Higher Lessons in English
by Alonzo Reed and Brainerd Kellogg
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Explanation.—Many here modifies year, or, rather, year as modified by a.

6. Blucher arrived on the field of Waterloo just as Wellington was meeting the last onslaught of Napoleon.

Blucher arrived ========== ========== 'as just ' ' Wellington was meeting onslaught -

Explanation.—Just may be treated as a modifier of the dependent clause. A closer analysis, however would make it a modifier of as. Just as=just at the time at which. Just here modifies at the time. At the time is represented in the diagram by the first element of the as line.

The adverb clause may express place.

7. Where the snow falls, there is freedom. 8. Pope skimmed the cream of good sense and expression wherever he could find it. 9. The wind bloweth where it listeth.

The adverb clause may express degree.

10. Washington was as good as he was great.

Explanation.—The adverb clause as he was great modifies the first as, which is an adverb modifying good. The first as, modified by the adverb clause, answers the question, Good to what extent or degree? The second as modifies great and performs the office of a conjunction, and is therefore a conjunctive adverb. Transposing, and expanding as ... as into two phrases, we have, Washington was good in the degree in which he was great. See diagram of (3) and of (20).

11. The wiser he grew, the humbler he became. [Footnote: The, here, is not the ordinary adjective the. It is the Anglo-Saxon demonstrative pronoun used in an instrumental sense. It is here an adverb. The first the = by how much, and modifies wiser; the second the = by so much, and modifies humbler.]

Explanation.—The words the ... the are similar in office to as ... as—He became humbler in that degree in which he became wiser.

12. Gold is heavier than iron.

Gold is heavier ======= ============== ' than ' iron x x - -

Explanation.—Heavier = heavy beyond the degree, and than = in which. The sentence = Gold is heavy beyond the degree in which iron is heavy. Is and heavy are omitted. Frequently words are omitted after than and as. Than modifies heavy (understood) and connects the clause expressing degree to heavier, and is therefore a conjunctive adverb.

13. To be right is better than to be president.

Explanation.—To be right is better (good in a greater degree) than to be president (would be good).

14. It was so cold that the mercury froze. [Footnote: In this sentence, also in (15) and (17), the dependent clause is sometimes termed a clause of Result or Consequence. Clauses of Result express different logical relations, and cannot always be classed under Degree.]

Explanation.—The degree of the cold is here shown by the effect it produced. The adverb so, modified by the adverb clause that the mercury froze, answers the question, Cold to what degree? The sentence = It was cold to that degree in which the mercury froze. That, as you see, modifies froze and connects the clauses; it is therefore a conjunctive adverb.

15. It was so cold as to freeze the mercury.

Explanation.—It was so cold as to freeze the mercury (would indicate or require).

16. Dying for a principle is a higher degree of virtue than scolding for it. 17. He called so loud that all the hollow deep of hell resounded. 18. To preach is easier than to practice. 19. One's breeding shows itself nowhere more than in his religion. [Footnote: For the use of he instead of the indefinite pronoun one repeated, see Lesson 124.] 20. The oftener I see it, the better I like it.

I like it ==== ========== better he ... ' ' I ' see it ' ' 'The '.....oftener

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Introductory Hints.—He lived as the fool lives. The adverb clause, introduced by as, is a clause of Manner, and is equivalent to the adverb foolishly or to the phrase in a foolish manner.

The ground is wet because it has rained. The adverb clause, introduced by because, assigns the Real Cause of the ground's being wet.

It has rained, for the ground is wet. The adverb clause, introduced by for, does not assign the cause of the raining, but the cause of our believing that it has rained; it gives the Evidence of what is asserted. [Footnote: Evidence should be carefully distinguished from Cause. Cause produces an effect; Evidence produces knowledge of an effect.

Clauses of Evidence are sometimes treated as independent.]


The adverb clause may express manner.

1. He died as he lived.

Explanation.—He died in the manner in which he lived. For diagram, see (1), Lesson 63.

2. The upright man speaks as he thinks. 3. As the upright man thinks so he speaks.

(For diagram of as ... so, see when ... then (3), Lesson 63.)

4. As is the boy so will be the man. 5. The waves of conversation roll and shape our thoughts as the surf rolls and shapes the pebbles on the shore.

The adverb clause may express real cause.

6. The ground is wet because it has rained.

ground is wet ========== ============= The ' ' ' because ' it ' has rained -

Explanation.—Because, being a mere conjunction, stands on a line wholly dotted.

7. Slang is always vulgar, as it is an affected way of talking. 8. We keep the pores of the skin open, for through them the blood throws off its impurities. 9. Since the breath contains poisonous carbonic acid, wise people ventilate their sleeping rooms. 10. Sea-bathing is the most healthful kind of washing, as it combines fresh air and vigorous exercise with its other benefits. 11. Wheat is the most valuable of grains because bread is made from its flour.

The adverb clause may express evidence.

12. God was angry with the children of Israel, for he overthrew them in the wilderness. 13. Tobacco and the potato are American products, since Raleigh found them here. 14. It rained last night, because the ground is wet this morning. 15. We Americans must all be cuckoos, for we build our homes in the nests of other birds.

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Introductory Hints.—If it rains, the ground will be wet. The adverb clause, introduced by if, assigns what, if it occurs, will be the cause of the ground's being wet, but, as here expressed, is only a Condition ready to become a cause.

He takes exercise that he may get well. The adverb clause, introduced by that, assigns the cause or the motive or the Purpose of his exercising.

The ground is dry, although it has rained. The adverb clause, introduced by although, expresses a Concession. It is conceded that a cause for the ground's not being dry exists; but, in spite of this opposing cause, it is asserted that the ground is dry.

All these dependent clauses of real cause, evidence, condition, purpose, and concession come, as you see, under the general head of Cause, although only the first kind assigns the cause proper.


The adverb clause may express condition.

1. If the air is quickly compressed, enough heat is evolved to produce combustion. 2. Unless your thought packs easily and neatly in verse, always use prose. (Unless = if not.) 3. If ever you saw a crow with a king-bird after him, you have an image of a dull speaker and a lively listener. 4. Were it not for the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, the harbors and the rivers of Britain would be blocked up with ice for a great part of the year.

Explanation.—The relative position of the subject and the verb renders the if unnecessary. This omission of if is a common idiom.

5. Should the calls of hunger be neglected, the fat of the body is thrown into the grate to keep the furnace in play.

The adverb clause may express purpose.

6. Language was given us that we might say pleasant things to each other.

Explanation.—That, introducing a clause of purpose, is a mere conjunction.

7. Spiders have many eyes in order that they may see in many directions at one time.

Explanation.—The phrases in order that, so that = that.

8. The ship-canal across the Isthmus of Suez was dug so that European vessels need not sail around the Cape of Good Hope to reach the Orient. 9. The air draws up vapors from the sea and the land, and retains them dissolved in itself or suspended in cisterns of clouds, that it may drop them as rain or dew upon the thirsty earth.

The adverb clause may express concession.

10. Although the brain is only one-fortieth of the body, about one-sixth of the blood is sent to it. 11. Though the atmosphere presses on us with a load of fifteen pounds on every square inch of surface, still we do not feel its weight. 12. Though thou shouldst bray a fool in a mortar, yet will not his foolishness depart from him. 13. If the War of the Roses did not utterly destroy English freedom, it arrested its progress for a hundred years.

Explanation.—If here = even if = though.

14. Though many rivers flow into the Mediterranean, they are not sufficient to make up the loss caused by evaporation.

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COMMA—RULE.—An Adverb Clause is set off by the comma unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies.

Explanation.—I met him in Paris, when I was last abroad. I will not call him villain, because it would be unparliamentary. Paper was invented in China, if the Chinese tell the truth. In these sentences the adverb clauses are not restrictive, but are supplementary, and are added almost as afterthoughts.

Glass bends easily when it is red-hot. Leaves do not turn red because the frost colors them. It will break if you touch it. Here the adverb clauses are restrictive; each is very closely related in thought to the independent clause, and may almost be said to be the essential part of the sentence.

When the adverb clause precedes, it is set off.

