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Hinduism and Buddhism, An Historical Sketch, Vol. 3 (of 3)
by Charles Eliot
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CHAPTER LVII

PERSIAN INFLUENCE IN INDIA

Our geographical and political phraseology about India and Persia obscures the fact that in many periods the frontier between the two countries was uncertain or not drawn as now. North-western India and eastern Persia must not be regarded as water-tight or even merely leaky compartments. Even now there are more Zoroastrians in India than in Persia and the Persian sect of Shiite Mohammedans is powerful and conspicuous there. In former times it is probable that there was often not more difference between Indian and Iranian religion than between different Indian sects.

Yet the religious temperaments of India and Iran are not the same. Zoroastrianism has little sympathy for pantheism or asceticism: it does not teach metempsychosis or the sinfulness of taking life. Images are not used in worship,[1144] God and his angels being thought of as pure and shining spirits. The foundation of the system is an uncompromising dualism of good and evil, purity and impurity, light and darkness. Good and evil are different in origin and duality will be abolished only by the ultimate and complete victory of the good. In the next world the distinction between heaven and hell is equally sharp but hell is not eternal.[1145]

The pantheon and even the ritual of the early Iranians resembled those of the Veda and we can only suppose that the two peoples once lived and worshipped together. Subsequently came the reform of Zoroaster which substituted theism and dualism for this nature worship. For about two centuries, from 530 B.C. onwards, Gandhara and other parts of north-western India were a Persian province. Between the time of Zoroaster (whatever that may be) and this period we cannot say what were the relations of Indian and Iranian religions, but after the seventh century they must have flourished in the same region. Aristobulus,[1146] speaking of Taxila in the time of Alexander the Great, describes a marriage market and how the dead were devoured by vultures. These are Babylonian and Persian customs, and doubtless were accompanied by many others less striking to a foreign tourist. Some hold that the Zoroastrian scriptures allude to disputes with Buddhists.[1147]

Experts on the whole agree that the most ancient Indian architecture which has been preserved—that of the Maurya dynasty—has no known antecedents in India, but both in structure (especially the pillars) and in decoration is reminiscent of Persepolis, just as Asoka's habit of lecturing his subjects in stone sermons and the very turns of his phrases recall the inscriptions of Darius.[1148] And though the king's creed is in some respects—such as his tenderness for animal life—thoroughly Indian, yet this cannot be said of his style and choice of themes as a whole. His marked avoidance of theology and philosophy, his insistence on ethical principles such as truth, and his frank argument that men should do good in order that they may fare happily in the next world, suggest that he may have become familiar with the simple and practical Zoroastrian outlook,[1149] perhaps when he was viceroy of Taxila in his youth. But still he shows no trace of theism or dualism: morality is his one concern, but it means for him doing good rather than suppressing evil.

After the death of Asoka his Empire broke up and races who were Iranian in culture, if not always in blood, advanced at its expense. Dependencies of the Persian or Parthian empire extended into India or like the Satrapies of Mathura and Saurashtra lay wholly within it. The mixed civilization which the Kushans brought with them included Zoroastrianism, as is shown by the coins of Kanishka, and late Kushan coins indicate that Sassanian influence had become very strong in northern India when the dynasty collapsed in the third century A.D.

I see no reason to suppose that Gotama himself was influenced by Iranian thought. His fundamental ideas, his view of life and his scheme of salvation are truly Hindu and not Iranian. But if the childhood of Buddhism was Indian, it grew to adolescence in a motley bazaar where Persians and their ways were familiar. Though the Buddhism exported to Ceylon escaped this phase, not merely Mahayanism but schools like the Sarvastivadins must have passed through it. The share of Zoroastrianism must not be exaggerated. The metaphysical and ritualistic tendencies of Indian Buddhism are purely Hindu, and if its free use of images was due to any foreign stimulus, that stimulus was perhaps Hellenistic. But the altruistic morality of Mahayanism, though not borrowed from Zoroastrianism, marks a change and this change may well have occurred among races accustomed to the preaching of active charity and dissatisfied with the ideals of self-training and lonely perfection. And Zoroastrian influence is I think indubitable in the figures of the great Bodhisattvas, even Maitreya,[1150] and above all in Amitabha and his paradise. These personalities have been adroitly fitted into Indian theology but they have no Indian lineage and, in spite of all explanations, Amitabha and the salvation which he offers remain in strange contradiction with the teaching of Gotama. I have shown elsewhere[1151] what close parallels may be found in the Avesta to these radiant and benevolent genii and to the heaven of boundless light which is entered by those who repeat the name of its master. Also there is good evidence to connect the early worship of Amitabha with Central Asia. Later Iranian influence may have meant Mithraism and Manichaeism as well as Zoroastrianism and the school of Asanga perhaps owes something to these systems.[1152] They may have brought with them fragments of Christianity or doctrines similar to Christianity but I think that all attempts to derive Amitabhist teaching from Christianity are fanciful. The only point which the two have in common is salvation by faith, and that doctrine is certainly older than Christianity. Otherwise the efforts of Amitabha to save humanity have no resemblance to the Christian atonement. Nor do the relations between the various Buddhas and Bodhisattvas recall the Trinity but rather the Persian Fravashis.

Persian influences worked more strongly on Buddhism than on Hinduism, for Buddhism not only flourished in the frontier districts but penetrated into the Tarim basin and the region of the Oxus which lay outside the Indian and within the Iranian sphere. But they affected Hinduism also, especially in the matter of sun-worship. This of course is part of the oldest Vedic religion, but a special form of it, introduced about the beginning of our era, was a new importation and not a descendant of the ancient Indian cult.[1153]

The Brihatsamhita[1154] says that the Magas, that is Magi, are the priests of the sun and the proper persons to superintend the consecration of temples and images dedicated to that deity, but the clearest statements about this foreign cult are to be found in the Bhavishya Purana[1155] which contains a legend as to its introduction obviously based upon history. Samba, the son of Krishna, desiring to be cured of leprosy from which he suffered owing to his father's curse, dedicated a temple to the sun on the river Candrabhaga, but could find no Brahmans willing to officiate in it. By the advice of Gauramukha, priest of King Ugrasena, confirmed by the sun himself, he imported some Magas from Sakadvipa,[1156] whither he flew on the bird Garuda.[1157] That this refers to the importation of Zoroastrian priests from the country of the Sakas (Persia or the Oxus regions) is made clear by the account of their customs—such as the wearing of a girdle called Avyanga—[1158]given by the Purana. It also says that they were descended from a child of the sun called Jarasabda or Jarasasta, which no doubt represents Zarathustra.

The river Candrabhaga is the modern Chenab and the town founded by Samba is Mulasthana or Multan, called Mu-la-san-pu-lu by the Chinese pilgrim Hsuan Chuang. The Bhavishya Purana calls the place Sambapuri and the Chinese name is an attempt to represent Mulasamba-puri. Hsuan Chuang speaks enthusiastically of the magnificent temple,[1159] which was also seen by Alberuni but was destroyed by Aurungzeb. Taranatha[1160] relates how in earlier times a king called Sri Harsha burnt alive near Multan 12,000 adherents of the Mleccha sect with their books and thereby greatly weakened the religion of Persians and Sakas for a century. This legend offers difficulties but it shows that Multan was regarded as a centre of Zoroastrianism.

Multan is in the extreme west Of India, but sun temples are found in many other parts, such as Gujarat, Gwalior and the district of Gaya, where an inscription has been discovered at Govindapur referring to the legend of Samba. This same legend is also related in the Kapila Samhita, a religious guide-book for Orissa, in connection with the great Sun temple of Konarak.[1161]

In these temples the sun was represented by images, Hindu convention thus getting the better of Zoroastrian prejudices, but the costume of the images shows their origin, for the Brihatsamhita[1162] directs that Surya is to be represented in the dress of the northerners, covered from the feet upwards and wearing the girdle called avyanga or viyanga. In Rajputana I have seen several statues of him in high boots and they are probably to be found elsewhere.

Fortuitously or otherwise, the cult of the sun was often associated with Buddhism, as is indicated by these temples in Gaya and Orissa and by the fact that the Emperor Harsha styles his father, grandfather and great-grandfather paramadityabhakta, great devotees of the sun.[1163] He himself, though a devout Buddhist, also showed honour to the image of Surya, as we hear from Hsuang Chuang.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1144: They are forbidden by strict theology, but in practice there are exceptions, for instance, the winged figure believed to represent Ahura Mazda, found on Achaemenian reliefs.]

[Footnote 1145: Though the principles of Zoroastrianism sound excellent to Europeans, I cannot discover that ancient Persia was socially or politically superior to India.]

[Footnote 1146: See Strabo, XV. 62. So, too, the Pitakas seem to regard cemeteries as places where ordinary corpses are thrown away rather than buried or burnt. In Dig. Nik. III, the Buddha says that the ancient Sakyas married their sisters. Such marriages are said to have been permitted in Persia.]

[Footnote 1147: "He who returns victorious from discussions with Gaotama the heretic," Farvadin Yasht in S.B.E. XXIII. p. 184. The reference of this passage to Buddhism has been much disputed and I am quite incompetent to express any opinion about it. But who is Gaotama if not the Buddha? It is true that there were many other Gautamas of moderate eminence in India, but would any of them have been known in Persia?]

[Footnote 1148: The inscriptions near the tomb of Darius at Nakshi-Rustam appear to be hortatory like those of Asoka. See Williams Jackson, Persia, p. 298 and references. The use of the Kharoshtri script and of the word dipi has also been noted as indicating connection with Persia.]

[Footnote 1149: Perhaps the marked absence of figures representing the Buddha in the oldest Indian sculptures, which seems to imply that the holiest things must not be represented, is due to Persian sentiment.]

[Footnote 1150: Strictly speaking there is nothing final about Maitreya who is merely the next in an infinite series of Buddhas, but practically his figure has many analogies to Soshyos or Saoshant, the Parsi saviour and renovator of the world.]

[Footnote 1151: See chap. XLI. p. 220.]

[Footnote 1152: See chap, on Mahayana, VI.]

[Footnote 1153: A convenient statement of what is known about this cult will be found in Bhandarkar, Vaishnavism and Saivism, part II. chap. XVI.]

[Footnote 1154: Chap. 60. 19. The work probably dates from about 650 A.D.]

[Footnote 1155: Chap. 139. See, for extracts from the text, Aufrecht. Cat. Cod. Sansc. p. 30.]

[Footnote 1156: For Sakadvipa see Vishnu, p. II. IV. where it is said that Brahmans are called there Mriga or Maga and Kshattriyas Magadha. The name clearly means the country of the Sakas who were regarded as Zoroastrians, whether they were Iranian by race or not. But the topography is imaginary, for in this fanciful geography India is the central continent and Sakadvipa the sixth, whereas if it means Persia or the countries of the Oxus it ought to be near India.]

[Footnote 1157: The Garuda may itself be of Persian provenance, for birds play a considerable part in Persian mythology.]

[Footnote 1158: The Aivyaonghen of the Avesta.]

[Footnote 1159: Watters, vol. II. 254, and Life, chap. IV.]

[Footnote 1160: Taranatha, tr. Schiefner, p. 128, and Vincent Smith's remarks in Early History, p. 347, note 2.]

[Footnote 1161: See Rajendralala Mitra, Antiquities of Orissa, vol. n. p. 145. He also quotes the Samba Purana. The temple is said to have been built between 1240 and 1280 but the beauty of its architecture suggests an earlier date.]

[Footnote 1162: 58. 47.]

[Footnote 1163: See Epig. Ind. 72-73.]



CHAPTER LVIII

MOHAMMEDANISM IN INDIA

Let us now turn to Mohammedanism. This is different from the cases which we have been considering and we need not trouble ourselves with any enquiry into opportunities and possibilities. The presence and strength of the Prophet's religion in India are patent facts and it is surprising that the result has not been greater.

The chief and most obvious method by which Islam influenced India was the series of invasions, culminating in the Mughal conquest, which poured through the mountain passes of the north-west frontier. But there was also long established communication and to some extent intermigration between the west coast and Mohammedan countries such as Arabia and Persia. Compared with the enormous political and social changes wrought by the land invasions, the results of this maritime intercourse may seem unworthy of mention. Yet for the interchange of ideas it was not without importance, the more so as it was unaccompanied by violence and hostility. Thus the Mappilas or Moplahs of Malabar appear to be the descendants of Arab immigrants who arrived by sea about 900 A.D., and the sects known as Khojas and Bohras owe their conversion to the zeal of Arab and Persian missionaries who preached in the eleventh century. Apart from Mohammedan conquests there must have been at this time in Gujarat, Bombay, and on the west coast generally some knowledge of the teaching of Islam.

In the annals of invasions and conquests several stages can be distinguished. First we have the Arab conquest of Sind in 712, which had little effect. In 1021 Mahmud of Ghazni annexed the Panjab. He conducted three campaigns against other kingdoms of India but, though he sacked Muttra, Somnath and other religious centres, he did not attempt to conquer these regions, still less to convert them to Islam. The period of conquests as distinguished from raids did not begin until the end of the twelfth century when Muhammad Ghori began his campaigns and succeeded in making himself master of northern India, which from 1193 to 1526 was ruled by Mohammedan dynasties, mostly of Afghan or Turki descent. In the south the frontiers of Vijayanagar marked the limits of Islam. To the north of them Rajputana and Orissa still remained Hindu states, but with these exceptions the Government was Mohammedan. In 1526 came the Mughal invasion, after which all northern India was united under one Mohammedan Emperor for about two centuries. Aurungzeb (1659-1707) was a fanatical Mohammedan: his intolerant reign marked the beginning of disintegration in the Empire and aroused the opposition of the Mahrattas and Sikhs. But until this period Mohammedan rule was not marked by special bigotry or by any persistent attempt to proselytize. A woeful chronicle of selected outrages can indeed be drawn up. In the great towns of the north hardly a temple remained unsacked and most were utterly destroyed. At different periods individuals, such as Sikander Lodi of Delhi and Jelaluddin (1414-1430) in Bengal, raged against Hinduism and made converts by force. But such acts are scattered over a long period and a great area; they are not characteristic of Islam in India. Neither the earlier Mughal Emperors nor the preceding Sultans were of irreproachable orthodoxy. Two of them at least, Ala-ud-Din and Akbar, contemplated founding new religions of their own. Many of them were connected with Hindu sovereigns by marriage or political alliances.

