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by James Ford Rhodes
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In the same year I read a discriminating eulogy of George Bancroft, ending with an intelligent criticism of his history, which produced on me a marked impression. The reviewer wrote: Bancroft falls into "that error so common with the graphic school of historians—the exaggerated estimate of manuscripts or fragmentary material at the expense of what is printed and permanent.... But a fault far more serious than this is one which Mr. Bancroft shared with his historical contemporaries, but in which he far exceeded any of them—an utter ignoring of the very meaning and significance of a quotation mark."[213] Sound and scientific doctrine is this; and the whole article exhibited a thorough knowledge of our colonial and revolutionary history which inspired confidence in the conclusions of the writer, who, I later ascertained, was Thomas Wentworth Higginson.

These two examples could be multiplied at length. There were many reviewers from Harvard and Yale; and undoubtedly other Eastern colleges were well represented. The University of Wisconsin furnished at least one contributor, as probably did the University of Michigan and other Western colleges. Men in Washington, New York, and Boston, not in academic life, were drawn upon; a soldier of the Civil War, living in Cincinnati, a man of affairs, sent many reviews. James Bryce was an occasional contributor, and at least three notable reviews came from the pen of Albert V. Dicey. In 1885, Godkin, in speaking of The Nation's department of Literature and Art, wrote that "the list of those who have contributed to the columns of the paper from the first issue to the present day contains a large number of the most eminent names in American literature, science, art, philosophy, and law."[214] With men so gifted, and chosen from all parts of the country, uniformly destructive criticism could not have prevailed. Among them were optimists as well as pessimists, and men as independent in thought as was Godkin himself.

Believing that Godkin's thirty-five years of critical work was of great benefit to this country, I have sometimes asked myself whether the fact of his being a foreigner has made it more irritating to many good people, who term his criticism "fault-finding" or "scolding." Although he married in America and his home life was centered here, he confessed that in many essential things it was a foreign country.[215] Some readers who admired The Nation told Mr. Bryce that they did not want "to be taught by a European how to run this republic." But Bryce, who in this matter is the most competent of judges, intimates that Godkin's foreign education, giving him detachment and perspective, was a distinct advantage. If it will help any one to a better appreciation of the man, let Godkin be regarded as "a chiel amang us takin' notes"; as an observer not so philosophic as Tocqueville, not so genial and sympathetic as Bryce. Yet, whether we look upon him as an Irishman, an Englishman, or an American, let us rejoice that he cast his lot with us, and that we have had the benefit of his illuminating pen. He was not always right; he was sometimes unjust; he often told the truth with "needless asperity,"[216] as Parkman put it; but his merits so outweighed his defects that he had a marked influence on opinion, and probably on history, during his thirty-five years of journalistic work, when, according to James Bryce, he showed a courage such as is rare everywhere.[217] General J. D. Cox, who had not missed a number of The Nation from 1865 to 1899, wrote to Godkin, on hearing of his prospective retirement from the Evening Post, "I really believe that earnest men, all over the land, whether they agree with you or differ, will unite in the exclamation which Lincoln made as to Grant, 'We can't spare this man—he fights.'"[218]

Our country, wrapped up in no smug complacency, listened to this man, respected him and supported him, and on his death a number of people were glad to unite to endow a lectureship in his honor in Harvard University.

In closing, I cannot do better than quote what may be called Godkin's farewell words, printed forty days before the attack of cerebral hemorrhage which ended his active career. "The election of the chief officer of the state by universal suffrage," he wrote, "by a nation approaching one hundred millions, is not simply a novelty in the history of man's efforts to govern himself, but an experiment of which no one can foresee the result. The mass is yearly becoming more and more difficult to move. The old arts of persuasion are already ceasing to be employed on it. Presidential elections are less and less carried by speeches and articles. The American people is a less instructed people than it used to be. The necessity for drilling, organizing, and guiding it, in order to extract the vote from it is becoming plain; and out of this necessity has arisen the boss system, which is now found in existence everywhere, is growing more powerful, and has thus far resisted all attempts to overthrow it."

I shall not stop to urge a qualification of some of these statements, but will proceed to the brighter side of our case, which Godkin, even in his pessimistic mood, could not fail to see distinctly. "On the other hand," he continued, "I think the progress made by the colleges throughout the country, big and little, both in the quality of the instruction and in the amount of money devoted to books, laboratories, and educational facilities of all kinds, is something unparalleled in the history of the civilized world. And the progress of the nation in all the arts, except that of government, in science, in literature, in commerce, in invention, is something unprecedented and becomes daily more astonishing. How it is that this splendid progress does not drag on politics with it I do not profess to know."[219]

Let us be as hopeful as was Godkin in his earlier days, and rest assured that intellectual training will eventually exert its power in politics, as it has done in business and in other domains of active life.

[171] R. Ogden's Life and Letters of E. L. Godkin, I, 255.

[172] Rhodes's History of the United States, II, 72 (C. M. Depew).

[173] Ogden, II, 88.

[174] Ibid., I, 257.

[175] Parton's Greeley, 331, 576; my own recollections; Ogden, I, 255.

[176] Godkin, Random Recollections, Evening Post, December 30, 1899.

[177] Ogden, I, 168.

[178] Ogden, I, 221, 249, 251, 252; II, 222, 231.

[179] Letters of J. R. Lowell, II, 76.

[180] Ibid., I, 368.

[181] Ogden, I, 1.

[182] Evening Post, December 30, 1899; Ogden, I, 11.

[183] Evening Post, December 30, 1899.

[184] Ibid.; Ogden, I, 113.

[185] Evening Post, December 30, 1899; Ogden, I, passim; The Nation, June 25, 1885, May 23, 1902.

[186] Ogden, II, Chap. XVII.

[187] Ogden, II, Chap. XI.

[188] Ibid., II, 51.

[189] Studies in Contemporary Biography, 372.

[190] Tacitus, History, I, 1.

[191] Republic.

[192] June 23, Rhodes, VI, 382.

[193] Ogden, II, 66.

[194] Ogden, II, 140.

[195] Problems of Modern Democracy, 209.

[196] Ogden, II, 199.

[197] Ibid., II, 202.

[198] Random Recollections, Evening Post, December 30, 1899.

[199] Ogden, II, 202.

[200] Ibid., II, 214.

[201] Ibid., II, 238.

[202] Ibid., II, 219.

[203] Ibid., II, 237.

[204] Biographical Studies, 378.

[205] Ogden, I, 301, 307.

[206] Life and Letters, II, 485.

[207] Random Recollections, Evening Post, December 30, 1899.

[208] Ogden, II, 30, 136, 213, 214, 247, 253.

[209] Unforeseen Tendencies of Democracy, 117.

[210] Ogden, II, 51.

[211] Essays, 38.

[212] Vol. 52, p. 267.

[213] Vol. 52, p. 66.

[214] June 25, 1885.

[215] Ogden, II, 116.

[216] Ibid., I, 252.

[217] Biographical Studies, 370.

[218] Ogden, II, 229.

[219] Evening Post, December 30, 1899.



WHO BURNED COLUMBIA?

A paper read before the Massachusetts Historical Society at the November meeting of 1901, and printed in the American Historical Review of April, 1902.



WHO BURNED COLUMBIA?

The story goes that when General Sherman lived in New York City, which was during the last five years of his life, he attended one night a dinner party at which he and an ex-Confederate general who had fought against him in the southwest were the chief guests; and that an Englishman present asked in perfect innocence the question, Who burned Columbia? Had bombshells struck the tents of these generals during the war, they would not have caused half the commotion in their breasts that did this question put solely with the desire of information. The emphatic language of Sherman interlarded with the oaths he uttered spontaneously, the bitter charges of the Confederate, the pounding of the table, the dancing of the glasses, told the Englishman that the bloody chasm had not been entirely filled. With a little variation and with some figurative meaning, he might have used the words of Iago: "Friends all but now, even now in peace; and then but now as if some planet had outwitted men, tilting at one another's breast in opposition. I cannot speak any beginning to this peevish odds."

But the question which disturbed the New York dinner party is a delight to the historian. Feeling that history may be known best when there are most documents, he may derive the greatest pleasure from a perusal of the mass of evidence bearing on this disputed point; and if he is of Northern birth he ought to approach the subject with absolute candor. Of a Southerner who had himself lost property or whose parents had lost property, through Sherman's campaign of invasion, it would be asking too much to expect him to consider this subject in a judicial spirit. Even Trent, a moderate and impartial Southern writer whose tone is a lesson to us all, when referring, in his life of William Gilmore Simms, to "the much vexed question, Who burned Columbia," used words of the sternest condemnation.

Sherman, with his army of 60,000, left Savannah February 1, 1865, and reached the neighborhood of Columbia February 16. The next day Columbia was evacuated by the Confederates, occupied by troops of the fifteenth corps of the Federal army, and by the morning of the 18th either three fifths or two thirds of the town lay in ashes. The facts contained in these two sentences are almost the only ones undisputed. We shall consider this episode most curiously if we take first Sherman's account, then Wade Hampton's, ending with what I conceive to be a true relation.