Direction.—-Tell why the adverb clauses are or are not set off in Lessons 63 and 64.

Direction.—-Write, after these independent clauses, adverb clauses of time, place, degree, etc. (for connectives, see Lesson 100), and punctuate according to the Rule:—

1. The leaves of the water-maple turn red—time. 2. Our eyes cannot bear the light—time. 3. Millions of soldiers sleep—place. 4. The Bunker Hill Monument stands—place. 5. Every spire of grass was so edged and tipped with dew—degree. 6. Vesuvius threw its lava so far—degree. 7. The tree is inclined—manner. 8. The lion springs upon his prey—manner. 9. Many persons died in the Black Hole of Calcutta—cause. 10. Dew does not form in a cloudy night—cause. 11. That thunderbolt fell a mile away—evidence. 12. We dream in our sleep—evidence. 13. Peter the Great worked in Holland in disguise—purpose. 14. We put salt into butter and upon meat—purpose. 15. Iron bends and molds easily—condition. 16. Apples would not fall to the ground—condition. 17. Europe conquered Napoleon at last—concession. 18. Punishment follows every violation of nature's laws—concession.

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The adverb clause may stand before the independent clause, between the parts of it, or after it.

Direction.—-Think, if you can, of another adverb clause to follow each independent clause in the preceding Lesson, and by means of a caret (^) indicate where this adverb clause may properly stand in the sentence. Note its force in its several positions, and attend to the punctuation. Some of these adverb clauses can stand only at the end.

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An adverb clause may be contracted into a participle or a participle phrase.

Example.—When he saw me, he stopped = Seeing me, he stopped.

Direction.—Contract these complex sentences to simple ones:—

1. Coral animals, when they die, form vast islands with their bodies. 2. The water will freeze, for it has cooled to 32 deg. 3. Truth, though she may be crushed to earth, will rise again. 4. Error, if he is wounded, writhes with pain, and dies among his worshipers. 5. Black clothes are too warm in summer, because they absorb heat.

An adverb clause may be contracted to an absolute phrase.

Example.—When night came on, we gave up the chase = Night coming on, we gave up the chase.

Direction.—Contract these complex sentences to simple ones:—

1. When oxygen and carbon unite in the minute blood-vessels, heat is produced. 2. It will rain to-morrow, for "Probabilities" predicts it. 3. Washington retreated from Long Island because his army was outnumbered. 4. If Chaucer is called the father of our later English poetry, Wycliffe should be called the father of our later English prose.

An adverb clause may be contracted to a prepositional phrase having for its principal word (1) a participle, (2) an infinitive, or (3) a noun.

Direction.—Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional phrase having a participle for its principal word:—

Model.—They will call before they leave the city = They will call before leaving the city.

1. The Gulf Stream reaches Newfoundland before it crosses the Atlantic. 2. If we use household words, we shall be better understood. 3. He grew rich because he attended to his business. 4. Though they persecuted the Christians, they did not exterminate them.

Direction.—Contract each of these adverb clauses to an infinitive phrase:—

Model.—She stoops that she may conquer = She stoops to conquer.

1. The pine tree is so tall that it overlooks all its neighbors. 2. Philip II. built the Armada that he might conquer England. 3. He is foolish, because he leaves school so early in life. 4. What would I not give if I could see you happy! 5. We are pained when we hear God's name used irreverently.

Direction.—Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional phrase having a noun for its principal word:—

Model.—He fought that he might obtain glory = He fought for glory.

1. Luther died where he was born. 2. A fish breathes, though it has no lungs. 3. The general marched as he was ordered. 4. Criminals are punished that society may be safe. 5. If you are free from vices, you may expect a happy old age.

An adverb clause may be contracted by simply omitting such words as may easily be supplied.

Example.—When you are right, go ahead = When right, go ahead.

Direction.—Contract these adverb clauses:—

1. Chevalier Bayard was killed while he was fighting for Francis I. 2. Error must yield, however strongly it may be defended.

Explanation.—However modifies strongly, and connects a concessive clause.

3. Much wealth is corpulence, if it is not disease. 4. No other English author has uttered so many pithy sayings as Shakespeare has uttered.

(Frequently, clauses introduced by as and than are contracted.)

5. The sun is many times larger than the earth is large.

(Sentences like this never appear in the full form.)

6. This is a prose era rather than it is a poetic era.

An adverb clause may sometimes be changed to an adjective clause or phrase.

Example.—This man is to be pitied, because he has no friends = This man, who has no friends, is to be pitied = This man, having no friends, is to be pitied = This man, without friends, is to be pitied.

Direction.—Change each of the following adverb clauses first to an adjective clause and then to an adjective phrase:—

1. A man is to be pitied if he does not care for music. 2. When a man lacks health, wealth, and friends, he lacks three good things.

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Direction.—_Tell the kind of adverb clause in each of the sentences in Lesson 68, and note the different positions in which these clauses stand.

Select two sentences containing time clauses; one, a place clause; two, degree; one, manner; two, real cause; two, evidence; two, purpose; two, condition; and two, concession, and analyze them_.

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Direction.Compose sentences illustrating the different kinds of adverb clauses named in Lessons 63, 64, 65, and explain fully the office of each. For connectives, see Lesson 100. Tell why the adverb clauses in Lesson 68 are or are not set off by the comma. Compose sentences illustrating the different ways of contracting adverb clauses.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 165-168.)

TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions to the teacher, pages 30, 150.

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Introductory Hints.—In Lessons 40 and 41 you learned that an infinitive phrase may perform many of the offices of a noun. You are now to learn that a clause may do the same.

Obedience is better than sacrifice = To obey is better than sacrifice = That men should obey is better than sacrifice. The dependent clause that men should obey is equivalent to a noun, and is the Subject of is.

Many people believe that the beech tree is never struck by lightning. The dependent clause, introduced by that, is equivalent to a noun, and is the Object Complement of believe.

The fact that mold, mildew, and yeast are plants is wonderful. The clause introduced by that is equivalent to a noun, and is Explanatory of fact.

A peculiarity of English is, that it has so many borrowed words. The clause introduced by that is equivalent to a noun, and is an Attribute Complement relating to peculiarity.

Your future depends very much on who your companions are. The clause who your companions are is equivalent to a noun, and is the Principal Term of a Phrase introduced by the preposition on.

A clause that does the work of a noun is a Noun Clause.


The noun clause may be used as subject.

1. That the earth is round has been proved.

That ' earth is ' round - he / has been proved ============ ================

Explanation.—The clause that the earth is round is used like a noun as the subject of has been proved. The conjunction that [Footnote: "That was originally the neuter demonstrative pronoun, used to point to the fact stated in an independent sentence; as, It was good; he saw that. By an inversion of the order this became, He saw that (namely) it was good, and so passed into the form He saw that it was good, where that has been transferred to the accessory clause, and has become a mere sign of grammatical subordination."—C. P. Mason.] introduces the noun clause.

This is a peculiar kind of complex sentence. Strictly speaking, there is here no principal clause, for the whole sentence cannot be called a clause, i.e., a part of a sentence. We may say that it is a complex sentence in which the whole sentence takes the place of a principal clause.

2. That the same word is used for the soul of man and for a glass of gin is singular. 3. "What have I done?" is asked by the knave and the thief. 4. Who was the discoverer of America is not yet fully determined by historians.

Explanation.—The subject clause is here an indirect question. See Lesson 74.

5. When letters were first used is not certainly known. 6. "Where is Abel, thy brother?" smote the ears of the guilty Cain. 7. When to quit business and enjoy their wealth is a problem never solved by some.

Explanation.—When to quit business and enjoy their wealth is an indirect question. When to quit business = When they are to quit business, or When they ought to quit business. Such constructions may be expanded into clauses, or they may be treated as phrases equivalent to clauses.

The noun clause may be used as object complement.

8. Galileo taught that the earth moves.

that - ' earth ' moves - he Galileo taught / ========= ==============

Explanation.—Here the clause introduced by that is used like a noun as the object complement of taught.

