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History of Education
by Levi Seeley
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His Practice School.—Here he established a pedagogical seminary, having a practice school in which the students instructed children under the criticism of Herbart himself. Concerning his pedagogical activity at Koenigsberg, Herbart says, "Among my many duties, the consideration of educational questions is of especial interest to me. But it is not enough to theorize merely; there must be experiment and practice. Furthermore, I desire to extend the range of my own experience (already covering ten years) in this field. Therefore, I have long had in mind to teach daily for one hour a few selected boys in the presence of such of my students as are familiar with my pedagogical theory. After a little, these students are to take up the work I have begun, and give instruction under my observation. In time, in this way, teachers would be trained, whose method by means of reciprocal observation and discussion must be perfected. As a plan of teaching is valueless without a teacher, and indeed a teacher that is in sympathy with that plan, and is master of the method,—so perhaps a small experimental school, such as I have in mind, would prepare the way for future greater undertakings. There is a word from Kant, 'first experimental schools and then normal schools!'"[158]

This was the first practice school in connection with the chair of pedagogy in a university; the idea, however, does not seem to have taken very deep root, as, with the exception of the celebrated practice school at Jena, under Professor Rein, there is not one now in Germany. Most professors of pedagogy conduct a Seminar, in which some practice work with children is done, but none of them maintain a practice school.

Literary Activity.—Herbart's literary activity at Koenigsberg was great. He worked out his psychological system, and wrote also on philosophy, history, and pedagogy. But his greatest works in the latter field are his "A B C der Anschauung,"[159] and his "Allgemeine Paedagogik,"[160] both of which appeared while he was still at Goettingen.[161] In 1833, after twenty-four years in Koenigsberg, he returned to Goettingen, where his lifework was completed in 1841. Upon his retirement from Koenigsberg, the practice school was closed. Ten years later, a pupil of Herbart, Karl Volkmar Stoy, established the practice school at Jena, of which mention has already been made. Two schools of Herbartians exist in Germany, the Stoy school, which attempts to follow Herbart very closely, and the Ziller school, which is freer in its interpretation of him. The chief exponent of the latter is Professor Wilhelm Rein of Jena, the place which is at present the center of Herbartian activity. In America this movement is under the direction of the National Herbart Society.

His Pedagogical Work.—Aside from the educational movements organized by Herbart and his followers, the credit is due to him of being the first to elevate pedagogy to the dignity of a science. Professor Rein says, "Herbart has rendered an undisputed service in that he has elevated pedagogics to the rank of a science. No one has ever repented of having become familiar with Herbart's teachings, for, in any case, he has thereby added richly to his own attainments. The development of our people will be fortunate if the education of the youth shall be intrusted more and more to those who stand and work upon the lines laid down by Comenius, Pestalozzi, Herbart.

"The pedagogic thinking of Herbart has indeed borne rich fruit in Germany. Other peoples, also, have been blessed by his teachings. Thus Herbart, whose span of life did not reach to the middle of this century, lives in the present. He created the basis of a science of education, which furnishes a safe starting point for all pedagogical theories, and which bears in itself the most fruitful germs for future development."[162]

Modern Herbartians have carried forward that development far beyond its original outline. The terms "many-sided interest," "apperception," "concentration," "culture-epochs," "the formal steps of instruction," "correlation," and "harmonious development," are phrases that have become common in educational literature. The limits of this volume do not permit a discussion of these subjects. Indeed, many of them belong more properly to the disciples of Herbart, rather than to Herbart himself.[163] Herbart's ideal was that education should aim to produce well-rounded men, fit for all the duties of life; men well developed physically, intellectually, morally, and spiritually. He himself was not one-sided, being an enthusiastic teacher as well as psychologist and philosopher.

FOOTNOTES:

[155] Professor Rein indicates that Herbart discussed educational questions at this period. See "Encyklopaedisches Handbuch," Vol. III, p. 468.

[156] For list of works produced, see De Garmo's "Herbart and the Herbartians," p. 17.

[157] Felkin's translation of "Science of Education," p. 16.

[158] Willmann's "Herbart," Vol. II, p. 3.

[159] "The A B C of Observation."

[160] "General Pedagogy."

[161] The best collection of his works is that by Willmann, "Herbart's Paedagogische Schriften," which has not been translated into English.

[162] "Encyklopaedisches Handbuch der Paedagogik," Vol. III, p. 485.

[163] For discussion of these subjects see the Yearbooks of the Herbartian Society, and other works referred to on page 278. For the completest list of references to Herbartian literature, see "Encyklopaedisches Handbuch," Vol. III, p. 485.



CHAPTER XLI

MODERN EDUCATORS (Continued)

HORACE MANN (1796-1859)

Literature.Mrs. Mary T. Mann, Life of Horace Mann; Hinsdale, Horace Mann; Winship, Horace Mann, the Educator; Lang, Horace Mann; F. W. Parker, Article in Educational Review, Vol. XII, p. 65; Wm. T. Harris, Educational Review, Vol. XII, p. 105; Martin, Education in Massachusetts.

Colonel Parker says, "It would be difficult to find a child ten years of age in our sixty-five millions who does not know of Abraham Lincoln or George Washington; but the third, at least, in the list of the builders of the American republic is not known to millions of intelligent people. Washington and Lincoln represent the highest types of heroism, patriotism, and wisdom in great crises of republic-building; Horace Mann, the quiet inner building, the soul-development of the nation."[164]

Horace Mann was born at Franklin, Massachusetts, May 4, 1796. Inured to the hard work of the farm, with but a few weeks' schooling in the winter, never blessed with very rugged health, left at the age of thirteen by the death of his father with the responsibilities of a man, it is no wonder that he "retained only painful recollections of the whole period which ought to be, with every child, a golden age to look back upon."[165]

When nearly twenty years of age, through the influence of Mr. Barrett, an eccentric teacher who came to the village, he decided to go to college, and in six months he prepared for the sophomore class of Brown University. This preparation was a tremendous undertaking which broke down his health for life. He now had an opportunity to satisfy the cravings for knowledge, which the hardships of his early life had not been able to stifle. He was graduated with the highest honors of his class and decided to study law. He spent two years at Brown University as tutor, meanwhile privately studying law, and then resigned that position to enter the law school at Litchfield, Connecticut. Two years later, at the age of twenty-seven, he was admitted to the bar.