The city was surrendered by the mayor and three aldermen to Colonel George A. Stone at the head of his brigade. Soon afterwards Sherman and Howard, the commander of the right wing of the army, rode into the city; they observed piles of cotton burning, and Union soldiers and citizens working to extinguish the fire, which was partially subdued. Let Sherman speak for himself in the first account that he wrote, which was his report of April 4, 1865: "Before one single public building had been fired by order, the smouldering fires [cotton] set by Hampton's order were rekindled by the wind, and communicated to the buildings around. [Wade Hampton commanded the Confederate cavalry.] About dark they began to spread, and got beyond the control of the brigade on duty within the city. The whole of Woods' division was brought in, but it was found impossible to check the flames, which, by midnight, had become unmanageable, and raged until about 4 A.M., when the wind subsiding, they were got under control.

"I was up nearly all night, and saw Generals Howard, Logan, Woods, and others, laboring to save houses and protect families thus suddenly deprived of shelter, and even of bedding and wearing apparel. I disclaim on the part of my army any agency in this fire, but, on the contrary, claim that we saved what of Columbia remains unconsumed. And without hesitation I charge General Wade Hampton with having burned his own city of Columbia, not with a malicious intent or as the manifestation of a silly 'Roman stoicism,' but from folly, and want of sense, in filling it with lint, cotton, and tinder. Our officers and men on duty worked well to extinguish the flames; but others not on duty, including the officers who had long been imprisoned there, rescued by us, may have assisted in spreading the fire after it had once begun, and may have indulged in unconcealed joy to see the ruin of the capital of South Carolina." Howard, in his report, with some modification agrees with his chief, and the account in "The March to the Sea" of General Cox, whose experience and training fitted him well to weigh the evidence, gives at least a partial confirmation to Sherman's theory of the origin of the fire.

I have not, however, discovered sufficient evidence to support the assertion of Sherman that Wade Hampton ordered the cotton in the streets of Columbia to be burned. Nor do I believe Sherman knew a single fact on which he might base so positive a statement.[220] It had generally been the custom for the Confederates in their retreat to burn cotton to prevent its falling into the hands of the invading army, and because such was the general rule Sherman assumed that it had been applied in this particular case. This assumption suited his interest, as he sought a victim to whom he might charge the burning of Columbia. His statement in his "Memoirs," published in 1875, is a delicious bit of historical naivete. "In my official report of this conflagration," he wrote, "I distinctly charged it to General Wade Hampton, and confess I did so pointedly, to shake the faith of his people in him, for he was in my opinion boastful and professed to be the special champion of South Carolina."

Instead of Hampton giving an order to burn the cotton, I am satisfied that he urged Beauregard, the general in command, to issue an order that this cotton should not be burned, lest the fire might spread to the shops and houses, which for the most part were built of wood, and I am further satisfied that such an order was given. Unfortunately the evidence for this is not contemporary. No such order is printed in the "Official Records," and I am advised from the War Department that no such order has been found. The nearest evidence to the time which I have discovered is a letter of Wade Hampton of April 21, 1866, and one of Beauregard of May 2, 1866. Since these dates, there is an abundance of evidence, some of it sworn testimony, and while it is mixed up with inaccurate statements on another point, and all of it is of the nature of recollections, I cannot resist the conclusion that Beauregard and Hampton gave such an order. It was unquestionably the wise thing to do. There was absolutely no object in burning the cotton, as the Federal troops could not carry it with them and could not ship it to any seaport which was under Union control.

An order of Beauregard issued two days after the burning of Columbia and printed in the "Official Records" shows that the policy of burning cotton to keep it out of the hands of Sherman's army had been abandoned. Sherman's charge, then, that Wade Hampton burned Columbia, falls to the ground. The other part of his account, in which he maintained that the fire spread to the buildings from the smoldering cotton rekindled by the wind, which was blowing a gale, deserves more respect. His report saying that he saw cotton afire in the streets was written April 4, 1865, and Howard's in which the same fact is stated was written April 1, very soon after the event, when their recollection would be fresh. All of the Southern evidence (except one statement, the most important of all) is to the effect that no cotton was burning until after the Federal troops entered the city. Many Southerners in their testimony before the British and American mixed commission under examination and cross-examination swear to this; and Wade Hampton swears that he was one of the last Confederates to leave the city, and that, when he left, no cotton was afire, and he knew that it was not fired by his men. But this testimony was taken in 1872 and 1873, and may be balanced by the sworn testimony of Sherman, Howard, and other Union officers before the same commission in 1872.

The weight of the evidence already referred to would seem to me to show that cotton was afire when the Federal troops entered Columbia, but a contemporary statement of a Confederate officer puts it beyond doubt. Major Chambliss, who was endeavoring to secure the means of transportation for the Confederate ordnance and ordnance stores, wrote, in a letter of February 20, that at three o'clock on the morning of February 17, which was a number of hours before the Union soldiers entered Columbia, "the city was illuminated with burning cotton." But it does not follow that the burning cotton in the streets of Columbia was the cause of the fire which destroyed the city. When we come to the probably correct account of the incident, we shall see that the preponderance of the evidence points to another cause.

February 27, ten days after the fire, Wade Hampton, in a letter to Sherman, charged him with having permitted the burning of Columbia, if he did not order it directly; and this has been iterated later by many Southern writers. The correspondence between Halleck and Sherman is cited to show premeditation on the part of the general. "Should you capture Charleston," wrote Halleck, December 18, 1864, "I hope that by some accident the place may be destroyed, and if a little salt should be sown upon the site it may prevent the growth of future crops of nullification and secession." Sherman thus replied six days later: "I will bear in mind your hint as to Charleston, and don't think salt will be necessary. When I move, the Fifteenth Corps will be on the right of the Right Wing, and their position will bring them naturally into Charleston first; and if you have watched the history of that corps you will have remarked that they generally do their work up pretty well. The truth is, the whole army is burning with an insatiable desire to wreak vengeance on South Carolina. I almost tremble at her fate, but feel that she deserves all that seems in store for her.... I look upon Columbia as quite as bad as Charleston."

The evidence from many points of view corroborating this statement of the feeling of the army towards South Carolina is ample. The rank and file of Sherman's army were men of some education and intelligence; they were accustomed to discuss public matters, weigh reasons, and draw conclusions. They thought that South Carolina had brought on the Civil War, was responsible for the cost and bloodshed of it, and no punishment for her could be too severe. That was likewise the sentiment of the officers. A characteristic expression of the feeling may be found in a home letter of Colonel Charles F. Morse, of the second Massachusetts, who speaks of the "miserable, rebellious State of South Carolina." "Pity for these inhabitants," he further writes, "I have none. In the first place, they are rebels, and I am almost prepared to agree with Sherman that a rebel has no rights, not even the right to live except by our permission."

It is no wonder, then, that Southern writers, smarting at the loss caused by Sherman's campaign of invasion, should believe that Sherman connived at the destruction of Columbia. But they are wrong in that belief. The general's actions were not so bad as his words. Before his troops made their entrance he issued this order: "General Howard will ... occupy Columbia, destroy the public buildings, railroad property, manufacturing and machine shops, but will spare libraries and asylums and private dwellings." That Sherman was entirely sincere when he gave this order, and that his general officers endeavored to carry it out cannot be questioned. A statement which he made under oath in 1872 indicates that he did not connive at the destruction of Columbia. "If I had made up my mind to burn Columbia," he declared, "I would have burnt it with no more feeling than I would a common prairie dog village; but I did not do it."

Other words of his exhibit without disguise his feelings in regard to the occurrence which the South has regarded as a piece of wanton mischief. "The ulterior and strategic advantages of the occupation of Columbia are seen now clearly by the result," said Sherman under oath. "The burning of the private dwellings, though never designed by me, was a trifling matter compared with the manifold results that soon followed. Though I never ordered it and never wished it, I have never shed many tears over the event, because I believe it hastened what we all fought for, the end of the war." It is true that he feared previous to their entry the burning of Columbia by his soldiers, owing to their "deep-seated feeling of hostility" to the town, but no general of such an army during such a campaign of invasion would have refused them the permission to occupy the capital city of South Carolina. "I could have had them stay in the ranks," he declared, "but I would not have done it under the circumstances to save Columbia."

Historical and legal canons for weighing evidence are not the same. It is a satisfaction, however, when after the investigation of any case they lead to the same decision. The members of the British and American mixed commission (an Englishman, an American, and the Italian Minister at Washington), having to adjudicate upon claims for "property alleged to have been destroyed by the burning of Columbia, on the allegation that that city was wantonly fired by the army of General Sherman, either under his orders or with his consent and permission," disallowed all the claims, "all the commissioners agreeing." While they were not called upon to deliver a formal opinion in the case, the American agent was advised "that the commissioners were unanimous in the conclusion that the conflagration which destroyed Columbia was not to be ascribed to either the intention or default of either the Federal or Confederate officers."

To recapitulate, then, what I think I have established: Sherman's account and that of the Union writers who follow him cannot be accepted as history. Neither is the version of Wade Hampton and the Southern writers worthy of credence. Let me now give what I am convinced is the true relation. My authorities are the contemporary accounts of six Federal officers, whose names will appear when the evidence is presented in detail; the report of Major Chambliss of the Confederate army; "The Sack and Destruction of Columbia," a series of articles in the Columbia Phoenix, written by William Gilmore Simms and printed a little over a month after the event; and a letter written from Charlotte, February 22, to the Richmond Whig, by F. G. de F., who remained in Columbia until the day before the entrance of the Union troops.

