Higher Lessons in English
by Alonzo Reed and Brainerd Kellogg
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The infinitive phrase in 1, paragraph 2, modifies what? Is me, or visits, the object complement of make? Put what after would find in 2 and get the object complement. Can you make a sentence of this group? What are its principal parts? Does the writer make an unexpected turn after talk? How is this shown to the eye? Put what after do know in 3 and find the object complement. Can you make a sentence of this object complement? What phrase can you put in place of the pronoun it without changing the sense? By using the word it, a better arrangement can be made. What group of words in 5 is used like an adjective to modify hurry? Change the pronoun that to hurry and make a separate sentence of this group. What word, then, must have made an adjective of this sentence and joined it to hurry? What is the object complement of can afford in 7? Supply a preposition after will wait in 8, and then find two groups of words that tell the time of waiting. Find a subject and a predicate in the second group. What explains it in 10? Find the object complement of wishes in 11. What is the subject of was? The office of there? After work supply the pronoun that and tell the office of the group it introduces. What is the object complement of could do? What connects this group to work?

The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs.—There are two distinct sets of sentences in this selection—distinct because developing two distinct sub-topics. Accordingly, there are two paragraphs. Let us take for the general topic The Visits of the Plumbers. Let us see whether all the sentences of the first paragraph will not come under the sub-topic First Visit, and those of the second under the sub-topic Subsequent Visits. The sentences of each paragraph should be closely related to one another and to the sub-topic. They should stand in their proper order. Do the paragraphs above stand such tests? If they do, they possess the prime quality of Unity.

The Author's Style.—This selection we may call Narrative, though there are descriptive touches in it. It is a story of what? Is the story clearly told throughout? If not, where is it obscure? Is it made interesting and entertaining? Is Mr. Warner here giving us a bit of his own experience? Or do you think he is drawing upon his imagination? Would you call the style plain, or does it abound with metaphors, similes, or other figures of speech? Are the sentences generally long, or generally short? What are the faults or foibles of these real or fancied plumbers? Does the author speak of them in a genial and lenient way? or is he hostile, and does he hold up their foibles to scorn and derision? Does he make us laugh with, or does he make us laugh at, the plumbers? If the former, the style is humorous; if the latter, the style is satirical or sarcastic. Would you call Mr. Warner's quality of style Humor? or that form of wit known as Satire? Is our author's use of it delicate and refined? or is it gross and coarse? Does it stop short of making its object grotesque, or not? Can you name any writers whose humor or satire is coarse?


TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions, pages 159, 160.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. Indolence inclines a man to rely upon others and not upon himself, to eat their bread and not his own. 2. His carelessness is somebody's loss; his neglect is somebody's downfall. 3. If he borrows, the article remains borrowed; if he begs and gets, it is as the letting out of waters—no one knows where it will stop. 4. He spoils your work, disappoints your expectations, exhausts your patience, eats up your substance, abuses your confidence, and hangs a dead weight upon all your plans; and the very best thing an honest man can do with a lazy man is to get rid of him.

1. Indolence promises without redeeming the pledge; a mist of forgetfulness rises up and obscures the memory of vows and oaths. 2. The negligence of laziness breeds more falsehoods than the cunning of the sharper. 3. As poverty waits upon the steps of indolence, so upon such poverty brood equivocations, subterfuges, lying denials. 4. Falsehood becomes the instrument of every plan. 5. Negligence of truth, next occasional falsehood, then wanton mendacity—these three strides traverse the whole road of lies.

1. Indolence as surely runs to dishonesty as to lying. 2. Indeed, they are but different parts of the same road, and not far apart. 3. In directing the conduct of the Ephesian converts, Paul says, "Let him that stole steal no more; but rather let him labor, working with his hands the thing which is good." 4. The men who were thieves were those who had ceased to work. 5. Industry was the road back to honesty. 6. When stores are broken open, the idle are first suspected.

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The Uses of Words and Groups of Words.—Find in 1 two compound infinitive phrases and tell their use. Supply the words omitted from the last part of each compound. What shows that the parts of 2 are not closely connected? Would a conjunction bring them more closely together? If a conjunction is used, would you change the punctuation? A sentence that unites with another to make one greater sentence we call a clause. Read the first part of 2 and change somebody's first to a phrase and then to a clause used like an adjective. What distinction can you make between the use of the semicolon and the use of the comma in 3? The clause if he borrows is joined like an adverb to what verb? If he begs and gets? What pronoun more indefinite than your might take its place in 4? What noun? Explain the use of the semicolon and the comma in 4. Supply that after thing and tell what clause is here used like an adjective. Find the office of that by placing it after do. Find in 4 an infinitive phrase used as attribute complement.

Change the phrase in 1, paragraph 2, to a clause. Find in 2 the omitted predicate of the clause introduced by than. Find a compound subject in 3. Are negligence, falsehood, and mendacity, in 5, used as subjects? Explain their use and punctuation. (See Remark, Lesson 45.)

In 3, paragraph 3, how are the words borrowed from Paul marked? Change the quotation from Paul so as to give his thought but not his exact words. Are the quotation marks now needed? In 3 and 4 find clauses introduced by that, which, and who, and used like adjectives.

The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs.—You can easily learn the sub-topic, or thought, each of these paragraphs develops. See whether you can find it in the first sentence of each. Give the three sub-topics. Put together the three thoughts established in these paragraphs and tell what they prove. What they prove is that for which Mr. Beecher is contending; it may be written at the head of the extract as the general topic. What merits of the paragraph, already treated, are admirably illustrated in this extract?

The Style of the Author.—This selection is neither descriptive nor narrative; it is Argumentative. Mr. Beecher is trying to establish a certain proposition, and in the three paragraphs is giving three reasons, or arguments, to prove its truth. But the argument is not all thought, is not purely intellectual. It is suffused with feeling, is impassioned. Mr. Beecher's heart is in his work. This feeling warms and colors his style, and stimulates his fancy. As a consequence, figures of speech abound.

Notice that in 1, paragraph 1, the thought is repeated by means of the infinitive phrases. Read the words Indolence inclines a man with each of the four infinitive phrases that follow. You will see that the thought is repeated. It is first expressed in a general way; by the aid of the second phrase we see the same thought from the negative side; the third phrase makes the statement more specific; the fourth puts the specific statement negatively. The needless repetition of the same thought in different words is one of the worst faults in writing. But Mr. Beecher's repetition is not needless. By every repetition here, Mr. Beecher makes his thought clearer and stronger. Examine the other sentences of this paragraph and see whether they enforce the leading thought by illustration, example, or consequence.

In what sentence is the style made energetic by the aid of short predicates? How does the alternation of short sentences with long throughout the extract affect you? The alternation of plain with figurative sentences? Can you show that the author's style has Variety? Pick out the metaphors in 1, 2, 3, and 5, paragraph 2; and in 1 and 2, paragraph 3. Pick out the comparisons, or similes, in 3, paragraph 1, and in 3, paragraph 2. Figures of speech should add clearness and force. If you think these do, tell how. Indolence in 1 and 3, paragraph 2, and laziness in 2, introduce us to another figure. Something belonging to the men, a quality, is made to represent the men themselves. Such a figure is called Metonymy.


TO THE TEACHER.—Exercises in argumentative writing may be continued by making selections from the discussion of easy topics.

For original work we suggest debates on current topics. Compositions should be short.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. The assassin enters, through the window already prepared, into an unoccupied apartment. 2. With noiseless foot he paces the lonely hall, half lighted by the moon; he winds up the ascent of the stairs and reaches the door of the chamber. 3. Of this he moves the lock, by soft and continued pressure, till it turns on its hinges without noise; and he enters, and beholds his victim before him.

1. The face of the innocent sleeper is turned from the murderer, and the beams of the moon, resting on the gray locks of his aged temple, show him where to strike. 2. The fatal blow is given! and the victim passes, without a struggle or a motion, from the repose of sleep to the repose of death. 3. It is the assassin's purpose to make sure work; and he plies the dagger, though it is obvious that life has been destroyed by the blow of the bludgeon. 4. He even raises the aged arm that he may not fail in his aim at the heart, and places it again over the wounds of the poniard. 5. To finish the picture, he explores the wrist for the pulse. 6. He feels for it, and ascertains that it beats no longer. 7. It is accomplished. 8. The deed is done.

1. He retreats, retraces his steps to the window, passes out through it as he came in, and escapes. 2. He has done the murder. No eye has seen him, no ear has heard him. 3. The secret is his own, and it is safe.

1. Ah! gentlemen, that was a dreadful mistake. 2. Such a secret can be safe nowhere. 3. The whole creation of God has neither nook nor corner where the guilty can bestow it, and say it is safe. 4. Not to speak of that eye which pierces through all disguises and beholds everything as in the splendor of noon, such secrets of guilt are never safe from detection even by men. 5. True it is, generally speaking, that "Murder will out." 6. True it is that Providence hath so ordained, and doth so govern things, that those who break the great law of heaven by shedding man's blood seldom succeed in avoiding discovery.

