder, Demonstration of Messias, 386.

Kingsley, C. 32, 46, 330.

Kirchenbund, and Kirchentag, 285.

Kirchoff, discoveries on contents of solar atmosphere, 355.

Kitto's Biblical Cyclaepedia, on Job, 5; on Isaiah, 254; on Interpretation, 220; on accommodation, 222; on Daniel, 408.

Klose on Reimarus, 426.

Koerner, the poet, 240.

Koestlin, 436.

Kortholt, De Relig. Mahom., 370; De Tribus Impost. 412, 414; Paganus Obtrectator, 404.

Krebsius on Lucian, 402.

Kuenen, professor at Leyden, 446.

Labarre, 170.

Labbeus, Concilia, 87.

Laotantius, Divin. Instit., 458.

Lake school of poetry, 239, 309.

Lambert, St., 178.

Lamennais, 447.

La Mettrie, 177.

Landscape art of England, 309.

Lardner's works, Lect. II. passim; pref. xix; 466, 468.

Larroque, sceptical works of, 299.

Latitude party in the English church in time of Charles II. 392.

Laurent's works, 76.

Lavator, 243.

Laws of contradiction and sufficient reason, 215.

Lay scholars among reformers, 212.

Lechler, Gesch. des Engl. Deismus, pref. xx.

Leclerc on inspiration, 113.

Lectures apologetic, Boyle, &c. 466.

Lee, Dr. S., tracts on Mahometanism, 390; on German theology, pref.

Lee, Dr. W. on inspiration, 114, 473.

Leibnitz, philosophy of, 214.

Leipsic, school of, 219.

Leland on Deism, pref. xviii.

Leman lake, exiles of, 199.

Le Moyne, Varia Sacra, 389.

Leopardi, Italian poet, 15.

Lerminier, De l' influence, &c. 447.

Leslie, C. Method with Deists, 467.

Lessing, works, 238, 426; authorship of his Education of the World, 87.

Libre pensee, pref. v.; 416.

Limborch, Amica Collatio, 386, 392.

Lime Street Lecture, 466.

Lindsay, lord, Scepticism a retrogression, pref. xvi.

Lippman, Rabbin, 385.

Literature in France, new tone of in eighteenth century, 166; Fleury's opinion of, 169.

Lobeck on Mythology, 450.

Locke, 125, 148; Webb on, 167.

Logic, Metaphysics, &c. distinguished, 77; method of, taught by physical science, 98.

Logical and chronological priority distinguished, 372.

Λόγος of Philo, 332.

Lombard, Peter, 461.

Louis XIV. 166.

Lucian, a sceptic, 43; Peregr. Prot., 48 seq. 402, 403; life, 48; Philopatris, 67, 409.

Lucretius, 43.

Lutheran reaction. See Neo and Hyper Lutheranism.

Lyall, Propaed. Prophet., 152.

Lyons, Infallibility of Human Judgment, 135.

Lyttleton, on St. Paul, 209, 368, 467.

Mabillon's Bernard, 82.

Macaulay, subdivision of history, 379.

Mackay, R. W. works of, 319 seq.

Macmillan's Magazine on Cowper, &c. 23; on Miracle Plays, 95.

Maerklin, 34.

Magdeburg Centuries, pref. xvii.

Mahabharata, 383.

Mahomet. 390.

Mahometans, controversy with, 12, 387, 390.

Maimonides, 107.

Maine de Biran, Eclectic philosopher, 394, 447.

Mandeville, 135.

Mansel, Bampton Lect. 470; on Kant, 229; on Fichte, 433.

Maracci, Koran, 389.

Marchand's Dictionnaire de Impostoribus, 412

Maret, 299.

Marheinecke, Hegelian theologian, 265.

Marmontel, 178.

Martineau, J. 321, 338, 392; on Butler, 157.

Martyn, II. pamphlets on Mahometanism, 390.

Masson, Essays, 33.

Materialism defined, 166; in Germany, 438.