Two days before the entrance of the Federal troops, Columbia was placed under martial law, but this did not prevent some riotous conduct after nightfall and a number of highway robberies; stores were also broken into and robbed. There was great disorder and confusion in the preparations of the inhabitants for flight; it was a frantic attempt to get themselves and their portable belongings away before the enemy should enter the city. "A party of Wheeler's Cavalry," wrote F. G. de F. to the Richmond Whig, "accompanied by their officers dashed into town [February 16], tied their horses, and as systematically as if they had been bred to the business, proceeded to break into the stores along Main Street and rob them of their contents." Early in the morning of the 17th, the South Carolina railroad depot took fire through the reckless operations of a band of greedy plunderers, who while engaged in robbing "the stores of merchants and planters, trunks of treasure, wares and goods of fugitives," sent there awaiting shipment, fired, by the careless use of their lights, a train leading to a number of kegs of powder; the explosion which followed killed many of the thieves and set fire to the building. Major Chambliss, who was endeavoring to secure the means of transportation for the Confederate ordnance and ordnance stores, wrote: "The straggling cavalry and rabble were stripping the warehouses and railroad depots. The city was in the wildest terror."

When the Union soldiers of Colonel Stone's brigade entered the city, they were at once supplied by citizens and negroes with large quantities of intoxicating liquor, brought to them in cups, bottles, demijohns, and buckets. Many had been without supper, and all of them without sleep the night before, and none had eaten breakfast that morning. They were soon drunk, excited, and unmanageable. The stragglers and "bummers," who had increased during the march through South Carolina, were now attracted by the opportunity for plunder and swelled the crowd. Union prisoners of war had escaped from their places of confinement in the city and suburbs, and joining their comrades were eager to avenge their real or fancied injuries. Convicts in the jail had in some manner been released. The pillage of shops and houses and the robbing of men in the streets began soon after the entrance of the army. The officers tried to preserve discipline. Colonel Stone ordered all the liquor to be destroyed, and furnished guards for the private property of citizens and for the public buildings; but the extent of the disorder and plundering during the day was probably not appreciated by Sherman and those high in command. Stone was hampered in his efforts to preserve order by the smallness of his force for patrol duty and by the drunkenness of his men. In fact, the condition of his men was such that at eight o'clock in the evening they were relieved from provost duty, and a brigade of the same division, who had been encamped outside of the city during the day, took their place. But the mob of convicts, escaped Union prisoners, stragglers and "bummers," drunken soldiers and negroes, Union soldiers who were eager to take vengeance on South Carolina, could not be controlled. The sack of the city went on, and when darkness came, the torch was applied to many houses; the high wind carried the flames from building to building, until the best part of Columbia—a city of eight thousand inhabitants—was destroyed.

Colonel Stone wrote, two days afterwards: "About eight o'clock the city was fired in a number of places by some of our escaped prisoners and citizens." "I am satisfied," said General W. B. Woods, commander of the brigade that relieved Stone, in his report of March 26, "by statements made to me by respectable citizens of the town, that the fire was first set by the negro inhabitants." General C. R. Woods, commander of the first division, fifteenth corps, wrote, February 21: "The town was fired in several different places by the villains that had that day been improperly freed from their confinement in the town prison. The town itself was full of drunken negroes and the vilest vagabond soldiers, the veriest scum of the entire army being collected in the streets." The very night of the conflagration he spoke of the efforts "to arrest the countless villains of every command that were roaming over the streets."

General Logan, commander of the fifteenth corps, said, in his report of March 31: "The citizens had so crazed our men with liquor that it was almost impossible to control them. The scenes in Columbia that night were terrible. Some fiend first applied the torch, and the wild flames leaped from house to house and street to street, until the lower and business part of the city was wrapped in flames. Frightened citizens rushed in every direction, and the reeling incendiaries dashed, torch in hand, from street to street, spreading dismay wherever they went."

"Some escaped prisoners," wrote General Howard, commander of the right wing, April 1, "convicts from the penitentiary just broken open, army followers, and drunken soldiers ran through house after house, and were doubtless guilty of all manner of villainies, and it is these men that I presume set new fires farther and farther to the windward in the northern part of the city. Old men, women, and children, with everything they could get, were herded together in the streets. At some places we found officers and kind-hearted soldiers protecting families from the insults and roughness of the careless. Meanwhile the flames made fearful ravages, and magnificent residences and churches were consumed in a very few minutes." All these quotations are from Federal officers who were witnesses of the scene and who wrote their accounts shortly after the event, without collusion or dictation. They wrote too before they knew that the question, Who burned Columbia? would be an irritating one in after years. These accounts are therefore the best of evidence. Nor does the acceptance of any one of them imply the exclusion of the others. All may be believed, leading us to the conclusion that all the classes named had a hand in the sack and destruction of Columbia.

When the fire was well under way, Sherman appeared on the scene, but gave no orders. Nor was it necessary, for Generals Howard, Logan, Woods, and others were laboring earnestly to prevent the spread of the conflagration. By their efforts and by the change and subsidence of wind, the fire in the early morning of February 18 was stayed. Columbia, wrote General Howard, was little "except a blackened surface peopled with numerous chimneys and an occasional house that had been spared as if by a miracle." Science, history, and art might mourn at the loss they sustained in the destruction of the house of Dr. Gibbes, an antiquary and naturalist, a scientific acquaintance, if not a friend, of Agassiz. His large library, portfolios of fine engravings, two hundred paintings, a remarkable cabinet of Southern fossils, a collection of sharks' teeth, "pronounced by Agassiz to be the finest in the world," relics of our aborigines and others from Mexico, "his collection of historical documents, original correspondence of the Revolution, especially that of South Carolina," were all burned.

The story of quelling the disorder is told by General Oliver: "February 18, at 4 A.M., the Third Brigade was called out to suppress riot; did so, killing 2 men, wounding 30 and arresting 370." It is worthy of note that, despite the reign of lawlessness during the night, very few, if any, outrages were committed on women.

[220] In a letter presented to the Senate of the United States (some while before April 21, 1866) Sherman said, "I saw in your Columbia newspaper the printed order of General Wade Hampton that on the approach of the Yankee army all the cotton should be burned" (South. Hist. Soc. Papers, VII, 156).



A NEW ESTIMATE OF CROMWELL

A paper read before the Massachusetts Historical Society at the January meeting of 1898, and printed in the Atlantic Monthly of June, 1898.



A NEW ESTIMATE OF CROMWELL

The most notable contributions to the historical literature of England during the year 1897 are two volumes by Samuel R. Gardiner: the Oxford lectures, "Cromwell's Place in History," published in the spring; and the second volume of "History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate," which appeared in the autumn. These present what is probably a new view of Cromwell.

If one loves a country or an historic epoch, it is natural for the mind to seek a hero to represent it. We are fortunate in having Washington and Lincoln, whose characters and whose lives sum up well the periods in which they were our benefactors. But if we look upon our history as being the continuation of a branch of that of England, who is the political hero in the nation from which we sprang who represents a great principle or idea that we love to cherish? Hampden might answer if only we knew more about him. It occurs to me that Gray, in his poem which is read and conned from boyhood to old age, has done more than any one else to spread abroad the fame of Hampden. Included in the same stanza with Milton and with Cromwell, he seems to the mere reader of the poem to occupy the same place in history. In truth, however, as Mr. Gardiner writes, "it is remarkable how little can be discovered about Hampden. All that is known is to his credit, but his greatness appears from the impression he created upon others more than from the circumstances of his own life as they have been handed down to us."

The minds of American boys educated under Puritan influences before and during the war of secession accordingly turned to Cromwell. Had our Puritan ancestors remained at home till the civil war in England, they would have fought under the great Oliver, and it is natural that their descendants should venerate him. All young men of the period of which I am speaking, who were interested in history, read Macaulay, the first volume of whose history appeared in 1848, and they found in Cromwell a hero to their liking. Carlyle's Cromwell was published three years before, and those who could digest stronger food found the great man therein portrayed a chosen one of God to lead his people in the right path. Everybody echoed the thought of Carlyle when he averred that ten years more of Oliver Cromwell's life would have given another history to all the centuries of England.

In these two volumes Gardiner presents a different conception of Cromwell from that of Carlyle and Macaulay, and in greater detail. We arrive at Gardiner's notion by degrees, being prepared by the reversal of some of our pretty well established opinions about the Puritans. Macaulay's epigrammatic sentence touching their attitude towards amusements undoubtedly colored the opinions of men for at least a generation. "The Puritan hated bear-baiting," he says, "not because it gave pain to the bear, but because it gave pleasure to the spectators." How coolly Gardiner disposes of this well-turned rhetorical phrase: "The order for the complete suppression of bear-baiting and bull-baiting at Southwark and elsewhere was grounded, not, as has been often repeated, on Puritan aversion to amusements giving 'pleasure to the spectators,' but upon Puritan disgust at the immorality which these exhibitions fostered." Again he writes: "Zealous as were the leaders of the Commonwealth in the suppression of vice, they displayed but little of that sour austerity with which they have frequently been credited. On his way to Dunbar, Cromwell laughed heartily at the sight of one soldier overturning a full cream tub and slamming it down on the head of another, whilst on his return from Worcester he spent a day hawking in the fields near Aylesbury. 'Oliver,' we hear, 'loved an innocent jest.' Music and song were cultivated in his family. If the graver Puritans did not admit what has been called 'promiscuous dancing' into their households, they made no attempt to prohibit it elsewhere." In the spring of 1651 appeared the "English Dancing Master," containing rules for country dances, and the tunes by which they were to be accompanied.