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The Uses of Words and Groups of Words.—Do the phrases in 1, paragraph 1, stand in their usual order, or are they transposed? In what different places may they stand? Does either phrase need to be transposed for emphasis or for clearness? Explain the punctuation. Begin 2 with the lonely hall, and notice that the sentence is thrown out of harmony with the other sentences, and that the assassin is for the moment lost sight of. Can you tell why? Notice that in the latter part of 2 the door is mentioned, and that 3 begins with of this, referring to the door. Can you find any other arrangement by which 3 will follow 2 so naturally? Can you change 3 so as to make the reference of it clearer? What is the office of the till clause? Does the clause following the semicolon modify anything? Would you call such a clause dependent, or would you call it independent? Explain the punctuation of 3.

Give the effect of changing resting in 1, paragraph 2, to the assertive form. Find in 1 a pronoun used adverbially and a phrase used as object complement. Expand the phrase into a clause. Give the modifiers of passes in 2. Read the first part of 3 and put the explanatory phrase in place of it. What is the office of the though clause? Find in this a clause doing the work of a noun and tell its office. In 4 would his in place of the before aged and before heart be ambiguous? If so, why? Find in this paragraph an infinitive phrase used independently. Find the object complement of ascertains in 6. Are 7 and 8 identical in meaning?

Give the modifiers of passes in paragraph 3. Explain the as clause. What does that in 1, paragraph 4, stand for? What kind of clause is introduced by where in 3? By which in 4? Expand the as clause in 4 and tell its office. Find in 4 and 5 an infinitive phrase and a participle phrase used independently. Tell the office of the that clauses in 5 and 6, and of the who clause in 6.

The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs.—Look (1) at the order of the sentences in each paragraph, and (2) at the order of the paragraphs themselves. Neither order could be changed without making the stream of events run up hill, for each order is the order in which the events happened. Look (3) at the unity of each paragraph, and (4) at the larger unity of the four paragraphs—that of each paragraph determined by the relation of each sentence to the sub-topic of the paragraph, and that of the four paragraphs determined by their relation to the general topic of the extract. We add that the obvious reference of the repeated he to the same person, and of that and secret in paragraph 4 demonstrates both unities. Look (5), and lastly, at the fact that the sub-topic of each paragraph is found in the first line of each paragraph. Could Webster have done more to make his thought seen and felt?

The Style of the Author.—This selection is largely Narrative. Its leading facts were doubtless supplied by the testimony given in the case; but much of the matter must have come from the imagination of Mr. Webster. Everything is so skillfully and vividly put that the story, touched with description, has all the effect of an argument. One quality of it is its clearness, its perspicuity. It is noticeable also that very little imagery is used, that the language is plain language. But it is impossible to read these paragraphs without being most profoundly impressed with their energy, their force.

The style is forcible because (1) the subject-matter is easily grasped; (2) because simple words are used, words understood even by children; because (3) these words are specific and individual, not generic; because (4) of the grateful variety of sentences; (5) because of the prevalence of short sentences; because (6) of the repetition of the thought in successive sentences; because (7), though the murder took place some time before, Webster speaks as if it were now taking place in our very sight. Find proof of what we have just said—proof of (2), in paragraphs 1 and 3; proof of (3), in sentences 3, 4, and 5, paragraph 2; proof of (4), throughout; of (5) and (6), in paragraphs 3 and 4; and of (7), in the first three paragraphs.

In paragraph 3, a remarkable sameness prevails. The sentences here are framed largely on one plan. They are mostly of the same length. The order of the words in them is the same; often the words are the same; and, even when they are not, those in one clause or sentence seem to suggest those in the next. This sameness is not accidental. The more real the murderer's fancied security is made in this paragraph to appear, the more startling in the next paragraph will be the revelation of his mistake. Hence no novelty in the words or in their arrangement is allowed to distract our attention from the dominant thought. The sentences are made to look and sound alike and to be alike that their effect may be cumulative. The principle of Parallel Construction, the principle that sentences similar in thought should be similar in form, is here allowed free play.

TO THE TEACHER.—Do not be discouraged should your pupils fail to grasp at first all that is here taught. They probably will not fully comprehend it till they have returned to it several times. It will, however, be impossible for them to study it without profit. The meaning will grow upon them. In studying our questions and suggestions the pupils should have the "Extract" before them, and should try to verify in it all that is taught concerning it.

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Introductory Hints.—You have now reached a point where it becomes necessary to divide the eight great classes of words into subclasses.

You have learned that nouns are the names of things; as, girl, Sarah. The name girl is held in common by all girls, and hence does not distinguish one girl from another. The name Sarah is not thus held in common; it does distinguish one girl from other girls. Any name which belongs in common to all things of a class we call a Common Noun; and any particular name of an individual, distinguishing this individual from others of its class, we call a Proper Noun. The "proper, or individual, names" which in Rule 1, Lesson 8, you were told to begin with capital letters are proper nouns.

Such a word as wheat, music, or architecture does not distinguish one thing from others of its class; there is but one thing in the class denoted by each, each thing forms a class by itself; and so we call these words common nouns.

In Lesson 8 you learned that pronouns are not names, but words used instead of names. Any one speaking of himself may use I, my, etc., instead of his own name; speaking to one, he may use you, thou, your, thy, etc., instead of that person's name; speaking of one, he may use he, she, it, him, her, etc., instead of that one's name. These little words that by their form denote the speaker, the one spoken to, or the one spoken of are called Personal Pronouns.

By adding self to my, thy, your, him, her, and it, and selves to our, your, and them, we form what are called Compound Personal Pronouns, used either for emphasis or to reflect the action of the verb back upon the actor; as, Xerxes himself was the last to cross the Hellespont; The mind cannot see itself.

If a noun, or some word or words used like a noun, is to be modified by a clause, the clause is introduced by who, which, what, or that; as, I know the man that did that. These words, relating to words in another clause, and binding the clauses together, are called Relative Pronouns. By adding ever and soever to who, which, and what, we form what are called the Compound Relative Pronouns whoever, whosoever, whichever, whatever, etc., used in a general way, and without any word expressed to which they relate.

If the speaker is ignorant of the name of a person or a thing and asks for it, he uses who, which, or what; as, Who did that? These pronouns, used in asking questions, are called Interrogative Pronouns.

Instead of naming things a speaker may indicate them by words pointing them out as near or remote; as, Is that a man? What is this? or by words telling something of their number, order, or quantity; as, None are perfect; The latter will do; Much has been done. Such words we call Adjective Pronouns.


A Noun is the name of anything. [Footnote: Most common nouns are derived from roots that denote qualities. The root does not necessarily denote the most essential quality of the thing, only its most obtrusive quality. The sky, a shower, and scum, for instance, have this most noticeable feature; they are a cover, they hide, conceal. This the root sku signifies, and sku is the main element in the words sky, shower (Saxon scu:r), and scum that name these objects, and in the adjective obscure.

A noun denoting at first only a single quality of its object comes gradually, by the association of this quality with the rest, to denote them all.

Herein proper nouns differ from common. However derived, as Smith is from the man's office of smoothing, or White from his color, the name soon ceases to denote quality, and becomes really meaningless.]

A Common Noun is a name which belongs to all things of a class.

A Proper Noun is the particular name of an individual.

Remark.—It may be well to note two classes of common nouns—collective and abstract. A Collective Noun is the name of a number of things taken together; as, army, flock, mob, jury. An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality, an action, a being, or a state; as, whiteness, beauty, wisdom, (the) singing, existence, (the) sleep.

A Pronoun is a word used for a noun. [Footnote: In our definition and general treatment of the pronoun, we have conformed to the traditional views of grammarians; but it may be well for the student to note that pronouns are something more than mere substitutes for nouns, and that their primary function is not to prevent the repetition of nouns.

1. Pronouns are not the names of things. They do not, like nouns, lay hold of qualities and name things by them. They seize upon relations that objects sustain to each other and denote the objects by these relations. I, you, and he denote their objects by the relations these objects sustain to the act of speaking; I denotes the speaker; you, the one spoken to; and he or she or it, the one spoken of. This and that denote their objects by the relative distance of these from the speaker; some and few and others indicate parts separated from the rest. Gestures could express all that many pronouns express.

2. It follows that pronouns are more general than nouns. Any person, or even an animal or a thing personified, may use I when referring to himself, you when referring to the one addressed, and he, she, it, and they when referring to the person or persons, the thing or things, spoken of—and all creatures and things, except the speaker and the one spoken to, fall into the last list. Some pronouns are so general, and hence so vague, in their denotement that they show the speaker's complete ignorance of the objects they denote. In, Who did it? Which of them did you see? the questioner is trying to find out the one for whom Who stands, and the person or thing that Which denotes. To what does it refer in, it rains; How is it with you?

3. Some pronouns stand for a phrase, a clause, or a sentence, going before or coming after. To be or not to bethat is the question. It is doubtful whether the North Pole will ever be reached. The sails turned, the corn was ground, after which the wind ceased. Ought you to go? I cannot answer that. In the first of these sentences, that stands for a phrase; in the last, for a sentence. It and which in the second and third sentences stand for clauses.

4. Which, retaining its office as connective, may as an adjective accompany its noun; as, I craved his forbearance a little longer, which forbearance he allowed me.]