The works of Alberuni and Mohsin Fani show that educated Mohammedans felt an interest not only in Indian science but in Indian religion. In the Panjab and Hindustan Islam was strengthened by immigrations of Mohammedan tribes from the north-west extending over many centuries. Mohammedan sultans and governors held their court in the chief cities, which thus tended to become Mohammedan not only by natural attraction but because high caste Hindus preferred to live in the country and would not frequent the company of those whom they considered as outcasts. Still, Hindus were often employed as accountants and revenue officers. All non-Moslims had to pay the jiziya or poll tax, and the remission of this impost accorded to converts was naturally a powerful incentive to change of faith. Yet Mohammedanism cannot record any wholesale triumph in India such as it has won in Persia, Egypt and Java. At the present day about one-fifth of the population are Moslim. The strength of Islam in the Panjab is due to immigration as well as conversion,[1164] but it was embraced by large numbers in Kashmir and made rapid progress in Oudh and Eastern Bengal. The number of Mohammedans in Bengal (twenty-five millions out of a total of sixty-two in all India) is striking, seeing that the province is out of touch with the chief Mohammedan centres, but is explicable by the fact that Islam had to deal here not with an educated and organized Hindu community but with imperfectly hinduized aboriginal races, who welcomed a creed with no caste distinctions. Yet, apart from the districts named, which lie on the natural line of march from the Panjab down the Ganges to the sea, it made little progress. It has not even conquered the slopes of the Himalayas or the country south of the Jumna. If we deduct from the Mohammedan population the descendants of Mohammedan immigrants and of those who, like the inhabitants of Eastern Bengal, were not Hindus when they embraced the faith, the impression produced by Islam on the religious thought of India is not great, considering that for at least five centuries its temporal supremacy was hardly contested.

It is not until the time of Kabir that we meet with a sect in which Hindu and Mohammedan ideas are clearly blended, but it may be that the theology of Ramanuja and Madhva, of the Lingayats and Sivaite sects of the south, owes something to Islam. Its insistence on the unity and personality of God may have vivified similar ideas existing within Hinduism, but the expression which they found for themselves is not Moslim in tone, just as nowadays the Arya Samaj is not European in tone. Yet I think that the Arya Samaj would never have come into being had not Hindus become conscious of certain strong points in European religion. In the north it is natural that Moslim influence should not have made itself felt at once. Islam came first as an enemy and a raider and was no more sympathetic to the Brahmans than it was to the Greek Church in Europe. Though Indian theism may sometimes seem practically equivalent to Islam, yet it has a different and gentler tone, and it often rests on the idea that God, the soul and matter are all separate and eternal, an idea foreign to Mohammed's doctrine of creation. But from the fifteenth century onwards we find a series of sects which are obviously compromises and blends. Advances are made from both sides. Thoughtful Mohammedans see the profundity of Hindu theology: liberal Hindus declare that no caste or condition, including birth in a Moslim family, disqualifies man for access to God.

The fusion of Islam with Hinduism exhibited in these sects has for its basis the unity and omnipresence of God in the light of which minor differences have no existence. But fusion also arises from an opposite tendency, namely the toleration by Indian Moslims of Hindu ideas and practices, especially respect for religious teachers and their deification after death. While known by some such title as saint, which does not shock unitarian susceptibility, they are in practice honoured as godlings. The bare simplicity of the Arabian faith has not proved satisfying to other nations, and Turks, Persians and Indians, even when professing orthodoxy, have allowed embellishments and accretions. Such supplementary beliefs thrive with special luxuriance in India, where a considerable portion of the Moslim population are descended from persons who accepted the new faith unwillingly or from interested motives. They brought with them a plentiful baggage of superstitions and did not attempt to sever the ties which bound them to their Hindu neighbours. In the last century the efforts of the Wahabis and other reformers are said to have been partly successful in purifying Islam from Hindu observances, but even now the mixture is noticeable, especially in the lower classes. Brahmans are employed to cast horoscopes, Hindu ceremonies are observed in connection with marriages and funerals, and the idea of pollution by eating with unbelievers is derived from caste rules, for Mohammedans in other countries have no objection to eating with Christians. Numerous sacred sites, such as the shrine of Sheikh Chisti at Ajmere and of Bhairav Nath at Muttra,[1165] are frequented by both Moslims and Hindus, and it is an interesting parallel to find that the chief Moslim shrines of Turkestan are erected on spots which were once Buddhist sanctuaries. Sometimes the opposite happens: even Brahmans are known to adopt the observances of Shiahs.[1166] But on the whole it is chiefly the Mohammedans who borrow, not the main doctrines of Hinduism, but popular magic and demonology. Ignorant Mohammedans in Bengal worship Sitala, Kali, Dharmaraj, Baidyanath and other Hindu deities and also respect certain mythical beings who seem to have a Moslim origin, but to have acquired strange characters in the course of time. Such are Khwaja Khizr who lives in rivers, Zindah Ghazi who rides on a tiger in the Sandarbans, and Sultan Shahid who is said to be the bodyguard and lover of Devi. But it is in the adoration of Pirs that this fusion of the two religions is most apparent. A Pir is the Moslim equivalent of a Guru and distinct from the Mollahs or official hierarchy. Just as Hindus receive initiation from their Guru so most Moslims, except the Wahabis and other purists, make a profession of faith before their Pir, accept his guidance and promise him obedience. When an eminent Pir dies his tomb becomes a place of prayer and pilgrimage. Even educated Mohammedans admit that Pirs can intercede with the Almighty and the uneducated offer to them not only direct supplications but even sacrifices. The Shrine of an important Pir, such as Hazrat Moin-ud-Din Chisti at Ajmere, is an edifice dedicated to a superhuman being as much as any Hindu temple.

This veneration of saints attains its strangest development in the sect of the Panchpiriyas or worshippers of the five Pirs. They are treated by the last census of India as "Hindus whose religion has a strong Mohammedan flavour."[1167] There is no agreement as to who the five saints or deities are, but though the names vary from place to place they usually comprise five of the best known semi-mythical Pirs.[1168] Whoever they may be, they are worshipped under the form of a small tomb with five domes or of a simple mound of clay set in the corner of a room. Every Wednesday the mound is washed and offerings of flowers and incense are made. A somewhat similar sect are the Malkanas of the Panjab. These appear to be Hindus formerly converted to Islam and now in process of reverting to Hinduism.

The influence of Hinduism on Indian Mohammedanism is thus obvious. It is responsible for the addition to the Prophet's creed of much superstition but also for rendering it less arid and more human. It is harder to say how far Moslim mysticism and Sufiism are due to the same influence. History and geography raise no difficulties to such an origin. Arabia was in touch with the western coast of India for centuries before the time of Mohammed: the same is true of the Persian Gulf and Bagdad, and of Balkh and other districts near the frontiers of India. But recent writers on Sufiism[1169] have shown a disposition to seek its origin in Neoplatonism rather than in the east. This hypothesis, like the other, presents no geographical difficulties. Many Arab authors, such as Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and Averroes (Ibn Rushd) were influenced by Greek Philosophy: Neoplatonists are said to have taken refuge in Persia at the Court of Nushirwan (c. A.D. 532): the Fihrist (c. 988) mentions Porphyry and Plotinus. If, therefore, Sufiism, early or late, presents distinct resemblances to Neoplatonism, we need not hesitate to ascribe them to direct borrowing, remembering that Neoplatonism itself contains echoes of India. But, admitting that much in the doctrine of the Sufis can be found to the west as well as to the east of the countries where they flourished, can it be said that their general tone is Neoplatonic? Amongst their characteristics are pantheism; the institution of religious orders and monasteries; the conception of the religious life as a path or journey; a bold use of language in which metaphors drawn from love, wine and music are freely used in speaking of divine things and, although the doctrine of metempsychosis may be repudiated as too obviously repugnant to Islam, a tendency to believe in successive existences or states of the soul. Some of these features, such as the use of erotic language, may be paralleled in other ancient religions as well as Hinduism but the pantheism which, not content with speaking of the soul's union with God, boldly identifies the soul with the divinity and says I am God, does not seem traceable in Neoplatonism. And though a distinction may justly be drawn between early and later Sufiism and Indian influence be admitted as stronger in the later developments, still an early Sufi, Al-Hallaj, was executed in 922 A.D. for saying Ana 'l-Haqq, I am the Truth or God, and we are expressly told that he visited India to study magic. Many important Sufis made the same journey or at least came within the geographical sphere of Indian influence. Faridu-'d-Din Attar travelled in India and Turkestan; Jalalu-'d-Din er-Rumi was born at Balkh, once a centre of Buddhism: Sa'di visited Balkh, Ghazna, the Panjab, and Gujarat, and investigated Hindu temples.[1170] Hafiz was invited to the Deccan by Sultan Muhammad Bahmani and, though shipwreck prevented the completion of the visit, he was probably in touch with Indian ideas. These journeys indicate that there was a prevalent notion that wisdom was to be found in India and those who could not go there must have had open ears for such Indian doctrines as might reach them by oral teaching or in books. After the establishment of the Caliphate at Bagdad in the eighth century translations of Indian authors became accessible. Arabic versions were made of many works on astronomy, mathematics and medicine and the example of Alberuni shows how easily such treatises might be flavoured with a relish of theology. His book and still more the Fihrist testify to the existence among Moslims, especially in Bagdad and Persia, of an interest in all forms of thought very different from the self-satisfied bigotry which too often characterizes them. The Caliph Ma'mun was so fond of religious speculation and discussion that he was suspected of being a Manichee and nicknamed Amiru-'l-Kafirin, Commander of the Unbelievers. Everything warrants the supposition that in the centuries preceding Mohammed, Indian ideas were widely disseminated in western Asia, partly as a direct overflow from India, for instance in Turkestan and Afghanistan, and partly as entering, together with much other matter, into the doctrines of Neoplatonists and Manichaeans. Amid the intolerant victories of early Islam such ideas would naturally retreat, but they soon recovered and effected an entrance into the later phases of the faith and were strengthened by the visits of Sufi pilgrims to Turkestan and India.

The form of Jewish mysticism known as Kabbala, which in Indian terminology might be described as Jewish Tantrism, has a historical connection with Sufiism and a real analogy to it, for both arise from the desire to temper an austere and regal deism with concessions to the common human craving for the interesting and picturesque, such as mysticism and magic. If the accent of India can sometimes be heard in the poems of the Sufis we may also admit that the Kabbala is its last echo.

Experts do not assign any one region as the origin of the Kabbala but it grew on parallel lines in both Egypt and Babylonia, in both of which it was naturally in touch with the various oriental influences which we have been discussing. It is said to have been introduced to Europe about 900 A.D. but received important additions and modifications at the hands of Isaac Luria (1534-72) who lived in Palestine, although his disciples soon spread his doctrines among the European Jews.

Many features of the Kabbala, such as the marvellous powers assigned to letters, the use of charms and amulets, the emanations or phases of the deity and the theory of the correspondence between macrocosm and microcosm, are amazingly like Indian Tantrism but no doubt are more justly regarded as belonging to the religious ideas common to most of Asia.[1171] But in two points we seem able to discern definite Hindu influence. These are metempsychosis and pantheism, which we have so often found to have some connection with India when they exist in an extreme form. Their presence here is specially remarkable because they are alien to the spirit of orthodox Judaism. Yet the pre-existence and repeated embodiment of the soul is taught in the Zohar and even more systematically by Luria, in whose school were composed works called Gilgulim, or lists of transmigrations. The ultimate Godhead is called En soph or the infinite and is declared to be unknowable, not to be described by positive epithets, and therefore in a sense non-existent, since nothing which is predicated of existing beings can be truly predicated of it. These are crumbs from the table of Plotinus and the Upanishads.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1164: But see on this point Census of India, 1911, vol. I. part I. p. 128.]

[Footnote 1165: Another instance is the shrine of Saiyad Salar Masud at Bahraich. He was a nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni and was slain by Hindus, but is now worshipped by them. See Grierson, J.R.A.S. 1911, p. 195.]

[Footnote 1166: See for examples, Census of India, 1901, Panjab, p. 151, e.g. the Brahmans of a village near Rawal Pindi are said to be Murids of Abdul-Kadir-Jilani.]

[Footnote 1167: Census of India, 1911, vol. I. part I. p. 195. The Malkanas are described on the same page.]

[Footnote 1168: Such as Ghazi Miyan, Pir Badar, Zindha Ghazi, Sheikh Farid, Sheikh Sadu and Khwaja Khizr.]

[Footnote 1169: E.G. Browne, Literary History of Persia: R.A. Nicholson, Selected Poems from the Divan of Shems-i-Tabriz.]

[Footnote 1170: He describes how he discovered the mechanism by which the priests made miraculous images move. See Browne, Lit. Hist. Persia, II. 529.]

[Footnote 1171: But there is something very Indian in the reluctance of the Kabbalists to accept creation ex nihilo and to explain it away by emanations, or by the doctrine of limitation, that is God's self-withdrawal in order that the world might be created, or even by the eternity of matter.]