Macaulay's description of Cromwell's army has so pervaded our literature as to be accepted as historic truth; and J. R. Green, acute as he was, seems, consciously or unconsciously, to have been affected by it, which is not a matter of wonderment, indeed, for such is its rhetorical force that it leaves an impression hard to be obliterated. Macaulay writes: "That which chiefly distinguished the army of Cromwell from other armies was the austere morality and the fear of God which pervaded all ranks. It is acknowledged by the most zealous Royalists that in that singular camp no oath was heard, no drunkenness or gambling was seen, and that during the long dominion of the soldiery the property of the peaceable citizen and the honor of woman were held sacred. If outrages were committed, they were outrages of a very different kind from those of which a victorious army is generally guilty. No servant girl complained of the rough gallantry of the redcoats; not an ounce of plate was taken from the shops of the goldsmiths; but a Pelagian sermon, or a window on which the Virgin and Child were painted, produced in the Puritan ranks an excitement which it required the utmost exertions of the officers to quell. One of Cromwell's chief difficulties was to restrain his musketeers and dragoons from invading by main force the pulpits of ministers whose discourses, to use the language of that time, were not savory."

What a different impression we get from Gardiner! "Much that has been said of Cromwell's army has no evidence behind it," he declares. "The majority of the soldiers were pressed men, selected because they had strong bodies, and not because of their religion. The remainder were taken out of the armies already in existence.... The distinctive feature of the army was its officers. All existing commands having been vacated, men of a distinctly Puritan and for the most part of an Independent type were appointed to their places.... The strictest discipline was enforced, and the soldiers, whether Puritan or not, were thus brought firmly under the control of officers bent upon the one object, of defeating the king."

To those who have regarded the men who governed England, from the time the Long Parliament became supreme to the death of Cromwell, as saints in conduct as well as in name, Mr. Gardiner's facts about the members of the rump of the Long Parliament will be an awakening. "It was notorious," he records, "that many members who entered the House poor were now rolling in wealth." From Gardiner's references and quotations, it is not a strained inference that in subjection to lobbying, in log-rolling and corruption, this Parliament would hardly be surpassed by a corrupt American legislature. As to personal morality, he by implication confirms the truth of Cromwell's bitter speech on the memorable day when he forced the dissolution of the Long Parliament. "Some of you," he said, "are whoremasters. Others," he continued, pointing to one and another with his hands, "are drunkards, and some corrupt and unjust men, and scandalous to the profession of the gospel. It is not fit that you should sit as a Parliament any longer."

While I am well aware that to him, who makes but a casual study of any historic period, matters will appear fresh that to the master of it are well-worn inferences and generalizations, and while therefore I can pretend to offer only a shallow experience, I confess that on the points to which I have referred I received new light, and it prepared me for the overturning of the view of Cromwell which I had derived from the Puritanical instruction of my early days and from Macaulay.

In his foreign policy Cromwell was irresolute, vacillating and tricky. "A study of the foreign policy of the Protectorate," writes Mr. Gardiner, "reveals a distracting maze of fluctuations. Oliver is seen alternately courting France and Spain, constant only in inconstancy."

Cromwell lacked constructive statesmanship. "The tragedy of his career lies in the inevitable result that his efforts to establish religion and morality melted away as the morning mist, whilst his abiding influence was built upon the vigor with which he promoted the material aims of his countrymen." In another place Mr. Gardiner says: "Cromwell's negative work lasted; his positive work vanished away. His constitutions perished with him, his Protectorate descended from the proud position to which he had raised it, his peace with the Dutch Republic was followed by two wars with the United Provinces, his alliance with the French monarchy only led to a succession of wars with France lasting into the nineteenth century. All that lasted was the support given by him to maritime enterprise, and in that he followed the tradition of the governments preceding him."

What is Cromwell's place in history? Thus Mr. Gardiner answers the question: "He stands forth as the typical Englishman of the modern world.... It is in England that his fame has grown up since the publication of Carlyle's monumental work, and it is as an Englishman that he must be judged.... With Cromwell's memory it has fared as with ourselves. Royalists painted him as a devil. Carlyle painted him as the masterful saint who suited his peculiar Valhalla. It is time for us to regard him as he really was, with all his physical and moral audacity, with all his tenderness and spiritual yearnings, in the world of action what Shakespeare was in the world of thought, the greatest because the most typical Englishman of all time. This, in the most enduring sense, is Cromwell's place in history."

The idea most difficult for me to relinquish is that of Cromwell as a link in that historic chain which led to the Revolution of 1688, with its blessed combination of liberty and order. I have loved to think, as Carlyle expressed it: "'Their works follow them,' as I think this Oliver Cromwell's works have done and are still doing! We have had our 'Revolution of '88' officially called 'glorious,' and other Revolutions not yet called glorious; and somewhat has been gained for poor mankind. Men's ears are not now slit off by rash Officiality. Officiality will for long henceforth be more cautious about men's ears. The tyrannous star chambers, branding irons, chimerical kings and surplices at Allhallowtide, they are gone or with immense velocity going. Oliver's works do follow him!"

In these two volumes of Gardiner it is not from what is said, but from what is omitted, that one may deduce the author's opinion that Cromwell's career as Protector contributed in no wise to the Revolution of 1688. But touching this matter he has thus written to me: "I am inclined to question your view that Cromwell paved the way for the Revolution of 1688, except so far as his victories and the King's execution frightened off James II. Pym and Hampden did pave the way, but Cromwell's work took other lines. The Instrument of Government was framed on quite different principles, and the extension of the suffrage and reformed franchise found no place in England until 1832. It was not Cromwell's fault that it was so."

If I relinquish this one of my old historic notions, I feel that I must do it for the reason that Lord Auckland agreed with Macaulay after reading the first volume of his history. "I had also hated Cromwell more than I now do," he said; "for I always agree with Tom Macaulay; and it saves trouble to agree with him at once, because he is sure to make you do so at last."

I asked Professor Edward Channing of Harvard College, who teaches English History of the Tudor and Stuart periods, his opinion of Gardiner. "I firmly believe," he told me, "that Mr. Gardiner is the greatest English historical writer who has appeared since Gibbon. He has the instinct of the truth-seeker as no other English student I know of has shown it since the end of the last century."

General J. D. Cox, a statesman and a lawyer, a student of history and of law, writes to me: "In reading Gardiner, I feel that I am sitting at the feet of an historical chief justice, a sort of John Marshall in his genius for putting the final results of learning in the garb of simple common sense."



INDEX

Adams, C. F., and E. G. Bourne, 200.

Adams, J. Q., as President, 207, 209.

Adams, John, as President, 207.

Adelaide, Australia, Froude's description, 42.

Alabama claims, arbitration, 218.

Alexander Severus, homage to history, 4.

Alison, Sir Archibald, present-day reputation, 40.

Allison, W. B., and Hayes's New York Custom-house appointments, 255; and Silver Bill of 1878, 260.

American historians, European recognition, 103.

American Historical Association, author's addresses before, 1 n., 25, 81; interest of E. G. Bourne, 196.

American history, qualities, 4, 20-23; newspapers as sources, 29-32, 85-95; and early English history, 170. See also Elections, History, Presidential, United States, and periods by name.

American Revolution, Gibbon on, 113.

Amyot, Jacques, on Alexander Severus, 4.

Ancient history, monopoly of German historians, 75. See also Ferrero, Gibbon, Herodotus, Tacitus, Thucydides.

Annexations, Philippines, 195, 233, 234, 286; constitutional control, Louisiana, 208, 211; and slavery, Texas and California, 212.

Arbitrary arrests during Civil War, 214, 215.

Arbitration, Alabama claims, 218; Cleveland and Venezuela, 225, 285; English draft general treaty, 226.

Army, Federal, and suppression of rioting, 225, 253; character of Cromwell's, 319, 320.

Arnold, Matthew, on Americans, 21; on Sainte-Beuve, 73; on criticism, 292.

Arthur, C. A., as President, 222; removal by Hayes, 255.

Auckland, Lord, on agreeing with Macaulay, 323.

Aulard, F. A., on Taine, 83.

Bagehot, Walter, on presidential office, 204, 217.

Baltimore, railroad riot of 1877, 252.

Balzac, Honore de, importance to historians, 50, 73.

Bancroft, George, use of footnotes, 33; remuneration, 78; T. W. Higginson on, over-fondness for manuscript sources, inaccuracy of quotations, 294.

Beauregard, P. G. T., and burning of Columbia, 304.

Bemis, George, and Lecky, 157.

Bigelow, John, as journalist, 90; on importance of Godkin to The Nation, 275.

Bismarck, Fuerst von, on power of press, 89.

Blaine, J. G., value of "Twenty Years," 33; on power of Congress over President, 216; on Hayes and Packard, 248.

Boer War, Godkin on, 290.

Boston, H. G. Wells's criticism considered, 138.

Boston Athenaeum, editions of Gibbon in, 138.

Bourne, E. G., and preparation of author's history, as critic, 85, 86, 197-199; essay on, 191-200; malady, 191, 192; physique, 191; death, 192; education, 192; works, 193-195; professorships, 193; on Marcus Whitman, 193; on Columbus, 194, 195; on Philippines and Monroe Doctrine, 195; unfinished biography of Motley, 196; critical notices, 196, 197; thoroughness, 196; interest in American Historical Association, 196; desultory reading, 199; and editorship of publications of Massachusetts Historical Society, 199.

Bowles, Samuel, as journalist, 90.