As Statesman.—He was called upon to serve his state in the legislature, and later as representative in Congress.[166]

The year 1837 marks a new epoch in the educational history of Massachusetts. "Although Massachusetts had had schools for nearly two centuries, the free school had been, to a great degree, a charity school the country over.... Horace Mann, like Thomas Jefferson, saw clearly that there could be no evolution of a free people without intelligence and morality, and looked upon the common school as the fundamental means of development of men and women who could govern themselves. He saw clearly that the whole problem of the republic which was presenting itself to intelligent educated men rested upon the idea of public education."[167]

As Educator.—Accordingly, having secured the passage of a law establishing a State Board of Education, Mr. Mann was made its secretary at a salary of one thousand dollars a year. To accept this work, he gave up a lucrative law practice, fine prospects of political preferment, and probable fortune, as well as professional fame. He entered upon an educational campaign full of discouragement, colossal in its undertaking, and sure to arouse bitterest animosities. Of this period Colonel Parker says, "The story of his early struggles in this direction has not yet been written. When it is, it will reveal a profound depth of heroism rarely equaled in the history of the world." Mr. Mann visited all parts of the state, lecturing to parents and stimulating the teachers. He was often received with coldness, sometimes with active hostility.

His Annual Reports.—But he persevered until the whole state was awakened. He continued in this work for twelve years, and presented its results in his Annual Reports, the most remarkable documents of American educational literature.[168] In the meantime, he visited Europe, studied the schools, and gave the results of his investigations in his celebrated Seventh Annual Report.

Mr. Martin summarizes the work of Horace Mann during these twelve years as follows: "In the evolution of the Massachusetts public schools during these twelve years of Mr. Mann's labors, statistics tell us that the appropriations for public schools had doubled; that more than two million dollars had been spent in providing better schoolhouses; that the wages of men as teachers had increased sixty-two per cent, of women fifty-one per cent, while the whole number of women employed as teachers had increased fifty-four per cent; one month had been added to the average length of the schools; the ratio of private school expenditures to those of the public schools had diminished from seventy-five per cent to thirty-six per cent; the compensation of school committees had been made compulsory, and their supervision was more general and more constant; three normal schools had been established, and had sent out several hundred teachers, who were making themselves felt in all parts of the state."[169]

Love for the Common Schools.—He believed most fully in the common school, declaring that, "This institution is the greatest discovery ever made by man.... In two grand characteristic attributes, it is supereminent over all others: first in its universality, for it is capacious enough to receive and cherish in its parental bosom every child that comes into the world; and second, in the timeliness of the aid it proffers,—its early, seasonable supplies of counsel and guidance making security antedate danger."

In his first Annual Report Mr. Mann asserts that, "The object of the common school system is to give to every child a free, straight, solid pathway, by which he can walk directly up from the ignorance of an infant to a knowledge of the primary duties of man." Horace Mann could hardly have anticipated the kindergarten for the infant years, and the high school at the end of the course, as they now stand in the common school systems of our country. And yet, what has already been accomplished in our educational scheme fulfills the prophecy implied in his words.

The best known and most important of Mr. Mann's written documents is his Seventh Annual Report, in which he gives an account of European schools. Concerning this Mr. Winship says, "He had made a crisis, and his Seventh Report was an immortal document; opposition to the normal schools was never more to be heard in the land, and oral instruction, the word method, and less corporal punishment were certain to come to the Boston schools."[170]

After severing his connection with the State Board of Education, Mr. Mann served in Congress from 1848 to 1853, and was defeated in his candidacy for governor of Massachusetts. At the age of fifty-six he accepted the presidency of Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio, a position which he held until his death in 1859. He closed his last address to the graduating class at Antioch with these noble words: "Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity." He himself had won many great victories for humanity,—in the improvement of the common school systems of his native country; in the establishment of free schools; in the founding of normal schools where teachers might be trained; in the adoption of milder means of discipline; in the improvement of schoolhouses; in the better support of schools; in better methods of instruction; and in the inspiration he gave to teachers for all time. Therefore he at least had no need to be "ashamed to die."

FOOTNOTES:

[164] Educational Review, Vol. XII, p. 65.

[165] Mrs. Mann, "Life of Horace Mann," p. 10.

[166] Mr. Mann completed the term made vacant by the death of John Quincy Adams, and was reelected for the two succeeding terms.

[167] Colonel Parker in article cited.

[168] For an analysis of these Reports, see Dr. Harris's article in Educational Review, Vol. XII, p. 112.

[169] "Education in Massachusetts," p. 174.

[170] "Horace Mann," p. 76.



CHAPTER XLII

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF GERMANY

Literature.Parsons, Prussian Schools through American Eyes; Klemm, European Schools; Prince, Methods in the German Schools; Seeley, The German Common School System; Russell, German Higher Schools; Bolton, Secondary Education in Germany.

We have traced the historical development of education to the present time. It now remains for us to examine briefly the educational systems of a few leading countries, in order that comparisons may be made, lessons drawn, and the present condition of education clearly set forth.[171]

The plan of discussion to be followed in each of the four systems considered will embrace, 1, Administration; 2, School Attendance; 3, the Schools; 4, Support of Schools; 5, the Teachers.

Administration.—Each German state is independent in its school system, though there are many features in common, and there is a mutual understanding on most educational questions between the various states, which makes their systems practically uniform. The system here described is that of Prussia, which, being the largest, most populous, and most influential of the states comprised within the German Empire, as well as the foremost in educational development, may well be taken as a type.

There is a minister of education whose jurisdiction extends over the whole kingdom. He represents the school interests in the Prussian diet or Landtag, listens to appeals, distributes school moneys, and is the general educational executive officer. Each of the thirteen royal provinces has a school board whose presiding officer is ex officio the royal president of the province. With him are associated other royal counselors, and pedagogically trained men,—school superintendents and principals. This board consists of men of highest integrity and intelligence. Their duties extend to the higher institutions of learning, and to institutions for the unfortunate; they have charge of the school finances of their provinces, adopt the school books that are used in the higher schools, and appoint teachers in the normal schools. They report annually to the minister, and as much more frequently as he may require.

The thirteen royal provinces are subdivided into the so-called governments (Regierungen), of which Prussia contains thirty-six. These governments have an administrative school board similar to that of the province, with duties within their territory corresponding to those of the provincial board. They come into close touch with the schools, have a voice in the appointment of teachers and in the selection of text-books for the elementary schools. Their work is especially with the common schools, while that of the provincial boards is with the higher schools.

The governments are subdivided into districts. There is a district school board similar to that of the larger territories mentioned, but the chief and most important school officer of the district is the school inspector. The district inspector is always a man of pedagogical training and experience. He is appointed for life and devotes his whole time to the schools in his district. His efficient and wise inspection of the schools insures their success. The district school board erects school buildings, determines the amount of the teachers' salaries, oversees their pensions, enforces compulsory attendance laws, decides upon taxable property, fixes boundary lines, and provides for the finances.