9. The Esquimau feels intuitively that bear's grease and blubber are the dishes for his table. 10. The world will not anxiously inquire who you are. 11. It will ask of you, "What can you do?" 12. The peacock struts about, saying, "What a fine tail I have!" 13. He does not know which to choose.

(See explanation of (7), above.)

14. No one can tell how or when or where he will die. 15. Philosophers are still debating whether the will has any control over the current of thought in our dreams.

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The noun clause may be used as attribute complement.

1. A peculiarity of English is, that it has so many borrowed words. 2. Tweed's defiant question was, "What are you going to do about it?" 3. The question ever asked and never answered is, "Where and how am I to exist in the Hereafter?" 4. Hamlet's exclamation was, "What a piece of work is man!" 5. The myth concerning Achilles is, that he was invulnerable in every part except the heel.

The noun clause may be used as explanatory modifier.

6. It has been proved that the earth is round.

that - ' earth is ' round he It (/ ) has been proved ======== ================

Explanation.—The grammatical subject it has no meaning till explained by the noun clause.

7. It is believed that sleep is caused by a diminution in the supply of blood to the brain. 8. The fact that mold, mildew, and yeast are plants is wonderful. 9. Napoleon turned his Simplon road aside in order that he might save a tree mentioned by Caesar.

Explanation.—Unless in order that is taken as a conjunction connecting an adverb clause of purpose (see (7), Lesson 65), the clause introduced by that is a noun clause explanatory of order. [Footnote: A similar explanation may be made of on condition that, in case that, introducing adverb clauses expressing condition.]

10. Shakespeare's metaphor, "Night's candles are burnt out," is one of the finest in literature. 11. The advice that St. Ambrose gave St. Augustine in regard to conformity to local custom was in substance this: "When in Rome, do as the Romans do." 12. This we know, that our future depends on our present.

The noun clause may be used as principal term of a prepositional phrase.

13. Have birds any sense of why they sing?

birds Have sense ======= ================ they sing any - of why / -

Explanation.—Why they sing is an indirect question, here used as the principal term of a prepositional phrase.

14. There has been some dispute about who wrote "Shakespeare's Plays." 15. We are not certain that an open sea surrounds the Pole.

Explanation.—By supposing of to stand before that, the noun clause may be treated as the principal term of a prepositional phrase modifying the adjective certain. By supplying of the fact, the noun clause will become explanatory.

16. We are all anxious that the future shall bring us success and triumph. 17. The Sandwich Islander is confident that the strength and valor of his slain enemy pass into himself.

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COMMA—RULE.—The Noun Clause used as attribute complement is generally set off by the comma.

Remarks.—Present usage seems to favor the omission of the comma with the clause used as subject or as object complement, except where the comma would contribute to clearness.

The punctuation of the explanatory clause is like that of other explanatory modifiers. See Lesson 34. But the real subject made explanatory of it is seldom set off. See next Lesson for the punctuation of noun clauses that are questions or quotations.

Direction.—Give the reasons for the use or the omission of the comma with the noun clauses in the preceding Lesson.

By using it as a substitute for the subject clause, this clause may be placed last.

Example.—That the story of William Tell is a myth is now believed = It is now believed that the story of William Tell is a myth.

Direction.—By the aid of the expletive it, transpose five subject clauses in Lesson 71.

Often the clause used as object complement may be placed first.

Direction.—Transpose such of the clauses used as object complements, in the preceding Lessons, as admit transposition. Punctuate them if they need punctuation.

The noun clause may be made prominent by separating it and inserting the independent clause between its parts,

Example.—The story of William Tell, it is now believed, is a myth. (Notice that the principal clause, used parenthetically, is set off by the comma.)

Direction.—Write the following sentences, using the independent clauses parenthetically:—

1. We believe that the first printing-press in America was set up in Mexico in 1536. 2. I am aware that refinement of mind and clearness of thinking usually result from grammatical studies. 3. It is true that the glorious sun pours down his golden flood as cheerily on the poor man's cottage as on the rich man's palace.

Direction.—Vary the following sentence so as to illustrate five different kinds of noun clauses:—

Model.— 1. That stars are suns is the belief of astronomers. 2. Astronomers believe that stars are suns. 3. The belief of astronomers is, that stars are suns. 4. The belief that stars are suns is held by astronomers. 5. Astronomers are confident that stars are suns.

1. Our conclusion is, that different forms of government suit different stages of civilization.

The noun clause may be contracted by changing the predicate to a participle, and the subject to a possessive.

Example.—That he was brave cannot be doubted = His being brave cannot be doubted.

Direction.—Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the noun clauses to phrases:—

1. That the caterpillar changes to a butterfly is a curious fact. 2. Everybody admits that Cromwell was a great leader. 3. A man's chief objection to a woman is, that she has no respect for the newspaper. 4. The thought that we are spinning around the sun at the rate of twenty miles a second makes us dizzy. 5. She was aware that I appreciated her situation.

The noun clause may be contracted by making the predicate, when changed to an infinitive phrase, the objective complement, and the subject the object complement.

Direction.—Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the predicates of the noun clauses to objective complements, and the subjects to object complements:—

Model.—King Ahasuerus commanded that Haman should be hanged = King Ahasuerus commanded Haman to be hanged.

1. I believe that he is a foreigner. 2. The Governor ordered that the prisoner should be set free. 3. Many people believe that Webster was the greatest of American statesmen. 4. How wide do you think that the Atlantic ocean is? 5. They hold that taxation without representation is unjust.

Direction.—Expand into complex sentences such of the sentences in Lesson 41 as contain an objective complement and an object complement that together are equivalent to a clause.

A noun clause may be contracted to an infinitive phrase.

Example.—That he should vote is the duty of every American citizen = To vote is the duty of every American citizen.

Direction.—Contract these noun clauses to infinitive phrases:—

1. That we guard our liberty with vigilance is a sacred duty. 2. Every one desires that he may live long and happily. 3. The effect of looking upon the sun is, that the eye is blinded. 4. Caesar Augustus issued a decree that all the world should be taxed. 5. We are all anxious that we may make a good impression. 6. He does not know whom he should send. 7. He cannot find out how he is to go there.

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QUOTATION MARKS—RULE.—Quotation marks ("") inclose a copied word or passage.

Remarks.—Single marks (' ') inclose a quotation within a quotation. If, within the quotation having single marks, still another quotation is made, the double marks are again used; as, "The incorrectness of the dispatches led Bismarck to declare, 'It will soon come to be said, "He lies like the telegraph."'" This introduction of a third quotation should generally be avoided, especially where the three marks come at the end, as above.

When a quotation is divided by a parenthetical expression, each part of the quotation is inclosed; as, "I would rather be right," said Clay, "than be president."

In quoting a question, the interrogation point must stand within the quotation marks; as, He asked, "What are you living for?" but, when a question contains a quotation, this order is reversed; as, May we not find "sermons in stones"? So also with the exclamation point.

CAPITAL LETTER—RULE.—The first word of a direct quotation making complete sense or of a direct question introduced into a sentence should begin with a capital letter.

Remarks.—A direct quotation is one whose exact words, as well as thought, are copied; as, Nathan said to David, "Thou art the man." An indirect quotation is one whose thought, but not whose exact words, is copied; as, Nathan told David that he was the man. The reference here of the pronoun he is somewhat ambiguous. Guard against this, especially in indirect quotations.

The direct quotation is set off by the comma, begins with a capital letter, and is inclosed within quotation marks—though these may be omitted. The indirect quotation is not generally set off by the comma, does not necessarily begin with a capital letter, and is not inclosed within quotation marks.

A direct question introduced into a sentence is one in which the exact words and their order in an interrogative sentence (see Lesson 55) are preserved, and which is followed by an interrogation point; as, Cain asked, "Am I my brother's keeper?" An indirect question is one which is referred to as a question, but not directly asked or quoted as such, and which is not followed by an interrogation point; as, Cain asked whether he was his brother's keeper.

The direct question introduced into a sentence is set off by the comma (but no comma is used after the interrogation point), begins with a capital letter, and is inclosed within quotation marks—though these may be omitted. An indirect question is not generally set off by a comma, does not necessarily begin with a capital letter, and is not inclosed within quotation marks.