A Personal Pronoun is a pronoun that by its form denotes the speaker, the one spoken to, or the one spoken of.

A Relative Pronoun is one that relates to some preceding word or words and connects clauses.

An Interrogative Pronoun is one with which a question is asked.

An Adjective Pronoun is one that performs the offices of both an adjective and a noun.

The simple personal pronouns are:—I, thou, you, he, she, and it.

The compound personal pronouns are:—Myself, thyself, yourself, himself, herself, and itself.

The simple relative pronouns are:—Who, which, that, and what. [Footnote: As, in such sentences as this: Give such things as you can spare, may be treated as a relative pronoun. But by expanding the sentence as is seen to be a conjunctive adverb—Give such things as those are which you can spare.

But used after a negative is sometimes called a "negative relative" = that not; as, There is not a man here but would die for such a cause. When the sentence is expanded, but is found to be a preposition—There is not a man here but (= except) the one who would die, etc.]

The compound relative pronouns are:—

Whoever or whosoever, whichever or whichsoever, whatever or whatsoever.

The interrogative pronouns are:—

Who, which, and what.

Some of the more common adjective pronouns are:—

All, another, any, both, each, either, enough, few, former, latter, little, many, much, neither, none, one, other, same, several, such, that, these, this, those, whole, etc. [Footnote: The adjective pronouns this, that, these, and those are called Demonstrative pronouns. All, any, both, each, either, many, one, other, etc. are called Indefinite pronouns because they do not point out and particularize like the demonstratives. Each, either, and neither are also called Distributives.

But for the fact that such words as brave, good, etc. in the phrases the brave, the good, etc. describe—which pronouns never do—we might call them adjective pronouns. They may be treated as nouns, or as adjectives modifying nouns to be supplied.

Some adjectives preceded by the are abstract nouns; as, the grand, the sublime, the beautiful.]

The word, phrase, or clause in the place of which a pronoun is used is called an Antecedent.

Direction.—Point out the pronouns and their antecedents in these sentences:—

Jack was rude to Tom, and always knocked off his hat when he met him. To lie is cowardly, and every boy should know it. Daniel and his companions were fed on pulse, which was to their advantage. To lie is to be a coward, which one should scorn to be. To sleep soundly, which is a blessing, is to repair and renew the body.

Remark.—When the interrogatives who, which, and what introduce indirect questions, it is not always easy to distinguish them from relatives whose antecedents are omitted. For example—I found who called and what he wanted; I saw what was done. The first sentence does not mean, I found the person who called and the thing that he wanted. "Who called" and "what he wanted" here suggest questions—questions referred to but not directly asked. I saw what was done = I saw the thing that was done. No question is suggested.

It should be remembered that which and what may also be interrogative adjectives; as, Which side won? What news have you?

Direction.—Analyze these sentences, and parse all the pronouns:—

1. Who steals my purse steals trash. 2. I myself know who stole my purse. 3. They knew whose house was robbed. 4. He heard what was said. 5. You have guessed which belongs to me. 6. Whom the gods would destroy they first make mad. 7. What was said, and who said it? 8. It is not known to whom the honor belongs. 9. She saw one of them, but she cannot positively tell which. 10. Whatever is done must be done quickly.

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TO THE TEACHER.—In the recitation of all Lessons containing errors for correction, the pupils' books should be closed, and the examples should be read by you. To insure care in preparation, and close attention in the class, read some of the examples in their correct form. Require specific reasons.

Caution.—Avoid he, it, they, or any other pronoun when its reference to an antecedent would not be clear. Repeat the noun instead, quote the speaker's exact words, or recast the sentence.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and relieve these sentences of their ambiguity:—

Model.—The lad cannot leave his father; for, if he should leave him, he would die = The lad cannot leave his father; for, if he should leave his father, his father would die. Lysias promised his father never to abandon his friends = Lysias gave his father this promise: "I will never abandon your (or my) friends."

1. Dr. Prideaux says that, when he took his commentary to the bookseller, he told him it was a dry subject. 2. He said to his friend that, if he did not feel better soon, he thought he had better go home.

(This sentence may have four meanings. Give them all, using what you may suppose were the speaker's words.)

3. A tried to see B in the crowd, but could not because he was so short. 4. Charles's duplicity was fully made known to Cromwell by a letter of his to his wife, which he intercepted. 5. The farmer told the lawyer that his bull had gored his ox, and that it was but fair that he should pay him for his loss.

Caution.—Do not use pronouns needlessly.

Direction.—Write, these sentences, omitting needless pronouns:—

1. It isn't true what he said. 2. The father he died, the mother she followed, and the children they were taken sick. 3. The cat it mewed, and the dogs they barked, and the man he shouted. 4. Let every one turn from his or her evil ways. 5. Napoleon, Waterloo having been lost, he gave himself up to the English.

Caution.—In addressing a person, do not, in the same sentence, use the two styles of the pronoun.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. Thou art sad, have you heard bad news? 2. You cannot always have thy way. 3. Bestow thou upon us your blessing. 4. Love thyself last, and others will love you.

Caution.—The pronoun them should not be used for the adjective those, nor the pronoun what for the conjunction that. [Footnote: What properly introduces a noun clause expressing a direct or an indirect question, but a declarative noun clause is introduced by the conjunction that. But may be placed before this conjunction to give a negative force to the noun clause.

This use of but requires careful discrimination. For example—"I have no fear that he will do it"; "I have no fear but that he will do it." The former indicates certainty that he will not do it, and the latter certainty that he will do it. "No one doubts but that he will do it" is incorrect, for it contains three negatives—no, doubts, and but. Two negatives may be used to affirm, but not three. The intended meaning is, "No one doubts that he will do it," or "No one believes but that he will do it," or "Every one believes that he will do it."

But what, for but that or but, is also incorrectly used to connect an adverb clause; as, "He is not so bad but what he might be worse." For this office of but or but that in an adverb clause, see Lesson 109, fourth "Example" of the uses of but.]

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. Hand me them things. 2. Who knows but what we may fail? 3. I cannot believe but what I shall see them men again. 4. We ought to have a great regard for them that are wise and good.

Caution.—The relative who should always represent persons; which, brute animals and inanimate things; that, persons, animals, and things; and what, things. The antecedent of what should not be expressed.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. Those which say so are mistaken. 2. He has some friends which I know. 3. He told that what he knew. 4. The dog who was called Fido went mad. 5. The lion whom they were exhibiting broke loose. 6. All what he saw he described. 7. The horse whom Alexander rode was named Bucephalus.

Direction.—Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these five Cautions.



Caution.—Several connected relative clauses relating to the same antecedent require the same relative pronoun.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. It was Joseph that was sold into Egypt, who became governor of the land, and which saved his father and brothers from famine. 2. He who lives, that moves, and who has his being in God should not forget him. 3. This is the horse which started first, and that reached the stand last. 4. The man that fell overboard, and who was drowned was the first mate.

Caution.—When the relative clause is not restrictive, [Footnote: See Lesson 61.] who or which, and not that, is generally used.

Example.—Water, which is composed of hydrogen and oxygen, covers three-fourths of the earth's surface.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. The earth is enveloped by an ocean of air, that is a compound of oxygen. and nitrogen. 2. Longfellow, that is the most popular American poet, has written beautiful prose. 3. Time, that is a precious gift, should not be wasted. 4. Man, that is born of woman, is of few days and full of trouble.

Caution.—The relative that [Footnote: That is almost always restrictive. However desirable it may seem to confine who and which to unrestrictive clauses, they are not confined to them in actual practice.

The wide use of who and which in restrictive clauses is not accounted for by saying that they occur after this, these, those, and that, and hence are used to avoid disagreeable repetitions of sounds. This may frequently be the reason for employing who and which in restrictive clauses; but usage authorizes us to affirm (1) that who and which stand in such clauses oftener without, than with, this, these, those, or that preceding them, and (2) that they so stand oftener than that itself does. Especially may this be said of which.] should be used instead of who or which (1) when the antecedent names both persons and things; (2) when that would prevent ambiguity; and (3) when it would sound better than who or which, e. g., after that, same, very, all, the interrogative who, the indefinite it, and adjectives expressing quality in the highest degree.

Example.—He lived near a pond that was a nuisance. (That relates to pond—the pond was a nuisance. Which might have, for its antecedent, pond, or the whole clause He lived near a pond; and so its use here would be ambiguous.)

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. The wisest men who ever lived made mistakes. 2. The chief material which is used now in building is brick. 3. Who who saw him did not pity him? 4. He is the very man whom we want. 5. He is the same who he has ever been. 6. He sent his boy to a school which did him good. 7. All who knew him respected him. 8. It was not I who did it. 9. That man that you just met is my friend.

Caution.—The relative clause should be placed as near as possible to the word which it modifies.

Direction.—Correct these errors:—

1. The pupil will receive a reward from his teacher who is diligent. 2. Her hair hung in ringlets, which was dark and glossy. 3. A dog was found in the street that wore a brass collar. 4. A purse was picked up by a boy that was made of leather. 5. Claudius was canonized among the gods, who scarcely deserved the name of man. 6. He should not keep a horse that cannot ride.