INDEX

Abbot. See Monasteries, and Organisation—ecclesiastical

Abdul Kadir Jilani, III. 459

Abhakta, III. 426

Abhayagiri, I. 292, 293; III. 16, 19, 33, 297

Abhayakara, II. 112; III. 360, 387

Abhaya Raja, II. 113

Abhidhamma, I. 208, 256, 258, 276 sq., 280, 289, 291, 299, 300; II. 47 sq., 80, 82, 102; III. 30, 39, 61, 71, 372, 374

Abhidhammattha-sangaha, III. 71 sangraha, III. 39, 45

Abhidharma, III. 292, 299 Kosa, II. 89; III. 213, 286, 314 Pitaka, II. 59, 81; III. 285, 373 vibhashasastra, II. 78, 81; III. 213 vyakhya, II. 89

Abhimukhi, II. 11

Abhinava Gupta, II. 223, 224

Abhinna, I. 317

Abhiraja, III. 50

Abhiras, II. 156

Abhisheka, II. 122, 275; III. 355

Ablur inscription, II. 225

Aboriginal deities, I. xxxvi, 6; II. 126, 127, 138, 285; III. 68, 97, 112, 182, 185, 224, 343, 382

Absolute Godhead. See Brahman

Abu (Mount), I. 115, 120; II. 203

Abul Fazl, III. 417

Acala, II. 11; III. 392

Acaranga, I. 116

Acariyaparampara, III. 306

Acarya, II. 114, 221, 257; III. 121 bhimana, II. 237 Pasupata, III. 114 Saiva, III. 114 vada, I. 262

Achaemenian reliefs, III. 449

Aciravati, I. 150

Acit, II. 316

Acts of the Apostles, I. 255

Acyuta, III. 114

Acyutananda Dasa, II. 115

Adam, III. 217

Adam's Bridge, II. 150 Peak, I. 7; III. 13, 43

Adhara Karikas, II. 224

Adharma, I. 106

Adhicitta, I. 313, 315; III. 310

Adhipanna, I. 313; III. 310

Adhyatma Ramayana, II. 152, 187, 194

Adi-Buddha, II. 13, 26, 31, 57, 117, 118, 119, 129; III. 173, 387

Adi-granth, II. 263, 268

Adityas, I. 61; II. 146

Adityavarman, III. 163

Adonis, Attis and Osiris, II. 285

Advaita (philosophy), I. cii, 74, 82, 235; II. 40, 74, 204, 225, 238, 258, 289, 307, 312 sq.; III. 305,421

(P. N.), II. 254

Advaya, III. 173-181

Adyar Library, II. 195, 210, 270, 322

Aeltere vedanta, II. 315

Aeons, III. 444

Afghanistan, I. 19, 24, 28, 29, 31, 264; II. 272; III. 199, 456

agamana, II. 43, 92

Agama pramanya, II. 232

Agamas, II. 128, 188, 189, 190, 204, 216, 222, 282; III. 214, 282, 292, 296, 297, 299

[Greek: agape], I. 184, 216, 253

Agarwals, II. 177

Agastya, II. 213

Aggabodhi, king, III. 33

Agganna Sutra, I. 336

Aghora, II. 198, 234

Aghoris, II. 203, 289

Agisala, II. 77

Agni, I. 56, 62

Agnihotri, I. 90

Agni Purana, II. 130, 281

Agnishtoma, I. 66; II. 170

Agnostic teachers, I. 98

Agra, I. 87

Agrayana, II. 3

Agriculture forbidden, I. 113

Ahamkara, I. lxxvii; II. 299

Ahan, III. 282, 296

Ahar, III. 116

Ahimsa, I. lvi; II. 114, 170 sq., 200; III. 248

Ahinas, I. 69

Ahirbudhnya Samhita, II. 147, 194, 195 of the Pancaratra Agama, II. 188

Ahirs, II. 158

Ahmadabad, I. 115, 119; II. 175, 252, 266

Ahmadnagar, I. 29

Ahoms (kingdom, etc.), II. 259, 280, 288; III. 79

Ahriman, I. 336

Ahuna-vairya, III. 220 Mazda, I. 60, 64; II. 198; III. 220, 449

Ai (emperor), III. 245

Aihole, II. 172; III. 106

Aisvarya, II. 196

Aitareya Brahmana, I. 67

Aivyaonghen, III. 453

Aiyar Sesha, II. 219

Aiyengar, Krishna Swami, II. 233, 238

Ajanta, I. 26, 212; II. 108; III. 102

Ajata Satru, king (Ajata Sattu), I. 36, 74, 77, 87, 111, 131, 132, 153, 156, 157, 158, 161, 169, 172, 221, 298; III. 23, 24

Ajayadeva, I. 114

Ajita, I. 99; II. 21

Ajiva, I. 107

Ajivikas, I. 49, 99, 123, 241, 268; III. 13

Ajmer, I. 29; III. 458, 459

Akalis, II. 272, 273

Akasagarbha, II. 24; III. 216, 283

Akbar, I. 30, 31, 115; II. 242, 266, 269; III. 417, 456

Akincannayatanam, I. 135

Akriyavadins, I. 99

Akshobhya (Buddha), II. 26, 27; III. 122, 166, 169, 173

Alabaster, III. 98

Alara Kalama, I. 135, 136, 303, 316

Alasanda, III. 18

Ala-ud-din, I. 29, 30; III. 456

Alavandar, II. 232 stotram, II. 232

Alayavijnana, I. xxxix; II. 43, 44, 84, 87

Alberuni, II. 187, 189, 228; III. 446, 453, 456, 461

Albigenses, III. 445

Alexander, king, I. 268

Alexander of Macedon, I. xxx, xxxi, 21, 50, 177; III. 189, 413, 430, 450

Alexandria, III. 414

Al Hallaj, III. 460

Alkondavilli Govindacarya, I. 40; II. 233

Allah, I. 8; II. 216, 270. See also God and Islam

Allahabad, II. 99

Allakappa, I. 169

Allopanishad, II. 270

All Souls' Day, III. 264, 332

Alompra, III. 47 sq., 169

A-lo-pen, III. 217

Alphabets, I. 61; III. 4, 51, 80, 82, 104, 106, 154, 157, 183, 190, 191, 192, 201, 300 sq., 348, 355, 450

Altan, III. 361

Alterer vedanta, II. 74

Alvar. See Arvar

Amarakosha, II. 280; III. 181

Amarapura, III. 36, 37, 49

Amaravati stupa, II. 85, 108, 143 (Quangnam), III. 137

Amardas Guru, II. 268

Amar Mul, II. 266 Singh, II. 147

Amasis, III. 434

Ambaherana Salamevan, III. 40

Ambalatthika, I. 288

Amban, III. 367 sq.

Ambapala, I. 163

Ambatthasutta, I. 87, 131; II. 175

Ambhojanetra, III. 122

Ambika, II. 277

Amdo, III. 358, 400

Ameretat, III. 220

American Lectures, I. 151, 212

Amesha Spenta, II. 12, 120, 198

Amida, I. 182, 215; III. 312, 321, 404, 418

Amidism, I. xlix; III. 220 sq.

Amiru-'l-Kafirin, III. 461

Amitabha (Buddha), I. xxix, xxxii; II. 6, 13, 23, 26, 28, 33, 60, 66, 72, 86, 88, 181, 182; III. 124, 166, 173, 176, 218, 219 sq., 292, 313, 327, 365, 385, 390, 451

Amitayurdhyanasutra, II. 23, 29, 30; III. 313

Amitayus, II. 28, 30, 33, 103; III. 391

Amittaranpapatikad, I. 116

Amogha, III. 39, 264, 293, 327, 349

Amoghapasa, III. 163, 390

Amoghasiddhi, II. 26; III. 166, 173, 176, 181

Amoghavajra, III. 317

Amoghavarsha, I. 314

Amoy, III. 333

Ampel, III. 161

Amritsar, II. 268, 272

amsa, II. 239

Amulets, I. 109. See also Magic

Anachronistic practices, II. 168

Anagamin, I. 227

Anagata-vamsa, II. 22

Anahit, II. 276

Analecta, I. 177; III. 227

Ananda, I. 133, 151, 153, 155, 156, 160, 162, 163 sq., 170, 174, 207, 209, 247, 256, 261, 288, 343, 344; II. 9, 29, 56; III. 20, 307, 342, 439

Garbha, II. 128 Giri, II. 110 Kaya, II. 32

Anandam, I. 84

Ananda Pagoda, III. 74

Anandasrama Press, II. 195

Ananda Temple, II. 55, 56 Tirtha, II. 237

Anantavarman Colaganga, I. 30

ananuvejjo, I. 235

anariyam, I. 241

Anatta, I. 191, 194, 219

anatthapindeka, I. 151, 180

Anawrata (king), I. xxv; III. 7, 11, 47 sq.

Ancestor-worship, I. 3, 9, 10, 12, 33; III. 68, 116, 236, 344

An-Chou, III. 206, 216

Ancient Ceylon, III. 18, 19 India, II. 153, 159

Anda, III. 361

Andal, II. 231

Andhakas, I. 261

Andhra (kingdom, etc.), I. 22; II. 85, 100, 108; III. 102

Andras, I. 268

Anecdota Oxoniensia, II. 52

Anekantavada, I. 108

Anesaki, I. 293; III. 294, 296, 297, 299, 317

Angada Guru, II. 268

Angas, I. 116, 149, 281; II. 279

Ang Chan (king), III. 111

Ang Duong (king), III. 112

Angela (St.) of Foligno, I. 160

Angirasas, I. 54; II. 152

Angkor Wat (Thom), III. 106, 109 sq., 132 sq.

Angulimala Pitaka, I. 180, 293, 317; III. 422

Angulimalija Sutra, II. 103

Anguttara Nikaya, I. lxxiii, 134, 212, 223, 278, 288, 289, 295; II. 48, 49; III. 65, 296, 297

an-had, II. 262

An-hsi (Parthia), III. 248

aniccam, I. 219

Aniko Lama, III. 356

Animals, I. lvi, xcix, 68, 115, 267; II. 131, 167; III. 248, 254, 344, 445, 446.

See also Ahimsa

Animism, I. 104, 332; II. 167; III. 42, 98. See also Aboriginal deities, Nats, Nature worship, Phis

Aniruddha, II. 196, 235

Annales du Musee Guimet, II. 122, 275

Annals (various), III. 104, 105, 108, 110, 111, 153, 344

Annam (Champa), I. xxiv, xxvi; II. 25; III. 6, 8, 111, 129, 135, 140, 141, 340 sq.

Anoma, I. 175

An-shih Kao, II. 64; III. 248, 292, 313

Antagadasao, I. 116

Antakritad, I. 116

antaratman, III. 175

antaraya, I. 107

Antaryamin, II. 46, 235, 317

Antigonus, I. 268; III. 430

Antioch, I. 255

Antiochus, king, I. 268; III. 430

Anu, II. 223, 292

Anugita, II. 187

Anugraha, II. 180

Anukramani, II. 152

Anula (Princess), III. 17

Anumana, II. 293

an-upadi-sesa-nibbanam, I. 223

Anuradhapura, I. 143, 276; III. 16, 23

Anuruddha, I. 134, 155, 168; III. 39, 45

Anusasana purana, II. 194

Anuttara Yoga, II. 128, 189

Anuttarovavaidasao, I. 116

Any Saint, II. 162, 183

Apabhramsa, I. 299

Apah, I. 63

Apantaratamas, II. 202

Aparantaka, III. 50, 51

Apararajagirika, I. 259

Aparaselikas, I. 259

Aparimitayus Sutras, III. 191

Apocryphal Gospels, III. 441

Apollo, II. 139

Apollonius, III. 431, 447

Appar, II. 215

Apratishthita, I. 323

Apsus (Ephesus) (Chotscho), III. 205

apurva, II. 311

Apva, I. 102

Arabia (Arabs, etc.), I. 28; II. 109; III. 152, 154, 160, 263, 455

Aracosia, I. 23

Arahanta School, III. 59 Thera, III. 55 sq.

Arahattam, I. xxi

Arakan, II. 105; III. 14, 36, 47

Aramaic Alphabet, III. 191

Aranyakas, I. 53; III. 53

Arati, I. 102

Arca (image), I. lxx; III. 185

Archaeological Survey of Mayurabhanj, II. 114, 126

Archbishop (R.C.), III. 417

Architecture, I. lxvi, 92, 119; II. 109, 211; III. 3, 51, 73, 89, 132 sq., 143 sq., 165 sq., 184 sq., 194, 239, 345, 450

arcismati, II. 11

Arcot, II. 113

Ardhanaresvara, II. 145

ardhanari image, III. 144

Arhat, I. 110, 145, 146, 166, 214, 223, 227, 232, 260; II. 6, 8; III. 57, 326 sq.