If the direct quotation, whether a question or not, is formally introduced (see Lesson 147), it is preceded by the colon; as, Nathan's words to David were these: "Thou art the man." He put the question thus: "Can you do it?"

Direction.—Point out the direct and the indirect quotations and questions in the sentences of Lesson 71, tell why they do or do not begin with capital letters, and justify the use or the omission of the comma, the interrogation point, and the quotation marks.

Direction.—Rewrite these same sentences, changing the direct quotations and questions to indirect, and the indirect to direct.

Direction.—Write five sentences containing direct quotations, some of which shall be formally introduced, and some of which shall be questions occurring at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. Change these to the indirect form, and look carefully to the punctuation and the capitalization.

Direction.—Write sentences illustrating the last paragraph of the Remarks under the Rule for Quotation Marks.

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Direction.—Analyze the sentences given for arrangement and contraction in Lesson 73.

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Introductory Hints.—Cromwell made one revolution, and Monk made another. The two clauses are independent of each other. The second clause, added by the conjunction and to the first, continues the line of thought begun by the first.

Man has his will, but woman has her way. Here the conjunction connects independent clauses whose thoughts stand in contrast with each other.

The Tudors were despotic, or history belies them. The independent clauses, connected by or, present thoughts between which you may choose, but either, accepted, excludes the other.

The ground is wet, therefore it has rained. Here the inferred fact, the raining, really stands to the other fact, the wetness of the ground, as cause to effect—the raining made the ground wet. It has rained, hence the ground is wet. Here the inferred fact, the wetness of the ground, really stands to the other fact, the raining, as effect to cause—the ground is made wet by the raining. But this the real, or logical relation between the facts in either sentence is expressed in a sentence of the compound form—an and may be placed before therefore and hence. Unless the connecting word expresses the dependence of one of the clauses, the grammarian regards them both as independent.

Temperance promotes health, intemperance destroys it. Here the independent clauses are joined to each other by their very position in the sentence—connected without any conjunction. This kind of connection is common.

Sentences made up of independent clauses we call +Compound Sentences.

DEFINITION.—A Clause is a part of a sentence containing' a subject and its predicate.

DEFINITION.—A Dependent Clause is one used as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun.

DEFINITION.—An Independent Clause is one not dependent on another clause.


DEFINITION.—A Simple Sentence is a sentence that contains but one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.

DEFINITION.—A Complex Sentence is a sentence composed of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

DEFINITION.—A Compound Sentence is a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses.


Independent Clauses in the same line of thought.

1. Light has spread, and bayonets think.

Light has spread ======= ============= ' ' ' and ....... ' ' bayonets ' think =========== ==========

Explanation.—The clauses are of equal rank, and so the lines on which they stand are shaded alike, and the line connecting them is not slanting. As one entire clause is connected with the other, the connecting line is drawn between the predicates merely for convenience.

Oral Analysis.—This is a compound sentence because it is made up of independent clauses.

2. Hamilton smote the rock of the national resources, and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth. 3. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.

Independent Clauses expressing thoughts in contrast.

4. The man dies, but his memory lives. 5. Put not your trust in money, but put your money in trust. 6. Ready writing makes not good writing, but good writing brings on ready writing.

Independent Clauses expressing thoughts in alternation.

7. Be temperate in youth, or you will have to be abstinent in old age. 8. Places near the sea are not extremely cold in winter, nor are they extremely warm in summer.

(Here a choice is denied.)

9. Either Hamlet was mad, or he feigned madness admirably.

(See (16), Lesson 20.)

Independent Clauses expressing thoughts one of which is an inference from the other.

10. People in the streets are carrying umbrellas, hence it must be raining. 11. I have seen, therefore I believe.

I have seen === =========== ' ' I ' believe === ='========= \' herefore

Explanation.—In such constructions and may be supplied, or the adverb may be regarded as the connective. The diagram illustrates therefore as connective.

Independent Clauses joined in the sentence without a conjunction.

12. The camel is the ship of the ocean of sand; the reindeer is the camel of the desert of snow. 13. Of thy unspoken word thou art master; thy spoken word is master of thee. 14. The ship leaps, as it were, from billow to billow.

Explanation.—As it were is an independent clause used parenthetically. As simply introduces it.

15. Religion—who can doubt it?—is the noblest of themes for the exercise of intellect. 16. What grave (these are the words of Wellesley, speaking of the two Pitts) contains such a father and such a son!

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COMMA and SEMICOLON—RULE.—Independent Clauses, when short and closely connected, are separated by the comma; but, when the clauses are slightly connected, or when they are themselves divided into parts by the comma, the semi-colon is used.

Remark.—A parenthetical clause may be set oil by the comma or by the dash, or it may be inclosed within marks of parenthesis—the marks of parenthesis showing the least degree of connection in sense. See the last three sentences in the preceding Lesson.

Examples.— 1. We must conquer our passions, or our passions will conquer us. 2. The prodigal robs his heirs; the miser robs himself. 3. There is a fierce conflict between good and evil; but good is in the ascendant, and must triumph at last.

(The rule above is another example.)

Direction.—Punctuate the following sentences, and give your reasons:—

1. The wind and the rain are over the clouds are divided in heaven over the green hill flies the inconstant sun. 2. The epic poem recites the exploits of a hero tragedy represents a disastrous event comedy ridicules the vices and follies of mankind pastoral poetry describes rural life and elegy displays the tender emotions of the heart. 3. Wealth may seek us but wisdom must be sought. 4. The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. 5. Occidental manhood springs from self-respect Oriental manhood finds its greatest satisfaction in self-abasement. [Footnote: In this sentence we have a figure of speech called Antithesis, in which things unlike in some particular are set over against each other. Each part shines with its own light and with the light reflected from the other part. Antithesis gives great force to the thought expressed by it. Sentences containing it furnish us our best examples of Balanced Sentences. You will find other antitheses in this Lesson and in the preceding.] 6. The more discussion the better if passion and personality be avoided and discussion even if stormy often winnows truth from error.

Direction.—Assign reasons for the punctuation of the independent clauses in the preceding Lesson.

Direction.—Using the copulative and, the adversative but, and the alternative or or nor, form compound sentences out of the following simple sentences, and give the reasons for your choice of connectives:—

Read not that you may find material for argument and conversation. The rain descended. Read that you may weigh and consider the thoughts of others. Can the Ethiopian change his skin? Righteousness exalteth a nation. The floods came. Great was the fall of it. Language is not the dress of thought. Can the leopard change his spots? The winds blew and beat upon that house. Sin is a reproach to any people. It is not simply its vehicle. It fell.

Compound sentences may be contracted by using but once the parts common to all the clauses, and compounding the remaining parts.

Example.—Time waits for no man, and tide waits for no man = Time and tide wait for no man.

Direction.—Contract these compound sentences, attending carefully to the punctuation:—

1. Lafayette fought for American independence, and Baron Steuben fought for American independence. 2. The sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn open the mind to benevolence, and the sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn dispose the mind for contemplation. 3. The spirit of the Almighty is within us, the spirit of the Almighty is around us, and the spirit of the Almighty is above us.

A compound sentence may be contracted by simply omitting from one clause such words as may readily be supplied from the other.

Example.—He is witty, but he is vulgar = He is witty but vulgar.

Direction.—Contract these sentences:—

1. Mirth should be the embroidery of conversation, but it should not be the web. 2. It is called so, but it is improperly called so. 3. Was Cabot the discoverer of America, or was he not the discoverer of America? 4. William the Silent has been likened to Washington, and he has justly been likened to him. 5. It was his address that pleased me, and it was not his dress that pleased me.

A compound sentence may sometimes be changed to a complex sentence without materially changing the sense.

Example.—Take care of the minutes, and the hours will take care of themselves = If you take care of the minutes, the hours will take care of themselves. (Notice that the imperative form adds force.)

Direction.—Change these compound sentences to complex sentences:—

1. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. 2. Govern your passions, or they will govern you. 3. I heard that you wished to see me, and I lost no time in coming. 4. He converses, and at the same time he plays a difficult piece of music. 5. He was faithful, and he was rewarded.