Caution.—When this and that, these and those, the one and the other refer to things previously mentioned, this and these refer to the last mentioned, and that and those to the first mentioned; the one refers to the first mentioned, and the other to the last mentioned. When there is danger of obscurity, repeat the nouns.

Examples.—High and tall are synonyms: this may be used in speaking of what grows—a tree; that, in speaking of what does not grow—a mountain. Homer was a genius; Virgil, an artist: in the one we most admire the man; in the other, the work.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. Talent speaks learnedly at the bar; tact, triumphantly: this is complimented by the bench; that gets the fees. 2. Charles XII. and Peter the Great were sovereigns: the one was loved by his people; the other was hated. 3. The selfish and the benevolent are found in every community; these are shunned, while those are sought after.

Direction.—Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these five Cautions.

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Miscellaneous Errors.

Direction.—Give the Cautions which these sentences violate, and correct the errors:—

1. He who does all which he can does enough. 2. John's father died before he was born. 3. Whales are the largest animals which swim. 4. Boys who study hard, and that study wisely make progress. 5. There are miners that live below ground, and who seldom see the light. 6. He did that what was right. 7. General Lee, that served under Washington, had been a British officer. 8. A man should sit down and count the cost who is about to build a house. 9. They need no spectacles that are blind. 10. They buy no books who are not able to read. 11. Cotton, that is a plant, is woven into cloth. 12. Do you know that gentleman that is speaking? 13. There is no book which, when we look through it sharply, we cannot find mistakes in it. 14. The reporter which said that was deceived. 15. The diamond, that is pure carbon, is a brilliant gem. 16. The brakemen and the cattle which were on the train were killed. 17. Reputation and character do not mean the same thing: the one denotes what we are; the other, what we are thought to be. 18. Kosciusko having come to this country, he aided us in our Revolutionary struggle. 19. What pleased me much, and which was spoken of by others, was the general appearance of the class. 20. There are many boys whose fathers and mothers died when they were infants. 21. Witness said that his wife's father came to his house, and he ordered him out, but he refused to go. 22. Shall you be able to sell them boots? 23. I don't know but what I may. 24. Beer and wine are favorite drinks abroad: the one is made from grapes; the other, from barley. 25. There is one marked difference between shiners and trout; these have scales, and those have not. 26. They know little of men, who reason thus. 27. Help thyself, and Heaven will help you.

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Introductory Hints.—You learned in Lesson 12 that, in the sentences Ripe apples are healthful, Unripe apples are hurtful, the adjectives ripe and unripe limit, or narrow, the application of apples by describing, or by expressing certain qualities of the fruit. You learned also that the, this, an, no, some, and many limit, or narrow, the application of any noun which they modify, as apple or apples, by pointing out the particular fruit, by numbering it, or by denoting the quantity of it.

Adjectives which limit by expressing quality are called Descriptive Adjectives; and those which limit by pointing out, numbering, or denoting quantity are called Definitive Adjectives.

Adjectives modifying a noun do not limit, or narrow, its application (1) when they denote qualities that always belong to the thing named; as, yellow gold, the good God, the blue sky; or (2) when they are attribute complements, denoting qualities asserted by the verb; as, The fields were green; The ground was dry and hard.


An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun.[Footnote: Pronouns, like nouns, are often modified by an "appositive" adjective, that is, an adjective joined loosely without restricting: thus—Faint and weary, he struggled on or, He, faint and weary, struggled on. Adjectives that complete the predicate belong as freely to pronouns as to nouns.]

A Descriptive Adjective is one that modifies by expressing quality.

A Definitive Adjective is one that modifies by pointing out, numbering, or denoting quantity.[Footnote: The definitive adjectives one, two, three, etc.; first, second, third, etc. are called Numeral adjectives. One, two, three, etc. are called Cardinal numerals; and first, second, third—etc. are called Ordinal numerals]

The definitive adjectives an or a and the are commonly called Articles. An or a is called the Indefinite Article, and the is called the Definite Article.

A noun may take the place of an adjective.

Examples.—London journals, the New York press, silver spoons, diamond pin, state papers, gold bracelet.

Direction.—Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives below, and name such as do not limit:—

Able statesmen, much rain, ten mice, brass kettle, small grains, Mansard roof, some feeling, all men, hundredth anniversary, the Pitt diamond, the patient Hannibal, little thread, crushing argument, moving spectacle, the martyr president, tin pans, few people, less trouble, this toy, any book, brave Washington, Washington market, three cats, slender cord, that libel, happy children, the broad Atlantic, The huge clouds were dark and threatening, Eyes are bright, What name was given? Which book is wanted?

Direction.—Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives in Lessons 80 and 81, and tell whether they denote color, motion, shape, position, size, moral qualities, or whether they modify in some other way.

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Caution.—An and a are different forms of one. An is used before vowel sounds. For the sake of euphony, an drops n and becomes a before consonant sounds.[Footnote: Some writers still use an before words beginning with unaccented h; as, an historian.]

Examples.—An inkstand, a bag, a historian, a humble petition, an hour (h is silent), a unit (unit begins with the consonant sound of y), such a one (one begins with the consonant sound of w). Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

A heir, a inheritance, an hook, an ewer, an usurper, a account, an uniform, an hundred, a umpire, an hard apple, an hero.

Caution.An or a is used to limit a noun to one thing of a class—to any one. The is used to distinguish (1) one thing or several things from others, and (2) one class of things from other classes.

Explanation.—We can say a horse, meaning any one horse; but we cannot say, A gold is heavy, This is a poor kind of a gas, William Pitt received the title of an earl because gold, gas, and earl are here meant to denote each the whole of a class, and a limits its noun to one thing of a class.

The horse or the horses must be turned into the lot. Here the before horse distinguishes a certain animal, and the before horses distinguishes certain animals, from others of the same class; and the before lot distinguishes the field from the yard or the stable—things in other classes. The horse is a noble animal. Here the distinguishes this class of animals from other classes. But we cannot say, The man (meaning the race) is mortal, The anger is a short madness, The truth is eternal, The poetry and the painting are fine arts, because man, anger, truth, poetry, and painting are used in their widest sense, and name things that are sufficiently distinguished without the.

Direction.Study the Caution as explained, and correct these errors:—

1. This is another kind of a sentence. 2. Churchill received the title of a duke. 3. A hill is from the same root as column. 4. Dog is a quadruped. 5. I expected some such an offer. 6. The woman is the equal of man. 7. The sculpture is a fine art. 8. Unicorn is kind of a rhinoceros. 9. Oak is harder than the maple.

Caution.—Use an, a, or the before each of two or more connected adjectives, when these adjectives modify different nouns, expressed or understood; but, when they modify the same noun, the article should not be repeated.

Explanation.—A cotton and a silk umbrella means two umbrellas—one cotton and the other silk; the word umbrella is understood after cotton. A cotton and silk umbrella means one umbrella partly cotton and partly silk; cotton and silk modify the same noun—umbrella. The wise and the good means two classes; the wise and good means one class.

Direction.—Study the Caution as explained, and correct these errors:—

1. The Northern and Southern Hemisphere. 2. The Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. 3. The right and left hand. 4. A Pullman and Wagner sleeping-coach. 5. The fourth and the fifth verses. 6. The fourth and fifth verse. 7. A Webster's and Worcester's dictionary.

Caution.—Use an, a, or the before each of two or more connected nouns denoting things that are to be distinguished from each other or emphasized.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. There is a difference between the sin and sinner. 2. We criticise not the dress but address of the speaker. 3. A noun and pronoun are alike in office. 4. Distinguish carefully between an adjective and adverb. 5. The lion, as well as tiger, belongs to the cat tribe. 6. Neither the North Pole nor South Pole has yet been reached. 7. The secretary and treasurer were both absent.

(The secretary and treasurer was absent—referring to one person—is correct.)

Caution.—A few and a little mean some as opposed to none; few means not many, and little means not much.

Examples.—He saved a few things and a little money from the wreck. Few shall part where many meet. Little was said or done about it.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. There are a few pleasant days in March, because it is a stormy month. 2. He saved a little from the fire, as it broke out in the night. 3. Few men live to be & hundred years old, but not many. 4. Little can be done, but not much.

Direction.—Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these Cautions.

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Caution.—Choose apt adjectives, but do not use them needlessly; avoid such as repeat the idea or exaggerate it.

Remark.—The following adjectives are obviously needless: Good virtues, verdant green, painful toothache, umbrageous shade.

Direction.—Study the Caution carefully, and correct these errors:—

1. It was splendid fun. 2. It was a tremendous dew. 3. He used less words than the other speaker. 4. The lad was neither docile nor teachable. 5. The belief in immortality is common and universal. 6. It was a gorgeous apple. 7. The arm-chair was roomy and capacious. 8. It was a lovely bun, but I paid a frightful price for it.

Caution.—So place adjectives that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. If those forming a series are of different rank, place nearest the noun the one most closely modifying it. If they are of the same rank, place them where they will sound best—generally in the order of length, the shortest first.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. A new bottle of wine. 2. The house was comfortable and large. 3. A salt barrel of pork. 4. It was a blue soft beautiful sky. 5. A fried dish of bacon. 6. We saw in the distance a precipitous, barren, towering mountain. 7. Two gray fiery little eyes. 8. A docile and mild pupil. 9. A pupil, docile and mild.