Ariobalo, II. 14

Aris, III. 53

Aristobulus, III. 450

Aristocratic republics. See Mallas, Sakyas, Vajjians

Ariyapariyesana sutta, I. 135, 152

Ariya saccani, I. 200 vamsa, III. 61

Arjun (Guru), II. 268, 269

Arjuna, II. 156, 200, 253

Arjunavijaya, III. 172

Armenians, I. 122; III. 191

Arnold, Matthew, I. xcvi, 328

arogya, I. 201

Arrows in rite, I. 100; III. 219

Arsacidae, I. 22; III. 191

Arsha (Ardha) Magadha, I. 116

Art, I. xiii, xxix, xxxi, xxxiv, lxvi, xc, 22, 92, 137, 173, 212; II. 169, 211; III. 4, 96, 186, 194 sq., 240, 241, 242, 252, 269, 356, 382, 405

l'Art Greco-Bouddhique du Gandhara, II. 76

Artaxerxes Longimanus, I. 341

Artha pancaka, II. 237 purana sastra, III. 142 sastra, I. 18

Artjeh, III. 185

Arul, II. 217

Arunandi, II. 221

Aruparago, I. 227

Arvars, II. 231, 233, 236

Arya (religion, people), I. xv, 3, 7, 15, 19, 20, 54, 55, 59, 200; II. 177; III. 273

Aryabhata, III. 152

Aryadeva, I. xxxiii; II. 85, 86; III. 219

Aryamahasanghika, II. 59 nikaya, II. 101

Arya-manjusri-mula-tantra, III. 375

Arya-mula-sarvastivada-nikaya, II. 91, 102

Arya Samaj, I. xlvii; III. 457

Arya-sammiti, III. 148

Arya-sammitika-nikaya, II. 102

Arya sarvastivadin, III. 148

Aryasthavira nikaya, II. 102; III. 20

Asalha, I. 245

Asanam, I. 305

Asanga, I. xxxviii, 193, 293, 305; II. 11, 22, 31, 48, 57, 59, 82 sq., 102, 125, 306; III. 166, 214, 216, 219, 284, 285, 294, 315, 376, 452

Asankhadhatu, I. 225

asankhato, I. 225, 260

asankhyakalpa, II. 103

Asapati, I, 102

Asava, I. 139

Asceticism (also Celibacy), I. xvi, lxi, lxv, 42, 49, 71, 84, 96, 105, 107, 110, 119, 123, 138, 240; II. 207, 320; III. 183, 235, 248, 316, 345, 429, 433, 438, 446

Asclepiadae, I. 69

Asgiri, III. 37

Ashikaga period, III. 405

Asi, II. 245

Asita, I. 133, 174; III. 440

Asoka, I. xxii, c, 16, 18, 21, 50, 99, 103, 113, 127, 132, 248, 254, 274; II. 65, 80, 93, 108, 116, 214; III. 5, 6, 13, 22, 44, 190, 207, 235, 300, 329, 430, 450

Asramas, I. 89, 90; II. 203; III. 113

Asrava, I. 107

Asrua, III. 215

Assam, I. xxxvi, lxxv, lxxxvii, 14, 25, 104; II. 126, 127, 143, 175, 185, 191, 244, 259 sq.; III. 44, 79

Astarte, I. 63; II. 275

Astarte Syriaca, I. lxxxvii

Astral body, I. 317

Astrology, I. xxv; III. 67, 96, 129, 157, 232

Astronomy, I. 335; III. 372, 415

Asuras, I. 61, 335

Asuri, II. 296

Asvaghosha, I. xxx, 300; II. 5, 49, 59, 65, 68, 79, 82 sq., 104, 169, 176; III. 190, 219, 285, 286, 292, 294, 295, 300, 307, 376, 439

Asvamedha, I. 68

Asvapati Kaikeya, I. 74

Asvavarman, III. 164

Asvins, I. 63

Atanatiya sutta, I. 278; III. 42

Atharvans, I. 54, 63

Atharva Veda, I. 54, 55, 98, 101; II. 50, 142, 270, 275; III. 67

Athenaeus, II. 432

Atisa, I. xxvii; II. 19, 112; III. 52, 60, 352 sq., 375, 380, 386, 398

Atiths, II. 177

Atman, I. lii, lxiii, lxiv, 45, 62, 79, 81, 84, 98, 188, 191, 218, 220; II. 75, 124, 180, 266, 296, 308, 309; III. 175, 305

Atma Ram, II. 266

Atnan, III. 342

Atomic theory, I. 109

Atonement, I. xiv, 69; III. 427

Atta, I. 188, 191, 218, 220; II. 101

atthakam, I. 150

Atthakatha, III. 14

Atthasalini, III. 28

Atula, III. 63 sq.

Aufrecht, II. 148; III. 387, 452

Auguries, II. 105

Augustus, I. 26; III. 431

Aulieata, III. 202

Aung, S.Z., I. 189, 259; III. 39, 71

Aurora, I. 63

Aurungzeb, I. xlv, 30, 31; II. 252, 261, 270, 271; III. 453, 456

Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen, I. 116

Ava, III. 48, 58, 61

Avadanas, II. 58 sq.

Avadhutas, II. 243

Avalokita, I. xxix; II. 12, 13, 23, 30, 57, 60, 73, 86, 103, 105, 122, 125, 128; III. 39, 53, 123, 144, 149, 165, 218, 219, 221, 239, 295, 343, 348, 360, 365, 390, 393

Avalokitesvara, III. 120

Avalon, I. 67, 311; II. 121, 188, 190, 274, 281, 282, 320; III. 40

Avanti, I. 282

Avasarpini, I. 107

Avatamsakasutra, II. 10, 54, 60; III. 218, 282, 283, 292, 313, 315, 374, 378

Avataras, I. lxx, 48; II. 73, 130, 197; III. 307, 419

Averroes, III. 460

Avesta, I. 19, 60, 63; II. 28; III. 220, 451

avibhaga, II. 312

Avicenna, III. 460

Avici, I. 338

avijja, I. 227

avyakatani, I. 228, 233

avyanga, III. 453, 454

Awakening of Faith, xxxii; II. 34, 42, 44, 83, 84, 87; III. 219, 286

Ayarangasutta, I. 116

ayatanam, I. 226

Ayenar, II, 164

Aymonier, III. 80, 85, 111, 113, 117, 120, 123

Ayodhya, I. 20, 25; II. 87, 100, 149

Ayushka, I. 107

Ayuthia, III. 30, 79 sq.

Azhvar, see Arvar

Ba, I. 218

Baber, I. 28, 30

Babylon, I. 61, 204; III. 103, 430, 432

Bacchic groups, II. 159

Bactria, I. 22, 24; II. 139, 276; III. 189, 200, 414

Badakshan, I. xxvi; III. 202

Badami, I. 26; II. 164, 172; III. 7, 107, 114, 116, 146

Badarayana, II. 211, 311, 316

Badari, II. 238

Badrinath, I. 17; II. 207, 208

Badulla, III. 43

Bagdad, III. 461

Bagyidaw, III. 65

Bahmani dynasty, I. 29, 30

Bahraich, III. 458

bahyayaga, II. 152

Baidyanath, III. 459

Baishnabs, II. 177

Bajra, III. 172

Bajrapani, III. 173

Bako, III. 115

Bakus, III. 129

bala, II. 196

Balabhi, II. 105

Baladeva, II. 153, 255

Bala Gopala, II. 249

Balambangan, III. 160

Balarama, II. 154

Bale Agoeng, III. 183

Bali, II. 148; III. 135, 151, 157, 171, 179, 183 sq.

Bali-Agas, III. 185

Balkh, I. 25; III. 25, 202, 213, 461

Ballantyne, II. 296

Bambino, II. 160

Bamian, II. 102, 177; III. 3, 194, 202, 213

Bamunias, II. 260

Bamyin, I. 25

Bana, I. xxxix, 15; II. 97, 187, 206, 280

bana, III. 36, 42

Banda, II. 271

ban-de, III. 351

Bandha, I. 107

Bandyas, II. 119

Bangkok, III. 79, 86, 93

Baniyas, I. 115

Banon, III. 167

Banyan grove, I, 148 Tree, I. 82

Bap, II. 206

Ba-phuong, III. 132

Baptism, III. 422; cf. abhisekha

Barabar, III. 53

Baramba, II. 114

Bardesanes, III. 444

Bargosa, III. 431

Barlaam and Joasaph, III. 442

Barna Brahmans, II. 173

Barnett, II. 222, 224

Baroda, I. 31, 116; II. 202, 252

Barom Recha, II. 259

Barpeta, II. 259

Barth, II. 143, 169, 238; III. 23, 427

Bartholomew (Apostle), III. 414

Basaih, III. 127

Basa Kawi, III. 170

Basava, II. 176, 225

Bashpa, III. 273, 354 sq.

Basiasita, III. 307

Basidides, III. 444, 445

Basset Simadamataka, III. 113

Basti, I. 120

Basuli, II. 277

Batavia, III. 158

Bat Cum, III. 122

Bathuris, II. 115

Battambang, III. 112

Bauddham, III. 44

Baudhayana, II. 279 dharma sutra, III. 102

Bauras, II. 119

Bauris, II. 115

Baveru, III. 103, 430

Bayin Naung, III. 26, 47 sq.

Bayon, III. 106, 109, 115, 134

Bazaklik, III. 193

Beal, I. 173, 275; II. 3, 56; III. 213, 276, 284, 312, 331

Beames, II. 244

Beatae Angelae de Fulginio Visionum et Instructionum Liber, I. 160

Beatitudes, I. 184, 213

Beckh, III. 195, 373

Bednur, II. 226

Belattha, I. 98

Belgami, II. 108

Beluva, I. 163

Benares, I. xlvi, 20, 87, 89, 132, 140; II. 112, 171, 189, 194, 208, 227, 243, 254, 263; III. 25

Bendall, II. 56, 116, 121, 123, 220

Bendall and Haraprasad, II. 18

Bengal, I. xxxvi, lxxxvii, 19, 25, 29, 31, 87, 114, 121; II. 32, 92, 100, 102, 108, 109, 111, 113, 173, 190, 230, 242, 253, 277, 278, 279, 349 sq., 356

Bengali literature, I. xlv, 299; II. 187, 244, 255 Vaishnavas, II. 245

Beng Mealea, III. 109

Berar, I. 31; II. 85

Bergaigne, III. 137

Bergson, I. cii

Berlin Museum, II. 20

Bernheim, I. 318

Bernier, II. 320

Bertholet, I. iv

Besant, Mrs., I. xlvii

Besnagar column, II. 153, 197

Bettu, I. 120

Beveridge, I. 90

de Beylie III. 74, 89

Bhabajanas, II. 261

Bhabru Edict, I. 264, 270, 290, 295

Bhaddiya, I. 131, 224

Bhadrabahu, I. 114, 116; II. 214

Bhadratittha, III. 45

Bhadravarman, III. 115, 139, 143, 146

Bhadresvara, III. 115, 146

Bhaga, I. 57, 63

Bhagava, I. 152

Bhagavad Gita, I. xxx, xliv, xlv, lxxiv, lxxx, 218, 333; II. 31, 72, 162, 180, 186, 195, 200, 201, 208, 219, 225, 228, 229, 231, 233, 234, 238, 239, 257, 293, 296, 306, 317; III. 174, 420, 423

Bhagavan, II. 255; III. 21

Bhagavat, II. 156, 195

Bhagavata Purana, I. lxxiv; II. 130, 147, 148, 157, 187, 188, 193, 195, 198, 219, 231, 251, 281

Bhagavatas, II. 97, 153, 156, 194, 195, 197, 209, 211, 234, 280

Bhagavata Tika subodhini, II. 249

Bhaga vati, I. 116; III. 144, 145, 147

Bhagavatisvara, III. 144

Bhagawanis, II. 261

bhairabi, II. 286

Bhairava, II. 145

Bhairavi, II. 277, 288

Bhairav Nath, III. 458

Bhaisajja, I. 201

Bhaishajya guru, III. 390

Bhakats (Bhaktas), II. 260

Bhakta-mala, II. 147, 191, 199, 245

Bhakti, I. 49; II. 153, 174, 180-183, 228, 255; III. 417 sq. See also Salvation.

Bhallika, III. 50, 215

Bhandagama, I. 162, 164

Bhandarkar, II. 152, 153, 157, 202, 230, 231, 233, 238, 242, 248, 256, 257, 262, 320, 452

Bhante, I. 152

Bharata, II. 169 Samhita, II. 189 yuddha, III. 158, 171

Bharat Dharma Mahamandala, I. xlvii

Bharati, III. 114

Bhargaviya, III. 142

Bhartrihari, II. 97; III. 437

Bharukaccha (Broach), III. 13

Bhashya, II. 89; III. 120

Bhaskara Varma, II. 127

Bhatara, III. 184 Guru, III. 179 Visesha, III. 173

Bhattacarya (Jogendranath), II. 163, 173, 177, 209, 210, 244, 261

Bhava, I. 208; II. 146

Bhavadvaita, II. 322

bhavanas, III. 173

Bhavavarman, III. 102, 108, 109, 114

Bhavaviveka, II. 74, 94

Bhavishya Purana, I. lxxiv; III. 423, 452, 453

bhedabheda prakasa II. 255

Bhikkhu (Bhikshu, Bhikku), I. 96, 157, 182, 237-253; II. 104, 119, 210; III. 39, 41, 65, 123, 130, 256

Bhils, II. 155

Bhima, II. 239; III. 146 Bhoi, II. 115, 116

Bhoja, I. 27, 268; III. 162

Bhrikuti, III. 389, 394

Bhringi, II. 278

Bhu, II. 145

Bhubanesvar, I. xlvi; II. 114, 173, 174, 206

bhukti, I. lxxvi

bhumi, II. 9, 11

Bhutan, III. 370

Bhutas, I. 6; III. 182 (boetas)

Bhutatathata, I. 220; II. 34, 43, 67, 84

bhutisakti (matter), II. 196, 197

Bible, The, I. 255

Bibliotheca Buddhica, II. 57, 85 Indica, II. 9, 51, 195, 202

Bidar, I. 29

Bigandet, I. 173; III. 49

Bihar, I. xix, 20, 95, 113; II. 111, 112, 127

bija, II. 122

Bijah, II. 263

Bijapur, I. 26, 29, 114, 225; II. 251; III. 106

Bijjala, I. 28, 114; II. 225

Bimbisara (king), I. 111, 132, 135, 147, 157, 174, 242, 244; II. 30

Bindu, II. 319

Bindusara, III. 432

Bing Dinh, III. 138

Binh Thuan, III. 137, 138

Binstead, III. 401

Biographies of Eminent Monks, III. 156

Biot, III. 259, 270

Bir-va-pa, II. 126

Bishnupad, II. 130

Bishwa Singh, II. 280

Blagden, III. 47

Blake, II. 286

Bland and Backhouse, III. 232

Bloch, III. 330

de Blonay, II. 16, 18

Blue Mahakala, The, III. 363

Boar (incarnation), II. 147

Bodawpaya, III. 49

Boddas, III. 446

Boddhayana, II. 233

Bode, Mrs., I. 248; II. 49, 56, 66, 67

Bodhayana, II. 234, 316

Bodh Gaya, I. 120, 136, 143, 272; II. 94, 112, 113, 129, 130; III. 56, 349

Bodhi, I. xxxviii; II. 32, 44; III. 56 Prince, I. 152

Bodhibhadra, II. 128

Bodhicaryavatara, II. 9; III. 240, 323, 331

Bodhicitta, II. 45; III. 174

Bodhidharma, I. xxvi; II. 46, 95, 316; III. 238, 253, 255, 256, 269, 272, 278, 304, 305, 307, 317, 323, 405

Bodhi-rajakumara sutta, I. 135

Bodhisattva, I. xxix, xxxi, xxxii, xl, 11, 174, 261, 343, 344; II. 6, 25, 66, 68, 87, 105, 118, 122, 123, 170; III. 31, 33, 63, 84, 120, 124, 169, 213, 216, 234, 265, 285, 318, 325 sq., 329, 389, 390, 451

Bodhi-sattva-bhumi, II. 87 Pitaka, II. 61

Bodhi tree, I. 142, 143, 175; II. 22

Bodopaya (king), III, 63

Boehme (Jacob), I. 315

Boehtlingk and Rien, II. 153 Roth, III. 118

Boeleling, III. 184

Bog, I. 63

Bogomils, III. 445

Bohras, III. 455

Bokhara, III. 199

Bombay, I. 115, 116; III. 455

Bongard (Mgr), II. 161

Bonpo, III. 351, 380, 384

Bon religion, III. 193 scriptures, III. 381

Bonzes, III. 240 sq.

