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History of Education
by Levi Seeley
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Assistant teachers, 307.

Astrology, applications of, 120.

Astronomy, applications of, 120. Arabians' services to, 145. Copernican system, 148.

Astronomy taught in Egypt, 50. taught in Mohammedan schools, 145. taught to Jews, 43.

Athenian education, criticism of, 59.

Athenian educators, 61-67. Aristotle, 65-67. Plato, 63-65. Socrates, 61, 62.

Athens, 56-60. aesthetic education in, 58, 59. Aristotle founds Lyceum at, 66. art and literature in, 54. center of learning, 75. contrasted with Sparta, 56. criticism of education in, 59. democratic government in, 57. history of, 56. home in, 57. laws of Solon, 57. Pericles, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, 56. philosophers from, at Museum of Alexandria, 50, 51. play important factor in child life, 57. Romans study at, 74. study of poets, 57, 59. training of children, 57. woman's status in, 58, 90.

Attendance, compulsory, in English schools, 306. in French schools, 297, 298. in German schools, 291, 292. in United States schools, 312.

Augustine, St., City of God, Confessions, 114. conversion of, 114. influence of, 18, 115. life of, 114. pedagogy, 115. services to education, 101. works of, used in monasteries, 119.

Augustus, age of, 74, 75.

Azarias, Brother, on La Salle, 228. on the Simultaneous Method, 227.

Babylon, Saracenic school at, 140. school of rabbis at, 44.

Bacon, Francis, character of, 206. Comenius applies principles of, 214. degradation of, 207. Inductive Method introduced, 207, 208. influence of, 18. life of, 205. Montaigne's influence on, 195. new era in education, 209. Novum Organum, 207. object teaching of, 189. on Jesuit schools, 186, 187. pedagogy of, 208, 209. political advancement of, 206. reforms of, 204.

Bagdad, caliphs foster education, 145. Saracenic school at, 140.

Barrett, influences Horace Mann, 285.

Basedow, Elementary Book (Elementarbuch), 251. failure of, 254. life of, 250. methods of teaching, 250. pedagogy of, 253, 255, 256. Philanthropin established, 251, 252. professor at Soroee, 251. writings of, 255.

Basel, center of printing industry, 162.

Basil the Great, life of, 106. pedagogy of, 106. services to education, 101.

Beautifying of schoolrooms, 197, 198.

Bell, Andrew, founds National Schools, 305. Monitorial system of, 307.

Belles-Lettres, in Chinese education, 25.

Benedict, St., principles of, 117.

Benedictines, growth of, 117. principles of, 117. schools founded by, 118. teachers, 118.

Berlin Conference, 236 n.

Bernsdorf, Danish minister of education, 251.

Besant, Walter, on Rabelais, 193, 194, 195.

Bible, only literature of early Christians, 95. study of, 153. translated by Alfred the Great, 131. translated into German, 168.

Biographies of educators, 18.

Blankenburg, Froebel's school at, 276.

Bluntschli, advice to Pestalozzi, 260.

Board of Education in United States school system, 310, 311.

Board schools, established in England, 305.

Boatman, third caste in Egypt, 48.

Boccaccio, humanistic leader of Italy, 155, 157. influences of, 151.

Body, care of, 221, 230.

Bologna, university established at, 124.

Boniface, of Germany, Benedictine teacher, 118.

Book of Method, Basedow's, 255.

Books, school, adoption of, 290.

Bouillon, Godfrey of, leads first crusade, 137.

Brahma, Hindu worship of, 33.

Brahmanism, Buddha seeks to overthrow, 35.

Brahmans, highest caste in India, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34. marriage of, 32.

Brotherhood of man, value of principle, 91.

Brothers of the Christian Schools, La Salle organizes, 227.

Brown University, Horace Mann at, 285.

Browning, on Milton's scheme of education, 220.

Buddha, religion and spirit of, 35.

Buddhism, in China, 21, 22, 27. in India, 31. religion based on moral acts, 35.

Budding Intellect, Chinese degree, 26.

Bulfinch, on Charlemagne, 126.

Bureau of Education, U. S., 309.

Burgdorf, Froebel at, 275. Pestalozzi teaches at, 266.

Burgundy, Duke of, taught by Fenelon, 224, 225.

Caen, university at, 141.

Cahors, university at, 141.

Calculating boards, in Athens, 59.

Caliphs, foster education, 145.

Cambray, Bishop of, aids Erasmus, 161.

Cambridge, University of, 141.

Campe, leader of Philanthropin, 254.

Canterbury, cloister school at, 118.

Cantons, in French school system, 297.

Caste system, in Egypt, 47-49. in India, 30, 32.

Catechetical schools, 107, 108. decay of, 110.

Catechumen schools, 104.

Cathedral schools, 139 n.

Catholic Church. See Church.

Cavaliers, struggle with Roundheads, 200.

Celestial Empire, civilization of, 20.

Ceylon, Buddhism in, 35.

Charity schools, in China, 23.

Charlemagne, education of, 133. encourages education, 127, 128. history, character, purpose of, 125, 126. influence of, 18. School of Palace established, 127. summary of work of, 128, 129.

Charles V., of Spain, Emperor of Germany, 165, 166.

Chemistry, taught in Mohammedan schools, 145.

Child study, 319.

Children, a sacred trust, 91. home training of early Christians, 94. among Jews, 41, 42. in Athens, 57. in Egypt, 49.

Children, in India, 32. in Persia, 37. in Rome, 76, 77. in Sparta, 69. weak, cast out in Sparta, 69, 73.

China, 20-28. belief in transmigration of souls, 22. civilization of 20. classics of, 25. Confucius, 18, 24, 27, 28. conservative character of, 21. criticism of education, 27. degrees in, 25, 26. elementary schools in, 23, 25. examinations in, 26. geography and history of, 20, 21. government and language in, 21. higher education in, 25. home in, 22. lack of toys, 23. motive for education, 52. relation of parents and children, 22, 23. religion in, 21. science and inventions in, 26. treatment of women in, 22.

Christ, disciples of, 92, 93. influence of, 96, 97. life and character of, 96, 97. methods of, 97, 98. nature study of, 99. principles of, 90, 91. teacher, 97-100. truth preached by, 99. type of perfect manhood, 16. value of teachings of, 89, 95.

Christian education, 89-314. aim of, 91. Alfred the Great's influence, 130, 131. Basil the Great, 106, 107. Benedictines, 117, 118. catechetical schools, 107. catechumen schools, 104. Charlemagne, 125-129. Chrysostom, 105, 106. church connection with, 101. Clement of Alexandria, 109. conflict with pagan education, 111-115. crusades, 102, 136-138. difficulties in establishment of, 95. feudal education, 132-135. first Christian schools, 104, 105. general view of, 89, 101, 103. importance of individual, 91. lessons and principles of, 90, 91. monastic education, 102, 116-120. Origen, 110. St. Augustine, 114, 115. scholasticism, 121-124. seven liberal arts, 119, 120.

Christian education, slow growth of, 92, 93. See also Renaissance, Humanistic educators, Reformation, Protestant educators, Jesuits, Modern educators, School systems, and sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century education. Tertullian, 112, 113. Teutonic peoples, instrument of civilization, 103. universities, 139-141.

Christiania, university at, 141.

Christianity, influence of, 96, 97. lessons of, 90-92. See also Christian education.

Chrysostom, educational principles of, 105, 106. life of, 105. services to education, 101.

Church, animosities between Catholics and Protestants, 200. authority in Renaissance, 150. controls education, 112, 139. corruption of, 151, 152, 166, 168. degradation of, 151, 152. influence of St. Augustine's writings on, 115. supremacy of, 116. the mother of schools, 102.

Church Fathers, direct educational movements, 101. opposed to pagan literature, 113, 120.