Direction.—Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these two Cautions.

Miscellaneous Errors.

Direction.—Give the Cautions which these expressions violate, and correct the errors:—

1. I can bear the heat of summer, but not cold of winter. 2. The North and South Pole. 3. The eldest son of a duke is called a marquis. 4. He had deceived me, and so I had a little faith in him. 5. An old and young man. 6. A prodigious snowball hit my cheek. 7. The evil is intolerable and not to be borne. 8. The fat, two lazy men. 9. His penmanship is fearful. 10. A white and red flag were flying. 11. His unusual, unexpected, and extraordinary success surprised him. 12. He wanted a apple, an hard apple. 13. A dried box of herrings. 14. He received a honor. 15. Such an use! 16. The day was delightful and warm. 17. Samuel Adams's habits were unostentatious, frugal, and simple. 18. The victory was complete, though a few of the enemy were killed or captured. 19. The truth is mighty and will prevail. 20. The scepter, the miter, and coronet seem to me poor things for great men to contend for. 21. A few can swim across the Straits of Dover, for the width is great and the current strong. 22. I have a contemptible opinion of you. 23. She has less friends than I.



Introductory Hints.—You learned in Lesson 28 that in saying Washington captured we do not fully express the act performed. Adding Cornwallis, we complete the predicate by naming the one that receives the act that passes over from the doer. Transitive means passing over, and so all verbs that represent an act as passing over from a doer to a receiver are called Transitive Verbs. If we say Cornwallis was captured by Washington, the verb is still transitive; but the object, Cornwallis, which names the receiver, is here the subject of the sentence, and not, as before, the object complement. You see that the object, the word that names the receiver of the act, may be the subject, or it may be the object complement.

All verbs that, like fall in Leaves fall, do not represent the act as passing over to a receiver, and all that express mere being or state of being are called Intransitive Verbs.

A verb transitive in one sentence; as, He writes good English, may be intransitive in another; as, He writes well—meaning simply He is a good writer. A verb is transitive only when an object is expressed or obviously understood.

Washington captured Cornwallis. Here captured represents the act as having taken place in past time. Tense means time, and hence this verb is in the past tense. Cornwallis captured, the war speedily closed. Here captured is, as you have learned, a participle; and, representing the act as past at the time indicated by closed, it is a past participle. Notice that ed is added to capture (final e is always dropped when ed is added) to form its past tense and its past participle. All verbs that form the past tense and the past participle by adding ed to the present are called Regular Verbs.

All verbs that do not form the past tense and the past participle by adding ed to the present; as, fall, fell, fallen; go, went, gone, are called Irregular Verbs.

Early, hereafter, now, often, soon, presently, etc., used to modify any verb—as, will go in, I will go soon—by expressing time, are called Adverbs of Time.

Away, back, elsewhere, hence, out, within, etc., used to modify any verb—as, will go in, I will go away—by expressing direction or place, are called Adverbs of Place.

Exceedingly, hardly, quite, sufficiently, too, very, etc., used to modify a word—as the adjective hot in, The tea is very hot—by expressing degree, are called Adverbs of Degree.

Plainly, so, thus, well, not, [Footnote: It may be worth remarking that while there are many negative nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and conjunctions in oar language, negation is more frequently expressed in English by the adverb than by any other part of speech—than by all other parts of speech. A very large per cent of these adverbs modify the verb. That is to say, it is largely through the adverb that what the predicate expresses is declared not to be true of the thing named by the subject. It is very suggestive that much of what is said consists of denial—is taken up in telling not what is true of things but what is not true of them.

"The negative particle in our language is simply the consonant n. In Saxon it existed as a word ne; but we have lost that word, and it is now a letter only, which, enters into many words, as into no, not, nought, none, neither, nor, never."—Earle.

No and yes (nay and yea), when used to answer Questions, show how the thought presented is regarded, and may therefore be classed with adverbs of manner. They are sometimes called independent adverbs. They seem to modify words omitted in the answer but contained in the question; as, Did you see him? No = I did no (not) see him; Will you go? Yes. The force of yes may be illustrated by substituting certainly—Will you go? Certainly. Certainly I will go, or I will certainly go. As no and yes represent or suggest complete answers, they may be called sentence-words.] etc., used to modify a word—as, spoke in, He spoke plainly—by expressing manner, are called Adverbs of Manner.

Hence, therefore, why, etc., used in making an inference or in expressing cause—as, It is dark, hence, or therefore, the sun is down; Why is it dark?—are called Adverbs of Cause.

Some adverbs fall into more than one class; as, so and as.

Some adverbs, as you have learned, connect clauses, and are therefore called Conjunctive Adverbs.


A Verb is a word that asserts action, being, or state of being.


A Transitive Verb is one that requires an object. [Footnote: The object of a transitive verb, that is, the name of the receiver of the action, may be the object complement, or it may be the subject; as, Brutus stabbed Caesar; Caesar was stabbed by Brutus. See page 187.]

An Intransitive Verb is one that does not require an object.


A Regular Verb is one that forms its past tense and past participle by adding ed to the present.

An Irregular Verb is one that does not form its past tense and past participle by adding ed to the present.

+An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. [Footnote: Adverbs have several exceptional uses. They may be used independently; as, Now, there must be an error here. They may modify a phrase or a preposition; as, He came just in time; It went far beyond the mark. They may modify a clause or a sentence; as, He let go simply because he was exhausted; Certainly you may go.

It may also be noted here that adverbs are used interrogatively; as, How, when, and where is this to be done? and that they may add to the office of the adverb that of the conjunction; as, I go where I am sent.]


Adverbs of Time are those that generally answer the question, When?

Adverbs of Place are those that generally answer the question, Where?

Adverbs of Degree are those that generally answer the question, To what extent?

Adverbs of Manner are those that generally answer the question, In what way?

Adverbs of Cause are those that generally answer the question, Why?

Direction.—Point out the transitive and the intransitive, the regular and the irregular verbs in Lesson 14, and classify the adverbs.

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Caution.—Choose apt adverbs, but do not use them needlessly or instead of other forms of expression; avoid such as repeat the idea or exaggerate it.

Examples.—I could ill (not illy) afford the time. Do as (not like) I do. A diphthong is the union of two vowels (not where or when two vowels unite) in the same syllable. This (not this here or this 'ere) sentence is correct. He wrote that (not how that) he had been sick. The belief in immortality is universally held (not universally held everywhere). His nose was very (not terribly or frightfully) red,

Direction.—Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these errors.—

1. I returned back here yesterday. 2. He had not hardly a minute to spare. 3. The affair was settled amicably, peaceably, and peacefully. 4. It was awfully amusing. 5. This 'ere knife is dull. 6. That 'ere horse has the heaves. 7. A direct quotation is when the exact words of another are copied. 8. I do not like too much sugar in my tea. 9. He seldom or ever went home sober. 10. The belief in immortality is universally held by all. 11. I am dreadfully glad to hear that. 12. This is a fearfully long lesson. 13. He said how that he would go.

Caution.—So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. Have regard to the sound also. They seldom stand between to and the infinitive. [Footnote: Instances of the "cleft, or split, infinitive"—the infinitive separated from its to by an intervening adverb—are found in Early English and in English all the way down, Fitzedward Hall and others have shown this.

But there can be no question that usage is overwhelmingly against an adverb's standing between to and the infinitive. Few writers ever place an adverb there at all; and these few, only an occasional adverb, and that adverb only occasionally.

Whether the adverb should be placed before the to or after the infinitive is often a nice question, sometimes to be determined by the ear alone. It should never stand, however, where it would leave the meaning ambiguous or in any way obscure.]

Examples.—I only rowed across the river = I only (= alone, an adjective), and no one else, rowed etc., or = I only rowed etc., but did not swim or wade. I rowed only across the river = across, not up or down etc. I rowed across the river only = the river only, not the bay etc. Merely to see (not to merely see) her was sufficient. Not every collegian is a scholar (not Every collegian is not a scholar).

Direction.—Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these errors:—

1. I have thought of marrying often. 2. We only eat three meals a day. 3. He hopes to rapidly recruit. 4. All is not gold that glitters. 5. He tries to distinctly speak. 6. He tries distinctly to speak. 7. All that glitters is not gold. 8. His sagacity almost appears miraculous.

Caution.—Unless you wish to affirm, do not use two negative words so that they shall contradict each other. [Footnote: Not infrequently we use two negatives to make an affirmation; as, He is not unjust; No man can do nothing.]

Examples.—No one has (not hasn't) yet reached the North Pole. No unpleasant circumstance happened (proper, because it is intended to affirm).

Direction.—Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these errors:—

1. No other reason can never be given. 2. He doesn't do nothing. 3. He isn't improving much, I don't think. 4. There must be something wrong when children do not love neither father nor mother. 5. He isn't no sneak. 6. Charlie Ross can't nowhere be found.