Brown, John, Pottawatomie Massacre and election of 1856, 88.

Browning, Oscar, on Carlyle, 41.

Brunetiere, Ferdinand, on French literary masters, 73.

Bryan, W. J., campaign of 1896, 228, 286.

Bryant, W. C., as journalist, 90; and Greeley, 269.

Bryce, James, importance of "Holy Roman Empire," 60, 61; on Federal Constitution, 203; on presidential office, 204, 205, 235, 240; on Godkin and The Nation, 276, 286, 295; on Herbert Spencer, 293.

Buchanan, James, as President, 213.

Buckle, H. T., enthusiasm, 38; influence on Lecky, 154.

Burt, S. W., appointment by Hayes, 255.

Bury, J. B., edition of Gibbon, 61; on Gibbon, 109, 110.

Butler, Joseph, influence on Lecky, 154.

Cabinet, Grant's, 186, 278; character of Jackson's, 210; Pierce and Buchanan controlled by, 213; Hayes's, 221, 246-248, 262.

Cabot, Charles, gift to Boston Athenaeum, 138.

Calhoun, J. C., and annexation of Texas, 211.

Carlyle, Thomas, as historian, 38, 41; and mathematics, 56, 57; importance in training of historians, "French Revolution" and "Frederick," 62-64; biography, 64; self-education, 65; lack of practical experience, 66; on historical method, 77; on Gibbon, 115; on Cromwell, inaccuracy of quotations, 144, 318, 321; on pecuniary rewards of literary men, 146; Gladstone on, 155.

Chamberlain, D. H., contested election, 248.

Chamberlain, Joseph, on newspapers and public opinion, 31; Godkin on, 290.

Chambliss, N. R., on burning of Columbia, 305, 309.

Channing, Edward, on Gardiner, 323.

Charleston, secession movement, 91; feeling of Union army towards, 306.

Charleston Courier, and secession movement, 92.

Charleston Mercury, and secession movement, 92.

Chatham, Earl of, on Thucydides, 15.

Choate, Rufus, and Whig nominations in 1852, 87.

Christianity, Gibbon on early church, 131-133.

Cicero, homage to history, 4; importance to historians, 51; Gibbon on, 120; contradictions, 290.

Civil service, J. D. Cox and reform, 186; spoils system, 209, 211; need of special training ignored, 210; reform under Hayes, 221, 254-257; Reform Bill, 222; Cleveland and reform, 223, 224; demand on President's time of appointments, number of presidential offices, 236; Godkin and reform, 280.

Civil War, newspapers as historical source on, 32, 92-94; value of Official Records, 92; attitude of Lecky, 157; presidential office during, arbitrary actions, 213-216; Godkin as correspondent during, 273; burning of Columbia, 301-313.

Cleveland, Grover, as President, 223-226; and civil service reform, 223; soundness on finances, 225; and railroad riots, 225; foreign policy, 225; and disorganization of Democracy, 226; and public opinion, 231; as a prime minister, 241, 263; and Hayes, attends funeral of Hayes, 263; attitude of Godkin, 285.

Columbia, S. C., burning of, 301-313; Sherman's and Hampton's accounts discredited, 301-308; feeling of Union army towards, 306-308; Sherman's orders on occupation, 307; verdict of mixed commission on, 308; mob responsibility, 308-313.

Columbia University, lecture by author at, 47.

Commonwealth of England. See Cromwell.

Comte, Auguste, influence, 73.

Conciseness in history, 11, 14, 16, 20, 36.

Congress, control of Senate over Pierce and Buchanan, 213; power during Johnson's administration, 216; overshadows President, power of Speaker of House, 227; McKinley's control over, 234; contact with President, 237; and Hayes, 249, 256, 257, 261.

Conkling, Roscoe, contest with Hayes over New York Custom-house, 255.

Constitution. See Federal Constitution.

Copyright, The Nation and international, 282.

Cornell, A. B., removal by Hayes, 255.

Corruption, Gibbon on, 127.

Cox, J. D., on Gardiner, 44, 323; essay on, 185-188; varied activities, 185; as general, 185; as governor, 185; and negro suffrage, 186; as cabinet officer, 186; and civil service reform, 186; in Congress, 186; and Spanish Mission, 186; private positions, 187; works, as military historian, 187; and Grant, 187; contributions to The Nation, 187; as reader, 187; character, 188; on Godkin, 295; on burning of Columbia, 303.

Crimean War, Godkin on, 273.

Cromer, Lord, on power of press, 89, 96.

Cromwell, Oliver, Carlyle's biography, 144, 150; Gardiner's influence on fame, 150; Gardiner's estimate, 317-323; character, 319; character of army, 319, 320; foreign policy, 321; lack of constructive statesmanship, 321; as typical Englishman, 322; and Revolution of 1688, 322, 323.

Curchod, Suzanne, and Gibbon, 136.

Curtis, G. W., on The Nation, 270.

Curtius, Ernst, as historian, 34, 43.

Dana, C. A., as journalist, historical value of articles, 31, 90.

Darwin, C. R., biography, 59; truthfulness, 145.

Dates in historical work, importance of newspapers, 87.

Democratic party, and Cleveland's administration, 223, 226.

Demosthenes, and Thucydides, 15.

Desultory reading in training of historian, 64, 65, 199.

Devens, Charles, in Hayes's cabinet, 247.

Deyverdun, Georges, collaboration with Gibbon, 124.

Dicey, A. V., as contributor to The Nation, 282, 294.

Dictionaries, importance of quotations in, 55.

Dingley Tariff Act, 229.

Duff, Sir M. E. Grant, on Herodotus, 5.

Eckermann, J. P., "Conversations with Goethe," 70-72.

Elections, 1852, Whig nominations, Scott's stumping tour, 86, 87; 1856, Kansas as issue, 88; 1876, controversy, and flexibility of Constitution, 203, 219, 245; 1896, bimetallism as issue, 228; attitude of Godkin, 286.

Elizabeth, Froude and Gardiner on, 149; and Anglo-Saxon development, 172.

Emerson, R. W., on originality, 28; on mathematics, 57; on philanthropists, 181; on The Nation, 270.

England, Macaulay's history, 37, 41, 62; Gardiner's history, 143-150; Lecky's history, 154, 155; Walpole's history, 161, 163, 164; conditions in 1815, 161; Green's history, 171, 172; Alabama claims arbitration, 217; Venezuela-Guiana boundary, 225, 285; draft general arbitration treaty, 226; attitude of Godkin, 272, 284, 290; Cromwell and the Commonwealth, 317-323.

Evarts, W. M., Secretary of State, ability, 246; social character, 262; pessimism, 288.

Evening Post, acquires The Nation, Godkin as editor, 274.

Evolution, and history, 4, 36.

Executive. See Civil service, Presidential office.

Federal Constitution, English model, 203; rigidity and flexibility, 203, 216; as political tradition, 208. See also Presidential office.

Ferrero, Guglielmo, as historian, 75; on Cicero's contradictions, 290.

Fessenden, W. P., and Whig nominations in 1852, 87.

Fillmore, Martin, as President, 212.

Finances, greenback craze, 219, 246, 281; silver agitation of 1878, 221, 259, 260; Silver Act of 1890, 224, 227; Cleveland's soundness, 225; attitude of Republican party on money, 227, 257; issue in campaign of 1896, 228, 286; gold standard, 231; depression (1877-1878), 251, 258; Hayes's administration, 257-260; Sherman's refunding, 257; resumption of specie payments, 258, 259; The Nation and sound, 280-282.

Fine arts, and training of historian, 59.

Firth, C. H., to continue Gardiner's history, 148.

Fish, Hamilton, and arbitration of Alabama claims, 218.

Fiske, John, anecdote of the Websters, 54; as popular scientist, 58; power of concentration, 69.

Footnotes, use in histories, 33.

Ford, P. L., on writing criticisms for The Nation, 292.

Foreign relations, under Washington, 206; under Tyler and Polk, 211; under Grant, 218; under Cleveland, 225, 285; under McKinley, 231-234. See also Monroe Doctrine.

Fourth estate, newspaper as, 96.

Franklin, battle of, J. D. Cox in, 185.

Frederick the Great, Carlyle's biography, 63.

Frederick III of Germany, "wise emperor," 127.

Freeman, E. A., on Gibbon, 109.

French, importance to historians, 49-51; Gibbon's knowledge, 119, 123.

French Revolution, Carlyle's history, 62; Gibbon and, 113.

Froude, J. A., on Ulysses, 2; inaccuracy, 41; biography of Carlyle, 64; on Elizabeth, 143, 149.

Gardiner, S. R., truthfulness, 7, 145; as historical model, 42, 45; lack of practical experience, 66, 148; method, 76; essay on, 143-150; death, 143; thoroughness of research, 143, 157; as linguist, 143; manuscript material, 143; on Carlyle's "Cromwell," 144; writings and editorial work, 144; birth, 145; conception of great work, 145; Irvingite, 146; struggles and success, 146, 147; as teacher, 147; honors, 147; day's routine, manner of composition, 147; style, 148; soundness and influence of historical estimates, 149-150; estimate of Cromwell, 150, 317-323; on J. R. Green, 172; on Hampden, 317; on character of Puritans, 318; on Cromwell's army, 320; on character of Rump, 320; rank as historian, 323.

Gardner, Percy, on Herodotus, 5, 40.

Garfield, J. A., desire for fame, 3; as President, 222; as speaker, 241.