Maternus, 456.

Maupertnis, 217.

Maurice's Boyle Lectures, 330, 381.

M'Caul's works on Judaism, 387.

M'Cosh, works, 27, 469.

M'Gill on the Chaldee of Daniel, 60.

Mediation school of theology, 241, 279.

Mendelssohn the philosopher, 225.

Metaphysics, 24; tests of truth in, 25 seq.; subdivision of, 394.

Mettrie, La, 177.

Miall, E. Bases of Belief, 469.

Michaelis, 220.

Michael Scot, 90.

Micraelios, 386.

Middleton, Conyers, 423.

Migne, Livres Sacres, 383; Demonstrations Evangeliques, 464.

Mill, Dr. on Strauss, 273.

Mill, J. S. on variation of terms, 11; on laws, 32, 311, 380; on utility, 27; on society, 32; on Bentham and Coleridge, 309.

Miller's Bampton Lectures, 366, 468.

Mills, various readings, 132.

Milman on Gibbon, 196.

Milton, compared with Pope and Tennyson, 22.

Minucius Felix, apology, 44, 457.

Miracle Plays, 95.

Miracles, Hume on, 151 seq.; how distinguished from wonder, 152; Trench's classification of attacks on, 154.

Miscreant, name explained, 44.

Missions in Germany, 285.

Modern English theology, tendencies in, 329 seq.

Moehter, 240, 250.

Monnaie, de La, 412.

Montaigne, 167.

Montesquieu, 168.

Montgeron on the miracles of Abbe Paris, 150.

Moral causes of doubt. See Cause.

Moral sense, 364, 369.

Moravians, 161, 285.

Morell's works on tests of truth, 19, 22, 25; on inspiration, 29.

Morgan's works, 140 seq.

Morinus on Hebrew vowel points, 113.

Mornaeus, De Ver. 386, 403.

Mosheim on Everlasting Gospel, 86.

Moyer, lady, lecture on Arianism, 466.

Mueller, Julius, 250.

Mueller, Max, on myths, 270, 450; on Sanskrit 383.

Mueller, Ottfried, on mythology, 450.

Mundt, 276.

Mysticism, instances of, 20, 30.

Myth, distinguished from parable and legend, 233, 269, 270.

Mythology, Grote on, 5; altered opinion on in present century, 320, 450.

Names proper, in Hebrew, 255, 431.

National Review on Ecclesiastes, 5; on Swedenborg, 30; on Gibbon, 196; on Shelley, 204; on Strauss, 273; on J. H. Newman, 310; on the working classes, 313; on Theodore Parker, 324; on the Acts, 367.

Natural history of doubt, peculiarity of inquiry, 346, 347.

Naturalism, term explained, 415; compared with positivism, 339.

Neander, Lect. II. passim; life and views. 250, 251, 364; opposed prohibition of Strauss's book, 272.

Neo-Lutheranism, 283.

Neo-Platonism, explained, 46; works on, 399; teachers of, 399; in English theology 332.

Nettement's works on French literary history, 290, 446.

New Testament, questions on, 367.

Newman, F. 17, 34; works, 323, 326 seq; Phases 327; Hebr. Mon. 327.

Nicholai, 219, 224.

Nicholas, Michel, 254, 430, 448.

Niedner's Zeitschrift, on Reimarus, 426.

Nitzch, 250.

Nizzachon, the two, 385.

Nominalism, 9, 81.

North British Review, on Alexandrian school, 221; on socialism, 276, 292, 294; on German theology, 284; on Comte, 205; on Galileo, 350; on S. Hennell, 323; on Vedas, 383; on Socinianism, 392; on Vinet, 444; on apologetic literature, 464.

Norton on Gospels, 40.

Novalis, 239.

Novel, modern, tendency of, 318.

Oberlin, 243.

Ochino, a unitarian, 99.

Ogilvie, Dr. on doubt, 13.

Olshausen, H. 250.

Ontology explained, 25.