Cicero, called Father of his Country, 82. character of, 82. death of, 82. education of, 81. life of, 81. pedagogy of, 83. Philippics of, 82. Roman consul, 82. services to education, 83. works of, studied in monastic education, 119.

Citizens in Sparta, 68.

City of God, St. Augustine's, 114.

Classic languages, Humanists revive study, 149. in Trotzendorf's pedagogy, 178. new interest in, 149, 150.

Classic literature, revival of study of, 155-157. Tertullian excludes, 113.

Clement of Alexandria, pedagogy, 109. pupil of Pantaenus, 109. teacher, 109.

Clermont, Jesuit college of, 183.

Climate a factor in education, 16.

Cloister schools established, 118.

Clothing of children, Locke's rules regarding, 221.

Coeducation, in France, 298. in German villages, 292. in Sparta, 71.

Colleges, in United States school system, 312, 313.

Colloquies, Erasmus's, 162.

Cologne, cloister school at, 118. university of, 141.

Comenius, Johann Amos, banished, 212. Didactica Magna, 213. education of, 211, 212. educational works of, 214. honors bestowed on, 213. influence of, 18. influence of Bacon on, 214. Latin Bohemian dictionary of, 213. member of Moravian Brethren, 211. object teaching of, 189. Pestalozzi applies principles of, 269. reforms of, 204. settles in Poland, 213. summary of his work, 215. trials of, 212.

Commandments, Ten, oldest writing among Israelites, 44.

Committee of Council on Education, in England, 305.

Common schools, importance of, 287. in Germany, 292. in United States, 310.

Commonwealth, established, 200.

Communes, in French education, 300.

Compass, invention of, 148.

Compayre, on Comenius, 214. on Jesuit schools, 185, 187. on Jesuits and Jansenists, 189. on La Salle, 228. on Locke, 221. on Montaigne's pedagogy, 198. on Rabelais's Gargantua, 194, 195. on Rousseau, 242, 246. on the Reformation, 166, 167. on the Renaissance, 121.

Composition, in Chinese education, 25.

Compulsory education, among Jews, 42. Charlemagne introduces, 128. in England, 306. in France, 297, 298. in Germany, 170, 181, 203, 291. in United States, 312. Luther insists on, 174. Plato's scheme of, 65.

Conduct of Schools, La Salle's, 228.

Confessions, Rousseau's, 242, 243.

Confessions, St. Augustine's, 114.

Confucius, altar to, in Chinese schoolrooms, 24.

Confucius, analects of, 28. influence of, 18, 27.

Conrad III., of Germany, leads second crusade, 137.

Constance, cloister school at, 118.

Continuation schools, in Germany, 292.

Copenhagen, university at, 141.

Copernicus, astronomical discoveries of, 148, 202.

Cordova, caliphs of, foster education, 145. Saracenic school at, 140.

Corporal punishment, among Jews, 43. Basil the Great on, 106. Cicero's views regarding, 83. in Jesuit schools, 186. Quintilian's views regarding, 87.

Council, Educational, governs French departements, 297.

Counter-Reformation, 182.

County, school administration of, 310.

Cramer, on the crusades, 138.

Criticism, of Athenian education, 59. of Chinese education, 27. of Egyptian education, 51. of Feudal education, 135. of Hindu education, 34, 35. of Jesuit education, 188. of Jewish education, 44, 186. of Persian education, 38. of Roman education, 80. of Spartan education, 71.

Cromwell, Commonwealth under, 200.

Crusades, influence on education, 102, 103, 136-138. results of, 138.

Curtius, quoted, 72.

Dancing, taught among Jews, 42.

Dante, banishment of, 156. birth of, 155. Divine Comedy, 156. education of, 155, 156. humanistic leader of Italy, 155. influence of, 151.

Dark Ages, slow progress during, 101. end of, 148.

David, founder of Hebrew literature, 44.

Dean, M. Ida, on schools in India, 33.

Decimal system originated by Hindus, 34.

De Garmo, on Herbart as a teacher, 279.

Degrees in China, 25, 26. in French Universities, 299.

Demia, Charles, 227.

Democratic government in Athens, 57.

Departements, erect normal schools, 300. in French school system, 297.

Dervishes, in Persia, 38.

Descartes on Jesuit schools, 186.

Deserving of Promotion, Chinese degree, 26.

Dessau, institute at. See Philanthropin.

Dialectical method, of Socrates, 62.

Dialogues of the Dead, Fenelon's, 225.

Didactica Magna, Comenius's, 213. See Great Didactic.

Discipline, in Chinese schools, 24. in Indian schools, 32. in Jewish schools, 43. in Roman schools, severe, 78.

Discoveries, during Renaissance, 148.

District inspector, in German schools, 291.

District school board, in Germany, 290, 291.

District system of education, in United States, 311.

Dittes, quoted, 42, 274.

Draper, on St. Augustine, 115.

Drieser, on Quintilian, 86 n.

Dualistic philosophy, of Zoroaster, 39.

Duns Scotus, Benedictine leader, 118. leader of scholasticism, 122.

Dyeing, in ancient Egypt, 47.

Earth, size of, ascertained, 145.

Eberhard, Count, Reuchlin's friend, 159.

Education of Girls, Fenelon's, 224.

Education of Man, Froebel's, 277.

Egypt, 46-52. antiquity of its history, 47. caste system in, 47-49. criticism of education in, 51. dyeing, embalming, etc., in, 47. geography and history of, 46, 47. higher education in, 50. home in, 49. influence of priests in, 47, 48. mechanic arts in, 47. military class in, 48. motive for education in, 52. pilgrimages to, for study, 47. polygamy in, 49. status of woman in, 49.

Egyptian education, criticism of, 51.

Eighteenth century education, general view of, 237-240. See also Modern educators.

Elementary Book (Elementarbuch), Basedow's, 251, 255.

Elementary education, among Arabians, 145. in Athens, 58. in China, 23. in England, 306. in France, 298, 299. in Germany, 192. in India, 32-34.

Elementary education in Rome, 77. in United States, 312. neglected by Jesuits, 184, 187.

Elizabeth, Queen, taught by Roger Ascham, 190, 192.

Emerson, on the Middle Ages, 147.

Emile, Rousseau's, 243-249.

Emulation, as incentive in Jesuit schools, 186, 188.

Engineering, in Ancient Egypt, 47-50. in Milton's scheme of education, 219.

England, administration of schools, 305. attendance in schools, 306. educational enterprise in, 308. school system of, 303-308. support of schools in, 307. teachers in, 307, 308.

English rule in India, 31.

Environment, a factor in education, 16, 17.

Erasmus, Colloquies, 162. compared with Luther, 162. humanistic leader, 153. life of, 161. literary authority of world, 162. on Agricola, 158. on Melanchthon, 171. pedagogy of, 162, 163. Praise of Folly, 162. studies of, 161. translation of Greek testament, 162.

Erfurt, Francke preacher at, 233. university of, 141.

Erigena, leader of scholasticism, 122. principles of, 122.

Ernst of Gotha, Duke, school law of, 203.

Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke's, 221.

Essays, Montaigne's, 198.

Essex, benefactor of Bacon, 206.

Eton, college at, 174, 306.

Euclid, used in monastic education, 119.

Eudemon, page in Rabelais's Gargantua, 194.

Evening Hours of a Hermit, Pestalozzi's, 263.

Examinations in Athens, 58. in China, 25, 26.

Exercise, Locke's rules regarding, 221.

Fables, Fenelon's, 225.

Factory laws, in England, 306.

Family, the foundation of education, 17. See Home.

Farmers, caste in India, 30. education of, 34. third caste in Egypt, 48.

Fathers of church, opposed to pagan literature, 113.

Faurier, Peter, 227.

Fear, motive for study in China, 24, 27.