Book of Wisdom, III. 433

Borel, H., II. 42

Borneo, I. xii, 16; III. 6, 107, 151, 163

Boroboedoer, III. 102, 133, 155, 162, 165 sq., 177, 182, 385

Bosanquet, I. lxvii, ciii; II. 317

Bo Tree, I. 206; II. 96, 130; III. 14, 16, 17, 84, 98, 446

Bot, III. 89

Bouddhisme (le), II. 9

Bouddhisme, Etudes et Materiaux, II. 121, 122

Bowden, III. 41

Bowl (Buddha's), III. 16, 24

Bradley, I. liv, lxiv, xcv, cii, ciii, 85; III. 80, 82

Brahma, I. xviii, 46, 62, 72, 227, 331, 333; II. 122, 137, 199, 228, 266, 284; III. 69, 146, 167, 169, 173, 215, 284, 388

Brahmacarin, I. 88

Brahmadutta, I. 289

Brahmajala sutta, I. 97, 103; II. 28; III. 322

Brahman (Absolute Godhead, Pantheos), I. xviii, lxxx, 9, 47, 78, 80, 83, 84, 85; II. 40, 75, 234, 238, 289, 292, 308, 309 sq.; III. 228, 246, 445, 448 (Brahmin, caste and system), I. xvii, xviii, xxii, xxv, xxviii, xli, lxxxii, 34, 35, 37, 41, 74, 87, 88, 89, 91, 95, 104, 131, 133, 146, 158, 169, 184, 252, 268, 306; II. 99, 115, 116, 117, 118, 169, 171, 173, 176, 191, 192, 193, 210, 235; III. 13, 34, 51, 67, 93 sq., 112 sq., 176 sq., 183, 458

Brahmanas, I. xxxiii, lxxiii, 20, 48, 51, 53, 62, 66, 69, 77, 87

Brahmanasrama, III. 121

Brahmandapurana, III. 172

Brahma Paripriccha, II. 62

Brahmapurana, III. 186

Brahmaputra (river), II. 288

Brahmarakshas, III. 113

Brahma Sahampati, I. 102, 140, 142, 334

Brahma-sambandha-karanat, II. 249, 250

Brahma Samhita, II. 195

Brahma-sampradaya, II. 239, 255

Brahma Sutras, I. xliii; II. 293, 314, 318

Brahmatantra-svatantra-swami, II. 232

Brahmavaivarta Purana, II. 158, 164

Brahmavihara, I. 315; II. 122

Brahmayoni (yoen), I. 147

Brahmi (inscriptions), II. 214; III. 190

Brahminism and Hinduism, II. 207 sq.

Brahmo Somaj, I. xlvii

Brah Sugandha, III. 131

Brahui (affinities), I. 20

Braj, II. 158, 161, 244, 245, 255

Brandes, III. 172

Branding, III. 324, 328

Brantas River, III. 159

Breath (as self), I. 77, 306

Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad, I. lxxiii, 76, 79, 82, 83, 84, 94, 298; II. 124, 235, 238, 239, 240, 308

Brihadbrahma Samhita, II. 195

Brihaspati, II. 320

Brihatsamhita, III. 452

Brihatsannyasa Upanishad, II. 198

Brindaban, II. 249, 254

Broach, III. 106, 155

Brom-ston, III. 380

Browne, E.G., III. 460

Bruno (Giordano), I. lv

Bruzha, III. 212, 350, 377

Buddha (Jain term), I. 110

Buddha, the, I. xix sq., xxix, xlix, lii, lviii, lxxiii, lxxviii, 20, 27, 48, 49, 64, 72, 97, 103, 111, 129 sq., 133 sq., 143, 146-176, 180, 297; II. 97, 99, 105, 113, 115, 130, 148, 224, 305; III. 89, 446

Buddha-bhadra, II. 85

Buddha Carita, I. 173, 176; II. 53, 68, 83, 113; III. 286, 294

Buddha-dasa, king, III. 31

Buddha-deva, II. 114

Buddhagama, III. 180

Buddhaghosa, I. 151, 190, 205, 209, 212, 255, 270, 281, 293, 312, 321; III. 13, 14, 15, 23, 28 sq., 52, 298

Buddhaghosuppatti, III. 28, 31

Buddhagupta, II. 115

Buddhakapala, III. 391

Buddhakshetra, II. 12

Buddhamitra, III. 307

Buddhanandi, III. 307

Buddhanirvana, III. 149

Buddhapamutus, III. 172

Buddhas, I. xix, xxix, 46, 129, 342; II. 6, 123; III. 169, 218, 317, 318, 342

Buddhasammayoga, II. 128

Buddhasanti, II. 126

Buddha und Mara, I. 143

Buddha-vamsa, I. 280, 343, 344

Buddhavatamsaka-sutra, II. 61

Buddhavatari, II. 114

buddhi, II. 299

Buddhism in Tibet, I. 336 in translations, I. 190, 252, 320 of Tibet, II. 128

Buddhist Art in India, II. 20, 143; III. 14 Birth Stories, I. 171 China, II. 18; III. 325 India, III. 14 legends of Asoka and his time, III. 23 Literature, I. lxxiii, 95, 275-301 (Pali Canon); II. 47-62 (Mahayanist), 71 (Burma); III. 281-302 (Chinese Canon), 372-381 (Tibetan). See Nikaya, Pitakas, Sutras (Suttas), Vinaya psychology, I. 190, 193, 213 Records of the Western World, I. 258

Budge, II. 122

Buhler, I. 105, 113; II. 109, 126, 127; III. 74, 297

Buitenzorg, III. 153

Buiti, III. 218

Bukka, I. 30

Bulis, I. 169

Bundehish, III. 220

Bundelkhand, I. 27; II. 261

Bunmei period, III. 291

Bunrak, III. 84

Burma, I. xii, xix, xxiv, xxv, lxxxii, xciv, 120, 241, 248, 276; II. 80; III. 7, 34, 46-77, 81, 262, 353

Burnet, III. 434

Burnouf, II. 53

Burnt offerings, II. 128

Bushell, III. 351

Bushido, III. 405

Busiris, III. 434

Bu-ston, III. 357, 380, 381, 395

Byamma Nat, III. 69

Byams-chen-chos-nje, III. 359

Byamspa (Jampa), II. 21

Byzantine Empire, I. 39

Caesar, I. 177

Caitanya, II. 113, 147, 176, 230, 234, 244, 245, 248, 253 sq., 268

Caitanya-carit-amrita, II. 113

Caitanya Dasa, II. 115

Cakkavalas, I. 336

Cakra, II. 198, 284; III. 387

Cakravartin, I. 36; II. 89; III. 116, 117, 394

Caland and Henri, I. 66

Calcutta, II. 116, 286

Caldwell, II. 219, 220; III. 418

Calicut, I. 31

Caliphate, III. 461

Caliph Ma'mum, III. 461

Calukya, I. 25, 27, 114

Calvary, I. 66

Camboja, I. 241, 276; II. 143, 159, 164, 169, 203; III. 6, 9, 46, 79, 81, 82, 100 sq., 179

Camboja school, III. 59

Campa, I. 150

lCam-sran, III. 392

Camunda, II. 278

Canakya, I. 18

Canda, II. 125, 278

Candels, I. 27

Candi, II. 277

Candrabhaga River, III. 452, 453

Candragarbha Sutra, II. 58; III. 283

Candragomin, II. 95

Candraguhyatilaka, II. 128

Candragupta (I), II. 87, 88

Candragupta, Maurya, I. 18, 21, 24, 114, 127; II. 214

Candrakirti, II. 85

Candraprabha, II. 55

Candrapradipa-sutra, II. 55

Candravajji, I. 286

Cangalaraja, II. 113

Canton, I. xxvi; II. 95; III. 235, 304

Cao Tien, III. 343

Capua, II. 287

Caracalla, III. 416

Caran Das, II. 253, 262

Car festival, I. lxx; III. 208

Cariya Pitaka, I. 280, 344

Carpenter, III. 30

Carpocrates, III. 444

Carvakas, II. 320

Carya, II. 128, 189

Caste, I. xxii, xliv, xlvi, xlvii, 34; II. 120, 175-178, 243, 254, 257, 260, 285; III. 145, 183, 420

Castes and Tribes of S. India, I. 20; II. 171, 225

Cataleptic trance, I. 306

Catalogue of Adyar Library, II. 270

Catalogue of the Buddhist Tripitaka, I. 258

Catalogues (Chinese) of Buddhist Literature, III. 287, 290, 293, 316

Catechism of Saiva religion, II. 140, 215, 218, 289

Catena of Buddhist Scriptures, II. 56

Cattle-worship, II. 159

Caturbhuja, III. 114

Caturtha, I. lxiii, 83

Causation, I. xxi, 194, 198, 212

Cave of the Seven Sleepers, III. 205

Cave temples, III. 193, 252. See also Ajanta, Ellora

Cedi, I. 27

Celebes, III. 151

Celibacy, I. 237-248; II. 256; III. 235, 430. Cf. Asceticism, Monasteries.

Censors, III. 266

Census of Assam, I. xxxviii of Bengal, II. 276 of India, I. xxxviii, xl, xlvii, xci; II. 114, 147, 259, 261, 273

Central Asia, I. xxiv, xxvi, 262; II. 4, 81, 129; III. 188 sq., 215 sq., 345, 451 Asian Gupta, III. 190 India, I. 115, 116; II. 100, 108 Provinces, I. 27

Cera, I. 26

Cetana, I. 209

Cetanatman, III. 175

Cetiyas, II. 171

Ceylon, I. xii, xxiii, xxiv, xlviii, l, lxxxii, xcv, 113, 248, 292, 293; II. 53, 61, 80, 87, 116, 214; III. 4 sq., 82, 83 Antiquary, III. 35

Chabbaggiyas, I. 156

Chain of causation, I. 49, 139, 144, 186, 206, 207, 212, 213, 230, 267

Chaitanya, I. xlv; II. 157

Chaitanya's Pilgrimage and teachings from the Caitanya Carit amrita of Krishna Das, II. 253

Chaityas, III. 194, 212

Chakhar Mongols, III. 380

Chalukyas, II. 225; III. 170

Chambal river, I. 25

Champa (Annam), I. xii, xxiv, xxvii, xxviii, 16; II. 143, 159; III. 6, 9, 79, 102, 103, 123, 137-150, 340 sq.

Chams, the, III. 124, 127, 138, 150

Ch'an, I. 322; III. 269, 271, 309, 405

Chandidas, II. 253

Chandogya Upanishad, I. liv, lxxviii, 66, 76, 81; II. 27, 152, 156, 182, 195, 238, 239

Chandragarbha sutra, III. 215

Chang An, III. 199, 251, 261, 263 Ch'ien, III. 197, 201, 208, 245

Chang-Ling, III. 227

Ch'ang (long), III. 296

Chang Lu, III. 227

Channa, I. 167, 175

Channabasava, II. 225

Chantaboun, III. 111

Ch'an-tsung, III. 306, 309

Chao (later), III. 249

Chao Phaya Chakkri, III. 86 Phi, III. 97

Chapata, III. 11, 57, 59, 60

Chariar, T. Rajagopala, II. 232, 237

Ch'a-ti-li, II. 95

Chatterji, II. 204, 224 Babu Rasik Mohan, II. 281 Bunkim Chandra, II. 287

Chatterji, J.C., II. 291

Chava, III. 80, 109

Chavannes, III. 193, 199, 202, 203, 206, 211, 254, 260, 273, 314, 326

Chavannes et Pelliot, II. 199; III. 216, 245, 334, 395, 446

Che-i-lun, III. 288

Che-kiang, III. 310

Chenab, III. 453

Ch'en dynasty, III. 252, 257

Cheng-Chi, III. 206

Ch'eng Hua (Emperor), III. 360

Cheng-shih-tsung, III. 304

Ch'eng-tsu (Emperor), III. 276, 288

Ch'eng Tsung (Emperor), III. 274

Cheng-wei-shih-lun, III. 315

Chen-la, III. 101, 105

Chen Tsung (Emperor), III. 228

Chen-yen, II. 58, 87, 275; III. 316 sq., 349, 385

Chet Ramis, I. xlvi

Che Tsung, III. 271

Chezarla, III. 194

Chi, III. 312 (dynasty), III. 252, 253, 257

Chia Ch'ing, III. 368

Chiao-ch'en-ju, III. 185

Chiao-men, III, 310

Ch'ia-sha (Chieh-ch'a-Kashgar), III. 200

Chidambaram, II. 171, 183, 207, 222

Chief of the World, I. 340

Chieh-ch'a, III. 201

Ch'ien Lung, III. 199, 280, 289, 368, 380

Chih-che-ta-shih, III. 310

Chih-Chien, III. 292

Chih-I, III. 310

Chih-K'ai, III. 310

Chih-Kuan, III. 310, 312

Chih Li, III. 309 Pan, III. 287 Yuan-lu, III. 290

Child marriages, I. lxxxix

Childers, II. 10

Ch'in dynasty, III. 246

China, I. xiii, xix, xxiv, xxvi, lxxv, lxxxiii, 101, 248, 249, 252, 259, 265, 267; II. 4, 5, 19, 20; III. 3, 25, 39, 223-335