Direction.—Change one of the independent clauses in each of these sentences to a dependent clause, and then change the dependent clause to a participle phrase:—

Model.—The house was built upon a rock, and therefore it did not fall = The house did not fall, because it was built upon a rock = The house, being built upon a rock, did not fall.

1. He found that he could not escape, and so he surrendered. 2. Our friends heard of our coming, and they hastened to meet us.

Direction.—Using and, but, and or as connectives, compose three compound sentences, each containing three independent clauses.

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Introductory Hints.—Sun and moon and stars obey. Peter the Great went to Holland, to England, and to France. I came, I saw, I conquered. Here we have co-ordinate words, co-ordinate phrases, and co-ordinate clauses, that is, words, phrases, and clauses of equal rank, or order.

Leaves fall so very quietly. They ate of the fruit from the tree in the garden. Regulus would have paused if he had been the man that he was before captivity had unstrung his sinews. Here just as the word modifier quietly is itself modified by very, and very by so; and just as fruit, the principal word in a modifying phrase, is modified by another phrase, and the principal word of that by another: so man, in the adverb clause which modifies would have paused, is itself modified by the adjective clause that he was, and was by the adverb clause before captivity had unstrung his sinews. These three dependent clauses in the complex clause modifier, like the three words and the three phrases in the complex word modifier and the complex phrase modifier, are not co-ordinate, or of equal rank.

Mary married Philip; but Elizabeth would not marry, although Parliament frequently urged it, and the peace of England demanded it. This is a compound sentence, composed of the simple clause which precedes but and the complex clause which follows it—the complex clause being composed of an independent clause and two dependent clauses, one co-ordinate with the other, and the two connected by and.


The clauses of complex and compound sentences may themselves be complex or compound.

insects ' ' ' ' ' 'which are admired ' ' '==== ============ ' ' ' ' ' ' x ' ' ..... ' ' ' ' 'which are decorated ' ==== ============= ' ' ' 'and ' ........ ' ' ' which soar ' '=== ====

hour had passed ========= ============= The ' ' ' ' and ' ....... ' ' opportunity ' had escaped ============ =='============ he ' ' ' ' ' '' ' 'while ' he ' tarried - that - ' earth ' is round ========= ======'======== ' that ' and - ...... ' ' it ' revolves ' === ='============'= He proved / ==== =============

Explanation.—The first diagram illustrates the analysis of the compound adjective clause in (3) below. Each adjective clause is connected to insects by which. And connects the co-ordinate clauses. The second diagram shows that the clause while he tarried modifies both predicates of the independent clauses. While modifies had passed, had escaped, and tarried, as illustrated by the short lines under the first two verbs and the line over tarried. The office of while as connective is shown by the dotted lines. The third diagram illustrates the analysis of a complex sentence containing a compound noun clause.

1. Sin has a great many tools, but a lie is a handle which fits them all. 2. Some one has said that the milkman's favorite song should be, "Shall we gather at the river?" 3. Some of the insects which are most admired, which are decorated with the most brilliant colors, and which soar on the most ethereal wings, have passed the greater portion of their lives in the bowels of the earth. 4. Still the wonder grew, that one small head could carry all he knew. 5. When a man becomes overheated by working, running, rowing, or making furious speeches, the six or seven millions of perspiration tubes pour out their fluid, and the whole body is bathed and cooled. 6. Milton said that he did not educate his daughters in the languages, because one tongue was enough for a woman. [Footnote: In tongue, as here used, we have a Pun—a witty expression in which a word agreeing in sound with another word, but differing in meaning from it, is used in place of that other.] 7. Glaciers, flowing down mountain gorges, obey the law of rivers; the upper surface flows faster than the lower, and the center faster than the adjacent sides. 8. Not to wear one's best things every day is a maxim of New England thrift, which is as little disputed as any verse in the catechism. 9. In Holland the stork is protected by law, because it eats the frogs and worms that would injure the dikes. 10. It is one of the most marvelous facts in the natural world that, though hydrogen is highly inflammable, and oxygen is a supporter of combustion, both, combined, form an element, water, which is destructive to fire. 11. In your war of 1812, when your arms on shore were covered by disaster, when Winchester had been defeated, when the Army of the Northwest had surrendered, and when the gloom of despondency hung, like a cloud, over the land, who first relit the fires of national glory, and made the welkin ring with the shouts of victory? [Footnote: The when clauses in (11), as the which clauses in (3), are formed on the same plan, have their words in the same order. This principle of Parallel Construction, requiring like ideas to be expressed alike, holds also in phrases, as in (10) and (14), Lesson 28, and in (14) and (15), Lesson 46, and holds supremely with sentences in the paragraph, as is explained on page 168. Parallel construction contributes to the clearness, and consequently to the force, of expression.]

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Participles may be expanded into different kinds of clauses.

Direction.—Expand the participles in these sentences into the clauses indicated:—

1. Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it. (Adjective clause.) 2. Desiring to live long, no one would be old. (Concession.) 3. They went to the temple, suing for pardon. (Purpose.) 4. White garments, reflecting the rays of the sun, are cool in summer. (Cause.) 5. Loved by all, he must have a genial disposition. (Evidence.) 6. Writing carefully, you will learn to write well. (Condition.) 7. Sitting there, I heard the cry of "Fire!" (Time.) 8. She regrets not having read it. (Noun clause.) 9. The icebergs floated down, cooling the air for miles around, (Independent clause.)

Absolute phrases may be expanded into different kinds of clauses.

Direction.—Expand these absolute phrases into the clauses indicated:—

1. Troy being taken by the Greeks, Aeneas came into Italy. (Time.) 2. The bridges having been swept away, we returned. (Cause.) 3. A cause not preceding, no effect is produced. (Condition.) 4. All things else being destroyed, virtue could sustain itself. (Concession.) 5. There being no dew this morning, it must have been cloudy or windy last night. (Evidence.) 6. The infantry advanced, the cavalry remaining in the rear. (Independent clause.)

Infinitive phrases may be expanded into different kinds of clauses.

Direction.—Expand these infinitive phrases into the clauses indicated:—

1. They have nothing to wear. (Adjective clause.) 2. The weather is so warm as to dissolve the snow. (Degree.) 3. Herod will seek the young child to destroy it. (Purpose.) 4. The adversative sentence faces, so to speak, half way about on but. (Condition.) 5. He is a fool to waste his time so. (Cause.) 6. I shall be happy to hear of your safe arrival. (Time.) 7. He does not know where to go. (Noun clause.)

Direction.—Complete these elliptical expressions:—

1. And so shall Regulus, though dead, fight as he never fought before. 2. Oh, that I might have one more day! 3. He is braver than wise. 4. What if he is poor? 5. He handles it as if it were glass. 6. I regard him more as a historian than as a poet. 7. He is not an Englishman, but a Frenchman. 8. Much as he loved his wealth, he loved his children better. 9. I will go whether you go or not. 10. It happens with books as with mere acquaintances. 11. No examples, however awful, sink into the heart.

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1. Whenever the wandering demon of Drunkenness finds a ship adrift, he steps on board, takes the helm, and steers straight for the Maelstrom.—Holmes. 2. The energy which drives our locomotives and forces our steamships through the waves comes from the sun.—Cooke. 3. No scene is continually loved but one rich by joyful human labor, smooth in field, fair in garden, full in orchard.—Ruskin. 4. What is bolder than a miller's neck-cloth, which takes a thief by the throat every morning?—German Proverb. 5. The setting sun stretched his celestial rods of light across the level landscape, and smote the rivers and the brooks and the ponds, and they became as blood.—Longfellow. 6. Were the happiness of the next world as closely apprehended as the felicities of this, it were a martyrdom to live.—Sir T. Browne. 7. There is a good deal of oratory in me, but I don't do as well as I can, in any one place, out of respect to the memory of Patrick Henry.—Nasby. 8. Van Twiller's full-fed cheeks, which seemed to have taken toll of everything that went into his mouth, were curiously mottled and streaked with dusky red, like a spitzenburg apple.—Irving. 9. The evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is, that it is robbing the human race.—Mill. 10. There is no getting along with Johnson; if his pistol misses fire, he knocks you down with the butt of it.—Goldsmith. 11. We think in words; and, when we lack fit words, we lack fit thoughts.—White. 12. To speak perfectly well one must feel that he has got to the bottom of his subject.—Whately. 13. Office confers no honor upon a man who is worthy of it, and it will disgrace every man who is not.—Holland. 14. The men whom men respect, the women whom women approve, are the men and women who bless their species.—Parton.