Fenelon, compared with Seneca, 225, 226. education of, 223, 224. Education of Girls, 224. head of convent of new Catholics, 224. pedagogy of, 226, 227. preceptor of grandson of Louis XIV, 224. priest, 224. reforms of, 204. works of, 225.

Feudal barons, influence of, 133.

Feudal education, 132-135. criticism of, 135.

Feudalism, crusades break power of, 138. defined, 132.

Fichte, Herbart student of, 279.

Finances, school, 290.

Fit for Office, Chinese degree, 26.

Food of children, Locke's rules regarding, 221.

Forest of Pencils, Chinese degree, 26.

Formalism in instruction, 194.

Forsyth, on Cicero, 81, 82, 83.

France, administration of schools, 296, 297. attendance in schools, 297. mother schools in, 298. normal schools in, 297. school system, 296. support of schools, 299, 300. teachers, 300, 302.

Francis I., of France, 165.

Francke, August Hermann, called to University of Halle, 233. education of, 232. founds orphan asylum at Halle, 234. Institutions at Halle, 234, 235. organizes teachers' class at Halle, 228. Privat Docent at Leipsic, 232. Real-school, 236. training of teachers, 235. work among poor, 233, 234.

Frankfurt-am-Main, Froebel teaches in, 273.

Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, leads third crusade, 137.

Frederick I., recognizes university at Bologna, 140.

Free schools, established in France, 298-300. in Germany, 293. in United States, 313.

Freiburg-im-Breisgau, university at, 141.

French Revolution, lessons of, 239, 264.

Froebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August, as teacher, 273. at Burgdorf, 275.

Froebel, F. W. A., at Universities of Goettingen and Berlin, 274. at Yverdon, 274. Education of Man, Songs for Mother and Nursery, 277, Fenelon anticipates, 226. first school of, 275. influence of, 18. kindergarten of, 276. lectures of, 277. life of, 272, 273. object teaching of, 189. on Pestalozzi, 274. school at Griesheim and Keilhau, 275. soldier, 275.

Fulda, cloister school at, 118.

Galileo, punishment of, 117.

Gargantua, Rabelais's, 193.

Gate of Tongues Unlocked, Comenius's, 214.

Geography, a factor in education, 16. in Milton's scheme of education, 219 in monastic education, 119. Neander favors study of, 179.

Geometry, discovery of Pythagorean theorem, 73. in catechetical schools, 108. in Jewish schools, 43. in Milton's scheme of education, 219. in monastic education, 119.

Germany, administration of schools, 289. attendance in schools, 291. effects of 30 Years' War on, 201, 202. humanism in, 157. school system of, 169, 199, 289-295. State assumes responsibility of education, 174. support of schools, 293. teachers in, 294.

Gibbon, Edward, quoted, 75, 150.

Girls, education of, among Jews, 41. Fenelon advocates education of, 226. in Athens, 58. in China, 22. in Egypt, 50. in Rome, 80. in Sparta, 71. sale of, in India, 31. schools for, in Germany, 181.

Glaucha, Francke pastor at, 233.

Goethe, on the Emile, 249.

Goldberg, Trotzendorf rector at, 178.

Goettingen, University of, 280.

Government, administrative school board of, in Germany, 290. democratic, in Athens, 57. no control of schools in China, 23. of Romans, 75.

Government, self, in schools, 178, 179.

Graduate school in United States school system, 312.

Grammar, study of, begun, 59. in Athenian schools, 59. in catechetical schools, 108. in Mohammedan schools, 145. in monastic schools, 119.

Greard on Rousseau, 246.

Great Didactic, Comenius's, 213, 214. organization of school system in, 215-217.

Great Teacher, The. See Christ.

Greece, 53-55. art and literature in, 54. Athens and Sparta, 54. geography and history in, 53, 54. manners and customs in, 54. Olympian games in, 54, 55. political freedom in, 54.

Greek culture, influence on Rome, 74, 75, 80.

Greek language, importance of, in human culture, 157. in Milton's scheme of education, 219. in pedagogy of Innovators, 204. introduced into Germany, 160. Reuchlin introduces study of, 160. revival of study of, 150, 151, 153. study of, in Rome, 74. taught in Sturm's school course, 176.

Greek text-books, Neander's, 180.

Greifswald, University of, 141.

Griesheim, Froebel's first school at, 275.

Gruner, Dr., head master of Model School at Frankfurt-am-Main, 273.

Guienne, Montaigne studies at, 196.

Gunpowder, invention of, 148.

Gutenberg, invents printing, 164.

Gymnasia, furnished by State in Athens, 58.

Gymnasium, course in, 293. established by Francke, 234. purpose of, 236 n.

Gymnastics, taught in Athens, 58. in Sparta, 71.

Hakem III., fosters education, 145.

Hallam, on Agricola, 158.

Halle, Institutions at, 234. Pietists found university at, 231, 232. teacher's class at, 228.

Hamburg, cloister school at, 118.

Hanlin, Royal Academy, in China, 26.

Harris, Dr., on Pestalozzi, 271.

Harrow, college at, 174, 306.

Hebrew, revival of study, 153. used in interpreting Scripture, 158, 160.

Hebrew Grammar and Lexicon, Reuchlin's, 159.

Hecker, founds first Prussian Normal School, 228.

Hegel, Aristotle compared to, 67.

Hegira, Mohammedanism dates from, 143.

Heidelberg, center of humanistic movement, 153. Reuchlin at, 160. University of, 124, 141.

Heliopolis, institution for higher learning at, 50.

Heloise, Rousseau's, 243.

Helots, in Sparta, 68.

Herbart, Johann Friedrich, enters Gymnasium at Oldenburg, 279. in Bremen and Switzerland, 279. life of, 278. literary activity of, 281. on importance of common schools, 287. pedagogy of, 282, 283. practice school at Koenigsberg, 280. professor of philosophy at Koenigsberg, 280. student of Fichte, 279. teacher in Switzerland, 279.

Herbartians, work of modern, 282, 318.

Herford, on Froebel, 276.

Hesse-Cassel, active in school work, 203.

Hesse-Darmstadt, active in school work, 203.

Hieroglyphics, Rosetta stone furnishes key to interpretation of, 47.

High Schools, connected with common in France, 299. in United States, 313.

Higher education, among Jews, 44. in China, 25, 27. in Egypt, 50. in India, 34. in Rome, 79.

Hindu education, criticism of, 34, 35.

Hindus. See India.

History, a factor in education, 16. natural, taught in Jewish schools, 43. Neander favors study of, 179. taught in Roman schools, 78. taught in schools of prophets, 44.

Holstein, active in school work, 203.

Holy Land, of Greece, at Olympia, 55. pilgrimages to, 136.

Home, foundation of education, 17. in Athens, 57. in China, 22. in Egypt, 49. in India, 32. in Persia, 37. in Rome, 76.

Home, in Sparta, 69. of Jews, 41.

Home training, among early Christians, 94.

Horace, Roman poet, 74.

How Gertrude teaches her Children, Pestalozzi's, 267.

Humanism, art of printing aids, 150. decline of, 198. in Germany, 157. in Italy, 149-151. Petrarch founder of, 156.

Humanistic educators, 155-163. Agricola, 158. Boccaccio, 157. Dante, 155. Erasmus, 161. German, 157-163. Italian, 156, 157. mission of, 155. Petrarch, 156. Reuchlin, 159.

Humanities, studied in Jesuit schools, 185.

Hunziker, Professor, on Pestalozzi, 267, 269.

Hurst, Bishop, on Melanchthon, 171.

Huss, reformer, 165.

Ilfeld, Neander's school at, 179.

Iliad and Odyssey, called Bible of Greeks, 69.

Illustrated text-books, first, 215, 229.

Illustration, teaching by, 98.