Chinese Annals, II. 64; III. 6, 82, 103, 110, 148, 179, 196, 245 Canon, I. 275; II. 47, 48, 57, 59; III. 234, 282 sq. deities, III. 225 and Sanskrit, III. 301 translations, I. 130, 133, 173, 258; II. 51, 71, 74, 89, 125 (Tantras), 259, 296; III. 218, 251-270, 274, 292 sq., 373 Tripitaka, I. 299; II. 54, 61, 71, 81, 84, 304; III. 31, 189, 218, 239, 240, 248, 253, 254, 258, 259, 261, 265, 270, 274, 276, 280, 288 sq., 306, 323, 336, 356, 372, 374

Ch'ing (dynasty), III. 8, 289

Ching (sutras), III. 281 sq., 374

Chinggiz, III. 353

Ching-te-ch'uan-teng-lu, III. 287, 307

Ching-ti, III. 277

Ching-tu, II. 28

Ch'ing Yuan, III. 309

Chinnamastaka, II. 277

Ch'i Sung, III. 288

Chitore, I. 120; II. 244

Chiu dynasty, III. 206 Hua, II. 25

Chlas, I. 268

Chohan dynasty, I. 29

Chola, II. 233

Cho-mukhi, I. 120

Chos-kyi-Gyal-tsan, III. 364

Chos-kyi-hod-zer, III. 356

Chos-skyon, III. 391

Chotscho, III. 200, 205, 215

Chou dynasty, III. 268, 343

Chou Ta-kuan, III. 101, 110, 114, 125 sq., 135, 179

Chowkhamba Sanskrit series, II. 249

Christ, I. 66, 143, 165, 171, 177, 178-184, 213, 214, 215, 224, 226, 228, 330; III. 216, 423, 435

Christianity, I. xiv, xlix, l, xcviii, ci, 14, 65, 204, 238; II. 107, 140, 158, 161, 180, 218, 219, 266, 275, 285; III. 193, 214 sq., 409 sq.

Christian mystics, I. 306 sq.

Chronology, I. 46, 50; II. 63 sq.; III. 353

Chu, III. 245

Chua, III. 342

Chuang (Emperor), III. 343

Chuang Tsu, III. 246, 247, 248, 305

Chu-ch'u, III. 206

Chu Fa Tan, III. 244

Chu Hsi, III. 272 sq., 275, 288, 337, 338, 421

Ch'u Ku, III. 125

Chulalongkorn (king), III. 88

Chung (medium), III. 296

Churels, II. 276

Chu She, III. 213

Chu-she-tsung, III. 314

Chutiyas, II. 279

Ch'u-yao-ching, III. 296

Chu-ying, III. 248

cit, II. 316

citralakshana, III. 373, 375

Citrasena, III. 101, 105, 109

citta, I. 210, 303; II. 43; III. 181

Civappa, II. 141

Clemens of Alexandria, II. 159

Clementi, III. 240

Cloud of Unknowing, I. 307

Cochin Tribes and Castes, II. 171, 191

Coedes, I. xii; III. 83, 109, 115, 121, 122, 134

Colas, I. 26, 27, 114; II. 100, 214; III. 34, 44

Commentaries, II. 310 sq. (Indian); III. 29 sq. (Buddhaghosa), 45 (Dharmapala), 272 (Chu Hsi)

Commentary on Dhammapada, II. 73 on Tattva-sangraha, III. 23

Communion, III. 422. See also prasad

Compagno, III. 434

Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian languages, II. 219

Compendium of Philosophy, I. 189

Confession, II. 443. Cf. patimokkha

Confraternities, I. 95, 237. See Sangha and Monasteries

Confucius, I. xix, xxii, lxxxiii, 12, 13, 177, 217, 341; III. 4, 9, 216, 224, 226 sq., 241, 248, 252 sq., 258, 270, 275 sq., 337 sq.

Conjevaram, I. xxv, 26, 114; II. 95, 101, 233, 237; III. 6, 45, 51

Conquests of the Dhamma, I. 16

Consciousness, I. lxiii, lxxviii, 209, 210, 230

Constantine, I. 273; II. 77 Phaulcon, III. 86

Contemplative school, III. 258, 287, 305 sq.

(De) Contemptu Mundi, I. 202

Conventions (art), I. 120

Convents. See Monasteries, Nuns

Coomaraswamy, II. 244; III. 39

Cooper-Irving, S., I. lviii

Copleston, III. 265

Copper-plate inscriptions, III. 157

Cordier, III. 373, 376

Cosmas Indicopleustes, III. 414, 416

Cosmogonies, I. lxviii, 43, 46, 332, 335; III. 171, 272

Cotta, III. 26

Councils (Buddhist), I. 254 sq., 290; II. 78 sq., 224; III. 15, 19, 32, 65, 86 (Siam), 213 (Kanishka)

Courant, III. 290, 336

Cowell and Neil, II. 59; III. 395

Cranganore, I. 26; III. 415

Crashaw, II. 162

Creation, I. lxxxi, 67; II. 298 sq., 313

Crete, III. 435

Crooke, I. 103, 104, 145, 147; II. 277

Crucifixion, the, III. 427

Crypto Buddhists, II. 73, 115, 211, 315; III. 421

Ctesiphon, III. 416

Culaganthipada, III. 64

Culavamsa, III. 21

Cullavagga, I. 131, 156, 255, 257, 258, 277, 288, 290; II. 49

Cunda, I. 164

Cunningham, Sir. A., I. 143

Curzon, Lord, III. 66

Cutch, II. 251

Cuttack, II. 114

Cybele, I. 62; II. 275

Cyrene, I. 268; III. 430

Cyril of Jerusalem, III. 446

Dabistan, II. 321

Da Cunha, III. 25

Dadu, II. 263, 266

Dadupanthis, II. 266

Dagoba, II. 172; III. 72, 74 sq., 150, 166

Daha, III. 159

Dai-co-viet, III. 140, 340

Dai-jo, II. 3

Dai-Nippon Zoku Zokyo, III. 291

Daityas, II. 321

Dakinis, II. 286

Daksha, II. 142, 193, 203, 286; III. 391

Dakshinacarins, II. 283

Daladapujavali, III. 25

Dalai Lama, III. 279, 280, 362

Damaras, II. 282

Dambal, II. 109

Damdama, II. 271

danam, II. 10; III. 173, 304

Dances of the Red Tiger Devil, III. 393

Danta, III. 26

Dantepura, III. 25

Darawati, III. 141

Darbhanga, Maharaja of, I. xlvii

Darius (king), III. 450

Darjiling, III. 399

darsana, II. 291; III. 120

darsana-varaniya. I. 107

Das, Sarat Chandra, II. 129; III. 347, 352, 353, 358, 374, 387

Dasabhumika, II. 59

Dasabhumisvara, II. 55

Dasaka, I. 256, 257

Dasakutas, II. 241

Dasama, I. 150

Dasama Padshah ka Granth, II. 271

Dasanamis, II. 209

Dasaratha (king), II. 149

Dasasloki, II. 230

Dasa Srimalis, II. 177

Das (Chandi), II. 244

Das (Sur), II. 245

dasya, II. 255

Dasyus, I. 59

Dathavamsa, III. 25

Datia, I. 121

Daulatabad, I. 29, 30

Davis, III. 371

Dead, spirits of, I. 339; III. 116. See also Ancestor-worship

Death's messengers, I. 338

Debraja, III. 371

Deb (Sankar), II. 244

Decalogue, I. 213, 215, 250

Deccan, I. 19, 25, 27, 115; II. 92, 98, 100, 108, 113, 164; III. 107. See also Southern India.

Deceiver, the, II. 184. See also Mara.

Deer Park, I. 140, 141, 143

De Groot, III. 279, 314, 319, 322, 329, 333, 350

De Groot and Parker, III. 233

bDe-hbyun, III. 386

Deification of man, I. 48; II. 147, 150, 157, 170, 184, 196, 251, 255; III. 115, 119, 168, 218, 224

Deism, I. xlvi

Deities, invention of, III. 228

Delhi, I. 20, 28, 29, 89; II. 272

Demetrius, I. 22

Demiurgus, III. 444

Demonophobia, III. 382

De profundis, II. 236

Depung, III. 364, 399

Derje (Bers), III. 381

Dervishes (howling), II. 284

Desi, the, III. 366

Deus, I. 63

Deussen, I. lv, 86; II. 187, 306, 309

Deva, I. 47, 48, 63, 103, 330, 340; II. 73, 86; III. 81, 304

Devabhaga, I. 88

Devadatta, I. 133, 156, 157, 158, 181, 240, 320, 342; II. 93

Devadutavagga, I. 134

Devaki, II. 152 sq.; III. 423

Devakula, III. 149

Devanagari, II. 269; III. 301

Devanampiya Tissa, III. 13, 16, 17

Devapala, III. 111

Devaraja, III. 117

Devaram, II. 191, 215, 219, 220, 244

Devatideva, I. 340

Deva-worship, II. 100; III. 104, 182

Devayama, I. 88

Devi, II. 274; III. 172, 173, 392, 459

Devil, I. lxxix, 143, 337

Devil dancers, I. xli; III. 42, 393

Devi Mahatmya, II. 279

Devotion, I. xvii, xxix; II. 72. See Amidism, bhakti, Salvation

Dewa, III. 185

Dhalla, II. 275

Dhamis, II. 266

Dhamma, I. xxiii, 16, 135, 192, 211, 256, 258, 266, 267; II. 34

Dhamma-cakhu, I. 320

Dhammacakka, III. 26

Dhammaceti, III. 58

Dhammachando, I. 216

Dhammaguttikas, I. 298

Dhammakathi, III. 29, 31

Dhammakitti, III. 21, 25

Dhamma-mahamata, I. 268

Dhammapada, I. 117, 139, 205, 279, 296; II. 181; III. 246, 295, 296, 299, 372

Dhammaruci, III. 19, 21, 40

Dhammasangani, I. 188, 192, 209, 225, 314; III. 30

Dhammasenapati, III. 56

Dhammathat, III. 58, 66

Dhammavilasa, III. 66

Dhammavitasa, III. 58

Dhammayut, III. 91, 131

Dhammika (king), III. 36

Dhaniya, I. 288

Dhanyakataka, III. 386

Dharana, I. 307

dharanis, I. 258, 332; II. 50, 51, 125; III. 215, 293, 385, 395

Dharma, I. 49, 106, 192; II. 59, 115, 119, 200; III. 114, 149

Dharma-cakra-mudra, II. 20

Dharmadhatu, II. 34, 43; III. 262, 317

Dharmagita, II. 115

Dharmagupta, I. 291; III. 204, 249, 285, 295

Dharma-gupta vinaya, III. 316

Dharmaka, III. 379

Dharmakala, III. 249

Dharmakara, II. 29

Dharmakaya, II. 30, 32, 33-42, 55, 73; III. 216, 305, 388

Dharmakirti, II. 95

Dharmalakshana, III. 315

Dharmamegha, I. 307; II. 11

Dharmapada, III. 190, 191, 214, 286, 299

Dharmapala, I. 27; II. 111, 129; III. 45, 157, 352, 391

Dharmaparyaya, II. 56

Dharma Raja, II. 116; III. 6, 371, 459

Dharmaraksha, II. 32; III. 292, 294, 295

Dharma-sangraha, II. 17, 23, 86

Dharmasastras, III. 66, 96, 120, 142

Dharmasokaraja, III. 84

dharmatah, II. 193

Dharma Thakur, I. 116

Dharmatrata, II. 86; III. 295

Dharmayana, III. 83

Dharm Das, II. 265

Dhatu, I. 225

Dhatu Senu, III. 32

Dhatuvansaya, III. 25

Dhatvisvari, III. 173

Dhingkota, III. 219

Dhritaka, III. 307

Dhritarashtra (sons of), II. 154

Dhundias, I. 116

Dhutangas, I. 73, 240, 257

Dhyana, I. 307; II. 79, 116; III. 131, 173, 304, 313, 405. See Jhana and Meditation.

Dhyani Buddhas, II. 26, 115, 118; III. 165, 389, 391

Dialogues of the Buddha, I. 97, 104, 161; II. 320

Diamond-cutter, the, I. 130; II. 5, 41, 50, 52, 60; III. 283, 305

dibba-cakkhu, I. 320

dibya-carita, II. 233

Dieng (Dihyang), III. 154, 165, 167, 179

Digambara, I. 99, 112, 117, 119, 120

Digha Nikaya, I. 98, 131, 142, 186, 278, 289, 295, 344; II. 137, 153; III. 30, 42, 65, 102, 232, 297, 450

Dignaga, III. 157, 172

Diguet, III. 342

Dikung, III. 357

Dikungpa, III. 399

Dinh, III. 343

Dinh Tien Hoang De, III. 344

Din-i-ilahi, II. 270

Dinnaga, II. 94, 95

Dion Cassius, III. 431

Dionysius, III. 422

Dionysus (Krishna), II. 137, 193

Dioscuri, I. 63

Dipankara (Buddha), I. 343; III. 246

Dipankara Srijnana, III. 353

Dipavamsa, I. 255 sq., 262, 269; III. 13 sq., 50, 61, 306, 333

Dirgha, III. 296

Discovery of living Buddhism in Bengal, II. 113

Divakara, III. 113

Divakarapandita, III. 119

Divarupa, III. 173, 181

Divination, I. 103

Divyavadana, I. 299; II. 22, 58, 168; III. 166, 395, 439

Djajabaja, III. 158, 171, 179

Djajakatong, III. 159

mDo, III. 374, 375

Doko, III. 291

Dolgorouki, I. 341

Dom Constantino de Braganza, III. 26

Dona, I. 169

Dong Duong, III. 144, 149

Don Juan Dharmapala, king, III. 26

Dore, I. 341; II. 18; III. 307, 309, 314, 315, 317, 327

Dorje, III. 172

Dorje-dag, III. 398

rDo-rJe-gCod-pa, III. 374

rDor-je-legs, III. 393

Doshabhogya, II. 236

Douie, II. 273

Dpal-brTsegs, III. 379

Dramida, II. 233

Dravida, II. 100

Dravidians, I. xli, xv, xxxiii, 19, 118; II. 86, 141, 182, 195, 211, 220, 279; III. 107, 132, 417 sq. See also Tamils.