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1. A ruler who appoints any man to an office when there is in his dominions another man better qualified for it sins against God and against the state.—Koran. 2. We wondered whether the saltness of the Dead Sea was not Lot's wife in solution.—Curtis. 3. There is a class among us so conservative that they are afraid the roof will come down if you sweep off the cobwebs.—Phillips. 4. Kind hearts are more than coronets; and simple faith, than Norman blood.—Tennyson. 5. All those things for which men plow, build, or sail obey virtue.—Sallust. 6. The sea licks your feet, its huge flanks purr very pleasantly for you; but it will crack your bones and eat you for all that.—Holmes. 7. Of all sad words of tongue or pen the saddest are these: "It might have been."—Whittier. 8. I fear three newspapers more than a hundred thousand bayonets. —Napoleon. 9. He that allows himself to be a worm must not complain if he is trodden on.—Kant. 10. It is better to write one word upon the rock than a thousand on the water or the sand.—Gladstone. 11. A breath of New England's air is better than a sup of Old England's ale.—Higginson. 12. We are as near to heaven by sea as by land.—Sir H. Gilbert. 13. No language that cannot suck up the feeding juices secreted for it in the rich mother-earth of common folk can bring forth a sound and lusty book.—Lowell. 14. Commend me to the preacher who has learned by experience what are human ills and what is human wrong.—Boyd. 15. He prayeth best who loveth best all things both [Footnote: See Lesson 20.] great and small; for the dear God, who loveth us, he made and loveth all.—Coleridge.

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Show that an adjective may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause. Give examples of adjective clauses connected by who, whose, which, what, that, whichever, when, where, why, and show that each connective performs also the office of a pronoun or that of an adverb. Give and illustrate fully the Rule for punctuating the adjective clause, and the Caution regarding the position of the adjective clause. Show that an adjective clause may be equivalent to an Infinitive phrase or a participle phrase.

Show that an adverb may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause. Illustrate the different kinds of adverb clauses, and explain the office of each and the fitness of the name. Give and explain fully the Rule for the punctuation of adverb clauses. Illustrate the different positions of adverb clauses. Illustrate the different ways of contracting adverb clauses.

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Illustrate five different offices of a noun clause. Explain the two different ways of treating clauses introduced by in order that, etc. Explain the office of the expletive it. Illustrate the different positions of a noun clause used as object complement. Show how the noun clause may be made prominent. Illustrate the different ways of contracting noun clauses. Give and illustrate fully the Rule for quotation marks. Illustrate and explain fully the distinction between direct and indirect quotations, and the distinction between direct and indirect questions introduced into a sentence. Tell all about their capitalization and punctuation.

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Illustrate and explain the distinction between a dependent and an independent clause. Illustrate and explain the different ways in which independent clauses connected by and, but, or, and hence are related in sense. Show how independent clauses may be joined in sense without a connecting word. Define a clause. Define the different kinds of clauses. Define the different classes of sentences with regard to form. Give the Rule for the punctuation of independent clauses, and illustrate fully. Illustrate the different ways of contracting independent clauses. Illustrate and explain the difference between compound and complex word modifiers; between compound and complex phrases; between compound and complex clauses. Give participle phrases, absolute phrases, and infinitive phrases, and expand them into different kinds of clauses. What three parts of speech may connect clauses?


TO THE TEACHER.—This scheme will be found very helpful in a general review. The pupils should be able to reproduce it except the Lesson numbers.

Scheme for the Sentence.

(The numbers refer to Lessons.)


Subject. Noun or Pronoun (8). Phrase (38, 40). Clause (71).

Predicate. Verb (11).

Complements. Object. Noun or Pronoun (28). Phrase (38, 40). Clause (71). Attribute. Adjective (29, 30). Participle (37). Noun or Pronoun (29, 30). Phrase (37, 40). Clause (72). Objective. Adjective (31). Participle (37). Noun (or Pronoun) (31). Phrase (37, 41).

Modifiers. Adjectives (12). Adverbs (14). Participles (37). Nouns and Pronouns (33, 35). Phrases (17, 37, 38, 40, 41). Clauses (59, 60, 63, 64, 65).

Connectives. Conjunctions (20, 64, 65, 71, 76). Pronouns (59, 60). Adverbs (60, 63, 64).

Independent Parts (44).

Classes. Meaning. Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative, Exclamatory (46). Form. Simple, Complex, Compound (76).

Additional Selections.

TO THE TEACHER.—We believe that you will find the preceding pages unusually full and rich in illustrative selections; but, should additional work be needed for reviews or for maturer classes, the following selections will afford profitable study. Let the pupils discuss the thought and the poetic form, as well as the logical construction of these passages. We do not advise putting them in diagram.

Speak clearly, if you speak at all; Carve every word before you let it fall.—Holmes.

The robin and the blue-bird, piping loud, Filled all the blossoming orchards with their glee; The sparrows chirped as if they still were proud Their race in Holy Writ should mentioned be; And hungry crows, assembled in a crowd, Clamored their piteous prayer incessantly, Knowing who hears the ravens cry, and said, "Give us, O Lord, this day, our daily bread!" —Longfellow,

Better to stem with heart and hand The roaring tide of life than lie, Unmindful, on its flowery strand, Of God's occasions drifting by. Better with naked nerve to bear The needles of this goading air Than, in the lap of sensual ease, forego The godlike power to do, the godlike aim to know. —Whittier.

Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust, Ere her cause bring fame and profit, and 't is prosperous to be just; Then it is the brave man chooses, while the coward stands aside, Doubting in his abject spirit, till his Lord is crucified.—Lowell.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

TO THE TEACHER.—These and similar "Exercises" are entirely outside of the regular lessons. They are offered to those teachers who may not, from lack of time or of material, find it convenient to prepare extra or miscellaneous work better suited to their own needs.

The questions appended to the following sentences are made easy of answer, but in continuing such exercises the teacher will, of course, so frame the questions as more and more to throw responsibility on the pupil.

It will be evident that this work aims not only to enforce instruction given before Lesson 17, but, by an easy and familiar examination of words and groups of words, to prepare the way for what is afterwards presented more formally and scientifically. ADAPTED FROM IRVING'S "SKETCH BOOK."

1. From this piazza the wondering Ichabod entered the hall. 2. This hall formed the center of the mansion and the place of usual residence. 3. Here, rows of resplendent pewter, ranged on a long dresser, dazzled his eyes. 4. In one corner stood a huge bag of wool ready to be spun. 5. In another corner stood a quantity of linsey-woolsey just from the loom. 6. Ears of Indian corn and strings of dried apples and peaches hung in gay festoons along the walls. 7. These were mingled with the gaud of red peppers. 8. A door left ajar gave him a peep into the best parlor. 9. In this parlor claw-footed chairs and dark mahogany tables shone like mirrors. 10. Andirons, with their accompanying shovel and tongs, glistened from their covert of asparagus tops. [Footnote: Asparagus tops were commonly used to ornament the old-fashioned fireplace in summer.] 11. Mock-oranges and conch-shells decorated the mantelpiece. 12. Strings of various-colored birds' eggs were suspended above it. 13. A corner-cupboard, knowingly left open, displayed immense treasures of old silver and well-mended china.