Finally, there is the local school board for each separate school. These men have charge of the external matters of the school such as the direct enforcement of attendance, the repairs, supplies, etc.; but they may not interfere with the teacher in his work. In the country villages they have a voice in the choice of the teacher. The teacher may appeal to them in matters that need immediate attention.

In the administration of the schools men of the highest character are chosen without reference to their political leanings. There are usually teachers among the number, on the principle that those who have made the most careful study of education are the most competent to administer it.

School Attendance.—Every child in normal health is required to attend school between the ages of six and fourteen for every day that the school is in session. Parents are held responsible for the attendance of their children, and may be fined or imprisoned for non-fulfillment of the requirements of the law. In case parents are unable to secure the attendance of their children, the latter are placed in reform schools. The law is carried out with great strictness and wonderful efficiency. For example, in 1893, out of 5,299,310 children of school age in Prussia, there were only 945 unexcused absentees,—that is, 2 in 10,000. All parents expect their children to be in school every day, and the children grow up fully impressed with the idea that they are to attend school regularly. The chief reason for the efficiency of compulsory attendance in Germany lies in the fact that it covers every school day, and therefore does not allow the formation of habits of truancy.

The Schools.—The common school (Volksschule) of Germany reaches every child, as we have seen. In villages the sexes are taught together; but in cities they are generally separated. The school hours are from eight to eleven in the forenoon, for six days in the week, and from two to four for four days in the week, Wednesday and Saturday afternoons being holidays. These hours may be varied to suit local conditions. The school is in session for about forty-two weeks each year. Each teacher is required to give about twenty-eight hours of service per week, while the pupils must attend from sixteen hours (for beginners) to twenty-eight. The common schools of Prussia are now practically free. The common school is intended for the common people, and it is not followed by a high or secondary school. This is the greatest weakness of the German school system. It perpetuates the class system, and effectually prevents the child from rising above his station.

The sole opportunity for the child of the lower classes to receive a higher education is through the normal school, and even this privilege is limited to a small number of the pupils who show special ability. We may mention also the Continuation schools, which are held evenings and Sundays. These schools are rapidly multiplying and becoming more efficient, as many of them are held in the daytime. They furnish an opportunity for the child who has completed the common school to review his work, and also to add some subjects that will be of utility in his lifework.

In general, there are three classes of secondary schools,—the Gymnasium, the Realgymnasium, and Oberrealschule. Each prepares for the university, and each has nine classes; namely, Sexta, Quinta, Quarta, Untertertia, Obertertia, Untersecunda, Obersecunda, Unterprima, and Oberprima. These schools differ chiefly in the amount of classics they offer, the Gymnasium laying stress upon the classics and the Realschule upon the realities.[172] Neither of these schools succeeds the common school, and the boy who is to pursue one of these courses of study must begin at not later than nine or ten years of age.[173] Thus, if a professional life is chosen for a boy, he cannot attend the common school,—at least not for more than the first three or four years,—but must be sent to one of the schools above mentioned, for they alone prepare for the university, and without a university course he cannot enter a profession. The university is the crowning institution of the German school system.

Support of Schools.—About one half of the expense of the schools is paid from the general state fund, one third from local taxation, and the balance comes from income from endowments, church funds, tuition, etc. The general tendency is to make the schools free, according to the recommendation of the minister of education, but some communities still continue to charge tuition. In these cases, there are poor schools for those who cannot pay tuition, thus affording school privileges to all.

The Teachers.—All teachers of the Prussian common schools are normal graduates, or have had an equal pedagogic preparation.[174] Graduates of the university seldom enter the common school work; they teach in the secondary schools, in private schools, and as tutors. The common school teachers generally come from the common schools. If a child shows special aptness for teaching, the attention of the school inspector is called to him, and, with consent of his parents, he is sent to a preparatory school for three years. His work there is entirely academic in character. At seventeen he enters the normal school and has another year of academic work, after which he begins his technical work. His normal course is three years, the last year being given almost entirely to professional work. Each class in the normal school contains from thirty to thirty-six students, thus making the total number of students in a German normal school about one hundred. As only about thirty can enter from the whole district, it will appear that the opportunities for children to extend the common school course are very limited.

After completing the normal course, the graduate is provisionally appointed to a position for three years. He is now under the oversight of his former principal, as well as of the district inspector. If he proves successful in teaching, he is required to pass a final examination, chiefly on pedagogical questions, and then has a life tenure, and can be removed only on the ground of inefficiency or immorality. The average tenure of office with teachers is twenty-five years. The salary is often very low, but with free rent, fuel, and light, the schoolmaster's income is by no means inadequate. His salary increases with the years of service, and his prospective pension also increases year by year.[175]

The German schoolmaster is a state officer. He commands, by virtue of his position, the respect which his character, his self-sacrifice, his efficiency, and the great work that he is doing deserve. "It is the schoolmaster that has won our battles," said Von Moltke; and it is he that is preparing Germany for the arts of peace as well as those of war.

The Prussian school system is the most efficient in the world, at least so far as the education of the masses is concerned. It has practically obliterated illiteracy in the kingdom, more than 991/2 per cent of the recruits received into the army in 1893 being able to read and write. Many countries have materially improved their school systems by adopting some of the lessons taught by Prussia.

The three most important features of the German school system are:—

1. Only professionally trained teachers can be employed.

2. Such teachers are appointed to permanent positions.

3. The attendance of every child during the entire school year is compulsory.

FOOTNOTES:

[171] It will, of course, be impossible within the limitations of this work to give more than a mere outline of these systems. The reader will find full discussions in the works referred to in the Literature. Particular attention is called to the Reports of the United States Commissioner of Education from the year 1895 to the present time.

[172] In addition to these schools, there are also the Progymnasium, the Realprogymnasium, and the Realschule, which, as their names indicate, are modified forms of the principal types. These schools do not offer the full nine years' course. See footnote on p. 236 for explanation of the work of these schools.

[173] Russell's "German Higher Schools" fully describes these institutions.

[174] In 1893 there were only 241 teachers out of 71,731 in Prussia, who were outside of the above requirement. These 241 were old teachers who began before the law was so strict, and who, because of their efficiency, are retained. In a few years this band will entirely disappear, and all will be normal graduates.

[175] For full statement of salaries and pensions, see "German Common School System," pp. 172, 195. Though the German teacher's salary is much smaller than that of the average American teacher, taking into account the greater purchasing power of money in Germany, the simple habits, and fewer demands upon the purse, the German teacher is fully as well off as the American.



CHAPTER XLIII

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF FRANCE

Literature.Parsons, French Schools through American Eyes; Richard, The School System of France; Weigert, Die Volksschule in Frankreich; Schroeder, Das Volksschulwesen Frankreichs; United States Commissioner's Reports.