India, 29-35. Brahminism and Mohammedanism in, 31. Buddha, 35. caste system in, 30. criticism of education in, 34. elementary schools in, 32-34. English reforms in, 31. geography and history of, 29. higher education in, 34. home in, 32. motive for education in, 52. polygamy in, 31. religious ceremonies in schools, 33. schoolhouses described, 33. skill of craftsmen in, 30, 31. status of woman in, 31.

Individual, education for, 91.

Individuality, of children, 88.

Inductive method, Bacon's, 207, 208, 229.

Industrial School, Pestalozzi establishes, 262.

Infant school (ecole infantine) in France, 298.

Innocent III., Pope, recognizes University of Paris, 141.

Inquiries concerning Course of Nature in Development of Mankind, Pestalozzi's, 269.

Inspector, in German schools, 290, 291. Royal, in English school system, 305.

Institutes of Oratory, Quintilian's, 87.

Institutions at Halle, 234.

Instruction, method of, in India, 33.

Introduction, 15-19.

Inventions, Chinese, 26. during Renaissance, 148.

Isaiah, founder of Hebrew literature, 44.

Israel. See Jews.

Italy, humanism in, 149-151. intellectual movement in, 152.

Jansenists, introduce phonic spelling, 189. purpose of, 188. services to education, 189.

Jena, center of Herbartian activity, 279, 282.

Jerome of Prague, reformer, 165.

Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom established at, 137. pilgrimages to, 136. school of rabbis at, 44.

Jesuits, criticism of education, 186. education of, 184. emulation as an incentive, 186. founding of order, 182, 183. growth of society, 184. Loyola, 183. military character of order, 183. opposition of Port Royalists to, 189. school system of, 183-188, 199. spread of power, 184. summary of educational work, 188, 189.

Jews, 40-45. compulsory education among, 42. criticism of education, 44. education in home, 17. esteem of teachers, 43. geography and history, 40, 41. higher education among, 44. home of, 41. mission of, 40. motive for education of, 52. prophets, 44. religion of, 41, 42. schools of, 42. schools of the prophets, 44. schools of the rabbis, 44. status of women, 41. the Talmud, 45. theocratic education of, 40. training of children, 41, 42.

Johnson, Dr., on Ascham's Scholemaster, 190, 191.

Justinian, abolishes pagan schools, 115.

Kant, Emanuel, quoted, 254, 255, 281.

Keilhau, Froebel's school at, 275.

Kepler, astronomical discoveries of, 202.

Kindergarten, Froebel founder of, 276. in Prussia, 275. in Switzerland, 276. in United States, 277, 312. prohibited, 275. purpose of, 277.

Knight, chivalry of, 133. education of, 133. seven perfections of, 133.

Knowledge, defined by Confucius, 28.

Koenigsberg, Herbart teaches philosophy at, 280. practice school at, 281.

Koran, Mohammed writes, 143. used as reading book, 145.

Kruesi, Hermann, on Pestalozzi, 260, 261, 265, 266. on the sacrifices of Baebeli, 257. Pestalozzi founds school with, 267.

La Salle, Conduct of Schools, 228. organizes Brothers of the Christian Schools, 227. services to education, 228. simultaneous method introduced, 227.

Laborers, third caste in Egypt, 49.

Lancaster, Joseph, establishes Board Schools, 307. monitorial system of, 307.

Land grants, for educational purposes, 310.

Lang, on Basedow's Book of Method, 255.

Langethal, Heinrich, joins Froebel, 275.

Language, Ascham's method for study of, 191. classic, see Latin, Greek, classic languages, double translation in teaching, 199. in pedagogy of Innovators, 204. modern conversational method, 197-199. taught in Egypt, 50. taught in Roman schools, 78.

Latin, in Locke's system of education, 222. in Melanchthon's course, 173. in Milton's pedagogy, 219. in pedagogy of Innovators, 204. in Sturm's school course, 176. in Trotzendorf's school course, 188. revival of study, 151, 153.

Latin Kingdom, established at Jerusalem, 137.

Latin Schools, Strasburg Gymnasium the model for, 176.

Latin text-books, Neander's, 180.

Latini, Brunetto, teacher of Dante, 155.

Launcelot, leader of Port Royalists, 188.

Laurie, S. S., quoted, 107, 139, 140.

Law, in Milton's scheme of education, 220. studied in Egypt, 47. taught in Gymnasia, 293. taught in schools of prophets and rabbis, 44.

Leibnitz, on Jesuit schools, 187.

Leipsic, University of, 141.

Leonard and Gertrude, Pestalozzi's, 263, 264.

Leopold of Dessau, establishes the Philanthropin, 251.

Letters, forms and names to be learned simultaneously, 88.

Library at Alexandria, 107. at Pekin, 25.

Literators, in charge of Roman schools, 78.

Literature, Hebrew, 44. in Athens influences world, 56. lack of Christian, 94. opposition to pagan, 94, 113, 115, 126. pilgrimages to Egypt to study, 47.

Literatus, teacher of Roman school, 78.

Local school board in Germany, 291.

Loci Communes, Melanchthon's, 172.

Locke, John, education of, 220, 221. educational works of, 221. Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 221. his influence on education, 223. Montaigne's influence on, 195, 196. reforms of, 204. tutor at Christ Church, 221.

Logic, in monastic education, 119. taught in Sturm's school course, 176.

Lord's Prayer, taught in Charlemagne's reign, 128.

Louis VII. of France, leads second crusade, 137.

Loyola, founds Jesuit order, 183.

Lucretius, 74. compared with Rabelais, 194, 195.

Lund, university at, 141.

Luther, Martin, Augustinian monk, 168. contrasted with Erasmus, 162. educational reforms of, 166. influence of, 18. lays foundation of German school system, 169. leader German Reformation, 165. life and struggles of, 167. pedagogy of, 169. professor at Wittenberg, 168. Reuchlin on, 160.

Luther, Martin, summoned before Diet of Worms, 168. translates Bible, 168. work marked out by, 175.

Lutheran churches, schools in connection with, 181.

Lyceum at Athens, founded by Aristotle, 66.

Lycurgus, influence in Sparta, 73. laws of, 72.

Lyons, cloister school at, 118.

Macaulay, Lord, on Bacon, 205, 206, 208.

Magi, Persian priests, 37, 38.

Mainz, university at, 141.

Malone, John, on Chrysostom, 105.

Mann, Horace, Annual Reports, 286. at Brown University, 285. at Litchfield, 285. educational campaign of, 286. life of, 284, 285. on common schools, 285. president of Antioch College, 288. Secretary of State Board of Education, 286. services to education, 288. statesman, 285, 288.

Manual and industrial training, 320.

Manual training school, Locke advocates, 222.

Maps, early, 120.

Marenholtz-Buelow, Bertha von, disciple of Froebel, 277.

Mariner's compass invented, 148.

Marriage, Christ's teaching on, 91. controlled by State in Sparta, 73.

Martel, Charles, checks Mohammedanism, 144.

Martial training, in Sparta, 69-71.

Martin, on work of Horace Mann, 286.

Massachusetts, new epoch in educational history, 285-287. normal schools established in, 287.

Mathematics, central idea of Pythagorean system, 73. discoveries of Hindus, 35. taught in Egypt, 50. taught in Mohammedan schools, 145.

Matthison, leader of Philanthropin, 254.

Mecca, Mohammed's flight from, 143. pilgrimages to, 145.

Mechanics, third caste in Egypt, 47, 48. third caste in India, 30.

Mecklenburg, active in school work, 203.

Medicine, in Milton's scheme of education, 219. taught in Egypt, 50. taught in Gymnasium, 293.

Medicine taught in schools of prophets, 44.

Medina, Mohammed flees to, 143.