The Uses of Words and Groups of Words.—Find the two chief words in each of the first three sentences. As a part of the sentence what is each of these words called? To what class of words, or part of speech, does each belong? Notice that in the fourth and the fifth sentence the subject is put after the predicate. Change the order of words and read these sentences. Read in their regular order the two chief words of each. In the sixth sentence what word says, or asserts, something about both ears and strings? In the ninth sentence put what before the predicate shone and find two nouns that answer the question. In the eleventh sentence what two things does decorated tell something about? In the seventh sentence these stands for what two nouns, or names, found in the preceding sentence? Find the subject and the predicate of each sentence from the sixth to the thirteenth inclusive. To what class of words does each of these chief parts belong? Find in these sentences nouns that are not subjects. Find several compound nouns the parts of which are joined with the hyphen.

The and wondering in the first sentence go with what noun? The group of words from this piazza goes with what word? In the second sentence put what before, and then after, formed, and find the names that answer these questions. What does of the mansion go with? What does of usual residence describe? In the third sentence what word tells where the dazzling occurred? Find a group of three words telling what the rows were composed of. What group of words tells the position of the rows? In the fourth sentence what group of words shows where the bag stood? Of wool ready to be spun describes what? A and huge are attached to what?

TO THE TEACHER.—We have here suggested some of the devices by which pupils may be led to see the functions of words and phrases. We recommend that this work be varied and continued through the selection above and through others that may easily be made. Such exercises, together with the more formal and searching work of the regular lessons, will be found of incalculable value to the pupil. They will not only afford the best mental discipline but will aid greatly in getting thought and in expressing thought.

The Force and the Beauty of the Description above.— Can you find any reason why we are invited to see this picture through the eyes of the interested and wondering Ichabod? Do you think the word wondering well chosen and suggestive? Look through this picture carefully and tell what there is that indicates thrift, industry, and prosperity. Find more common expressions for center of the mansion and place of usual residence. Notice in the third sentence the effect of resplendent and dazzled. How is a similar effect produced in the ninth and the tenth sentence? You see that this great artist in words does not here need to repeat his language. We can easily imagine that he could produce the same effect in a great variety of ways. In the fourth sentence does the expression ready to be spun tell what is actually seen, or what is only suggested? What is gained by this expression and by just from the loom in the next sentence? Do you think an unskillful artist would have used in gay festoons? Read the seventh and make it more common but less quaint. Do you think the picture gains, or loses, by representing the door as "ajar" instead of wide open? Why? Can you see any similar effect from introducing their covert in the tenth sentence? What does the expression knowingly left open suggest to you? This selection from Irving illustrates the Descriptive style of writing.


In the description above we have taken some liberties with the original, for we have broken it up into single sentences. The parts of this picture as made by Irving were smoothly and delicately blended together.

You may rewrite this description; and, where it can be done to advantage, you may join the sentences neatly together. Perhaps some of these sentences may be changed to become parts of other sentences,

TO THE TEACHER.—It will be found profitable for pupils to break up for themselves into short sentences model selections from classic English, and, after examining the structure and style as suggested above, to note and, so far as possible, explain how these were blended together in the original. A written reproduction of the selection may then be made from memory.

This study of the thought, the structure, and the style of the great masters in language must lead to a discriminating taste for literature; and the effect upon the pupil's own habits of thought and expression will necessarily be to lift him above the insipid, commonplace matter and language that characterize much of the so-called "original" composition work.

In the study of these selections, especially in the work of copying, the rules for punctuation, and other rules, formally stated further on, may easily be anticipated informally.

For composition work more nearly original the class might read together or discuss, descriptions of home scenes; then, drawing from imagination or experience, they might make descriptions of their own. In these descriptions different persons might be introduced, with their attitudes, employments, and acts of hospitality.

For exercises in narration pupils might write about trips to these homes, telling about the preparation, the start, the journey, and the reception. (For studies on narrative style, see pages 157-162.)

To insure thoroughness, all such compositions should he short.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. Every window and crevice of the vast barn seemed bursting forth with the treasures of the farm. 2. The flail was busily resounding within from morning till night. 3. Swallows and martins skimmed twittering about the eaves. 4. Rows of pigeons were enjoying the sunshine on the roof. 5. Some sat with one eye turned up as if watching the weather. 6. Some sat with their heads under their wings or buried in their bosoms. 7. Others were swelling and cooing and bowing about their dames. 8. Sleek, unwieldy porkers were grunting in the repose and abundance of their pens. 9. From these pens sallied forth, now and then, troops of sucking pigs, as if to snuff the air. 10. A stately squadron of snowy geese was riding in an adjoining pond, convoying whole fleets of ducks. 11. Regiments of turkeys were gobbling through the farmyard. 12. Guinea fowls fretted about, like ill-tempered housewives, with their peevish, discontented cry. 13. Before the barn-door strutted the gallant cock, clapping his burnished wings, and crowing in the pride and gladness of his heart—sometimes tearing up the earth with his feet, and then generously calling his ever-hungry family of wives and children to enjoy the rich morsel which he had discovered.

The Uses of Words and Groups of Words.—In the first sentence seemed asserts something about what two things? Every goes with what word or words? What word or words does the phrase of the vast barn make more definite in meaning? The two words window and crevice are joined together by what word? The group of words bursting forth with the treasures of the farm describes what? Notice that bursting also helps seemed to say something about window and crevice. Seemed does not make sense, but seemed bursting does. What does forth modify? What does with the treasures of the farm modify? In the third sentence what two nouns form the subject of skimmed? What connects these two nouns? In the fourth what word tells what the rows were enjoying? In the fifth turned up as if watching the weather describes what? As if watching the weather goes with what? The expression introduced by as if is a shortened form. Putting in some of the words omitted, we have as if they were watching the weather. They were watching the weather, if standing by itself, would make a complete sentence. You see that one sentence may be made a part of another sentence. What does each of the two phrases under their wings and buried in their bosoms describe? What connects these two phrases? In the seventh sentence were is understood before cooing and before bowing. How many predicate verbs do you find, each asserting something about the pigeons represented by others? Why are these verbs not separated by commas? What two nouns form the principal part of the phrase in the eighth sentence? What connects these two nouns? Read the ninth sentence and put the subject before the predicate. You may now explain as if to snuff the air, remembering that a similar expression in the fifth sentence was explained. In the tenth sentence convoying whole fleets of ducks describes what? Does convoying assert anything about the squadron? Change it into a predicate verb. In the twelfth sentence find one word and two phrases joined to fretted. Clapping, crowing, tearing, and calling, in the thirteenth, all describe what? Notice that all the other words following the subject go with these four. Find the three words that answer the questions made by putting what after clapping, tearing, calling. What phrase tells the cause of crowing? The phrase to enjoy the rich morsel which he had discovered tells the purpose of what? Which he had discovered limits the meaning of what? The pronoun which here stands for morsel. Which he had discovered = He had discovered morsel. Here you will see a sentence has again been made a part of another sentence. Notice that without which there would be no connection.

TO THE TEACHER.—It may be well to let the pupils complete the examination of the structure of the sentences above and point out nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs.

It will be noticed that in the questions above we especially anticipate the regular lessons that follow Lesson 27. This we do in all such "Exercises."

The Beauty and the Force of the Description above.—Why may we say that this farmyard scene is surrounded by an atmosphere of plenty, happiness, and content? Which do you prefer, the first sentence above, or this substitute for it: "The large barn was entirely full of the products of the farm"? Give every reason that you can find for your preference. We often speak of a barn or storehouse as "bursting with plenty," or of a table as "groaning with a load of good things," when there is really no bursting nor groaning. Such expressions are called Figures of Speech. Examine the second sentence and compare it with the following: "The men were busy all day pounding out the grain with flails." Do the words busily resounding joined to flail bring into our imagination men, grain, pounding, sound, and perhaps other things? A good description mentions such things and uses such words as will help us to see in imagination many things not mentioned. In the third sentence would you prefer skimmed to flew? Why? Compare the eighth sentence with this: "Large fat hogs were grunting in their pens and reposing quietly with an abundant supply of food." Sleek, unwieldy porkers would be too high-sounding an expression for you to use ordinarily, but it is in tone with the rest of the description. In the repose and abundance of their pens is much better than the words substituted above. It is shorter and stronger. It uses instead of the verb reposing and the adjective abundant the nouns repose and abundance, and makes these the principal words in the phrase. Repose and abundance are thus made the striking features of the pen. Arrange the ninth sentence in as many ways as possible and tell which way you prefer. Is a real squadron referred to in the tenth sentence? and were the geese actually convoying fleets? These are figurative uses of words. What can you say of regiments in the eleventh? In the twelfth Guinea fowls are compared to housewives. Except in this one fancied resemblance the two are wholly unlike. Such comparisons frequently made by as and like are called Similes. If we leave out like and say, "Guinea fowls are fretting housewives," we have a figure of speech called Metaphor. This figure is used above when flocks are called "squadrons" and "fleets." In the thirteenth sentence notice how well chosen and forceful are the words strutted, gallant, burnished, generously, ever-hungry, rich morsel. See whether you can find substitutes for these italicized words. Were the wings actually burnished? What can you say of this use of burnished?