Administration.—France, like Germany, has a minister of education who sits in the cabinet of the president. The work of his office is divided into three departments, higher, secondary, and primary, and at the head of each there is a director. There are two advisory bodies in charge of education. One has general oversight of all the school interests of France. The other is divided into three boards, appointed by the minister himself, for supervision of the three departments above mentioned. The general board consists of sixty members, fifteen appointed by the president of the republic, and the others appointed by the board itself whenever vacancies occur. This body meets once a year to hear reports, to pass upon the general school policy, and to legislate for the schools. Out of its membership is chosen an executive committee that meets once a week, and upon which devolves the chief management of educational affairs. This committee is answerable to the general board, to which it renders an annual report. Men of the highest character and intelligence constitute this board.

The whole of France is divided into seventeen parts called academies. These divisions do not coincide with the political divisions, but are made merely for convenience in school administration. Each academie has a school board to which is committed the general oversight of all educational interests within its territory, and particularly the care of the higher schools.

A narrower division is into departements. There are ninety of these in France and Algiers. Each is governed by an educational council which has charge of the elementary schools. The principal officer of a departement is a school inspector, a trained educator who devotes all his time to the schools. In each departement there is a normal school for each sex, though in a few instances two departements combine to maintain one normal school.

The departement is subdivided into arrondissements. Each has an executive officer and a council in close touch with the schools. Lastly there are the cantons, whose school board has direct control of each individual school.

In this manner from the highest to the lowest division there are executive officers with well-defined duties—all working together in perfect harmony and with great efficiency. Trained teachers often sit in these councils as members and advisers. Thus the highest pedagogical training of the republic is utilized to obtain the best administration of the school interests.

School Attendance.—School attendance is compulsory upon children from six to thirteen years of age for every school day. As in Germany, the child is not compelled to attend the public school, but must receive instruction for the required time and in a manner approved by the State. It is the right of the child to be educated, and the State asserts its prerogative to secure that right to the child, whatever be the attitude of the parent. But the manner of securing it is left to the parent if he chooses to exercise that privilege. Although France has had compulsory education only since 1882, the law is effective, and grows more so each year. In 1895, 91 per cent of all the children of school age attended school regularly.

The Schools.—In the arrangement of her schools, and the perfect articulation between them from the mother school to the university, France has the most perfect system in the world. The mother schools (ecoles maternelles) take children from two to six years of age and care for them from early morning till evening, thereby permitting parents to go out to service. They combine the idea of the day nursery and the kindergarten. These schools, in communes of 2000 or more, are supported by the State, as are other schools.

Instead of the mother school, sometimes the infant school (ecole infantine) takes the child from four to seven and prepares him for the primary school. This school is more nearly like the kindergarten than the mother school. It is supported wholly by the State and is a part of the school system, its work being entirely in sympathy with that which follows. In this respect, France has taken a more advanced step than any other nation.

With the lower primary school (ecole primaire elementaire), which covers the period of from six to thirteen years of age, begins compulsory education. The sexes are always taught separately except in villages of less than five hundred inhabitants. The pupils all dress in the same garb. The school is in session five days in the week, Thursdays being free. There is no religious instruction in the schools. A peculiar and very important factor is a book of registration for each child, in which specimens of work in each subject are entered once a month for the whole school course. This book is kept at the school, and furnishes an accurate indication of progress to parents or inspectors.[176]

Following the lower primary school is the higher primary (ecole primaire superieure), which has two courses, one for pupils who wish to review their elementary work and add some subjects, with the view of better preparing for the ordinary walks of life; and the high school course for those who wish to prepare for academic life. The former is indefinite in length; the latter requires five years, thus being completed at the eighteenth year. Here appears another superiority over the German system, in which, it will be remembered, there is no connection between the common and the high school.

These high schools prepare for the normal school and for the university. There are also many other kinds of schools under State support,—such as technical schools, apprentice schools, schools of mines, etc. In the advantages offered to young men for perfecting themselves in a trade or calling, France surpasses all other countries.

Finally there are the State universities, fifteen in number, the professors of which are appointed by the State. While the State pays all salaries, the maintenance of the buildings depends upon fees, endowments, and such local support as is obtainable. These institutions are open to students from the higher primary schools, thus making a complete system from the lowest school to the highest, and offering remarkable advantages to all. All degrees are given by the State, thereby securing perfect uniformity.

Support of Schools.—All of the schools above mentioned, from the mother school to the university, are free. The expenses are distributed as follows: (1) The State pays the salaries of all teachers, administrators, and inspectors, and all the expenses of the normal schools. Thus it will be seen that the bulk of the expense of education is borne by the State in general. (2) The departements erect the normal school and furnish the apparatus and supplies for the same. (3) The communes pay for the needed supplies, for the janitor, and for other local necessities of the elementary schools. They may also tax themselves to increase the salaries of teachers beyond the State allowance. Each community thus has the power to decide whether it will be content with an average school, merely fulfilling the State requirements, or whether it will have a superior school taught by the best teachers obtainable.

The Teachers.—There are two classes of normal schools in France, the elementary, of which there are eighty-seven for men and eighty-five for women,—practically one for each sex in each of the departments,—and the higher, of which there is one for men, one for women, and one for kindergartners. Nearly all teachers are graduates of normal schools, and as no candidates for positions are considered unless they hold a normal certificate, in the near future all the teachers of France will be professionally trained.

Candidates for admission to the normal school must be at least sixteen years of age, of good moral character, and of fair abilities. They must pledge themselves to teach for not less than ten years.[177] The elementary course covers three years. After graduation, the young teacher is appointed provisionally until he has taken a final examination, which must be within ten years. If he has been successful in the schoolroom, as well as in this second examination, he becomes a permanent teacher, and can be removed only for immorality.

The course in the advanced normal school takes three or more years, depending upon the preparation with which the candidate enters. Only those between eighteen and twenty-five can be admitted. These schools train principals, superintendents, inspectors, and teachers for the elementary normal schools. They are the model schools of France, and shape the educational practice of the republic. Graduates from the elementary normal schools are not debarred from entering the higher normal schools; thus ambitious teachers are encouraged to prepare themselves for higher work.

No other country in the world does so much as France to assist young teachers in their preparation. In all of the normal schools mentioned, tuition, board, room, and books are free. And when the young teacher has been graduated, the State recognizes its own work by giving him the preference in appointments.

There are five classes of teachers in the elementary schools, the lowest being the fifth. The young graduate teacher begins in the lowest class and works his way up. The annual salaries for the different classes are indicated by the following table:—

- - CLASSES OF TEACHERS MEN WOMEN - - Fifth Class $200.00 $200.00 Fourth Class 240.00 240.00 Third Class 300.00 280.00 Second Class 360.00 300.00 First Class 400.00 320.00 - -

Additional allowances are made in large schools, and the communes often supplement the above amounts.