Caution.—Do not use adverbs for adjectives or adjectives for adverbs.

Examples.—The moon looks calm and peaceful (not calmly and peacefully, as the words are intended to describe the moon). The moon looks down calmly and peacefully on the battlefield (not calm and peaceful, as the words are intended to tell how she performs the act). I slept soundly (not good or sound).

Direction.—Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these errors:—

1. It was a softly blue sky. 2. The river runs rapid. 3. You must read more distinct. 4. It was an uncommon good harvest. 5. She is most sixteen. 6. The discussion waxed warmly. 7. The prima donna sings sweet. 8. She is miserable poor. 9. My head feels badly. 10. He spoke up prompt. 11. He went most there. 12. He behaved very bad. 13. This is a mighty cold day.

Direction.—Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these four Cautions.

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Miscellaneous Errors.

Direction.—Give the Cautions which these sentences violate, and correct the errors:—

1. Begin it over again. 2. This can be done easier. 3. The house is extra warm. 4. Most every one goes there. 5. I have a pencil that long. 6. He hasn't his lesson, I don't believe. 7. A circle can't in no way be squared. 8. This is a remarkable cold winter. 9. The one is as equally deserving as the other. 10. Feathers feel softly. 11. It is pretty near finished. 12. Verbosity is when too many words are used. 13. It is a wonderful fine day. 14. He is some better just now. 15. Generally every morning we went to the spring. 16. I wish to simply state this point. 17. He tried to not only injure but to also ruin the man. 18. The lesson was prodigiously long. 19. The cars will not stop at this station only when the bell rings. 20. He can do it as good as any one can. 21. Most everybody talks so. 22. He hasn't yet gone, I don't believe. 23. He behaved thoughtlessly, recklessly, and carelessly. 24. That 'ere book is readable. 25. I will not go but once. 26. I can't find out neither where the lesson begins nor where it ends. 27. They were nearly dressed alike. 28. The tortured man begged that they would kill him again and again. 29. The fortune was lavishly, profusely, and prodigally spent. 30. I am real glad to see you. 31. We publish all the information, official and otherwise.



DEFINITION.—A Preposition is a word that introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified.


Direction.—We give below a list of the prepositions in common use. Make short sentences in which each of these shall be aptly used. Use two or three of them in a single sentence if you wish:—

Aboard, about, above, across, after, against, along, amid, amidst, among, amongst, around, at, athwart, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, besides, between, betwixt, beyond, but, by, down, ere, for, from, in, into, of, on, over, past, round, since, through, throughout, till, to, toward, towards, under, underneath, until, unto, up, upon, with, within, without.

Remarks.—Bating, concerning, during, excepting, notwithstanding, pending, regarding, respecting, saving, and touching are still participles in form and sometimes are such in use. But in most cases the participial meaning has faded out of them, and they express mere relations.

But, except, and save, in such a sentence as, All but or except or save him were lost, are usually classed with prepositions.

The phrases aboard of, according to, along with, as to, because of (by cause of), from among, from between, from under, instead of (in stead of), out of, over against, and round about may be called compound prepositions. But from in these compounds; as, He crawled from under the ruins, really introduces a phrase, the principal term of which is the phrase that follows from.

Many prepositions become adverbs when the noun which ordinarily follows them is omitted; as, He rode past; He stands above.

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To the Teacher.—Most prepositions express relations so diverse, and so delicate in their shades of distinction that a definition of them based upon etymology would mislead. A happy and discriminating use of prepositions can be acquired only by an extended study of good authors. We do below all that we think it prudent or profitable to do with them. He should he a man of wide and careful reading who assumes to teach pupils that such prepositions, and such only, should be used with certain words. Nowhere in grammar is dogmatism more dangerous than here. That grammarian exceeds his commission who marks out for the pupils' feet a path narrower than the highway which the usage of the best writers and speakers has cast up. [Footnote: Take a single illustration. Grammarians, in general, teach that between and betwixt "refer to two," are used "only when two things or sets of things are referred to." Ordinarily, and while clinging to their derivation, they are so used, but are they always, and must they be? "There was a hunting match agreed upon betwixt a lion, an ass, and a fox."— L'Estrange. "A Triple Alliance between England, Holland, and Sweden."— J. B. Green. "In the vacant space between Persia, Syria, Egypt, and Ethiopia."—Gibbon. "His flight between the several worlds."—Addison. "The identity of form between the nominative, accusative, and vocative cases in the neuter." —G. P. Marsh. "The distinction between these three orders has been well expressed by Prof. Max Mueller."—W. D. Whitney. "Between such dictionaries as Worcester's, The Imperial, and Webster's."— B. G. White. "Betwixt the slender boughs came glimpses of her ivory neck."—Bryant. With what clumsy circumlocutions would our speech be filled if prepositions could never slip the leash of their etymology! What simple and graceful substitute could be found for the last phrase in this sentence, for instance: There were forty desks in the room with ample space between them?

"We observe that between is not restricted to two."—Imperial Dictionary. "In all senses between has been, from its earliest appearance, extended to more than two. It is still the only word available to express the relation of a thing to many surrounding things severally and individually—among expressing a relation to them collectively and vaguely: we should not say, 'The choice lies among the three candidates,' or 'to insert a needle among the closed petals of a flower.'"—The New English Dictionary.

We have collected hundreds of instances of between used by good writers with three or more.

Guard against such expressions as between each page; a choice between one of several.]

Direction.—We give below a few words with the prepositions which usually accompany them. Form short sentences containing these words combined with each of the prepositions which follow them, and note carefully the different relations expressed by the different prepositions:—

(Consult the dictionary for both the preposition and the accompanying word.)

Abide at, by, with; accommodate to, with; advantage of, over; agree to, with; angry at, with; anxious about, for; argue against, with; arrive at, in; attend on or upon, to; careless about, in, of; communicate to, with; compare to, with; consists in, of; defend against, from; die by, for, of; different from; disappointed in, of; distinguish by, from; familiar to, with; impatient for, of; indulge in, with; influence on, over, with; insensible of, to; sat beside; many besides.

* * * * *



Direction.—Do with the following words as with those above:—

Inquire after, for, into, of; intrude into, upon; joined to, with; liberal of, to; live at, in, on; look after, for, on; need of; obliged for, to; part from, with; placed in, on; reconcile to, with; regard for, to; remonstrate against, with; sank beneath, in, into; share in, of, with; sit in, on or upon; smile at, on; solicitous about, for; strive for, with, against; taste for, of; touch at, on or upon; useful for, in, to; weary of, in, with; yearn for, towards.

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Caution.—Great care must be used in the choice of prepositions.

Direction.—Correct these errors:—

1. This book is different to that. 2. He stays to home. 3. They two quarreled among each other. 4. He is in want for money. 5. I was followed with a crowd. 6. He fell from the bridge in the water. [Footnote: In denotes motion or rest in a condition or place; into, change from one condition or place into another. "When one is outside of a place, he may be able to get into it; but he cannot do anything in it until he has got into it."] 7. He fought into the Revolution. [See previous footnote] 8. He bears a close resemblance of his father. 9. He entered in the plot. 10. He lives at London. 11. He lives in the turn of the road. 12. I have need for a vacation. 13. The child died with the croup. 14. He took a walk, but was disappointed of it. 15. He did not take a walk; he was disappointed in it. 16. He was accused with felony. 17. School keeps upon Monday. 18. Place a mark between each leaf. 19. He is angry at his father. 20. He placed a letter into my hands. 21. She is angry with your conduct. 22. What is the matter of him? 23. I saw him over to the house. 24. These plants differ with each other. 25. He boards to the hotel. 26. I board in the hotel. 27. She stays at the North. 28. I have other reasons beside these. [Footnote: Beside = by the side of; besides = in addition to.] 29. You make no use with your talents. 30. He threw himself onto the bed. 31. The boys are hard to work. 32. He distributed the apples between his four brothers. 33. He went in the park. 34. You can confide on him. 35. He arrived to Toronto. 36. I agree with that plan. 37. The evening was spent by reading. 38. Can you accommodate me in one of those? 39. What a change a century has produced upon our country! 40. He stays to school late. 41. The year of the Restoration plunged Milton in bitter poverty. 42. The Colonies declared themselves independent from England. 43. I spent my Saturdays by going in the country, and enjoying myself by fishing.

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CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS—CONTINUED.[Footnote: "A preposition is a feeble word to end a sentence with," we are told. Sentences (10) and (13), Lesson 59, (2), Lesson 60, and many in succeeding Lessons violate the rule so carelessly expressed.

Of this rule, laid down without regard to usage and thoughtlessly repeated, Prof. Austin Phelps says, "A preposition as such is by no means a feeble word;" and he quotes a burst of feeling from Rufus Choate which ends thus: "Never, so long as there is left of Plymouth Rock a piece large enough to make a gunflint of!" "This," Professor Phelps says, "is purest idiomatic English." He adds, "The old Scotch interrogative, 'What for?' is as pure English in written as in colloquial speech."

Sentences containing two prepositions before a noun are exceedingly common in English—"The language itself is inseparable from, or essentially a part of, the thoughts." Such sentences have been condemned, but the worst that can be urged against them is, that they lack smoothness. But smoothness is not always desirable.