Garrison, W. P., as literary editor of The Nation, 291-295.

Generalizations, need of care, 32, 178.

German, importance to historians, 52.

German historians, and ancient history, 75.

Gibbes, R. W., destruction of collections, 312.

Gibbon, Edward, rank and characteristics as historian, 5, 10, 109, 114; on Tacitus, 10, 116; style, 53, 133; and mathematics, 56; importance in training of historian, 60; autobiographies, 64, 134; essay on, 107-140; conception of history, 107; completion of it, 108; progress and success of work, 108; and classic masters, 110; range of work, 110; its endurance, 110; as possible writer of contemporary history, 111, 112; political career, 111; conservatism, 112; and American Revolution, 113; historical subjects considered by, 115; and earlier period of Roman Empire, 116; intellectual training, 117-123; love of reading, 118; at Oxford, 118; conversion and reconversion, 118, 121; at Lausanne, 119; self-training, 119, 122; linguistic knowledge, 119, 120, 122, 123; influence of Pascal, 119; and Voltaire, 121; on Robertson, 122; "Essay on Study of Literature," 123; service in militia, its influence, 123; manuscript history of Switzerland, 124; begins work on history, 124; fame rests on it, 125; Milman, Guizot, and Mommsen on it, 125; quotations from, 126-128; definitions of history, 126; on religion under Pagan empire, 126; on happiest period of mankind, 127; on corruption, 127; on sea-power, 127; subjection to criticism, 128; correctness, 128; truthfulness, 129, 130; use of conjecture, 129; precision and accuracy, 129; treatment of early Christian church, 131-133; on Julian the Apostate, 132; on Theodora, licentious passages, 133; composition of history, 134; love of books and wine, 135; gout, 135; and women, love affair, 136-138; history in quarto edition, 138; human importance of work, 139; satisfaction with career, 139.

Gladstone, W. E., on Lecky, Carlyle, and Macaulay, 155.

Gloucester, William Henry, Duke of, on Gibbon's history, 138.

Godkin, E. L., power as journalist, 95; essay on, 267-297; rank as journalist, 267; on Greeley, 267, 268; illustration of influence, 268; character, 269; indirect influence, character of clientele, 270, 271; authorship of articles in The Nation, 271; Essays, 272; early life, 272; early optimism and later pessimism concerning America, 272, 284-290, 296; as war correspondent, 272; in America, journey in South, 273; correspondent of London News, 273; foundation of The Nation, 273; editor of Evening Post, 274; retirement, 274; lectures, honors, 274; and offer of professorship, 274-276; nervous strain, 275; accused of censorious criticism, 276; of unfortunate influence on intellectual youth, 277; influence on author, 278-282, 292-294; influence in West, 279; disinterestedness, 280; and civil service reform, 280; and sound finances, 280-282; and tariff, 282; and foreign affairs, 282; other phases of influence, 282; never retracted personal charges, 282; implacability, ignores death of F. A. Walker, 282-284; and Cleveland, 285; and election of 1896, 286; and Spanish War and Philippines, 286; moral censor, 289; criticism of England, 290; disappointment in democracy, 291; literary criticism in The Nation, 291-295; on W. P. Garrison, 291; influence of foreign birth, 295; fame, 295; lectureship as memorial to, 296; farewell words, on general progress and political decline, 296, 297.

Goethe, J. W. von, on Moliere, 50; on linguistic ability, 52; "Faust" and study of human character, 68; "Conversations," 70, 72; wide outlook, 71.

Gold Standard Act, 231.

Gordon, C. G., newspapers and Soudan expedition, 89.

Gout, Gibbon on, 135.

Grant, U. S., first cabinet, 186, 278; and Cox, 187; as President, moral tone of administration, 217-219, 262; on criticism, 218, 239.

Greek, importance to historians, 51; Gibbon's knowledge, 120, 122, 123.

Greek history. See Herodotus, Thucydides.

Greeley, Horace, influence as journalist, historical value of articles, 31, 90, 267; partisanship, 91; character, 268-270.

Green, J. R., as historian, 42; address on, 171-173; popularity in America, 171; on Elizabeth, 172; accuracy, 172; character, 172; on Cromwell's army, 319.

Greenbacks. See Finances.

Grote, George, on Thucydides, 7; on references, 33; business training, 78.

Guizot, F. P. G., on Gibbon's history, 125.

Hadrian, "traveling emperor," 127.

Halleck, H. W., attitude towards Charleston, 306.

Hamilton, Alexander, on presidential office, 204, 233, 240; as adviser of Washington, 207.

Hampden, John, as possible Anglo-Saxon hero, 317; and Revolution of 1688, 323.

Hampton, Wade, and burning of Columbia, 302-305, 308.

Harrison, Benjamin, as President, 226; as speaker, 241.

Harrison, Frederic, on Gibbon, 10; on Spencer Walpole, 165.

Harrison, W. H., as President, 211.

Hart, A. B., on Herodotus, 6.

Harvard University, addresses of author at, 47, 101-103, 105, 243, 265; striving after exact knowledge, 101; honorary degree for Hayes, 251; offers professorship to Godkin, 274, 275; Godkin Lectureship, 296.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, conciseness, 36.

Hay, John, anecdote of Grant, 218; as Secretary of State, 234; on Hayes and finances, 260.

Hayes, Lucy W., as wife of President, 221, 262.

Hayes, R. B., election controversy, 203, 219, 245; administration, 219-222, 245-264; as a prime minister, 241, 263; righteousness of acceptance of election, 245; difficulty of situation, 245, 261; as governor, 246; letter of acceptance, 246; inaugural, 246; cabinet, 246-248, 262; withdrawal of troops from South, 248, 249; and Congress, 249, 256, 257, 261; civil service reforms, contest with Conkling, 250, 254-257; honorary degree from Harvard, 251; and railroad riots, 253, 254; and finances, independent thinking, 257-260; vetoes of repeal of Federal election laws, 260; extra sessions of Congress, 261; serenity, 261; popular support, 261; and election of 1880, 261; moral tone of administration, 262; and Cleveland, 263.

Herodotus, on purpose of history, 2; rank as historian, 5, 34, 40; as contemporary historian, 17.

Higginson, T. W., on Bancroft, 294.

Hildreth, Richard, historical value of newspaper articles, 31.

Hill, G. B., on Gibbon's history and autobiography, 125.

Historian, training, 49-79; necessary linguistic knowledge, 49-52; acquisition of style, 52-55; knowledge of mathematics, 55-57; of other sciences, 57-59; of fine arts, 59; general historical reading, 60-70; mastery of Gibbon and Bryce, 60; of Tacitus and Thucydides, 61; of other historians, 62-64; knowledge of lives of historians, 64; desultory reading, 64-65; study of human character, experimental and through books, 66-68; thorough reading of characteristic works, 68; speed and retention of reading, 69; importance of "Conversations of Goethe," 70-72; of Sainte-Beuve's criticisms, 72; choice of subject, 74; method, originality, 75; note-making, 76; Carlyle on method, 77; remuneration, 77; and teaching of history, 78; and business training, 78. See also next two titles.

Historians, Shakespeare and Homer as, 1, 2, 7; advantages and disadvantages of present-day, 4, 20; best, 5, 11; Herodotus, 5, 17, 34, 40; Thucydides, 6-8, 11-15, 17-19, 35, 61, 110, 111, 128; Tacitus, 8-10, 15, 17-20, 61, 110, 111, 116, 128; Gibbon, 10, 60, 107-140; conciseness, 11, 14, 16, 20, 36; source material, 12-16, 20, 22; contemporaneousness, 17-20; necessary qualities, 20; monographs, 22; patriotism, 22; necessity and kinds of originality, 27-29, 75; use of newspapers, 29-32, 83-97; generalizations, 32, 178; use of footnotes, 33; fresh combination of well-known facts, 34; present-day models, 34-43; reflection, 37; enthusiasm, 38; Macaulay, 36-38, 41, 62; Carlyle, 38, 41, 62; old and new schools, ethical judgments, human interest, 39, 43-45; Hume, Robertson, Alison, 40; Froude, 41; Green, 42, 171-173; Stubbs, 42, 157; Gardiner, 42, 143-150, 157, 323; and popularity, 44; growth of candor, 45; Bryce, 60, 61; use of manuscript material, 85, 294; gospel of exact knowledge, 101; Lecky, 153-158; Spencer Walpole, 161-167; E. L. Pierce, 177-181; J. D. Cox, 187; E. G. Bourne, 191-200; Bancroft, 294. See also titles above and below.

History, intellectual rank, 1; and poetry, 1, 2; and physical sciences, 2; definitions, 2, 6, 43, 126; homage of politicians, 3; and evolution, 4, 36; newspapers as source, 29-32, 83-97; value of manuscript sources, 85, 294. See also two titles above.

Hoar, E. R., in Grant's cabinet, 186, 278; and The Nation, 278.

Holm, Adolf, on Thucydides, 39; on scientific history, 43; as historian, 75.

Holst, H. E. von, use of newspapers, 29, 85; on westward expansion and slavery, 212.

Home rule, Lecky's attitude, 156.

Homer, as historian, 1, 2, 22; and study of human character, 67.

House of Representatives. See Congress.

Howard, O. O., at burning of Columbia, 302, 307, 311, 312.

Howells, W. D., pessimism, 288.

Hugo, Victor, influence, 73.