The annual salaries of principals are as follows:—

- - HIGHER PRIMARY NORMAL SCHOOLS PRINCIPALS - - Both Sexes Men Women - - - Fifth Class $360.00 $700.00 $600.00 Fourth Class 400.00 800.00 700.00 Third Class 450.00 900.00 800.00 Second Class 500.00 1000.00 900.00 First Class 560.00 1100.00 1000.00 - - -

The assistants in these schools receive:—

- - HIGHER PRIMARY NORMAL SCHOOLS ASSISTANTS - - Both Sexes Men Women - - - Fifth Class $240.00 $500.00 $440.00 Fourth Class 280.00 540.00 480.00 Third Class 320.00 580.00 520.00 Second Class 380.00 620.00 560.00 First Class 440.00 680.00 600.00 - - -

In addition to these amounts there is also a small allowance for rent.

After thirty-five years of service, the teacher may retire upon three fourths of his salary as a pension.

Without doubt France has outstripped all other nations in educational progress during the last twenty-five years,—the period in which her school system has been constructed. The three great signs of advance in French education are the establishment of free schools (1881); compulsory education and the secularization of the schools (1882); and the restriction of teachers to lay persons (1886).[178] The strong features of the French school system may be stated as follows:—

1. Completeness and harmony of the system, covering the period from early childhood till the prescribed education is finished.

2. Thoroughly trained teachers.

3. Two kinds of normal schools to meet the various educational requirements of teachers.

4. Liberal support of schools of all kinds.

5. Admirable administration of the schools.

FOOTNOTES:

[176] See Parsons, "French Schools through American Eyes," p. 82.

[177] This is no hardship, as they fully expect to devote their lives to teaching.

[178] Previous to this the members of religious orders could teach in the public schools.

NOTE.—In 1902 the government still further restricted the teaching by religious orders. It is now proposed not only to forbid all teaching by these orders, but also to sequestrate the property of such congregations as exist solely for teaching purposes. This will close about 3500 schools of the Christian Brothers which have existed for a long time, and necessitate the organization by the government of corresponding school facilities to supply their place. Five years are allowed to effect the change..



CHAPTER XLIV

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF ENGLAND

Literature.—Sharpless, English Education; Craik, Education and the State; Barnard, English Pedagogy; Clark, The State and Education; Gill, Systems of Education; Balfour, Educational Systems of Great Britain and Ireland; United States Commissioner's Reports for 1889 to 1902.

Nearly a thousand years ago Alfred the Great encouraged education of the higher classes to the exclusion of the masses—a principle that has governed education in England until within recent times. Statistics taken in 1845 showed that only one in six of the inhabitants could read, one in four write, and one in fifty cipher as far as the Rule of Three. Since 1870 important changes have been made, and the number of children in the elementary schools of England has increased from 1,500,000 in 1870 to nearly 6,000,000 in 1902.[179]

"The principal features of the law of 1870 were (1) the obligation assumed by the government to secure school provision for all children of ages 5 to 14; (2) the recognition or creation of local agencies (private or church managers or elected boards) for the execution of this purpose; (3) provision for securing efficient instruction by means of an annual grant from the treasury to be distributed to the local managers upon the results of examination and inspection by government inspectors; (4) the creation of a central agency to carry out the provisions on the part of the government and of new local agencies or school boards which every school district must elect except upon satisfactory evidence that schools efficient and adequate to the needs of the district were otherwise provided; (5) the admission of private and public elementary schools to a share in the government grant upon the same conditions; (6) the requirements that board schools should be strictly non-sectarian and the children of private schools protected from enforced sectarian instruction by a conscience clause."[180]

The most important modifications of this law are the laws of 1899 and 1903. The law of 1899 has reference to the general administration of education in England and Wales, while that of 1903 entirely changes the local management of schools and extends the sphere of public education to secondary as well as elementary schools.

Administration. 1. General.—Under the provisions of the law of 1899 the general administration of educational affairs is committed to a board of education consisting of a president, appointed by the crown, lord president of the council, the principal secretaries of state, the first commissioner of the treasury, and the chancellor of the exchequer—not less than five nor more than fifteen members. By means of a sufficient number of royal inspectors who are trained educators, whose duty it is to visit the schools and report thereon, the board of education is able to reach every school in the kingdom. There is also a consultation committee, two-thirds of whom are "persons representing universities and bodies interested in education," whose office is to advise the board of education.

2. Counties and County Boroughs.—By the terms of the law of 1903 the council of every county and of every county borough are constituted a "local education authority," which controls secular instruction in all elementary schools within its district, and performs the duties of former school boards and school attendance committees. They may also establish high schools. In boroughs of over 10,000 and cities of over 20,000 inhabitants a special board or "local education authority" is allowed.

3. Local Managers.—All public undenominational (board) schools have a body of six managers, four of whom are appointed by the "local education authority" and two by the minor local authority. All public denominational (voluntary) schools shall also have six managers, four of whom are foundation managers and two are appointed by state authority. A greater number of local managers may be chosen, but the above proportion of members must hold.

School Attendance.—The school age is from five to fourteen, and the local authorities are required to compel attendance for that period excepting in case where the pupil has obtained the educational certificate of exemption, which cannot be given before the child is twelve years of age. The average attendance in 1902 reached nearly 83 per cent of the enrollment. England has stringent laws in regard to the employment of children in factories, mines, etc., which are well enforced.

The Schools.—We have already mentioned the board and the voluntary schools which supply the principal means of elementary education. The voluntary schools are under the fostering care of the Church, and their enrollment includes more than half of the children. Secondary education is carried on chiefly in private schools, though the law of 1903 permits the establishment of high schools to follow elementary education. The private secondary schools are of two general classes, "grammar" and "public" schools. The former are intended for the middle classes, their main purpose being to prepare for civil service, while the latter are the great endowed schools like Rugby, Eton, etc.

Support of Schools.—The expense of the elementary schools is met by parliamentary grants, by local taxes, and by endowments. Parliamentary grants cover about 62 per cent of the total, and the balance is made up from the other sources. Formerly both denominational and undenominational schools participated alike in the government grants, but the former were compelled to make up the balance needed by private subscriptions, school pence, etc., while the latter were allowed to levy a local tax for this purpose. Under the law of 1903 both may share alike in the local tax, thereby removing the necessity for private subscriptions.