Melanchthon, Philipp, colaborer of Luther, 170, 171. early life and studies of, 171. educational work of, 172, 173. first Protestant psychologist, 173. Greek professor at Wittenberg, 171. lectures at Tuebingen, 171. Loci Communes, 172. Saxony school plan, 172, 173. service to schools, 172. text-books, 172. work marked out by, 175.

Memory, cultivation of, in Chinese education, 24, 25, 27. in Cicero's pedagogy, 84. in Fenelon's pedagogy, 226. in humanistic education, 163. in India, 32-34.

Memphis, institution for higher learning at, 50.

Merchants, third caste in India, 30.

Methodists, purpose of, 231.

Middendorff, Wilhelm, joins Froebel, 275.

Middle Ages, progress during, 146, 147.

Military class, in Egypt, 48.

Military schools, in China, 27.

Military training, in Persia, 38. in Sparta, 69.

Milton, John, defines education, 217. reforms of, 204. scheme of education, 219, 220. teacher, 218. Tractate, 218.

Mines, schools of, in France, 299.

Minister of education in France, 290, 296.

Minnesingers, compositions of, 135.

Missionary enterprise in India, 32.

Model school at Frankfurt-am-Main, 273.

Modern educators, 241-314. Basedow, 250-256. Froebel, 272-277. Herbart, 278-283. Mann, 284-288. Pestalozzi, 257-271. Rousseau, 241-249.

Mohammed, flight of, 143. precepts of, 144, 145. spread of doctrines of, 144. writes Koran, 143.

Mohammedan education, 143-147. five Moslem precepts, 144. history of Mohammedanism, 143-145. scientific progress made, 145.

Mohammedanism, history of, 143-145. in India, 31.

Monasteries, Alfred the Great establishes, 131. benefits to civilization by, 120. center of educational activity, 146. center of religious interest, 120. power of, 116. services to education, 102. suppress scientific discoveries, 116, 117.

Monastic education, 116-120.

Monitorial System, defined, 307.

Montaigne, education of, 196. Essays, 197. influence on Locke, 223. pedagogy of, 195, 197, 198.

Montanists, teachings of, 113.

Monte Cassino, monastery at, 117, 118.

Moravian Brethren, Comenius member of, 211, 213.

Moravian School, Comenius teacher of, 212.

Moses founder of Hebrew literature, 44.

Moslemism. See Mohammedanism.

Mother-school (ecole maternelle) in France, 298.

Motive of education, among Jews, 52. in Athens, 59. in China, 27, 52. in Egypt, 52. in India, 34, 52. in Persia, 38, 52. in Rome, 80. in Sparta, 69, 71.

Music, cultivation of, among Jews, 42. during Charlemagne's reign, 128. in Athens, 58, 59. in Egypt, 50. in monastic education, 119. in Sparta, 71. in Sturm's school course, 176.

Nantes, university at, 141.

Napoleon, quoted, 97.

National Bureau of Education, in United States, 309, 310.

National Herbart Society in America, 282.

National Schools, Andrew Bell establishes, 305.

Nature study, Christ advocates, 99. inductive methods lead to, 208.

Navigation, in Milton's scheme of education, 219.

Neander, Michael, teacher at Ilfeld, 179. text-books of, 180.

Nero, pupil of Seneca, 84.

Neuhof, Pestalozzi's experiment at, 261, 262.

Nicole, leader of Port Royalists, 188.

Nile, importance to Egypt, 46.

Nile, inundations encourage mathematical study, 50.

Nineteenth century education, general view, 237-240. See also Modern Educators and School Systems.

Nisibis, catechetical school at, 107.

Nitric acid discovered, 145.

Normal schools, in France, 297, 300, 301. in Germany, 290, 294. in Massachusetts, 287. in United States, 314. La Salle establishes first, 228. teachers appointed in, 290.

Novum Organum, Bacon's, 207.

Obedience, cardinal Chinese virtue, 23.

Object teaching, beginning of, 266. of Jansenists, 189. Pestalozzi's, 270.

Occam, leader of scholasticism, 122.

Occupation, a factor in education, 16.

Odessa, catechetical school at, 107. first Christian common school at, 105.

Olympia, Holy Land of Greece, 55.

Olympiad, basis for computing time, 55.

Olympian games, influence and character of, 54, 55.

Orations of Cicero, 82, 83.

Oratory, ideal of education in Rome, 77, 78, 80. Quintilian's views regarding, 87.

Orbis Pictus, Comenius's first illustrated text-book, 214, 215.

Order of Jesus. See Jesuits.

Oriental civilization, basis of, 89.

Oriental education, aim of, 91. summary of, 51, 52.

Origen, character of, 110. education of, 110. pedagogy of, 110. service to education, 101.

Orleans, university at, 141.

Ormuzd, principle of light in Persian religion, 39.

Orphan asylum, at Halle, founded, 233, 234.

Oxford, cloister school at, 118. Locke tutor at, 221. University of, 131, 141.

Pagan education, conflict with Christian, 111-115.

Pagan literature, opposition to, 94, 113, 115, 120.

Pantaenus, establishes catechetical school, 107.

Pantagruel, Rabelais's, 193.

Paper, invented, 148.

Paradise Lost, Milton's, 217.

Paris, cloister school at, 118. university at, 124, 140, 141.

Parker, Colonel, on Horace Mann, 284, 286.

Parliamentary grants for school expenses, 306.

Parochial schools, 139 n.

Pascal, leader of Port Royalists, 188.

Pastor, superintendent of German schools, 181.

Paul, services to education, 102.

Paul III., Pope, recognizes Jesuits, 183.

Paulsen, on John Sturm, 175, 176, 177. on Neander's text-books, 180.

Pedagogium, established by Francke, 234, 236.

Pedagogue, duty of, in Athens, 56, 58. in Rome, 77.

Pedagogy, begins with history of education, 15. elevated to dignity of a science, 282. of Agricola, 158. of Alfred the Great, 131. of Aristotle, 66, 67. of Ascham, 190-192. of Bacon, 207-209. of Basedow, 251-256. of Basil the Great, 106. of Benedictines, 118, 119. of Boccaccio, 157. of Charlemagne, 127-129. of Christ, 91, 97-100. of Chrysostom, 105. of Cicero, 83. of Clement of Alexandria, 109. of Comenius, 214-217. of Confucius, 28. of Dante, 156. of Erasmus, 162, 163. of Fenelon, 226, 227. of Feudalism, 132-135. of Francke, 234-236. of Froebel, 275-277. of Herbart, 282, 283. of Humanists, 153. of Innovators, 204. of Jesuits, 184-188. of La Salle, 227, 228. of Locke, 221-223. of Loyola, 183. of Luther, 169. of Mann, 285-288. of Melanchthon, 172. of Milton, 218, 219. of Mohammedans, 145. of Montaigne, 195-198. of Neander, 179-181.

Pedagogy, of Origen, 110. of Pestalozzi, 269-271. of Petrarch, 151. of Plato, 63-65. of Port Royalists, 189. of Pythagoras, 73. of Quintilian, 87. of Rabelais, 194, 195. of Ratke, 211. of Reuchlin, 160. of Rousseau, 243-249. of St. Augustine, 115. of Scholastics, 124. of Seneca, 85. of Socrates, 62. of Sturm, 176, 177. of Tertullian, 113. of Trotzendorf, 178, 179.

Pekin, royal library at, 25.

Pendulum, applied to reckon time, 145.

Pensions to teachers, in England, 308. in France, 302. in Germany, 294.

Pericles, Age of, 54, 57. Athenian statesman, 56.

Perioeci, in Sparta, 68.

Persia, 36, 39. criticism of education, 38. geography and history, 36. home, religion in, 37. military education in, 16, 38. motive for education in, 52. state education in, 37, 38. status of women in, 37. training of children in, 37. Zoroaster, 39.

Persian education, criticism of, 38.

Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich, childhood and character, 257, 258. Christian ministry, 259. failures of, 259, 260, 262. farming, 260. influence of, 18. law, 260. lesson of love taught by, 271. marriage, 261. Neuhof, experiences at, 262. object teaching of, 189. pedagogy of, 269, 271. purposes of, 259. school at Burgdorf, 266. school at Stanz, 264, 265. school at Yverdon, 267, 268. schooling of, 258. unites with Kruesi, 267. work of, 269. writings of, 263, 264.

Peter the Hermit, crusade of, 136.

Petrarch, father of humanism, 155, 156.

Petrarch, influence of, 151-153. lays foundation of modern education, 157.

Pfefferkorn, John, antagonism to Hebrew works, 160.

Phaedo, Plato's, 63.

Philanthropin, established, 251. failure of, 252-254. purpose of, 252.

Philip Augustus, of France, aids university at Paris, 141. leads third crusade, 137.

Philippics, of Cicero, 82.

Philosophical discoveries, of Hindus, 35.

Philosophy, in Athens, 59. in catechetical schools, 108. in Egypt, 47. in gymnasium, 293. in Jesuit schools, 185. in Mohammedan schools, 145. in Roman schools, 78. in schools of prophets, 44. natural, in Milton's scheme of education, 219. of Christ, 98. scholasticism, 124.

Phoenicians, invent alphabet, glass making, and purple dyeing, 51.

Phonic method of spelling, introduced, 189.

Physical education, in Aristotle's scheme, 66. in Athens, 58. in Erasmus's scheme, 163. in Fenelon's scheme, 226. in Feudalism, 133, 135. in Innovators' scheme, 204. in Locke's scheme, 221, 229. in Luther's scheme, 170. in Milton's scheme, 220. in Persia, 38. in Pestalozzi's scheme, 263. in Plato's scheme, 64, 65. in Rome, 77. in Rousseau's scheme, 244. in Sparta, 70.

Pietism, influence of, 232. purpose of, 231.

Plato, Athenian philosopher, 56. disciple of Socrates, 63. first systematic scheme of education, 65. founds school at Athens, 63. republic, 63. State to have control of citizens, 64. testimony to Socrates, 62.

Play, educational force in Athens, 57, 60. in Fenelon's pedagogy, 226. in Froebel's system, 274.

Poetry, in Athens, 57, 59. in Roman schools, 78. in schools of prophets, 44.

Poitiers, university at, 141.

Political freedom of Greeks, 54.

Political rights, extension of, 239.

Polygamy, in China, 22. in Egypt, 49. in India, 31.

Polytechnic schools, in China, 27.

Port Royalists, purpose of, 189. services to education, 199.

Practical training of Roman children, 79.

Practice school, at Jena, 281. at Koenigsberg, 280. Herbart's, 280.

Prague, battle of, 212. university established at, 124, 141.

Praise of Folly, Erasmus's, 162.

Prerau, Moravian School at, 212.

Priests, influence in Egypt, 47, 48.

Primary education. See Elementary Education.

Printing, invented, 26, 148. influence on universal education, 150, 164, 165.

Printing press, invented, 148.

Privat Docent, in German universities, 232 n. 2.

Progymnasia, in Germany, 292 n.

Pronunciation, in Roman education, 76, 78.

Prophets, schools of, 44.

Prorealgymnasia, 292 n.

Protestant educators, 174-181. Gymnasium at Strasburg, 175. Melanchthon's course of study, 174. Neander, 179. Sturm, 175. Trotzendorf, 178. See also Humanistic Educators and Reformation.

Protestant Reformation, 165-173.

Protestantism, spirit of, among common people, 200. spread of, checked, 182.

Protogenes, establishes school at Odessa, 105.

Provinces, thirteen royal, school administration in, 290.

Prussia, kindergarten in, 275, 276. school system of, 128, 289-295.

Psalms, translated into Anglo-Saxon, 131.

Ptolemaic system of astronomy, 148.

Ptolemies, found Alexandrian library, 50.

Public schools, first Christian, 105, 107. in England, 306. in France, 298. in Germany, 293. in Massachusetts, 286.

Public schools, in Rome, 78. in United States, 313. Quintilian advocates, 88.

Punishment, Basil the Great's views regarding, 106. Cicero's views regarding, 83. Fenelon's views regarding, 226. in Jesuit schools, 186. Montaigne's views regarding, 196, 197. Quintilian's views regarding, 87. Seneca's views regarding, 85. See also Corporal Punishment.

Pupil teachers, 307.

Pupils, number assigned to one teacher among Jews, 43. number of, fixed by State in Athens, 58.

Puritans, struggles with established church, 200.

Pythagoras, life of, 73. mathematical system of, 73. philosophy of, 73.

Quadrivium, second course in seven liberal arts, 118, 119.

Quick, on Ascham, 192. on Basedow's system, 254. on demands of Reformers, 204. on Jesuit education, 186, 187. on Milton, 218. on Pestalozzi, 258, 268, 269, 270. on Ratke, 209, 211. on Rousseau's hatred of books, 241. on the Philanthropin, 251, 252.

Quintilian, education and life of, 86. founds school at Rome, 86. Institutes of Oratory, 87. pedagogy of, 87. receives title of Professor of Oratory, 86. works of, studied in monastic education, 119.

Quincy Movement, the, 317.

Rabbis, schools of, 44.

Rabelais, compared with Lucretius, 194, 195. friend of Calvin, 193. Gargantua and Pantagruel, 193. influence of Locke on, 223. introduces realism into education, 194. life of, 192, 193. pedagogy of, 194.

Ramadan, fast of, 144.

Ramsauer, on Pestalozzi's method of teaching, 266.

Ratio Studiorum, of Jesuits, 186.

Ratke, method of teaching language, 209, 210. pedagogy of, 211. reforms of, 204.

Raumer, on Comenius, 213.

Reading, in Athenian schools, 58. in Chinese schools, 24. in Jewish schools, 43. in monastic schools, 119. in Persian schools, 38. in Roman schools, 78. in schools of India, 32. not taught in Sparta, 71. taught during Charlemagne's reign, 128. taught by Quintilian, 88.

Real-school in Germany, course in, 293. founded, 236.

Realgymnasia, 292 n.

Realism, in education, 194.

Reformation, as an educational influence, 164-174, 199. conditions at beginning of sixteenth century, 164. instills love for religious liberty, 200. intellectual conditions, 166. invention of printing, 165. Luther, 167-169. Melanchthon, 170-173. spread of educational ideas of, 180.

Registration, book of, in French schools, 299.

Reichstag, school interests represented in, 290.

Rein, Professor Wilhelm, chief exponent of Ziller school, 281. on Herbart's pedagogy, 278, 282. practice school under, 281.

Religion, center of school course, 181. Chinese, 21, 28. Christian. See Christianity. in Egypt, 48, 50. in India, 31, 35. in Milton's scheme of education, 219. in Persia, 37, 39. of Jews, 41, 42, 45. of Romans, 75. taught in Sturm's school course, 177.

Religious freedom attained, 201, 240.

Religious instruction, Cicero advocates, 84. in Egypt, 50. in German schools, 170. Rousseau's views regarding, 247, 248. See also Christian education.

Removal of teachers, causes for, 294, 301.

Renaissance, 148-173. defined, 148, 173. humanistic movement, 149-163. influence on Teutonic race, 149. inventions and discoveries during, 149, 150. revival of classics, 150. universal education advocated, 150, 151.

Reuchlin, humanistic leader, 153. introduces Greek into Germany, 160. professor at Tuebingen, 159. services to Hebrew learning, 159. teacher of Melanchthon, 171.

Revival of learning. See Renaissance.

Revolution, American, lessons of, 239. French, 239, 264. of 1688, 200.

Rheims, first normal school established at, 228.