Hume, David, present-day reputation, 40, 111; on Gibbon's history of Switzerland, 124.

Huxley, T. H., as popular scientist, 58; biography, 59; on things useful, 102; on college training, 102.

Income tax decision, Lecky on, 157.

Ireland, Lecky's history, 155.

Jackson, Andrew, as President, 209-211; as leader of democracy, 209; and spoils system, 209; and training for administrative work, 210; and nullification, 210.

James, Henry, on Sainte-Beuve, 73.

James, T. L., as postmaster of New York, 254.

James, William, on Godkin, 270.

Jay Treaty, as precedent for treaty-making power, 206.

Jebb, Sir R. C., on Herodotus, 6, 17; on Tacitus, 10; on Thucydides, 17.

Jefferson, Thomas, as President, 207, 208; Louisiana Purchase, 208.

Johnson, Andrew, as President, 216.

Johnson, Samuel, on American Revolution, 113.

Johnston, J. E., Hayes desires to offer cabinet position to, 247.

Journalists, Godkin, 267-297. See also Newspapers.

Jowett, Benjamin, on Thucydides, 6.

Julian the Apostate, Gibbon's treatment, 132.

Kansas, and election of 1856, 88.

Kent, James, on danger in presidential contests, 219.

Key, D. M., in Hayes's cabinet, 247.

Kinglake, A. W., on power of press, 89.

Laboulaye, Edouard, on Federal Constitution, 204.

Langlois, C. V., on Froude, 41; on ethical judgments, 43; on note-making, 76.

Latin, importance to historians, 49, 51, 54; Gibbon's knowledge, 120, 123.

Laud, William, Macaulay and Gardiner on, 149.

Lausanne, Gibbon at, 108, 113, 119, 121; Voltaire's theatre, 121.

Lea, H. C., business training, 79; as scientific historian, 103.

Lecky, W. E. H., and Christianity, 131; essay on, 153-158; precocity, 153; value of "Morals," 153; intellectual training, 153; as philosophic historian, 154; "England," 154, 155; on French Revolution, 155; on Irish history, 155; in politics, 156; popularity of history, 156; social traits, 156; interest in America, 157; historic divination, 158; "Democracy and Liberty," 158.

Lewis, Sir George Cornewall, on power of press, 96.

Lincoln, Abraham, as President, 213-216; theory and action of war power, 213; as a precedent, 214; popular support, 215; and public opinion, 231; as a prime minister, 241.

Linguistic ability, importance to historians, 49-52; Gibbon's, 133; Gardiner's, 143.

Literary criticism in The Nation, 291-295.

Literary style, acquisition by historian, 52-55; Macaulay's, 55; Gibbon's, 133; Gardiner's, 148; Spencer Walpole's, 165.

Lodge, H. C., in the House, 227.

Logan, J. A., at burning of Columbia, 303, 311, 312.

London Daily News, Godkin as American correspondent, 273.

Long Parliament, character of rump, 320.

Louisiana, purchase as precedent, 208; overthrow of carpet-bag government, 248, 249.

Lowell, J. R., on present-day life, 21; on Carlyle, 39; on college training, 102; on Darwin, 145; on Grant's cabinet, 186; on The Nation, 268, 271, 278; on importance of Godkin to it, 275.

Macaulay, Lord, on Shakespeare as historian, 2; on Herodotus, 5; prolixity, 11, 16, 36; on Thucydides, 19, 61; lack of reflection and digestion, 37; enthusiasm, 38; as partisan, 41; and popularity, 44; on Greek and Latin, 51; style, 55; on mathematics, 56; importance in training of historian, 62; biography, 64; as reader, 69; on Gibbon, 115; on Wentworth and Laud, 149; Gladstone on, 155; on Cromwell, 318; on character of Puritans, 318; on Cromwell's army, 319; Auckland on agreeing with, 323.

McCrary, G. W., in Hayes's cabinet, 247.

McKim, J. M., and foundation of The Nation, 273, 274.

McKinley, William, as leader of House, 227; tariff bill, 227; as President, 229-234; change in tariff views, 229-231; and gold standard, 231; and public opinion, Spanish War and Philippines, 231-234; diplomacy, 234; influence on Congress, 234; as speaker, 241; attitude of Godkin, 286.

Mackintosh, Sir James, on irreligion of Gibbon's time, 132.

Madison, James, as President, 207.

Mahaffy, J. P., on Herodotus, 5; on Thucydides, 8.

Mahan, A. T., anticipation of theory, 127.

Maine, Sir Henry, on Federal Constitution, 203, 206.

Manuscript sources, value, 85, 91, 294; Gardiner's use, 143, 144.

Massachusetts Historical Society, papers by author before, 141, 151, 159, 175, 183, 189, 315; recognition of Gardiner, 147; of Lecky, 156; interest of E. L. Pierce in, 181; E. G. Bourne and editorship of publications, 199.

Mathematics, and training of historian, 55-57.

Matthews, William, on The Nation, 278, 279.

Merritt, E. A., appointment by Hayes, 255.

Mexican War, aggression, 212; and slavery, 212.

Mill, J. S., and mathematics, 56; prodigy, 56.

Milligan case, and arbitrary government, 215.

Milman, H. H., on Gibbon's history, 125, 139.

Milton, John, on books, 60.

Moliere, importance to historians, 49.

Mommsen, Theodor, on Gibbon, 11, 125; as scientific historian, 43.

Money. See Finances.

Monographs, use by general historians, 22.

Monroe, James, as President, 207, 209.

Monroe Doctrine, and Philippines, 195; and development of presidential office, 209.

Montesquieu, Gibbon on, 119.

Morison, J. A. Cotter, on Gibbon, 131.

Morley, John, on Macaulay, 16, 38, 55; on Cicero and Voltaire, 51.

Morrill, J. S., and Hayes's New York Custom-house appointments, 255.

Morris, Gouverneur, and framing of Constitution, 204.

Morse, C. F., on feeling in Union army towards South Carolina, 307.

Motley, J. L., best work, 68; advice to historians, 74, 75; and manuscript sources, 86, 91; Bourne's unfinished biography, 196.

Nation, as historical source, 95; J. D. Cox as contributor, 187; circulation, 270; foundation, 273; weekly edition of Evening Post, 274. See also Godkin.

Necker, Mme. See Curchod.

Negro suffrage, opposition of J. D. Cox, 186.

Nerva, as "gray emperor," 127.

"New English Dictionary," importance of quotations in, 55.

New York Custom-house, Hayes's reforms and appointments, 254.

New York Weekly Tribune, influence, 31, 90, 91, 267. See also Greeley.

Newspapers, as historical sources, 29-32, 83-97; use by Von Holst, 29; as registers of facts, 30, 86-89; importance for dates, 30, 87; as guide of public opinion, 31, 89-92; power of New York Weekly Tribune, 31, 90, 91, 267-269; qualities of evidence, 83, 84; value in American history, for period 1850-1860, 85-92; and correction of logical assumptions, 87-89; as record of speeches and letters, 89; value of partisanship, 91; value of Northern, for Civil War period, 92, 93; of Southern, 93; laboriousness of research, 93; value for Reconstruction, 94; canons of use, 96; as fourth estate, 96; criticisms of Presidents, 239. See also Nation.

Niebuhr, B. G., on Gibbon, 10, 109; on training of historian, 29.

North, Sir Thomas, translation of Plutarch, 1.

Norton, C. E., on Godkin, 270; and foundation of The Nation, 273, 274.

Note-making in historical work, 76.

Nullification, Jackson's course, 210.

"Official Records of Union and Confederate armies," value as historical source, 92.

"Ohio idea," 259.

Oliver, J. M., at burning of Columbia, 313.

Olmsted, F. L., Godkin on Southern books, 273; interest in The Nation, 274; on importance of Godkin to it, 275.

Olney, Richard, draft general arbitration treaty, 226.

Originality in history, 27-29, 34, 75.

Oxford University, address of author at, 169.

Pacific Coast, Goethe's prophecy, 71.

Packard, S. B., overthrow of government, 248, 249.

Palmerston, Lord, Spencer Walpole's estimate, 164.

Panama Canal, Goethe's prophecy, 72.

Paper money. See Finances.

Parkman, Francis, originality, 28; best work, 68; remuneration, 78; national pride in, 102; and religion, 131; on The Nation, 270, 295.

Partisanship, historical value of newspaper, 83, 91.

Pascal, Blaise, influence on Gibbon, 119.

Pasteur, Louis, biography, 59.

Patriotism in historians, 22.

Pericles, funeral oration, 18, 23.

Philippines, annexation and Monroe Doctrine, 195; McKinley's attitude, 233; Godkin's attitude, 286.

Physical sciences, and history, 2; and training of historian, 55-59.

Pierce, E. L., essay on, 177-181; biography of Sumner, 177-179; as politician and citizen, 179, 181; historic sense, 179; character, 180; interest in Massachusetts Historical Society, 181.

Pierce, Franklin, as President, 213.

Pike, J. S., historical value of newspaper articles, 31.

Pittsburg, railroad riot of 1877, 252, 253.

Pliny the Younger, on Tacitus, 9.

Plutarch, North's translation, 1; on Thucydides, 19.

Poetry, and history, 1.

Politics, Godkin on decline, 296, 297. See also Civil service, Congress, Elections, Newspapers, Presidential office, and parties by name.

Polk, J. K., as President, 211.

Polybius, as historian, 6.

Popularity, and historical writing, 44.