The Teachers.—The training of teachers is as peculiar as the other features of the English system. Lancaster and Bell introduced the monitorial system, by which one teacher could take charge of a large school, the older pupils teaching the younger ones. This idea has been perpetuated in the "pupil teacher" scheme. Children fifteen years old are apprenticed to a school to assist in the work, and in return receive instruction and a small stipend. At eighteen or nineteen they enter the teachers' college for a two years' course. They may instead at this time take an examination for the teachers' certificate, and if successful, they are known as "assistant teachers." That the "pupil teacher" idea has lost its force is shown by the following facts: From 1876 to 1893 the increase of graduate teachers was 114 per cent, the increase of "assistant teachers" 691 per cent, while there was a decrease of 15 per cent in the number of "pupil teachers." This would seem to indicate that England is demanding better prepared teachers. The 131 teachers' colleges graduate about 1900 students each year, which is about two thirds of the number of teachers needed.

Teachers' positions are practically permanent, and the salaries are good, being in 1901 an average for certificate teachers of $644 a year for men and $432 for women.

Each teacher is entitled to a pension at the age of 65. This amounts to at least $330 for men who have been in the service from their twenty-first year, and $225 for women. If obliged to retire earlier on account of breakdown, the amount of pension will be proportionate to the length of service. Men teachers contribute three pounds annually and women two pounds to this fund, while the State appropriates the balance needed.

When one considers the traditions that have controlled English education for centuries, and recalls the conservatism that rules English life, one can only marvel at the tremendous strides taken by England during the last third of a century. Victor Hugo says: "The English patrician order is patrician in the absolute sense of the word. No feudal system was ever more illustrious, more terrible, and more tenacious of life." England has had to overcome her patrician ideas in regard to education, and her growth in the last thirty years has been more rapid and more effectual than for a thousand years before. Although she still has many problems to solve, her recent educational enterprise places her in the front rank among the nations of the world in school matters. The law of 1903 consisted of many compromises which satisfy neither party. It will doubtless be followed by still further changes in the near future.

FOOTNOTES:

[179] The total enrollment in 1902 was 5,881,278, or 18.08 per cent of the population.

[180] Report of the United States Commissioner of Education for 1896-1897, Vol. I, p. 12.



CHAPTER XLV

THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES

Literature.Boone, Education in the United States; Williams, History of Modern Education; Barnard, American Journal of Education; Horace Mann, Annual Reports; United States Commissioners Reports, especially the more recent ones.

Each state in the United States has its own independent system of education; there is no national system. In 1867 Congress established a National Bureau of Education, the function of which is "to collect statistics and facts showing the condition and progress of education in the several states and territories, and diffuse such information respecting the organization and management of schools and school systems and methods of teaching as shall aid the people of the United States in the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the country." The bureau issues an annual report, which is replete with information concerning the educational interests of our own and other lands.

The United States government has given vast tracts of the public domain, as well as large sums of money, to the various states, out of which have been created, in some cases, large school funds which yield a permanent income.[181] Up to 1876 the United States had granted nearly eighty million acres of land for educational purposes.

The Bureau of Education is obliged to rely on such statistics as its correspondents are willing to give, yet its work has been so valuable, its information so extensive and accurate, and its educational purpose so high, that cordial cooeperation is generally given. This annual report is the finest issued by any nation in the world.[182]

THE STATE SYSTEMS

Administration.—At the head of each state school system, there is an executive officer usually called the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. He is chosen for from two to five years, sometimes by popular vote, sometimes by the joint houses of the Legislature, sometimes by the State Board of Education, and in some cases is appointed by the governor. His duties are to make reports, to examine teachers, to inspect schools, to distribute school moneys, to hear appeals in school matters, and to have general oversight of the educational interests of the state. In some states there is a State Board of Education that cooeperates with the State Superintendent. The interests of education seem to be best conserved when there is a non-partisan State Board of Education, which appoints the executive officers and has general charge of the schools.

The second administrative unit is the county, over which is placed a Superintendent of Schools. He is chosen by popular vote or is appointed by the State Board of Education, and holds office generally about three years. He must visit the schools, examine teachers, hold institutes, distribute school moneys, and oversee the educational work. The number of schools under the inspection of the county superintendent is often so great, and the territory so large, that his work cannot be well done. In many cases the compensation is so small that he is obliged to devote a part of his time to some other occupation. The work is of sufficient importance to demand the full time of a competent man; and the salary ought to be proportionate to such needs.

The next division is that of the township, though in most states the school district is the next unit. The so-called "township system" has been adopted in several states, and recommended in others. This system has a board of education which appoints teachers, purchases supplies, and manages the schools of the whole township. The district system has outlived its usefulness. It maintains more schools than are warranted by the small number of pupils. Many of these could be abandoned in favor of better schools in neighboring districts, to which the children could be sent. It often secures for its trustee a man of limited education and narrow views, who conducts the school on the cheapest plan possible, while the larger territory of the township furnishes better material from which to choose; it limits its educational plan to the most elementary course, whereas the "township system" contemplates a central high school open to all children of the township. The "township system" also admits of the employment of a special school inspector or superintendent if desired. In some instances, two or more townships unite in the employment of such a superintendent.

School Attendance.—The school age commences at from four to six and extends to from eighteen to twenty-one, varying greatly in the different states. The United States Commissioner's Report now covers the period of from five to eighteen. On this basis he reports that 71.54 per cent of the children who are of school age are enrolled in the schools, while the average attendance is about 69 per cent of the enrollment. This is a very low percentage as compared with that in Germany, France, and England. The longer period covered by us (five to eighteen) thus acts unfavorably. The natural period of the child's life to be devoted to education is from six to fourteen.

School attendance in the United States is by no means so regular as it should be, even during the period (six to fourteen). To remedy this, compulsory education laws have been passed in most states. They cover periods varying from eight consecutive weeks and a total of twenty weeks during the year, to the full school year. These laws are generally a dead letter, partly because of their own weakness, and partly because of the indifference of the people. Compulsory attendance to be effective must cover the whole school year, and must carry a sufficient penalty for non-enforcement.

The Schools.—The schools of the United States may be classified as follows: 1, the elementary school having an eight years' course which should be completed at fourteen; 2, the secondary school with a four years' course that fits for college or its equivalent training; 3, the undergraduate school or college with its four years' course; and the graduate school or university. The elementary school is generally separated into primary and grammar grades, and is sometimes preceded by the kindergarten. The secondary school usually offers commercial or other practical courses to those who do not wish to prepare for college. Colleges differ greatly in the scope of their work and in their courses of instruction. Most universities open their doors to those who are not graduates of colleges. In all states the elementary and the high schools are free, while in some, particularly the western states, the entire expense of the child's education from kindergarten to university is defrayed at public expense.

Support of the Schools.—The annual cost of the schools of the country is about two hundred and fifty million dollars. About two thirds of this is raised by local tax, about one fifth by state tax, and the balance is derived chiefly from permanent funds, etc. The preponderance of the local tax shows that to each community is intrusted the important matter of deciding as to the quality of school it will maintain. The American people have always been liberal toward education, and no money is voted so freely by legislative bodies as that necessary for the education of the young.