Rhetoric, in Athenian schools, 59. in catechetical schools, 108. in monastic education, 119. in Sturm's school course, 176. the climax of education, 88.

Richard the Lion-Hearted, leads third crusade, 137.

Rod, discipline of, in China, 24. Montaigne's opposition to, 196, 197. used in Roman schools, 78.

Rollin, reforms of, 204.

Roman church, duty of, to education, 182.

Roman educators, 81-88. Cicero, 81-84. Quintilian, 86-88. Seneca, 84-86.

Rome, 74-80. Age of Augustus, 74, 75. birth of Christ, 74. criticism of education, 80. education in, 77-79. educators of, 81-88. government in, 75. home in, 76. home training of children, 76, 77. influence of Greek culture on, 74. oratory highest art in education, 77, 80. persecution of Christians, 94. philosophers from, visit Museum of Alexandria, 50, 51. practical training of children, 79. religion of, 75. supremacy of, 74. utility the aim of education, 79. woman's status in, 90.

Rosetta stone, furnishes key to interpretation of hieroglyphics, 47.

Rostock, University of, 141.

Rote learning, in Chinese schools, 24.

Rouen, cloister school at, 118.

Roundheads, struggles with cavaliers, 200.

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, Emile, 244-248. influenced by Montaigne, 195, 196. life of, 241, 242. on Christ, 97. on education of women, 248. pedagogy of, 243.

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, Pestalozzi applies principles of, 269, 270. scheme of education, as outlined in Emile, 244-248. works of, 243.

Rugby, college, founded at, 174, 306.

Russia, serfs freed in, 238.

St. Augustine. See Augustine, St.

St. Gall, cloister school at, 118, 120.

Saint-Simon, on Fenelon, 224.

Saladin, captures Jerusalem, 137.

Salaries of teachers, in England, 308. in France, 300, 302. in Germany, 295. in United States, 314.

Salerno, university at, 140.

Sallust, Roman writer, 74.

Salzburg, cloister school at, 118.

Salzmann, leader of Philanthropin, 254.

Sanskrit, language of India, 30, 34.

Saracens, conquer Holy Land, 136. schools of, 140.

Saxony School Plan, principles of, 172, 173, 174, 177.

Schmidt, Karl, on Alfred the Great, 130. on Aristotle, 67. on corruption of the church, 151. on culture, 43. on emancipation of the individual, 52. on history of humanity, 15, 16. on Johann Sturm, 177. on St. Augustine's Confessions, 114. on scholasticism, 123. on teachings of Jesus Christ, 97, 100. on the Emile, 249.

Scholasticism, benefits of, 123, 124. defined, 121. downfall of, 123.

Scholemaster, Roger Ascham's, 190.

School attendance, in England, 306. in France, 297, 298. in Germany, 291, 292. in United States, 311, 312.

School board, in England, 305. in France, 296. in Germany, 290, 291. in United States, 310.

School fund in United States, 309.

School government, Trotzendorf's reforms in, 178, 179.

School hours, in Athens, 58, 60. in Germany, 292.

Schoolhouses in India, 33. public, none in China, 23.

School inspector, in German schools, 290.

Schoolmaster, German, position of, 295.

"School of the Palace," established, 127.

School pence, expense of English schools met by, 307.

School system, Comenius's organization of, 215. of England, 304-308. of France, 296-303. of Germany, 289-295. of United States, 309-314.

Schools, apprentice in France, 299. catechetical, 107. catechumen, 104. cathedral, 139 n. charity, in China, 23. church, 102, 181. cloister, 118. common, 78, 88, 105, 107, 181, 286, 287, 292, 293, 298, 313. elementary. See Elementary Schools. established in Germany, 180. graduate, in United States, 312. Gymnasium, in Germany, 293. high. See High Schools. in Athens, under state inspection, 58, 60. industrial, for poor, 262. infant, in France, 298. Jesuit, 183-188. Jewish, 42. manual training, 222. Mohammedan, 145, 146. mother, in France, 298. national, in England, 305. normal. See Normal Schools. of mines, in France, 299. of the prophets, 44. of the rabbis, 44. pagan, abolished, 115. parochial, 139 n. primary, in France, 298, 299. public. See Public Schools. Real, in Germany, 236, 293. secondary, in United States, 312. summer, in United States, 313. support of, in England, 306, 307. support of, in France, 299, 300. support of, in Germany, 293. support of, in United States, 313. teachers' salaries in. See Teaching. technical, in France, 299. undergraduate, in United States, 312. voluntary, in England, 306.

Schulthess, Anna, marries Pestalozzi, 261.

Schwegler, on number, 73. on scholasticism, 122, 124.

Schwickerath, on the scholastics, 123. on Luther, 183.

Science, among ancient Egyptians, 47. instrumental in civilization, 239. monastic opposition to, 116.

Science, natural, Neander favors study of, 179. natural, taught in Egypt, 47, 50. of Chinese, 26. Rabelais gives first rank to, 195.

Scientific discoveries, results of, 239.

Scriptures, Holy, in schools, 217.

Secondary schools, in United States, 312.

Secular courses of study established, 118.

Self-government of students, Trotzendorf introduces, 178, 179. the principle established, 239.

Seminar, in Germany, 281.

Seneca, compared with Fenelon, 225, 226. education of, 84. pedagogy of, 85. religious sentiment of, 85. suicide of, 85. tutor of Nero, 84.

Sense-realism, Innovators advocate, 224, 229.

Serapis, temple of, library in, 107, 108.

Servants, fourth caste in India, 30. marriage of, 32.

Seven liberal arts, 118. basis of school instruction, 127.

Seventeenth century, education during, 200-236.

Seventh Annual Report of Horace Mann, 287.

Shaftesbury, Earl of, friendship with Locke, 221.

Shastas, commentary on Vedas, 31.

Shrewsbury, school at, 306.

Siculus Diodorus, Greek writer, 47.

Simultaneous method, inaugurated, 227.

Sixteenth century, education of, 164-199.

Slavery, abolition of, 238.

Slaves, in Athens, 56. in Egypt, 49. in Rome, 77. in Sparta, 68.

Sleep of children, Locke's rules regarding, 221.

Sobieski, John, checks Mohammedan advance, 144.

Social Contract, Rousseau's, 243.

Socrates, Athenian philosopher, 56. death of, 62, 63. dialectical methods of, 62. doctrines of, 62. influence of, 18. life and home of, 61. methods of teaching, 62. personal appearance of, 61. religious belief of, 62.

Solomon, founder of Hebrew literature, 44.

Solon, Athenian lawgiver, 57.

Some Thoughts Concerning Education, Locke's, 221.

Songs, church, 107.

Songs for Mother and Nursery, Froebel's, 277.

Sophists, teachers of grammar, 59.

Soroee, Basedow professor at, 251.

Sparta, 68-73. coeducation in, 71. contrasted with Athens, 56. criticism of education, 71. history of, 68. home in, 69. Lycurgus, 72, 73. martial training in, 69, 70, 71. physical education in, 16. State control of children, 69, 70, 73. status of woman in, 69-71. tyranny, the spirit of, 56.

Spartan education, criticism of, 71.

Spelling, phonic method introduced, 189.

Spencer, Herbert, on function of education, 217.

Spener, Philipp Jakob, originator of Pietism, 231.

Stagira, Aristotle founds school at, 65.

Stanz, Pestalozzi's school at, 264.

State, assumes responsibility of education in Germany, 174. controls citizens in Plato's scheme of education, 64. controls education in Persia, 37, 38. controls education of Spartan children, 70. controls schools in Athens, 60. interest of, aim of oriental education, 91. supervises English schools, 306. supports schools in France, 298.

State Board of Education, duties of, 311. established, 286.

State school system, in United States, 310.

State support of public instruction in American schools, 310.

Stettin, first Prussian normal school at, 228.