Presidential office, essay on, 203-241; flexibility of powers and duties, 204; under Washington, control of treaties, 205-207; John Adams to J. Q. Adams, extension of power, 207-209; and annexations, 208; and Monroe Doctrine, 209; under Jackson, era of vulgarity, spoils system, 209-211; Van Buren to Buchanan, annexations and slavery, 211-213; period of weakness, 213; under Lincoln, war power, 213-216; under Johnson, nadir, 216; and cabinet government, 217, 240, 263; under Grant, 217-219, 262; veto power, 219; Kent on dangers in elections, 219; contested election of 1876, 219, 254; under Hayes, 220-222, 245-264; under Garfield, civil service reform, 222; under Arthur, 222; under Cleveland, advance in power, 223-226; under Harrison, 226-228; under McKinley, 229-234; and public opinion, 231-234; character of Roosevelt, 235; business, interruptions and their remedy, 236-239; appointments, number of presidential offices, 236; contact with Congress, 237; criticisms, 238-240; success of system, 240-241.

Pritchett, H. S., on McKinley and Philippines, 233.

Public opinion, newspapers as guide, 31, 89-92; backing of Lincoln's extra-legal actions, 215; influence on Presidents, 231-234.

Puritans, Macaulay and Gardiner on character, 318.

Pym, John, and Revolution of 1688, 323.

Railroad riots, 1894, Cleveland and use of Federal troops, 225; 1877, cause, 251; strike and conflicts, 253; use of Federal troops, 253; social alarm, 254; conduct of Hayes, 254.

Ranke, Leopold von, "England," 143.

Raymond, H. J., power as journalist, 90.

Reading, desultory, 64, 65, 199; facility and retention, 69; note-making, 76.

Reconstruction, newspapers as historical source, 94, 95; J. D. Cox's opposition to negro suffrage, 186; failure, final withdrawal of troops, 248, 249; attitude of The Nation, 282.

Reed, T. B., and power of Speaker, 227.

Reflection in historical work, 37.

Reform act of 1832, Lord John Russell's introduction, 162.

Religion, Gibbon on, under Pagan empire, 126; Gibbon's treatment of early Christian church, 131-133.

Republican party, newspapers as record of formation, 90; and sound money, 227, 257.

Resumption of specie payments, opposition and success, 258, 259.

Revolution of 1688, question of Cromwell's influence, 322, 323.

Riots. See Railroad.

Robertson, William, present-day reputation, 40, 111; Gibbon on, 122.

Rome. See Gibbon, Tacitus.

Roosevelt, Theodore, character, 235; routine as President, 236, 238.

Ropes, J. C., as military historian, 13.

Round Table, character, 279.

Rousseau, J. J., on Gibbon as lover, 137.

Russell, Lord John, and Reform Act of 1832, 162; Spencer Walpole's biography, 162.

Sainte-Beuve, C. A., style, 53; on desultory reading, 65; on biographies of Goethe, 72; as critic, 72; on Gibbon, 114, 123; on Tacitus, 128.

Salisbury, Lord, Godkin on, 290.

Santa Maria in Ara Coeli, Bambino, 107; connection with Gibbon, 107.

Schofield, J. M., on J. D. Cox, 185.

Schouler, William, power as journalist, 90.

Schurz, Carl, on history as profession, 78; criticism of Cleveland's Venezuelan policy, 239; in Ohio campaign of 1875, 246; Secretary of Interior, ability, 247; with Hayes at Harvard commencement, 251; and civil service reform, 256; social character, 262; as editor of Evening Post, 274; and greenback inflation, 281.

Scott, Winfield, presidential campaign, 86, 87.

Sea-power, Gibbon on, 127.

Senate. See Congress.

Seward, W. H., and arbitrary arrests, 214.

Shakespeare, William, as historian, 1, 7, 22; conciseness, 36; and study of human character, 67.

Shaw, Bernard, on reality of Shakespeare's characters, 67.

Sheffield, Lord, sends wine to Gibbon, 135.

Sherman, John, and Silver Bill of 1878, 221, 259, 260; on contact of President and Congress, 237; in Ohio campaign of 1875, 246; Secretary of Treasury, ability, 247, 258; refunding, 258; abused for depression, specie resumption, 258, 259; social character, 263; and greenback inflation, 281.

Sherman, W. T., and Hayes's suggestion of war portfolio for General Johnston, 247; and burning of Columbia, 301-313.

Sicilian expedition, Thucydides's account, 19, 61.

Silver. See Finances.

Slavery, and westward expansion, 212.

Source material, use by Thucydides and Tacitus, 12-16; modern, 20, 22; newspapers, 29-32, 83-97; manuscript, 85, 91, 143, 294.

South Carolina, overthrow of carpet-bag government, 248; feeling of Union army towards, 306.

Spanish War, newspapers and cause, 89; McKinley's course, 233; attitude of Godkin, 286.

Speaker of House of Representatives, power, 227.

Spectator, on McKinley's diplomacy, 234.

Spedding, James, Gardiner on, 145.

Spencer, Herbert, on aim of education, 77; on age as factor in evidence, 85; Bryce on, 293.

Spoils system. See Civil service.

Stael, Madame de, parents, 137; on Gibbon, 137 n.

"Stalwarts," origin of name, 249.

Stanton, E. M., and arbitrary arrests, 214.

Stephens, H. M., on French Revolution, 155.

Stone, G. A., at burning of Columbia, 302, 310, 311.

Story, Joseph, on presidential character, 235.

Stubbs, William, as historian, 42, 69, 157.

Suffrage, Godkin on universal, 296. See also Negro.

Sumner, Charles, style, 53.

Switzerland, Gibbon's manuscript history, 124.

Tacitus, rank as historian, 5; characteristics as historian, 8-10, 128; conciseness, 11, 16; use of source material, 15; as contemporary historian, 17, 19, 111; on history, 43; importance in training of historian, 61; Gibbon on, 116; on censure, 276.

Taine, H. A., use of journals, 83.

Tariff, Cleveland's attitude, 225; McKinley Act, 227; Dingley Act, 229; McKinley's change of opinion, 229-231; The Nation and protection, 282.

Taylor, Zachary, as President, 212.

Texan annexation, 211; and slavery, 212.

Thackeray, W. M., on Macaulay, 38.

Theodora, Gibbon's treatment, 133.

Thompson, R. W., in Hayes's cabinet, 247.

Thucydides, rank as historian, 5; on history, 6; characteristics as historian, 6-8, 39, 128; conciseness, 11, 14, 16, 36; use of personal sources material, 12-14; as contemporary historian, 17, 111; importance in training of historian, 61.

Thurman, A. G., and greenback inflation, 281.

Ticknor, George, pessimism, 288.

Tilden, S. J., election controversy, 203, 219, 245.

Tocqueville, Alexis de, style, 65; on presidential office, 210.

Trajan, "wise emperor," 127.

Treaty-making power, Jay Treaty as precedent, 206.

Trent, W. P., on burning of Columbia, 302.

Trevelyan, Sir G. O., biography of Macaulay, 64.

Tyler, John, as President, 211, 212.

Tyndall, John, as popular scientist, 58.

Ulysses, and study of human character, 67.

United States, Goethe's prophecy of westward extension and Panama Canal, 71; political traditions, 208; Godkin's early optimism and later pessimism concerning, 272, 284-290, 296; Godkin on general progress and political decline, 296. See also American, Finances, Newspapers, Politics.

Universities, strife after exact knowledge, 101; advantages and aim of training, 102.

Vallandigham case, Lincoln's attitude, 214.

Van Buren, Martin, as President, 211.

Venezuela-Guiana boundary, Cleveland's action, 225 Godkin's attitude, 285.

Veto power, wisdom, 219.

Voltaire, importance to historians, 51; theatre at Lausanne, 121; and Gibbon, 121.

Walker, F. A., career, 283; The Nation ignores death of, 283, 284.

Walpole, Sir Spencer, essay on, 161-167; "England," 161, 163, 164; biography of Lord John Russell, 162; knowledge of men, 164; of continental politics, 164; "Studies in Biography," 164; knowledge of practical politics, 165; as man of affairs, 165; style, 165; visit to, character, 165-167; death, 167.

War power, exemplification by Lincoln, 213-216.

Warner, C. D., on originality in style, 27.

Washington, George, as President, 205-207; prescience, 206; as political tradition, 208.

Webb, J. W., power as journalist, 90.

Webster, Daniel, basis of style, 53, 54; and presidential nomination in 1852, 86.

Weed, Thurlow, power as journalist, 90.

Wells, H. G., on Boston, 138.

Wentworth, Thomas, Macaulay and Gardiner on, 149.

West Virginia, railroad riots of 1877, 252.

Western Reserve University, lecture by author at, 47.

Wheeler, Joseph, lootings by his cavalry at Columbia, 309.

Whig party, nominations in 1852, 86.

Whitman, Marcus, Bourne's essay on, 193.

William I of Germany, "gray emperor," 127.

William II of Germany, "traveling emperor," 127.

Windom, William, and Hayes's New York Custom-house appointments, 255.

Wine, Gibbon's love for, 135.

Winthrop, R. C., on E. L. Pierce, 179.

Woods, C. R., at burning of Columbia, 303, 311, 312.

Woods, W. B., at burning of Columbia, 311.

Woolsey, T. D., on Thucydides, 39.

Yale University, lecture by author at, 47.

This Index was made for me by D. M. Matteson.

THE END

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