Oracles of Reason of Blount, 124.

Oracles on Christianity, 57.

Orcagna, Averroes in his fresco, 90.

Origen against Celsus, 50, 51, 404, 457; comparison of with Schleiermacher, 285, 460.

Osiander, comparison of his views with Schleiermacher's, 247.

Oxford movement in church, 424. See Reaction.

Owen, R. 201 seq. 307.

Owen, R. D. 202.

Padua, university of, philosophy at, 100.

Paine. T. 149 seq.

Painting, early Italian schools of, 96.

Paley, 466.

Panizzi on Romantic Epic, 94.

Pantheism at Padua, 100; two kinds of, 101, 109; name explained, 414.

Paolo Giovio, 96.

Para du Phanjas, 464.

Parable, distinguished from myth, 269.

Paris, abbe, miracles of, 150.

Parker, Theodore, life and writings of, 323, 324.

Pascal, 470.

Patriotism in Germany, 240.

Paulus, German theologian, 232 seq.

Pearson on infidelity, 13, 311.

Pecock, Reginald, 98.

Pentateuch controversy, 254 seq.

Peregrinus Proteus of Lucian, 49 seq. 402.

Persecution, cause of, 404 seq.

Pestalozzi, 383.

Peter, St. joke on in Romantic Epic, 94.

Petrarch on Evidences, 462.

Pfaff, 419.

Phases of Faith, of F. W. Newman, 327.

Philippsohn on Judaism, 387.

Philopatris of Pseudo-Lucian, 67, 409.

Philosophy, scholastic, 78 seq.; German, 235 seq. 438.

Philostratus's Life of Apollouius, 63 seq.

Physics, difficulties derived from, 350; teaches logical method, 98.

Physiology, modern discoveries in. 355; mode of approaching psychology through, 438.

Piers Plowman, the poem, on contemporary scepticism, 90.

Pietism, 213, 424.

Planck, A. on Lucian, 50, 402.

Planck's Sacred Philology, 221.

Plato on Sophists, 42; doctrines on religion, 45; Platonic dialectic, 78; Platonic party at Cambridge in the seventeenth century, 124, 392.

Plurality of worlds, 201.

Poetry in Germany, schools of, 425.

Pomponatius, 101.

Pope, compared with Milton and Tennyson, 22; influence of Bolingbroke on, 145.

Porphyry, life and character, 56 seq. 71; references for studying, 56; view of oracles, 57; work against Christians, 57 seq.; attack on Daniel, 60 seq.; other views of, 61, 62; on predication, 57; letter to Marcella, 71.

Port Royal, miracle of the thorn, 153.

Positivism, described, 296; in England, 311; religion of, 312; compared with Naturalism, 339.

Pouilly, critic on Roman history, 144.

Powell, Baden, on Deluge, 17.

Prayer, extract from Guizot on, 395.

Prejudices of heathens against Christianity, 405.

Presentative consciousness, 394.

Press, freedom of in England, 123.

Pressense, pref. xix., 42, 356, 404, 448, 449, 451, 453.

Priestly, 392.

Printsterer, Groen van, 445.

Progress in religion, 87.

Protestant church in France, freethought in, 304, 448.

Protestantism distinguished from scepticism, pref. vi.; 9, 99.

Providence, Holyoake on, 313.

Psalms: the seventy-third named, 5, 19; the division of into books, 256.

Pseudo-Clementines, 400.

Pseudo-Lucian, Philopatris, 409.

Psychology explained, 24; Morrell on, 395.

Pugio Fidei, 385.

Pulci, 95.

Pusey on German theology, pref. xxi.; on inspiration, 475.

Quakers, 29.

Quarterly Review, on Leopardi, 16; on Romantic Epic, 94; on Theophilanthropists, 190; on Fourier, 292.

Quinet, E. on comparison of religions, 5, 381; on Strauss, 273.

Racovian Catechism, 391.

Ramayana, 382.

Rambouillet, 178.