The Teachers.—There are over 440,000 teachers in the United States, of whom about 28 per cent are men and 72 per cent women. Only about 10 per cent of these have had a professional training. The average term of service is five years, and about 100,000 new teachers are needed every year. To supply this number the normal schools and other institutions for training teachers are utterly inadequate, and will remain so until the average term of service is lengthened.

The principal institutions for training teachers are the normal school, the city training school, the pedagogical departments of universities, and teachers' training classes. To these may be added the teachers' institute and the summer school, which while they stimulate and instruct the teachers, cannot be said to give them a professional training.

The course of the normal school usually covers three years, and embraces both the theory of education and practice in teaching children. Within the last few years, many colleges have established chairs of pedagogy, but the work remains inadequate for a professional training so long as practice in teaching is not added to the requirements.

Teachers are appointed by local boards generally for one year, though they often remain undisturbed year after year. The average monthly salary of men in 1902 was $49.05, and of women $39.77.

So long as professional training of the teacher guarantees neither permanence of position nor adequate remuneration, many men and women with ability to teach will be tempted to devote their energies to other work, leaving the nation's most sacred trust, the education of its children, to those who will not or cannot properly prepare themselves for that great responsibility.

But there is in present tendencies no need for discouragement. Everywhere brave men and women are preparing themselves in earnest for the high calling of teacher, hopeful that the future will bring them the recognition they deserve.

With free schools, abler teachers, consecrated to their calling, and better courses of instruction; with a people generous in expenditures for educational purposes, a cooeperation of parents and teachers, and a willingness to learn from other nations; with the many educational periodicals, the pedagogical books, and teachers' institutes to broaden and stimulate the teacher,—the friends of education in America may labor on, assured that the present century will give abundant fruitage to the work which has so marvelously prospered in the past.

FOOTNOTES:

[181] In 1836 there was a large surplus in the national treasury, which, by act of Congress, was ordered "to be deposited with the several states, in proportion to their representation in Congress." The amount so distributed equaled about $30,000,000. Most of the states receiving this deposit set it aside as a permanent school fund. See Boone, "History of Education in the United States," p. 91.

[182] See an article by M. Stevens on "The National Bureau of Education," in the New York School Journal, Vol. LVI, p. 743, for a full description of this bureau and its work.



APPENDIX

RECENT EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS

Literature.—Proceedings of the National Educational Society; Reports of the Commissioner of Education; Yearbooks of the National Society for the Scientific Study of Education; Parker Memorial Number of the New York School Journal, April 5, 1902.

In order to bring the history of education down to the present and awaken an interest in questions that are now occupying the attention of educational thinkers, a brief study of recent educational movements, theories, and organizations is here presented. Such study should serve as an introduction of the young teacher to the actual world of thought, in which he is to live, and present to him the questions which he must aid in solving.

The National Educational Association.—One of the most potent factors of education in the United States is the National Educational Association, founded in Philadelphia in 1857. The purpose of this organization, in the language of the preamble to its constitution, is, "To elevate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teaching, and to promote the cause of popular education in the United States." It holds its meetings annually in different parts of the country, attracting large numbers of teachers of all ranks and from every section.[183] There are eighteen departments, each of which holds special sessions during the time of the general meeting, which occurs early in the summer vacation. The department of superintendence, however, holds a midwinter meeting which attracts the leading educators of the country.

Very valuable service has been rendered by the Association through its committees that have been appointed from time to time to investigate and report upon special problems. Among the notable reports may be mentioned the following: Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary Schools; Report of the Committee of Fifteen on Elementary Schools; Report of the Committee on Normal Schools; Report of the Committee on Rural Schools.

The discussions of the Association are preserved in an annual volume of proceedings. Its committee reports often appear also in special bulletins. It must be admitted in general that the National Educational Association fulfils its mission, as outlined in the preamble quoted, in an admirable way.

THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF EDUCATION

While the United States has no national system of education, each state having entire charge of its own educational affairs, there is a national bureau whose office is twofold; namely: (1) to collect statistics, and (2) to diffuse information concerning educational affairs. This bureau was established by Congress in 1867, and since 1869 it has been a bureau of the Department of the Interior. Henry Barnard was appointed the first commissioner, and he has been succeeded in that office by John Eaton, N. H. R. Dawson, William T. Harris, and Elmer E. Brown, the present incumbent.

This bureau fosters the interests of education in three important directions: (1) by its publications; (2) by its maintenance of a pedagogical library, the most extensive in the country; and (3) by its pedagogical museum, in which every feature of educational enterprise is exhibited.

The most valuable service rendered, however, is through its publications. It issues an annual report which has grown to two large volumes of more than twenty-four hundred pages, in which are found statistics concerning all kinds of schools and educational enterprises throughout the United States. Nor are its investigations limited to our own country and its territories. Educational movements in other countries are described from time to time by experts with a view to furnish complete information concerning current educational history throughout the world. These reports are recognized as by far the best furnished by any country.

In addition to the annual report the bureau issues many pamphlets bearing upon special topics and furnishing valuable information.

In view of the fact that such vast interests are involved,—the instruction of over twenty million pupils, requiring the service of more than half a million teachers, involving the expenditure of nearly three hundred million dollars per annum, and of vital interest to the whole population,—many educators believe that the bureau should be elevated to the dignity of a department of the government with a cabinet officer at its head.

THE QUINCY MOVEMENT

In 1873 the School Board of Quincy, Massachusetts, took a new and very important departure, namely, that of calling an educational expert to take charge of their schools. They realized that the office of a school board is to administer the external matters, but trained experts should have entire direction of the internal affairs of the schools, such as discipline, methods of instruction, course of study, etc. They called Colonel Francis W. Parker (1837-1902) to the superintendency and said to him practically: "We will furnish the equipment and the teachers, and it is your business to run the schools. We will not interfere with your methods or your plans, but will hold you responsible for results." Colonel Parker, who had just returned from a careful study of European schools, accepted this responsibility and at once began reforms in primary education not second in importance to those of Horace Mann a generation earlier. The "New Education" and "Quincy Methods" began to be discussed everywhere, and Quincy became the educational Mecca for teachers from every part of the land. Some of the reforms inaugurated were the following: Text-books were abolished, the learning of the alphabet discontinued, mere memorizing of facts discountenanced, nature work was emphasized, concrete methods employed, and all school work made natural and interesting. The results in comparison with those of other schools were phenomenal, and it was recognized that a great reform movement had been started.