Sentences containing a transitive verb and a preposition before a noun are very common—"Powerless to affect, or to be affected by, the times."]

CAUTION.—Do not use prepositions needlessly.

DIRECTION.—Correct these errors:—

1. I went there at about noon. 2. In what latitude is Boston in? 3. He came in for to have a talk. 4. I started a week ago from last Saturday. 5. He was born August 15, in 1834. 6. A good place to see a play is at Wallack's. 7. He went to home. 8. I was leading of a horse about. 9. By what states is Kentucky bounded by? 10. His servants ye are to whom ye obey. 11. Where are you going to? 12. They admitted of the fact. 13. Raise your book off of the table. 14. He took the poker from out of the fire. 15. Of what is the air composed of? 16. You can tell by trying of it. 17. Where have you been to? 18. The boy is like to his father. 19. They offered to him a chair. 20. This is the subject of which I intend to write about. 21. Butter brings twenty cents for a pound. 22. Give to me a knife. 23. I have a brother of five years old. 24. To what may Italy be likened to? 25. In about April the farmer puts in his seed. 26. Jack's favorite sport was in robbing orchards. 27. Before answering of you, I must think. 28. He lives near to the river. 29. Keep off of the grass.

Caution.—Do not omit prepositions when they are needed.

Direction.—Correct these errors:—

1. There is no use going there. 2. He is worthy our help. 3. I was prevented going. 4. He was banished the country. 5. He is unworthy our charity. 6. What use is this to him? 7. He was born on the 15th August, 1834. 8. Adam and Eve were expelled the garden. 9. It was the size of a pea. 10. Egypt is the west side of the Red Sea. 11. His efforts were not for the great, but the lowly. 12. He received dispatches from England and Russia.

Direction.—Point out the prepositions in Lessons 80 and 81, and name the words between which, in sense, they show the relation.

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Introductory Hints.—The stars look down upon the roofs of the living and upon the graves of the dead, but neither the living nor the dead are conscious of their gaze. Here and, but, neither, and nor connect words, phrases, and clauses of equal rank, or order, and so are called Co-ordinate Conjunctions. Both clauses may be independent, or both dependent but of equal rank.

At the burning of Moscow, it seemed as [it would seem] if the heavens were lighted up that the nations might behold the scene. Here as, if, and that connect each a lower, or subordinate, clause to a clause of higher rank, and hence are called Subordinate Conjunctions. One clause may be independent and the other dependent, or both dependent but of unequal rank.


A Conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses. [Footnote: Some of the co-ordinate conjunctions, as and and but, connect, in thought, sentences separated by the period, and even connect paragraphs. In analysis and parsing, we regard only the individual sentence and treat such connectives as introductory.]

Co-ordinate Conjunctions are such as connect words, phrases, or clauses of the same rank.

Subordinate Conjunctions are such as connect clauses of different rank.

Remark.—Some of the connectives below are conjunctions proper; some are relative pronouns; and some are adverbs or adverb phrases, which, in addition to their office as modifiers, may, in the absence of the conjunction, take its office upon themselves and connect the clauses.

To THE TEACHER.—We do not advise the memorizing of these lists. The pupils should he able to name the different groups, and some of the most common connectives of each group.

Co-ordinate Connectives. [Footnote: Copulative conjunctions join parts in the same line of thought; Adversative conjunctions join parts contrasted or opposed in meaning; Alternative conjunctions join parts so as to offer a choice or a denial. See Lesson 76.]

Copulative.—And, both ... and, as well as [Footnote: The as well as in, He, as well as I, went; and not that in, He is as well as I am.] are conjunctions proper. Accordingly, also, besides, consequently, furthermore, hence, likewise, moreover, now, so, then, and therefore are conjunctive adverbs.

Adversative.—But and whereas are conjunctions proper. However, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, and yet are conjunctive adverbs.

Alternative.—Neither, nor, or, either ... or, and neither ... nor are conjunctions proper. Else and otherwise are conjunctive adverbs.

Subordinate Connectives.


That, what, whatever, which, whichever, who, and whoever are relative pronouns. When, where, whereby, wherein, and why are conjunctive adverbs.


Time.—After, as, before, ere, since, till, until, when, whenever, while, and whilst are conjunctive adverbs.

Place.—Whence, where, and wherever are conjunctive adverbs.

Degree.—As, than, that, and the are conjunctive adverbs, correlative with adjectives or adverbs.

Manner.—As is a conjunctive adverb, correlative, often, with an adjective or an adverb.

Real Cause.—As, because, for, since, and whereas are conjunctions proper.

Evidence.—Because, for, and since are conjunctions proper.

Purpose.—In order that, lest (= that not), that, and so that are conjunctions proper.

Condition.—Except, if, in case that, on condition that, provided, provided that, and unless are conjunctions proper.

Concession.—Although, if (= even if), notwithstanding, though, and whether are conjunctions proper. However is a conjunctive adverb. Whatever, whichever, and whoever are relative pronouns used indefinitely.


If, lest, that, and whether [Footnote: Etymologically, whether is restricted to two; but it has burst the bonds of its etymology and is very freely used with three or more.

The repetition of whether, like the use of it with three or more things, has been condemned, but usage allows us to repeat it.

Whether or no is also allowed.] are conjunctions proper. What, which, and who are pronouns introducing questions; and how, when, whence, where, and why are conjunctive adverbs introducing questions.

Direction.—Study the lists above, and point out all the connectives in Lessons 80 and 81, telling which are relative pronouns, which are conjunctions proper, and which are conjunctive adverbs.

TO THE TEACHER.—If the pupils lack maturity, or if it is found necessary to abridge this work in order to conform to a prescribed course of study, the six following Lessons may be omitted. The authors consider these exercises very profitable, but their omission will occasion no break in the course.

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Direction.—Write twenty compound sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives named in the three subdivisions of co-ordinate connectives.

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Direction.—Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives of adjective clauses, and by connectives of adverb clauses of time, place, degree, and manner.

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Direction.—Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives of adverb clauses of real cause, evidence, purpose, condition, and concession, and by connectives of noun clauses.

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Direction.—Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below, and what are the usual connectives of such clauses, and then analyze the sentences:—

As may connect a clause expressing manner, time, degree, cause, or evidence.

1. Mount Marcy is not so high as Mount Washington. 2. As I passed by, I found an altar with this inscription. 3. It must be raining, as men are carrying umbrellas. 4. Ice floats, as water expands in freezing. 5. Half-learned lessons slip from the memory, as an icicle from the hand.

If may connect a clause expressing condition, time, or concession, or it may introduce a noun clause.

6. If a slave's lungs breathe our air, that moment he is free. 7. If wishes were horses, all beggars might ride.

8. Who knows if one of the Pleiads is really missing? [Footnote: Many grammarians say that if here is improperly used for whether. But this use of if is common with good authors in early and in modern English.]

9. If the flights of Dryden are higher, Pope continues longer on the wing.

Lest may connect a clause expressing purpose, or it may introduce a noun clause.

10. England fears lest Russia may endanger British rule in India. 11. Watch and pray lest ye enter into temptation.

Since may connect a clause expressing time, cause, or evidence.

12. It must be raining, since men are carrying umbrellas. 13. Many thousand years have gone by since the Pyramids were built. 14. Since the Puritans could not be convinced, they were persecuted.

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Direction.—Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below, and what are the usual connectives of such clauses, and then analyze the sentences:—

That may connect a noun clause, an adjective clause, or a clause expressing degree, cause, or purpose.

1. The Pharisee thanked God that he was not like other men. 2. Vesuvius threw its lava so far that Herculaneum and Pompeii were buried. 3. The smith plunges his red-hot iron into water that he may harden the metal. 4. Socrates said that he who might be better employed was idle. 5. We never tell our secrets to people that pump for them.

When may connect a clause expressing time, cause, or condition, an adjective clause or a noun clause, or it may connect co-ordinate clauses.

6. The Aztecs were astonished when they saw the Spanish horses. 7. November is the month when the deer sheds its horns. 8. When the future is uncertain, make the most of the present. 9. When the five great European races left Asia is a question. 10. When judges accept bribes, what may we expect from common people? 11. The dial instituted a formal inquiry, when hands, wheels, and weights protested their innocence.

Where may connect a clause expressing place, an adjective clause, or a noun clause.

12. No one knows the place where Moses was buried. 13. Where Moses was buried is still a question. 14. No one has been where Moses was buried.

While may connect a clause expressing time or concession, or it may connect co-ordinate clauses.

15. Napoleon was a genius, while Wellington was a man of talents. 16. While we sleep, the body is rebuilt. 17. While Charles I. had many excellent traits, he was a bad king.

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Direction.—Use the appropriate connectives, and change these compound sentences to complex without changing the meaning, and then analyze them:—

(Let one dependent clause be an adjective clause; let three express cause; five, condition; and two, concession.)