Ramus, P. 102.

Rationalism in Germany, 11, 231, 234; subdivided, 218, 417; compared with Deism, 321; explained, 416 seq.; literary dispute on, 418; in English church, 329, 340.

Ratisbon, confession of, 212.

Ray, 466.

Raymond, Martin, 386.

Raynal, 178.

Reaction among heathens, 44; Catholic in France, 300, 448; in Italy, 103; in Oxford, 285, 310.

Readings, variety of in sacred texts, 182.

Realism explained, 9, 79 seq.

Rees, translation of Racovian Catechism, 391.

Reformation, twofold element in, 211; not sceptical, 9, 99: pref. vi.; 211; in Italy, 99.

Reformed Jews, 387.

Reimannus, 7.

Reimarus, 225, 426.

Reinhardt, 231.

Reinhold, 228.

Religion, comparative study of, 4, 380; Greek, 5; eastern, 4.

Remonstrants in Dutch church, 110, 445.

Renaissance, 92 seq.; literature at, 96; unchristian sympathy at, 96; evidences at, 462.

Renan, E. 5, 31, 302 seq.; 397; Averroes, 89; Lect. III. passim.

Renand, 299.

Repressor. See Pecock.

Responsibility for belief, 18.

Reuss, 448.

Reville, 446, 448.

Revolution, French, 188; profanity of, 189.

Revue des Deux Mondes; Taillandier on Abelard, 81; Saisset on Spinoza, 106; Remusat on Herbert, 119; Girardin on Rousseau's Emile, 188; Scherer on Hegel, 266, 398; Reville on Parker, 324; on Comte, 296; Moleschott, 438; Young Hegelians, 438; Reville on Holland, 446; Renan on metaphysics, 303.

Revue Germanique, on Lessing, 224; on Gospels, 267.

Richardi Confutatio, 388.

Riddle's Bampton Lectures, pref. xv.; 468.

Rigg, J. H. Anglican theology, 330.

Riggenbach, 445.

Robespierre, 190.

Robins, S. pref. xvi.

Rogers, H. 374, 469.

Roehr, 234.

Romaine, 160.

Roman catholic theology in Germany, 442.

Romantic Epic, 94 seq.; school in Germany, 239, 291.

Roscelin on Trinity, 80.

Rose, H. J. on German theology, pref. xxi.

Rosenmueller, 220.

Rothe, German theologian, 279, 281, 436.

Rousseau, sources for study of, 183; life, 183; works, 184 seq.; Contral social, 184; Emile, 185; Confessions, 187; compared with Voltaire, 188.

Ruge, 275.

Saintes-Amand, pref. xxiv.

Saisset, E. on Spinoza. 108.

Salomo Zebi. 386.

Salvador, 299, 387.

Sanskrit literature, 382.

Saumur, school of, 212.

Saussure, Ch. de la, 446.

Scepticism explained, 418 seq.; kinds of, 419.

Schelling, 27, 46, 238, 433.

Scherer, 31, 397, 448, 474.

Schlegel, F. 239.

Schleiermacher, 242 seq.; critical works of, 248; translates Plato, 242; theological works of, 244, 428 seq.; Glaubenslehre, 245; his studies, 428; compared with Origen and H. St. Victor, 244; and with Plato, 427.

Schmidt, G. 276.

Schneckenbuerger, 436.

Scholastic, philosophy, 77 seq.; origin of name, 77; divisions of, 81; value of scholastic theology, 462.

Scholtens J. H. professor at Leyden, 446.

Schools of German poetry, 425.

Schopenhauer, 438.

Schramm, Anal. Patr. 41, 454.

Schrockh, pref. xvii.

Scholtens, 446.

Schulze, 228.

Schwarz, C. Gesch. pref. xxv.

Schwegler, 436.

Schweizer, 439, 444.

Science, anticipations of the future condition of, 354 seq.

Science in theology, 385.

Scriptures, doubts of, 361.