Doubtless, like reformers generally, Colonel Parker was too extreme. Some of his innovations were later modified, even by the originator himself. Nevertheless, the Quincy Movement did incalculable good by breaking up the formalism that prevailed, by making the work practical and interesting, by offering suitable material, by improving the methods of instruction, and by awakening great interest in educational problems among both the teachers and the public at large. For this great work at Quincy, for his many years' service as the head of the Chicago Normal School, and for his stimulating influence upon elementary education throughout the country, Colonel Parker deserves a place among the foremost educators of recent times. The example of the Quincy School Board in placing an educational expert over their schools has been followed by many cities. The office of city superintendent has been created, and to him is now committed duties that formerly were undertaken by members of the School Board who were without professional training. This change marks a decided step forward in the educational progress of our country.

THE HERBARTIAN MOVEMENT

One of the most important educational movements of recent years, is that inaugurated by the disciples of Herbart[184] in this country. At the meeting of the New England Association in Denver in 1895 a number of men, most of whom had studied under Stoy and Rein in Germany, formed the National Herbart Society, whose purpose was declared to be "the aggressive discussion and spread of educational doctrines." This society was the outgrowth of the Herbart Club, formed three years before at Saratoga. It is now known as the National Society for the Scientific Study of Education. It holds semiannual meetings in connection with the National Association, but is not a department of said Association. It issues "Yearbooks" which contain the results of the investigations of its members and which are valuable contributions to current educational literature.

Among the most important educational theories brought forward by this school may be mentioned that of Apperception, the Doctrine of Interest, the Correlation of Studies, Concentration, the Culture Epoch Theory, and Character Building as an end of education. The practical application of these theories to school problems has not been neglected. There is no doubt that the Herbartian teachings have served to bring education in this country to a scientific basis. The members of this society have been among the foremost contributors to the pedagogical literature of the last decade.

VARIOUS TENDENCIES

Child Study.—The old psychologists based their theories and deductions upon a study of the activities of the adult mind. Modern educators have turned their attention to the being whom they are to educate—the child. Questionnaires have been issued and syllabi formulated concerning many characteristics of children, such as their fears, their imaginations, their lies, their views of God, etc., for the purpose of discovering laws governing the same. While as yet the movement cannot claim to have added much to educational theory, it has stimulated careful study and observation of children, brought teachers into more genuine sympathy with them, suggested suitable material for instruction, and fostered rational discipline. It offers an unlimited and fruitful field for further investigation.

Parents' Meetings.—In the early history of the race parents assumed the entire education of their offspring. When schools became numerous and teachers efficient, parents largely absolved themselves from direct responsibility in the matter of education. To arouse proper interest and to unite all the agencies of the community in this work, parents' meetings have been organized in many places. Thus the patrons of the school have not only been led to cooeperate with their teachers, but also to study educational problems. Such organizations have strengthened the hands of the teachers, stimulated educational interest, and aroused a genuine and intelligent pride in the work of the school.

Manual and Industrial Training.—The marvelous industrial development of recent years, together with the attitude of labor unions towards apprenticeships, creates a demand for a reconstruction of courses of study. Much of education that was secured in the shop and field must now be furnished in the school. "Educate the whole child" is the watchword. The motor activities must be trained as well as the mental activities. Indeed, the latter cannot attain their proper development without the former. Hence, manual training has been adopted as a part of the curriculum.

Material Improvements.—A careful study of the ventilation, lighting, seating, and other hygienic conditions, as well as construction of school buildings, has characterized recent times. In many places not only school materials, but also text-books, are furnished free of cost to the pupil. Physicians are also employed periodically to visit the schools and examine the children as to the condition of eyes and ears, as to the prevalence of disease, and as to their general health. Safeguards are inaugurated to prevent the spread of contagious diseases. All of these material measures are founded upon the theory that only under best conditions can the best results be obtained in education, and therefore it is true economy for the community to furnish these conditions.

FOOTNOTES:

[183] The membership at the Boston meeting in 1903 was 34,984. This, however, is far in excess of the average attendance.

[184] See p. 278.



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INDEX

A. B. C. der Anschauung, Herbart's, 281.

Abelard at University of Paris, 141. Benedictine teacher, 118. leader of scholasticism, 122.

Academies, in French school administration, 296, 297.

Agricola, Johannes, school course of, 176 n.

Agricola, Rudolphus, father of German humanism, 153, 158. lectures of, 158.

Ahriman, principle of darkness in Persian religion, 39.

Albigenses, reformers in France, 165.

Alcohol, Arabians discover, 145.

Alcuin of England, Benedictine teacher, 118. teacher of Charlemagne, 127.

Alexander the Great, pupil of Aristotle, 65.

Alexandria, catechetical school at, 107, 108. Museum of, 50. Saracenic school at, 140. school of rabbis at, 44. seat of philosophy, 107.

Alexandrian library fostered by the Ptolemies, 50.

Alfred the Great, becomes king, 130. character and history of, 130. education of, 131. encourages education of higher classes, 302. establishes monasteries, 131. founds Oxford University, 131. influence on English education, 131. literary work of, 131. statesmanship of, 130.

Algebra, modern form of, 145.

Allgemeine Paedagogik, Herbart's, 281.

Ambrose, St., bishop of Milan, 114.

America, discovery of, 165.

American Revolution, establishes principle of self-government, 239.

Analects of Confucius, 28.

Analytical method of Aristotle, 67.

Anatomy, in Milton's scheme of education, 219.

Annual Reports, Horace Mann's, 286. of Bureau of Education, 310.

Anselm, founder of scholasticism, 122.

Antioch, catechetical school at, 107.

Antioch College, Horace Mann president of, 288.

Apostles, active in education, 101.

Apostles' Creed, taught during Charlemagne's reign, 128.

Apostolic Constitution quoted, 113.

Apprentice schools, in France, 299.

Aquinas, Thomas, Benedictine teacher, 118. leader of scholasticism, 122.

Arabians, services to education, 145.

Architecture, in Milton's scheme of education, 219.

Aristotle, analytical method of, 67. Athenian philosopher, 56. called the Stagirite, 65. pedagogy of, outlined, 66, 67. pupil of Plato, 65. teacher of Alexander the Great, 65.

Arithmetic, in Charlemagne's reign, 128. in Chinese schools, 24. in India, 32, 33. in Jewish education, 43. in Milton's scheme of education, 219. in monastic education, 119. in Roman schools, 78.

Arrondissements, in French school system, 297.

Art, in Athens, 56. in Egypt, 47.

Arts, seven liberal, 118, 127.

Aryans, in Greece, 53. in India, 30. in Persia, 36.

Asceticism, influence on civilization, 116.

Ascham, Roger, English educator, 190. method of, 191. Scholemaster, 190. tutor to Elizabeth, 190.

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