Drishtiguru, II. 13

Drona Purana, II. 194

Druids, I. iv; III. 429

Dualism, I. xliv, lxxx; II. 230, 237, 316, 318; III. 449

Du Bose, III. 330

Dugpa, III. 371, 399

dukkha, I. 44, 200, 203, 219

dukkhakkhanda, I. 205

Dulva, III. 373

Dumoutier (Les Cultes Annamites), III. 342

Dundhabhinossa, I. 269

Dundhubhissara, I. 269

Duperron (Anquetil), II. 270

Duration of the Law, the, II. 61

Durbhanga, II. 253

Durga, I. xv, 63; II. 118, 122, 126, 146, 228, 274 sq.; III. 167, 169, 185

Durgapuja, I. lxx; II. 286

durjaya, II. 11

Duroiselle, III. 49

Dusit, III. 94

Dutch (the), III. 34

Dutreuil du Rhins Mission, III. 190, 296

Dutthagamani, III. 15, 17

Dvadasanikayasastra, III. 304

Dvaita, II. 237, 318

dvaitadvaitamata, II. 230, 318

Dvapara age, III. 144

Dvaraka, II. 153 sq.

Dvaravati, II. 153; III. 85

Dvita, III. 425

Dwarf incarnation, II. 147

Dyans, I. 63

Dynasties of the Kali Age, I. 15; II. 187

Dzungaria, III. 370

Early History of India, I. 15; II. 76, 87, 187

Earth (goddess), II. 275, 285

Earthquake, I. 164, 168, 175; III. 440

East Bengal, II. 101, 102; III. 457

Easter Island, III. 151

Eastern Ganga dynasty, I. 30 Han dynasty, II. 27 Monachism, I. 315 Tsin dynasty, III. 251

Ecbatana, III. 445

Ecclesiastes, I. 94, 132, 203

Edessa, III. 414

Edicts of Asoka, I. xxiii, 113, 264, 265, 270; III. 430

Edkins, III. 54, 303, 309, 311

Edmunds and Anesaki, III. 437

Education (Brahmans), I. 89; Buddhist, III. 70

Ego, I. 230. See Atman

Egypt (Egyptians), I. lv, 218, 268; II. 174, 275; III. 430, 432, 450 sq., 457

Eighteen Lohans, the, III, 239

Eight-fold path, I. 144, 200, 213, 214, 261

Eight Terrible ones, the, III. 392

Eitel, II. 88; III. 264, 330

Ekakshapingala, III. 145

Ekamsika, III. 62

Ekanatha, II. 152

Ekantikadharma, II. 195

ekartha, II. 43

Ekata, III. 425

ekatmapratyayasara, I. 83

ekayma, II. 195

Ekottara Agama, I. 300; II. 48; III. 190, 296, 297

Elara, III. 15, 17

Elements of Hindu Iconography, II. 190

Elephanta, II. 165

Elias (Prophet), I. 63

Elichpur, I. 29

Eliot, II. 259

Elixir of Immortality, III. 263, 268

Ellora, I. xlii, 28; II. 206, 223; III. 178

Emanations, II. 196

Emotional theism, I. xxxiv, xli, c. See also Bhagavad Gita, Chaitanya, Krishna, Rama, Vallabha.

Empedocles, I. xix

Emperor (Chinese, functions of), III. 234 sq.

Endere, III. 210

Enlightenment, the, I. 136, 164, 165, 176

En sof, III. 462

[Greek: Eos], I. 63

Ephthalites. See Huns

Epics (Indian), I. lxxiv, 53. See Maha Bharata and Ramayana

Epigraphia Indica, III. 298

Epigraphia Zeylanica, III. 39, 41

Epirus, I. 268; III. 430

Epistles of St. Paul, I. lxxiv

Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art, II. 18

Eran, II. 206

Erlangga, III. 171, 179

[Greek: eros], I. 184; II. 253

Eroticism. See Sakti worship

Essai de Bibliographie Jaina, I. 105

Essays on the language, literature and religion of Nepal and Tibet, II. 116

Essays on the Religion of the Hindus, II. 262

Essenes, III. 434, 436

Ettinghausen, II. 97; III. 40

Euhemerism, III. 224

Eukratides, I. 22

European culture, I. xii, xlvi, lviii, lxi, lxiii, lxv sq., lxxvii, lxxix, xcvi sq.; III. 428 sq.

Euthydemus, I. 22

Everest (Mt.), III. 398

Evil, I. lxxix. See Mara

Evolution of Man, I. 336

Exposure of dead, III. 450

Eye of Truth, the, I. 185, 186

Fa-chen, III. 291

Fa-chi-yao-sung-chung, III. 296

Fa-chu-ching, III. 295

Fa-chu-pi-yu-ching, III. 295

Fa Hsiang-tsung, III. 314

Fa Hsien, I. 157, 258, 259, 293, 342; II. 15, 19, 22, 56, 65, 76, 92 sq., 125, 158; III. 17, 20, 24, 25, 29, 31, 44, 153, 155, 176, 191, 201, 208, 213, 239, 253, 297, 298, 303, 307

Fa-hua, III. 310

Fa-Lin, III. 259

Faljur, II. 286

Fall of Man, I. lxxx

Fa-men, III. 265, 268

Fan-Chan (king), III. 105

Fan Chieh, III. 300

Fan-hu-ta, III. 139

Fan-i-ming-i-chi, III. 287

Fanwang-ching, III. 284, 322, 324, 328, 332

Fan-yi (king), III. 139

Faridu-'d-Din Attar, III. 461

Farquhar, II. 242

Farukhsiyar (Emperor), II. 271

Farvadin Yasht, III. 450

Fa-Shen, II. 33; III. 305

Fatalism, I. lxxvii, 99, 212

Fa-tsang, III. 315

Fa-yen, III. 319

Fa-yuan-chu-lin, III. 287

Feer, III. 373

Female Gurus, II. 185

Fengshri, II. 282; III. 231 sq., 239, 325

Fenollosa, II. 18; III. 261

Ferghana, I. 28; III. 199, 263

Fergusson, III. 18, 74, 168, 194

Fernando, I. 293

Festivals (Siam), III. 92, 332

Ficus Religiosa, I. 142

Fifth Buddhist Council, III. 65

Fihrist (the), III. 460, 461

Filchner, III. 358, 400

Filial Piety (Book of), III. 274

Fine Art in India, II. 159

Finot, J.A., I. xxv; II. 57, 100; III. 51, 53, 82, 102, 109, 124, 126, 135, 137, 138, 139, 143

Finot and Huber, III. 373

Fins (Finland), II. 9, 20, 67

Fire, I. 90, 100, 220, 231, 232; III. 202 sermon, I. 146

Fish Incarnation, II. 147

Five Kings, III. 393

Five Monks, I. 171

Fleet, I. 24; II. 202; III. 19, 21

Fo (Buddha), III. 240

Folklore, I. liv, 101. See Animism element in Hindu culture, II. 32, 111, 114, 116; III. 441

Foo-chow, III. 25

Forchhammer, III. 45, 51, 66, 67, 74

Formless worlds, I. 3, 6

Formosa, III. 151

Formulae. See Dhyanis, Magic, Mantras, Tantras

Fortune, III. 27

Fo-shih, III. 162

Fo-t'o, III. 244

Fo-ton-t'ung-chi, III. 287, 307

Fo-t'u-ch'eng, III. 250

Foucher, I. 173; II. 15, 31, 76, 83, 122; III. 74, 219, 394

Foulkes, II. 140, 215, 219

Four Garrisons, the, III. 198, 205, 209

Four Great Kings, the, I. 102; III. 239, 265, 326

Four Truths, the, I. 49, 200, 211, 261

Fournereau, III. 80, 83, 85

Franke, I. 24, 254, 278, 282; III. 14, 201, 238, 246, 320, 335, 348, 380, 381, 396

Frankfurter, III. 95

Fravashis, II. 198; III. 221, 451

Frazer, Sir. J.G., II. 285, 289

Freewill, I. lxxvii

French (the), I. 31; III. 112, 129, 236

Frescoes, III. 54, 89, 130, 193, 194, 195, 213. See Ajanta

Friar Gabriel, III. 150

Fu-chien, III. 203, 250

Fu-do, III. 392

Fu-fa-tsang-yin-yuan-ching, III. 306

Fu I, III. 259

Fujiwara period, III. 404

Fu-kien, III. 163, 269

Funan, III. 7, 101, 103, 104, 139, 148

Funeral rites, III. 333

Gabled Hall, the, I. 150

Gadadhar Singh, II. 260

Gadaveri River, I. 263

Gaggara Lake, I. 150

Gaharwar dynasty, I. 27

Gaing-Ok, III. 72

Galilee, I. 181

Gandak River, I. 132

Gandan, III. 359, 399

Gandavyuha, II. 54; III. 283

Gandhabbas, I. 102

Gandhakuti, I. 150

Gandhara, I. xxx, xlix, 20, 87, 263, 282, 330; II. 16, 22, 53, 59, 70, 81, 83, 90, 93, 96, 100, 159, 172; III. 7, 195, 210, 211, 213, 219, 391, 449

Gandhari, III. 394

Ganesa, I. 58; II. 118, 144, 222, 253; III. 97, 148, 167, 169, 186, 355, 383

Ganga, I. 121

Ganga Raja, III. 139

Ganges, I. 135, 163; II. 145

Ganthakara Vihara, III. 29

Gantho, II. 79

Gaotema, III. 218

Garbe, II. 200, 296, 299, 303; III. 411 sq.

Garbhadhatu, III. 317

Garbha Upanishad, III. 175

Gargi, I. 74, 84, 94

Garlog, III. 352

Garnier, III. 111

Garuda, II. 228; III. 147, 182, 186, 452

Gathas, I. 19, 51, 282

Gaudapada, I. cii; II. 74, 208, 316

Gaudapalin, III. 56

Gauramukha, III. 452

Gauri, II. 97

Gautamiya Tantra, II. 190

Gawilgarh, I. 121

Gaya, I. 24, 120; II. 101, 105, 125; III. 28, 453

Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency, II. 225 of Burma, III. 48 of India, II. 233

Geden-dub, III. 359, 360

Geiger, I. 259; III, 12, 14, 19, 21, 29, 31

Gelugpa, III. 358, 364, 397 sq.

Generative forces, worship, I. lxxxvi. See Saktism

Genesis, I. lxxiv; III. 424

Geography, I. 335. See also Cosmogonies

Geomancy (Feng-shin), III. 322

Gerini, III. 79, 95, 96

Getty, II. 26; III. 389

Ghanta, III. 172

Ghata Jataka, II. 153

Ghats (western), I. 31

Ghazi Miyan, III. 459

Ghazna, III. 461

Ghazni, I. 16

Ghor, I. 28

Ghora, II. 152

Ghost-worship, I. 10; III. 68, 331

Ghotamukha, I. 150

Giao-Chi, III. 340

Gifford Lectures, I. lxvii, ciii

Giles's Chinese Dict., III. 209, 223, 246, 259, 260, 266, 267

Gilgit, II. 93; III. 377

Giribbaja, I. 147

Girnar, I. 114, 121; II. 69, 203; III. 167

Gita Govinda, II. 157, 161, 219, 230, 242, 248

Gitavali, II. 245

Glaihomor, II. 159

Gleanings from the Bhaktamala, II. 191, 245

Gnosticism, I. xii; III. 443 sq.

Goa, I. 31; III. 26, 417

Gobind Raut, II. 147

Goburdhan, II. 159

God, I. 8, 47, 340; II. 73, 155; III. 224

God, the Invisible King, I. ciii

Godan, III. 354

Godavery River, I. 27

Goddess-worship, I. lxxxvi; II. 127, 145, 189, 275 sq.; III. 39, 343, 390, 393

Godhika, I. 197, 205

Gods of Northern Buddhism, II. 26

Goethe, I. lv

Gokul (shrine), I. lxxxvii

Gokul, II. 251, 290

Gokula, II. 154

Gokul Gosainji, II. 251

Gokulnathji, II. 251

Golden Bough, the, II. 285

Golden Temple, II. 268

Golkonda, I. 29

Gomatesvara, I. 120

Gondophores, I. 23; III. 415

Gonds, I. 27

Gopi, II. 154, 161, 229

Gopi Nath, II. 147

Gopurams, II. 207; III. 132

Gorakhpur, II. 263

Gor Baba, II. 145

Gordian, III. 447

Goresvara, II, 145

Gosain, II. 184, 255

Gosala, I. 105, 112

Gosirsha, Mt., III. 212

Gospels, I. lxxiv, 180, 183; III. 440 sq.

Gosringa, Mt., III. 209, 212, 215

Gosvami, II. 185, 251

Gotama (the Buddha), I. xix, xx, xxvii, xxix, 119, 120, 123, 129-252; II. 39, 130; III. 13, 71, 177. See Buddha, the.

Gothabhaya (king), III. 21, 40

Gotiputta, I. 269

Gotra, I. 107

Govardhana, Mt., III. 147

Goveiya, II. 147

Govinda, II. 208, 232

Govindacaryasvami, II. 188

Govindapur, III. 453

Govind Singh Guru, II. 268 sq.