Sebonde on natural religion, 104, 462.

Secker, Abp. relieves Annet, 144; subscribes to Voltaire, 171.

Secularism, explained, 312, 313.

Semler, works and system, 218 seq.

Sensation, as a test of truth, 25.

Sensationalisim, meaning of, 25.

Servetus, 99.

Severus, Sept. 63.

Shaftesbury, Lord, 130 seq.

Shelley, 16; 203 seq.; works, 206.

Sherlock, 467.

Sic et Non, 82.

Silence of heathens on Christianity, 402 seq.

Simeon of Cambridge, 160.

Simon, Jules, 471.

Simon, Richard, 83, 168.

Sirven, 170.

Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, on Ecclesiastes, 5; Canon, 58; Genesis, 257; Daniel, 408; Jehovah, 480.

Socialism, English, 201; French, 292; in 1848, 294; compared with English, 294.

Socinianism, 12, 99, 391.

Socrates, 84, 351.

Σοφία, of Aristotle, 78.

Sophists of Greece, 351.

Sources of information for the attacks of heathens, 41.

Sources for lectures, pref.

Spener, the Pietist, 213, 424.

Spinoza, 60; sources of information on, 106; philosophy of, 107; Theologicus Politicus, 110; effects of 113.

Stahl, 283.

Stanhope's Boyle Lectures, 386.

Statistics, difficulties from, 314.

Stattler, 464.

Stephen, list of writers on inspiration, 474.

Sterling, 34.

Stilling, Jung, 243, 285.

Stillingfleet, 466.

Stirner, 276.

St. Lambert. See Lambert.

Stoics, religious opinions of, 45.

Storr, 231.

Strauss, 34; on Julian, 66; life and writings, 267, 434; life of Christ, 266, 271; Christology, 269, 433; view of Christ's ideal, 356; replies to, 273, 435; effects of, 272 seq.; view of his own work, 273; on Reimarus, 427.

St. Simon, life and sect, 293, 294.

Subjective character of modern unbelief, 308.

Συγκατάβασις, 222.

Suetonius on Christianity, 401.

Supernatural, tendency of labour to depress the sense of, 314

Swedenborg, 29.

Swift, on Woolston, 137.

Switzerland, modern theology of, 444.

Symmachus, 69.

Tacitus on Christianity, 401.

Taillandier on Abelard, 81, 83.

Taine on Livy, 302, 379.

Tatian, 48, 456.

Taylor, A. on Latitudinarians, 128.

Taylor, I. 469.

Technical. See Terms.

Telesius, 102.

Templars, unbelief of, 89.

Tendencies, religious, among ancient heathens, 40 seq.

Tennyson, compared with Pope and Milton, 23; quoted, 260.

Terms, technical, 413; literature of, 419.

Tertullian's Apology, 457.

Tests of truth, effects of various theories of, 25-30.

Thaer, author of Lessing's Education of the World, 87.

Theodore of Mopsuestia, 221.

Theodosius II. destroyer of heathen works against Christianity, 41.

Theologians, German; classification of, 440 seq. See Modern English.

Theophilanthropists, 190.

Theophilus, apologist, 457.

Tholuck, 249; on evidences, 464: pref. xxiii.; on inspiration, 473; attack on Butler's Analogy, 157.

Thomson's, Bp. Bampton Lectures, 368, 385, 469. See Atonement.

Tillemont, pref. xvii.

Tindal, M. works, 139 seq.; suggestive of Butler's Analogy, 157.

Toland, works, 127 seq.

Toldos Jeschu, 385.

Toleration, works on, and principle of, 118, 406.

Treason, charge of against early Christians, 406.

Trench's Calderon, 95.

Truth, see Tests.

Tuebingen school, 209, 274, 277, 367; university of, 219.

Tullocks Inaugural Address, 339; Burnett prize, 469.

Turpin, Abp. joke on in Romantic Epic, 95.

Twelfth century, great minds in, 86.

Twesten, 250.