Stoy, Karl Volkmar, establishes practice school at Jena, 281.

Strasburg Gymnasium, organization of, 175, 176. Sturm, rector of, 175.

Studia inferiora and superiora of Jesuit schools, 185.

Sturm, Johann, education of, 175. influence of, 177. rector at Strasburg Gymnasium, 175, 176. school course of, 176, 177.

Sulphuric acid, Arabians discover, 145.

Summer school, in United States school system, 313.

Superintendent of schools, duties of, 310, 311.

Superstition of Romans, 76.

Support of schools, in England, 306. in France, 299. in Germany, 293. in United States, 313.

Swinton, on antiquity of Egyptian history, 47. on influence of Egyptian priests, 48.

Switzerland, Herbart in, 279. kindergarten in, 276.

Talich, Hermann, school course of, 176 n.

Talmud, extracts from, 45, 46. influence of, 45. on discipline of children, 43. origin of sayings in, 44.

Tax for schools, in United States, 313.

Taylor, Bayard, on Charles V., Emperor of Germany, 166. on Thirty Years' War, 201.

Teachers, in Athens, 58, 59. in China, 23, 24. in Egypt, 49, 50. in England, 235, 307. in France, 300-302. in Germany, 290, 291, 293, 294. in India, 32, 33, 34. in Jesuit schools, 185. in Jewish schools, 43. in Mohammedan schools, 146. in Persia, 38. in United States, 313. professional training of, 163, 170, 188, 228, 235, 280, 294, 307, 313. salaries of, 58, 59, 286, 295, 300-302, 308, 313. tenure of office of, 294, 302, 307, 314.

Teacher's Institute, in United States school system, 313.

Technical schools, in France, 299.

Telemachus, Fenelon's, 225.

Tenure of office of teachers, in England, 307. in France, 302. in Germany, 294. in United States, 314.

Tertullian, birth of, 112. conversion of, 112. founder of Christian Latin literature, 113. joins Montanists, 113.

Testament, Greek, Erasmus's translation, 162.

Testament, Old, books of, stimulated by prophets, 44.

Teutonic nations, leaders in civilization, 103, 149.

Text-book, first illustrated, 215.

Thales, father of philosophy, 73.

Thebes, institution for higher learning at, 50.

Theocratic education, of Jews, 40.

Theology, in Gymnasium, 293. in Jesuit schools, 185. in schools of rabbis, 44.

Thirty Years' War, 201, 212.

Toga virilis, when assumed, 79.

Toulouse, university at, 141.

Tours, cloister school at, 118.

Township system of education, in United States, 311.

Toys, lack of, in China, 23. of Athenian children, 57. of Persians, 57. of Spartans, 69.

Tractate on Education, Milton's, 217, 218.

Tradesmen's castes, in India, 30.

Tradespeople, third caste in Egypt, 48.

Training school, in United States, 313.

Translation, double, for language study, 192.

Transmigration of souls, Chinese belief in, 22.

Trier, university at, 141.

Trigonometry, in Milton's scheme of education, 219. taught by Mohammedans, 145.

Trivium, first course in seven liberal arts, 118, 119.

Trotzendorf, Valentine, discipline and methods of, 178. life of, 178. pupil of Melanchthon, 178. rector at Goldberg, 178.

Tuebingen, center of humanistic movement, 153, 159. university at, 141.

Twelve Tables, of Roman Law, 76.

Undergraduate school, in United States, 312.

Understanding, development of, 189.

United States, administration of schools, 310. attendance in schools, 311. education in, 309-314. land grants for education, 309, 310. State system, 309, 310. support of schools, 313. teachers, 313, 314.

Universal education, advocated by Charlemagne, 128, 131.

Universal education, in German schools, 131, 170.

Universal German Educational Institute, at Griesheim, 275.

Universities, established through scholastic influence, 124. in England, 306. in United States, 312, 313. preparation for, in Germany, 293. privileges granted to, 142. rise of, 139-142. services of, 142. State, in France, 299.

Upsala, university at, 141.

Vasseur, Therese le, wife of Rousseau, 242.

Veda, Bible of India, 30. reading lessons from, 33.

Vergil, Roman poet, 74.

Vespasian, honors Quintilian, 86.

Vienna, university established at, 124, 141.

Vogel, on errors of Emile, 244.

Volksschule (common school) in Germany, 292.

Voltaire, condemns Jesuit education, 187. on Fenelon, 227.

Voluntary schools, in England, 305 n., 306.

Von Moltke, quoted, 295.

Waldenses, reformers in Italy, 165.

War, preparation for, chief end of education in Persia, 38.

Warens, Madame de, befriends Rousseau, 242.

Warriors, education of, 34. marriage of, 32. second caste in India, 30.

Weigel, Erhard, founds Real-school, 236.

Weimar, Duke of, law for compulsory education, 203.

Westminster, school at, 306.

Williams, Professor, on Comenius's services to pedagogy, 214. on Locke, 223. on Ratke, 209. on Sturm's school course, 176, 177.

Winchester, school at, 306.

Winship, Mr., on Mann's Seventh Annual Report, 287, 288.

Wittenberg, center of humanistic studies, 172. Luther professor at, 168.

Women, education of, among Jews, 41. education of, during Charlemagne's reign, 128. education of, in Aristotle's scheme, 67. education of, in Athens, 60. education of, in China, 47. education of, in Egypt, 50. education of, in India, 35. education of, in Persia, 38. education of, in Rome, 80. education of, in Sparta, 71. education of, Rousseau's ideas of, 248. improvement in culture of, 90. Montaigne's contempt for, 198. status of, among Jews, 41, 44. status of, among oriental nations, 90. status of, in Athens, 58. status of, in China, 22, 27. status of, in Egypt, 49, 51. status of, in India, 31, 32, 35. status of, in Persia, 37. status of, in Rome, 76. status of, in Sparta, 69, 71.

Working schools, Locke urges establishment of, 222.

Writing, during Charlemagne's reign, 128. in Athens, 58. in Chinese schools, 24. in Egypt, 50. in India, 32, 33. in Jewish schools, 43. in monastic education, 119. in Persian schools, 38. in Roman schools, 78. neglected in Sparta, 71.

Wuertemberg, active in school work, 203.

Wuerzburg, University of, 141.

Wuttke, quoted, 34.

Wyclif, reformer, 165.

Xantippe, wife of Socrates, 61.

Xenophon, testimony to Socrates, 62.

Yellow Springs, Antioch College at, 288.

Yverdon, Froebel at, 274. Pestalozzi's school at, 267, 268.

Zeus, Olympian festivals in honor of, 55.

Ziller School, 281.

Zoroaster, dualistic philosophy of, 39. founder of Persian religion, 39. religion of, in Persia, 37.

Zwingli, Swiss reformer, 165.



A SYSTEM OF PEDAGOGY

By EMERSON E. WHITE, A.M., LL.D.

Elements of Pedagogy $1.00 School Management and Moral Training 1.00 Art of Teaching 1.00

By the safe path of experience and in the light of modern psychology the ELEMENTS OF PEDAGOGY points out the limitations of the ordinary systems of school education and shows how their methods may be harmonized and cooerdinated. The fundamental principles of teaching are expounded in a manner which is both logical and convincing, and such a variety and wealth of pedagogical principles are presented as are seldom to be found in a single text-book.

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STANDARDS IN EDUCATION

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By ARTHUR HENRY CHAMBERLAIN, B.S., A.M., Dean and Professor of Education, Throop Polytechnic Institute. $1.00

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- Transcriber's Note: Typographical errors corrected in the text: Page 234 Pedagogism changed to Pedagogium Page 319 Questionaire changed to Questionnaire Page 340 Mechlenburg changed to Mecklenburg Page 346 Schwickrath changed to Schwickerath Page 349 Peslalozzi changed to Pestalozzi -

THE END

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