Graeco-Bactrians, II. 20

Graeco-Buddhist sculpture, II. 172

Grand Lama, I. xxvii; III. 135, 358 sq. (list on p. 361)

Granth, I. lxxii; II. 243 sq., 262, 268

Grantha, II. 79

Great Epic of India, II. 169

Great Hero, the, III. 326

Great King of Glory, the, I. 172

Great Mother, I. 63

Great Satrapy, I. 23

Greece (Greeks), I. xix, xxxi, xli, 19, 22, 65, 171; II. 70, 139; III. 8, 191, 415

Green Tara, the, III. 394

Grenard, III. 200

Grey Clergy, the, III. 277

Grierson, I. xc, 282; II. 187, 191, 230, 237, 242, 244, 248, 253, 269; III. 31, 298, 421, 458

Grihastha, I. 89

Grihya Sutras, I. 101; III. 94

Groeneveldt, III. 153 sq.

Growse, I. xc; II. 246 sq.

Grunwedel, II. 20, 29, 84, 86, 87, 88, 126, 129, 143; III. 14, 62, 89, 194, 195, 196, 219, 329, 349, 361, 380, 382, 385, 387, 389, 391

Gudha Vinaya, III. 40

Guerinot, I. 105, 113, 114, 115

Guhasiva, king, III. 26

Guhyasamaja, II. 128

Gujarat, I. 19, 29, 114, 117, 118, 120, 121; II. 105, 108, 109, 113, 128, 154, 242, 248, 252, 276; III. 7, 155, 177, 453, 455, 461

Gujars (Gurjars), I. 25

guna, I. 218, 304; II. 165, 196, 283, 298

Gunabhadra, I. 114, 293; III. 297

Guna-karanda-vyuha, II. 57; III. 395

Gunamati, II. 94

Gunavarman, III. 156, 176, 177

Gundaphar, king, III. 414

Gunning, III. 171

Guptas (dynasty), I. xxxiii, 19, 24; II. 54, 65, 69, 87, 187, 206

Gurbharjus, II. 119

Gurkhas, II. 117; III. 368, 397

Gurmukhi, II. 269

Guru, I. 226; II. 184, 267, 268; III. 91, 118, 146, 167, 169, 459

Guru-parampara-prabhavam, II. 232

Gushi Khan, III. 304

Guyuk, III. 354

Gwalior, I. 31; III. 453

Gyalpo, III. 365

rGyud, III. 375, 376

Hachiman, II. 25

Hackin, I. 173

Hackmann, III. 303, 324, 329, 330

Hafiz, III. 461

Haklena, III. 307

Halebid, I. 30, 115

Halima, III. 277, 359

Hami, III. 200

Hampi, I. 30

Hamsavati, III. 52, 58, 80

Han dynasty, III. 197, 203, 205, 208, 213, 244, 248

Hang Chou, III. 271, 280

Han-mo, III. 209

Hanuman, II. 149, 253; III. 152

Hanumat, II. 239

Han-Yu, III. 263, 266, 267, 288, 329

Haoma. See Soma

Happiness, I. lxxvi, 136, 214, 225

Happy Land Sutra, III. 218

Hara, II. 145; III. 114

Hardoon, Mrs., III. 291

Hardy, I. 173, 314; II. 170; III. 39

Har Govind, II. 268

Hari, II. 115, 162, 200, 255, 257, 264, 268; III. 183, 425

Haridas, II. 254

Harihara, I. 30; II. 164; III. 106, 107, 114, 145, 181

Hariharalaya, III. 119

Harirayaji, II. 250

Hariti, II. 17

Harivamsa, II. 158, 164, 230, 251, 279; III. 114, 424

Harivarman, king, III. 141, 143, 304

Harivarmesvara, III. 146

Harkisan Guru, II. 268

Har-rai Guru, II. 268

Harrison, Miss. J.E., III. 434

Harsha (Emperor), I. xxxix, 19, 25, 114; II. 77, 97 sq., 108, 127, 206; III. 40, 44, 148, 260, 348, 454

Harshacarita, I. 15; II. 97

Hartmann, I. 211

Hathayoga, I. 304

Hathi Singh, I. 119

Haug, I. 69

Havret, III. 217

Hayagriva, III. 169, 389, 392

Hazrat Moin-ud-Din Chisti, III. 459

Heart of Jainism, I. 105

Heaven and Earth Association, III. 319

Heavens. See Tusita and Paradise

Hegesandros, III. 432

Hei-an period, III. 403

Heliodorus, II. 197

Hellenistic kingdoms, I. xxx, 22. See Greece

Hells, I. 337; II. 24; III. 343

von Helmont, I. lv

Helmund river, III. 3

Hemacandra, I. 117; III. 181 Abhidhanacintamani, II. 153

Hemadri, III. 423

Hemavatikas, I. 259

Hephthalites. See Huns

Herakles (Siva), II. 137, 159

Herat, III. 427

Herder, I. lv.

Hermetic Literature, III. 432 sq.

Herodotus, III. 434

Heruka, II. 129; III. 150

hetu (cause), I. 207

Hevajra, II. 140; III. 391

Hevajravasita, III. 355

Hideyoshi, III. 85, 339, 404

Hieizan, I. lxxxii; III. 404

Himalayas, I. 25, 103. See Nepal, Tibet

Himis, III. 351, 397

Hinayana, I. xxiv, xxx, xxxii, lxxv, 260, 333; II. 11, 80, 82, 101; III. 52, 60, 82, 98, 112, 126, 150, 162, 177, 201, 202, 205, 213, 311, 320, 323, 371, 404. See Pali Canon Sutras, III. 282 Vinaya, III. 285

Hindi, II. 188, 256, 269

Hindu Castes and Sects, II. 163, 173, 177, 209, 210, 244, 261

Hindu Iconography, I. xxxv, 58; II. 110, 165, 202; III. 382

Hinduism (Indian religion: social order), I. xi-civ passim, 5, 13, 17, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 45, 48, 49, 64, 67, 127, 129; II. 107-322; III. 5, 95, 103, 105, 112 sq., 145 sq., 150 sq., 188 sq., 342, 382 sq., 411, 417 sq., 430, 447, 452, 457 sq.

Hindu Kush, III. 6

Hindustan, II. 92

Hiranyadama, III. 117

Hiranyagarbha, II. 165, 202

Hirth, III. 235

Histoire de la Bienheureuse Marguerite Marie, II. 161

Histoire de la Litterature Hindoue, II. 262

Histoire des Croyances Religieuses en Chine, II. 284, 320

Historical Relation of the Island of Ceylon, III. 35

History of the Bengali Language and Literature, II. 114, 187, 213, 245, 279 of Fine Art, II. 172 of Indian Architecture, III. 18, 168 of Indian Buddhism, II. 63 of Indian Shipping, III. 102 of Manikka-Vacagar, II. 183 of Nepal, II. 116 of Sect of the Maharajas, II. 250

Hodgson, B.H., II. 50, 116, 117 Shadworth, II. 39

Hoernle, I. 99, 105; II. 56; III. 191, 348

Hoernle and Barnett, I. 116

Hojo Regents, the, III. 405

Holy Lives of the Azhvars, I. 40

Home of Pali, I. 282

Ho-nan, III. 193, 254

Hopkins, II. 157, 169

Horapathaka, II. 59

Hor-gyi-skad-du, III. 377

Horiuji palm-leaf manuscript, III. 394

Hormizd, III. 446

Hormuzd, III. 215

Horse sacrifice, I. xxxviii, 68; III. 145

Horus, III. 431

Hose and McDougall, III. 163

Ho-Shang (monk), II. 241, 330, 351

Hospitals, I. 115; III. 124

Hossho, III. 404

Hotri (priests), I. 52, 69, 100; III. 118

Hou-Ching, III. 254, 256, 257

Hou-Han-Shu, III. 248

Hou-Liang, III. 206

Hoysalas, I. 30, 114

hphrul, III. 383

Hridaya, III. 376

Hrishikesa, III. 426

Hsia, III. 269

Hsian Chou, III. 315

Hsiang-Chih, II. 95; III. 255

Hsiao-Cheng, II. 3

Hsiao-Chih Kuan, III. 312

Hsiao Tsung, III. 278 Wu, III. 289 Wu Ti, III. 251 Yu, III. 259

Hsien Shen, III. 209 Tsung, III. 265, 278

Hsin-byu-shin, II. 7; III. 63

Hsing-An, III. 277

Hsin-yin, III. 306

Hsiung-nu, III. 197

Hsi-Yu-Chi, III. 225

Hsi-yu-ki, III. 225

Hsuan Chuang, I. xxxix, 25, 258, 275, 332; II. 3, 5, 14, 15, 17, 18, 22, 33, 51, 61, 65, 72, 74, 77 sq., 125, 126, 127, 158, 206, 244, 280, 286; III. 16, 20, 24, 44, 53, 148, 190, 193, 201, 202, 204, 206, 207, 209, 211, 213, 215, 239, 260, 293, 299, 300, 313, 453

Hsuan-Fo-pu, III. 314

Hsuan Ti, III. 153

Hsuan Tsung, III. 199, 261, 262, 268, 289

Hsu-Kuang-Ch'i, III. 279

Hsung-nu, III. 245

hti, III. 72

Hu, III. 104, 217, 254

Hua-fo, III. 446

Hua-Hu Ching, III. 273

Huai, III. 260, 261

Huan, Emperor, III. 248

Huang-wang, III. 140

Hua-yen, II. 54, 60; III. 282, 283, 287, 311 (sutra), 374

Hua-yen-Ching, III. 315

Hua-yen-tsung, III. 315

Huc, III. 358

Hue, I. xxvii

Hugli, I. 25

Hu-hua-ching, III. 216

Hui-k'o, III. 308

Hui Kuo, III. 317

Huineng, III. 287, 308

Hui-sheng, II. 96; III. 254

Hui Tsung, III. 273

Hui Yuan, III. 313

Hultzsch, II. 278; III. 431

Hulugu Khan, III. 349

Human sacrifice, I. xxxvi, 68; II. 168, 174, 193, 276, 288, 289

Hume, I. lv

Humour (Buddha's), I. 172

Hunan, III. 253

Hundred Thousand Nagas, III. 381

Hundred Thousand Songs, III. 399

Hungarian affinities, I. 20

Hungjen, III. 308

Hung Wu, III. 289

Hun-Hui (Hun T'ien), III. 104, 107, 139

Huns (Ephthalites, Hephthalites), I. xxxix, xli, 16, 19, 25; II. 54, 65, 95, 119; III. 192, 198, 201, 209, 212

Huo-chou (Kara-Khojo), III. 207

Huth, II. 16, 32; III. 358, 361, 373, 380

Huvishka, I. 24, 113; II. 64

Huxley, T.H., I. lv, xciv, cii

Hwa-Shang-Zat-mo, III. 351

Hyderabad, I. 22, 266

hymns, II. 104. See Arvars, gathas

hypnotization, I. 319. See also Meditation, Yoga

Ibsen, I. lv

I-Ching, I. 260; II. 3, 5, 18, 20, 22, 65, 82, 85, 90 sq., 125, 207; III. 7, 20, 53, 62, 82, 85, 106, 108, 148, 162, 166, 176, 177, 239, 285, 292, 299, 305, 322, 329, 330

Iconographie bouddhique, II. 15, 31, 122

Iddhi, I. 317; III. 247

identification (union), II. 122

Idiqutshahri, III. 195, 200

Idolatry. See Images

Igatpuri, II. 203

Ignorance, I. lxxx, 186, 207, 211

I-Hsuan, III. 309

Ikhtiyar-ud-din Muhammad, II. 112

Ikken, II. 226

Ili river, I. 23

Illusion (see Maya), I. xliii, 45; II. 40, 264

'Ilm, III. 182

Images, I. lxx, 119, 120, 121, 139, 171; II. 6, 17, 104, 105, 260; III. 39, 50, 53, 71, 74, 83, 89, 115, 130, 165, 219, 326 sq., 385, 389, 450 sq. See also Art

(de) Imitatione Christi, II. 9

Immortality, I. li, lv, 66

Incarnations (also avataras), I. xv, 11, 39, 343; II. 147, 170, 218, 235, 239, 243, 251, 261; III. 359 sq., 365, 383

India, Old and New, II. 157

Indian Buddhism, II. 90 sq. literature, I. xiii, xiv, xvi, xix, lxxii sq., 15, 50, 130, 329; II. 136-322 passim

Indische Religionsgeschichte, II. 170

Indische Studien, I. 116

Indore, I. 31

Indra, I. 59, 63, 333; II. 23, 99, 137, 158, 181, 270; III. 43, 109, 129, 175, 186, 215, 228, 391

Indrabhadresvara, III. 146

Indragiri, III. 161

Indrapura, III. 137, 144

Indravarman, king, III. 110, 119, 141, 144, 149

Indra Vishnu, I. 57

Indriya, III. 175

Infanticide, II. 269

Inquisition, I. xcii; III. 417

Inscriptions, I. xii, xxiii, xxviii, xxix, 16, 27, 99, 103, 113, 114, 263 sq.; II. 69, 113, 214, 225; III. 34, 40, 43, 47, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 63, 67, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 113, 114, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 135, 138, 450

Inscriptions Sanscrites de Camboge, II. 169

International Congress of Religions, II. 148

Introduction to Mysticism, I. 136 to Pancaratra, II. 128, 188, 189, 197

Intuition, I. xcix; III. 278, 304

Iranians, I. 52, 54, 61, 63, 64; II. 68, 195; III. 189, 191, 208, 215, 409 sq. See also Persia, Zoroaster

Iranien Oriental, III. 215

Irenaeus, III. 444

Irrawaddy, I. 120; III. 47, 48

Isaac Luria, III. 462

Isana, II. 137, 198; III. 146

Isanavarman, III. 109, 114

Isapur, II. 69

Ishta-devata, III. 391

Isipatana, I. 140

Isis, II. 287; III. 409, 429

Islam, I. xxiii, xlii, xlvi, xlix, 17, 28, 115, 178, 238; II. 107, 240; III. 3, 182, 409, 455 sq.

Isocrates, III. 434

Isvara, I. 85; II. 16, 304, 313, 316; III. 173, 444 Sanhita, II. 195

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