Tzehirner's Essay, 400; Apologetik, pref. xix.

Ullmann, 250.

Unbelief, see Cause, Subjective.

Uniformities of Causation and Co-existence, 79.

Unigenitus Bull, 165.

Union of German churches, 282.

Unitarianism, history of, and works on, 392 seq.

Universities, German, 219, 223; that of Paris attacked for Pantheism, 299.

Utility of the inquiry into doubt, pref. xii, 342 seq.

Van den Ende, 106.

Vanim, 103

Van Mildert, pref. vi, xv.; on moral causes of doubt, 13, 345.

Vaughan, R. A. on mystics, 30; essays, 59.

Vedas, 382.

Vendidad Sade, 381.

Vilmar, classification of German poetry, 425.

Vinet, 444, 448.

Vituperation in books of evidence of seventeenth century, 465.

Volney, Les Ruines, 191 seq.; 290.

Voltaire, on Woolston, 137; life of, 170; character of, 171 seq.; Carlyle on, 171; theological works of, 174; opinions of, 175; ridicule, 172.

Vowel points in Hebrew, controversy on, 113.

Wagenseil, Tela Ignea Satanoe, 385.

Walch, 419, 460.

Walton's Polyglott, various readings in, 132.

Warburton, Divine Legation, 466, 467.

Waterland, reply to Tindal, 188, 464.

Watson, Bp. 198, 464.

Webb on Locke, 168.

Wegscheider, 234.

Weimar, court of, 228.

Welcker on mythology, 450.

Werenfels, tests for miracles, 153.

Wesley, 161, 392.

Westcott on canon, 53; on Daniel, 408; on Inspiration, 472.

Westminster Review: on Job, 5; Heine, 16; Rousseau, 183; German theology, 8; Byron and Shelley, 208; Owen, 202; Weimar, 228; Vedas, 383; Bentham, 309; Positivism, 312; Carlyle, 315; Emerson, 317; S. Hennell, 323; Parker and Strauss, 324; F. Newman, 327; Socialism, 438; Taine, 302; Schopenbauer, 432.

Whately's Rhetoric, 14.

Whewell, 28, 79, 369.

White, Blanco, 34.

Whitfield, 160.

Wichern's Inner Mission, 285.

Will distinct from Emotion, 394.

Wiseman, Cardinal, Lectures, 469.

Wolfenbuettel Fragments, 225, 426 seq.

Wolf, J. A. on Homer, 253.

Wolff's Bibliotheca Hebraica, 386.

Wollf, philosophy of, 214 seq.; life of, 215, 216; sources for studying, 215; effects of, 216.

Woodham, 78, 454.

Woolstencraft, 200.

Woolston, 136 seq. 420.

Wordsworth quoted, 115; 309.

Wulferus, 386.

Xavier, Hieronimo, a writer against the Mahometans, 296.

Yacna, 387.

Young's Christ of History, 469.

Zeitstimmen, &c., 436.

Zeller, 436, 444.

Zend Literature, 381.

Zeno of Elea, 84.

Zinzendorf, 101.

Zoroaster, 381.

Zurich, university of, 444.


1 Pref. pp. v.-ix.

2 Id. pp. x, xi.

3 Id. pp. xii, xiii.

4 Id. p. xiv.

5 Lect. I.: and Lect. VIII. p. 340 seq.

6 E.g., in the French expression la libre pensee.

7 In Note, p. 413.

8 In 1713.

9 Many of the modern French protestant critics so employ it; e.g. A. Reville, Rev. des Deux Mondes, Parker, Oct. 1861.

10 Cfr. pp. 9 and 99.

11 Cfr. p. 12, and Notes 4, 5, and 6, at the end of this volume.

12 Boyle Lectures (1802-4). See note, p. 345.

13 Bacon's Nov. Org. lib. i. Aph. 104.

14 Cfr. pp. 14-20.

15 Pp. 32-34. Pp. 22, 24, 25.

16 Pp. 24-31.

17 Cfr. p. 346.

18 See especially Lect. VIII. p. 357 seq.

19 Some valuable remarks on the proper balance of the mind in study are contained in a sermon, The Nemesis of Excess, recently preached at Oxford, by Bp. Jackson.