1. Caesar put the proffered crown aside, but he would fain have had it. 2. Take away honor and imagination and poetry from war, and it becomes carnage. 3. His crime has been discovered, and he must flee. 4. You must eat, or you will die. 5. Wisdom is the principal thing, therefore get wisdom. 6. Let but the commons hear this testament, and they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds. 7. Men are carrying umbrellas; it is raining. 8. Have ye brave sons? look in the next fierce brawl to see them die. 9. The Senate knows this, the Consul sees it, and yet the traitor lives. 10. Take away the grandeur of his cause, and Washington is a rebel instead of the purest of patriots. 11. The diamond is a sparkling gem, and it is pure carbon.

Direction.—Two of the dependent clauses below express condition, and three express concession. Place an appropriate conjunction before each, and then analyze the sentences:—

12. Should we fail, it can be no worse for us. 13. Had the Plantagenets succeeded in France, there would never have been an England. 14. Were he my brother, I could do no more for him. 15. Were I so disposed, I could not gratify the reader. 16. Were I [Admiral Nelson] to die this moment, more frigates would be found written on my heart.

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Caution.—Some conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs may stand in correlation with other words. And may be accompanied by both; as, by as, by so, or by such; but (but also and but likewise), by not only; if, by then; nor, by neither; or, by either or by whether; that, by so; the, by the; though, by yet; when, by then; and where, by there.

Be careful that the right words stand in correlation, and stand where they belong.

Examples.—Give me neither riches nor (not or) poverty. I cannot find either my book or (not nor) my hat. Dogs not only bark (not not only dogs bark) but also bite. Not only dogs (not dogs not only) bark but wolves also. He was neither (not neither was) rich nor poor.

Direction.—Study the Caution, and correct these errors:—

1. He not only gave me advice but also money. 2. A theatrical part may either imply some peculiarity of gesture or a dissimulation of my real sentiments. 3. She not only dressed richly but tastefully. 4. Neither Massachusetts or Pennsylvania has the population of New York. 5. Thales was not only famous for his knowledge of nature but also for his moral wisdom. 6. Not only he is successful but he deserves to succeed. 7. There was nothing either strange nor interesting.

Caution.—Choose apt connectives, but do not use them needlessly or instead of other parts of speech.

Examples.—Seldom, if (not or) ever, should an adverb stand between to and the infinitive. I will try to (not and) do better next time. No one can deny that (not but) he has money. [Footnote: See foot-note, page 176.] A harrow is drawn over the ground, which (not and which) covers the seed. Who doubts that (not but that or but what) Napoleon lived [Footnote: See foot-note, page 176.] The doctor had scarcely left when (not but) a patient called. He has no love for his father or (not nor) for his mother (the negative no is felt throughout the sentence, and need not be repeated by nor). He was not well, nor (not or) was he sick (not is expended in the first clause; nor is needed to make the second clause negative).

Direction.—Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these errors:—

1. The excellence of Virgil, and which he possesses beyond other poets, is tenderness. 2. Try and recite the lesson perfectly to-morrow. 3. Who can doubt but that there is a God? 4. No one can eat nor drink while he is talking. 5. He seldom or ever went to church. 6. No one can deny but that the summer is the hottest season. 7. I do not know as I shall like it. 8. He said that, after he had asked the advice of all his friends, that he was more puzzled than before.

Caution.—Else, other, otherwise, rather, and adjectives and adverbs expressing a comparison are usually followed by than. But else, other, and more, implying something additional, but not different in kind, may be followed by but or besides.

Examples.—A diamond is nothing else than carbon. Junius was no other than Sir Philip Francis. The cripple cannot walk otherwise than on crutches. Americans would rather travel than stay at home. I rose earlier than I intended. He can converse on other topics besides politics.

Direction.—Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these errors:—

1. Battles are fought with other weapons besides pop-guns. 2. The moon is something else but green cheese. 3. Cornwallis could not do otherwise but surrender. 4. It was no other but the President. 5. He no sooner saw the enemy but he turned and ran.

Caution.—Two or more connected words or phrases referring to another word or phrase should each make good sense with it.

Examples.—I have always (add said) and still do say that labor is honorable. Shakespeare was greater than any other poet that has (add lived) or is now alive. The boy is stronger than his sister, but not so tall (not The boy is stronger, but not so tall, as his sister).

Direction.—Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these errors:—

1. Gold is heavier, but not so useful, as iron. 2. Gold is not so useful, but heavier, than iron. 3. This is as valuable, if not more so, than that. 4. Faithful boys have always and always will learn their lessons. 5. Bread is more nutritious, but not so cheap, as potatoes. 6. This dedication may serve for almost any book that has, is, or may be published.

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Direction.—Correct these errors, telling what Caution each violates:—

1. Carthage and Rome were rival powers: this city in Africa, and that in Europe; the one on the northern coast of the Mediterranean, the other on the southern. 2. The right and left lung were diseased. 3. The right and the left lungs were diseased. 4. My friend has sailed for Europe, who was here yesterday. 5. There are some men which are always young. 6. I cannot think but what God is good. 7. Thimbles, that are worn on the finger, are used in pushing the needle. 8. A told B that he was his best friend. 9. Them scissors are very dull. 10. Ethan Allen, being a rash man, he tried to capture Canada. 11. The lady that was thrown from the carriage, and who was picked up insensible, died. 12. The eye and ear have different offices. 13. I only laugh when I feel like it. 14. This is the same man who called yesterday. 15. He was an humble man. 16. He was thrown forward onto his face. 17. A knows more, but does not talk so well, as B. 18. The book cost a dollar, and which is a great price. 19. At what wharf does the boat stop at? 20. The music sounded harshly. 21. He would neither go himself or send anybody. 22. It isn't but a short distance. 23. The butter is splendid. 24. The boy was graceful and tall. 25. He hasn't, I don't suppose, laid by much. 26. One would rather have few friends than a few friends. 27. He is outrageously proud. 28. Not only the boy skated but he enjoyed it. 29. He has gone way out West. 30. Who doubts but what two and two are four? 31. Some people never have and never will bathe in salt water. 32. The problem was difficult to exactly understand. 33. It was the length of your finger. 34. He bought a condensed can of milk. 35. The fish breathes with other organs besides lungs. 36. The death is inevitable. 37. She wore a peculiar kind of a dress. 38. When shall we meet together? 39. He talks like you do. [Footnote: The use of the verb do as a substitute for a preceding verb is one of the most remarkable idioms in the language. In its several forms it stands for the finite forms and for the infinitive and the participle of verbs, transitive and intransitive, regular and irregular. It prevents repetition, and hence is euphonic; it abbreviates expression, and therefore is energetic.] 40. This word has a different source than that. 41. No sooner did I arrive when he called.

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What may be used as a relative pronoun, an interrogative pronoun, a definitive adjective, an adverb, and an interjection.

Examples.—He did what was right. What did he say? What man is happy with the toothache? What with confinement and what with bad diet, the prisoner found himself reduced to a skeleton (here what = partly, and modifies the phrase following it). What! you a lion?

That may be used as a relative pronoun, an adjective pronoun, a definitive adjective, a conjunction, and a conjunctive adverb.

Examples.—He that does a good deed is instantly ennobled. That is heroism. That man is a hero. We eat that we may live. It was so cold that the mercury froze.

But may be used as a conjunction, an adverb, an adjective, and a preposition.

Examples.—The ostrich is a bird, but (adversative conjunction) it cannot fly. Not a sparrow falls but (= unless—subordinate conjunction) God wills it. He was all but (conjunction or preposition) dead = He was all dead, but he was not dead, or He was all (anything in that line) except (the climax) dead. No man is so wicked but (conjunctive adverb) he loves virtue = No man is wicked to that degree in which he loves not virtue (so = to that degree, but = in which not). We meet but (adverb = only) to part. Life is but (adjective = only) a dream. All but (preposition = except) him had fled. The tears of love were hopeless but (preposition = except) for thee. I cannot but remember = I cannot do anything but (preposition = except) remember. There is no fireside but (preposition) has one vacant chair (except the one which has); or, regarding but as a negative relative = that not, the sentence = There is no fireside that has not one vacant chair.

Direction.—Study the examples given above, point out the exact use of what, that, and but in these sentences, and then analyze the sentences:—

1. He did nothing but laugh. 2. It was once supposed that crystal is ice frozen so hard that it cannot be thawed. 3. What love equals a mother's? 4. There is nobody here but me. 5. The fine arts were all but proscribed. 6. There's not a breeze but whispers of thy name. 7. The longest life is but a day. 8. What if the bee love not these barren boughs? 9. That life is long which answers life's great end. 10. What! I the weaker vessel? 11. Whom should I obey but thee? 12 What by industry and what by economy, he had amassed a fortune. 13. I long ago found that out. 14. One should not always eat what he likes. 15. There's not a white hair on your face but should have its effect of gravity. 16. It was a look that, but for its quiet, would have seemed disdain. 17. He came but to return.

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Lesson 85.—Define a noun. What is the distinction between a common and a proper noun? Why is music a common noun? What is a collective noun? An abstract noun? Define a pronoun. What are the classes of pronouns? Define them. What is an antecedent?

Lesson 86.—Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting he, it, and they; the needless use of pronouns; the two styles of the pronoun; the use of them for those, and of what for that; and the use of who, which, that, and what.

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