20 pp. 35-37.

21 Cfr. pp. 31 note, 342; and Note 9. pp. 396-8.

22 The Natural History of Infidelity and Superstition in Contrast with Christian Faith.

23 A work partly on the history of unbelief, Scepticism a Retrogressive Move in Theology and Philosophy, has also been lately written (1861) by the accomplished lord Lindsay. Great learning is shown in it. Though written with a special controversial purpose, and though the facts accordingly are briefly stated, without literary references, it contains a useful summary and suggestive reflections.

24 In a literary point of view it is incorrect, in one chapter, if the author understands Mr. Robins rightly, where he seems to classify together, under the same head of Pantheism, the atheism of the French school of the Encyclopaedists in the last century and that of the German philosophers of the present. The two indeed agree in denying or ignoring the existence of a personal God; but in tone, premises, and metaphysical relations, they differ diametrically. (Since this note was written, the sad intelligence of Mr. Robins's death has appeared.)

25 Christliche Kirchengeschichte, &c. 45 vols. 1768-1812. The writer of these lectures has taken occasion elsewhere (p. 466.) to deplore the want of any complete history of the English church. He may here add also the want of a history in English of European Christianity since the Reformation.

26 It may offer an explanation of subsequent references to some church historians, to name the classification given by Schaff (Bibliotheca Sacra, 1850). After treating of the ancient and mediaeval histories, and making the obvious subdivision of the modern into Romish and Protestant, and subdividing these again according to their nations, he arranges the Protestant historians of Germany chronologically under five classes: (1) the Polemico-orthodox, such as the Magdeburg centuriators; (2) the Pietistic,—Arnold and Weismann; (3) the Pragmatico-super-natural,—Mosheim, Walch, Planck, Schroeckh; (4) the Rationalist,—Semler, Henke, Gieseler (in reference to which latter he is perhaps hardly fair); (5) the Scientific, viz. (α) of the Schleiermacher school,—Neander; (β) of the Hegelian, unchurchlike and heterodox,—Baur; (γ) of the Hegelian, churchlike and orthodox,—Dorner. Concerning older church historians, see the late Rev. J. G. Dowling's excellent work, Introduction to the Critical Study of Ecclesiastical History, 1838; and, on the most modern German church historians, see North British Review, Nov. 1858.

27 Lect. III. pp. 100-103.

28 Geschichte des Englischen Deismus. 1841.

29 J. Leland's View of the Deistical Writers, 1754. An edition published in 1837 contains an account of the subsequent history of Deism by Cyrus R. Edmonds. It is edited by Dr. W. L. Brown.

30 Lecture II.

31 An older work, in some respects similar to Pressense's, is Tzchirner's Geschichte der Apologetik, 1805.

32 Lecture III.

33 See p. 82, note.

34 P. 76, note.

35 Lecture IV.

36 The able French critic C. Remusat has bestowed attention on some of the English deists. A paper on Shaftesbury has appeared since Lecture IV. was printed, in the Revue des Deux Mondes, Nov. 1862.

37 In Lecture V.

38 Edited by Vater.

39 See p. 177, note.

40 See p. 164, note.

41 Lectures VI. and VII.

42 Lecture VI. p. 213.

43 Some of these works were subsequent to the discussion caused abroad by the sermons of Mr. Rose, described below.

44 Afterwards Principal of the King's College, London.

45 Historical Inquiry into the Probable Causes of the Rationalist Character lately predominant in the Theology of Germany.

46 1829.

47 Historical Inquiry, &c. part ii. 1830.

48 P. 241.

49 Dr. S. Lee, of Cambridge, also appended a dissertation on some points of German Rationalism to his Six Sermons on Prophecy, 1830.

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