The sentences in the description above, when read together, have a somewhat broken or jerky effect. You may unite smoothly such as should be joined. The fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh can all be put into one. There is danger of making your sentences too long. Young writers find it difficult to make very long sentences perfectly clear in meaning.

TO THE TEACHER.—While the pupils' thoughts and style are somewhat toned up by the preceding exercises, it may he well to let them write similar descriptions drawn from their reading, their observation, or their imagination.

If the compositions contain more than two or three short paragraphs each, it will be almost impossible to secure good work.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. I was dirty from my journey, my pockets were stuffed out with shirts and stockings, and I knew no soul nor where to look for lodging. 2. I was fatigued with traveling, rowing, and want of rest; I was very hungry; and my whole stock of cash consisted of a Dutch dollar and about a shilling in copper. 3. The latter I gave the people of the boat for my passage, who at first refused it on account of my rowing; but I insisted on their taking it.

1. Then I walked up the street, gazing about, till near the markethouse I met a boy with bread. 2. I had made many a meal on bread, and, inquiring where he got it, I went immediately to the baker's he directed me to, in Second Street, and asked for biscuit, intending such as we had in Boston; but they, it seems, were not made in Philadelphia. 3. Then I asked for a three-penny loaf, and was told they had none such. 4. So not considering or knowing the difference of money, or the greater cheapness and the names of his bread, I bade him give me three-penny worth of any sort. 5. He gave me, accordingly, three great puffy rolls. 6. I was surprised at the quantity, but took it; and, having no room in my pockets, walked off with a roll under each arm, and eating the other.

* * * * *

The Uses of Words and Groups of Words.—Break up sentence 1, paragraph 1, into three distinct sentences, and tell what changes this will make in capitals and punctuation. Do the same for 2. Which read more closely together, and are more closely connected, the parts of 2, or of 1? How is this shown to the eye? Analyze the first two sentences you made from 1. Find two object complements of knew, one a noun and the other a group of five words. Find in 2 a phrase whose principal part is made up of three nouns. What have you learned about the commas used with these nouns? In making separate sentences of 3 what words do you change or drop? Are these the words that bind the parts of 3 together? What noun is used adverbially after gave? Supply a preposition and then tell what phrases modify gave. Find the object complement of gave. What modifies refused by telling when? What, by telling why?

In 1, paragraph 2, who is described as gazing about? What does gazing about modify? Read the group of words that tells how far or how long Franklin walked up the street. Notice that this whole group is used like an adverb. Find in it a subject, a predicate, and an object complement. Drop till and see whether the parts of 1 make separate sentences. What word, then, binds these two sentences into one? Read 2 and make of it three distinct sentences by omitting the first and and the word but. The second of these three sentences just made contains several sentences which are not so easily separated, as some are used like single words to make up the main, or principal, sentence. In this second part of 2 find the leading subject and its two predicates. Find a phrase belonging to I and representing Franklin as doing something. Put what after inquiring and find the object complement. What phrase belongs to went, telling where? He directed me to (whom) belongs to what? Who is represented as intending? Intending such as we had in Boston belongs to what? As we had in Boston goes with what? Notice that it seems is a sentence thrown in loosely between the parts of another sentence. Such expressions are said to be parenthetical. Notice the punctuation.

Notice that gazing, inquiring, intending, considering, knowing, and having are all modifiers of I found in the different sentences of paragraph 2. Put I before any one of these words, and you will see that no assertion is made. These words illustrate one form of the verb (the participle), and look in 1, paragraph 1, illustrates the other form (the infinitive), spoken of in Lesson 11 as not asserting. Change each of these participles to a predicate, or asserting form, and then read the sentences in which these predicates are found. You will notice that giving these words the asserting form makes them more prominent and forcible—brings them up to a level with the other predicate verbs. Participles are very useful in slurring over the less important actions that the more important may have prominence. Show that they are so used in Franklin's narrative.

Examine the phrase with a roll under each arm, and eating the other, and see if you do not find an illustration of the fact that even great men sometimes make slips. Does other properly mean one of three things? Try to improve this expression.

The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs.—The sentences above, as you see, stand in two groups. Those of each group are more closely related to one another than they are to the sentences of the other group. Do you see how? In studying this short selection you may find the general topic, or heading, to be something like this: My First Experiences in Philadelphia. Now examine the first group of sentences and see whether its topic might not be put thus: My Condition on Reaching Philadelphia. Then examine the sentences of the second group and see whether all will not come under this heading: How I Found Something to Eat. You see that even a short composition like this has a general topic with topics under it. As sub means under, we will call these under topics sub-topics. There are two groups of sentences in this selection because there are two distinct sub-topics developed. The sentences of each group stand together because they jointly develop one sub-topic.

A group of sentences related and held together by a common thought we call a Paragraph. How is the paragraph indicated to the eye? What help is it to the reader to have a composition paragraphed? What, to the writer to know that he must write in paragraphs?

The Style of the Author.—This selection is mainly Narrative. The matter is somewhat tame, and the expression is commonplace. The words are ordinary, and they stand in their usual place. Figures of speech are not used. Yet the piece has a charm. The thoughts are homely; the expression is in perfect keeping; the style is clear, simple, direct, and natural. The closing sentence is slightly humorous. Benjamin Franklin trudging along the street, hugging a great roll of bread under each arm, and eating a third roll, must have been a laughable sight.

Have you ever known boys and girls in writing school compositions, or reporters in writing for the newspapers, to use large words for small ideas, and long, high-sounding phrases and sentences for plain, simple thoughts? Have you ever seen what could be neatly said in three or four lines "padded out" to fill a page of composition paper or a column in a newspaper?

When Franklin said. "My pockets were stuffed out with shirts and stockings," he said a homely thing in a homely way; that is, he fitted the language to the thought. To fit the expression to the thought on every occasion is the perfection of style. If Franklin had been a weak, foolish writer, his sentence might have taken this form:—

"Not having been previously provided with a satchel or other receptacle for my personal effects, my pockets, which were employed as a substitute, were protruding conspicuously with extra underclothing."

Compare this sentence with Franklin's and point out the faults you see in the substitute. Can you find anything in the meaning of provided that makes previously unnecessary? Do you now understand what Lowell meant when, in praise of Dryden, he said, "His phrase is always a short cut to his sense"?

TO THE TEACHER.—What is here taught of the paragraph and of style will probably not be mastered at one reading. It will be found necessary to return to it occasionally, and to refer pupils to it for aid in their composition work.


TO THE TEACHER.—We suggest that the pupils reproduce from memory the extract above, and that other selections of narrative be found in the Readers or elsewhere and studied as above.

The pupils may be able to note to what extent the narrative follows the order of time and to what extent it is topical. They may also note the amount of description it contains. They should, so far as possible, find the topic for each paragraph, thus making an outline for a composition to be completed from reproduction.

It will now require little effort to write simple original narratives of real or imagined experiences.

* * * * *

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. In the driest days, my fountain became disabled; the pipe was stopped up. 2. A couple of plumbers, with the implements of their craft, came out to view the situation. 3. There was a good deal of difference of opinion about where the stoppage was. 4. I found the plumbers perfectly willing to sit down and talk about it—talk by the hour. 5. Some of their guesses and remarks were exceedingly ingenious; and their general observations on other subjects were excellent in their way, and could hardly have been better if they had been made by the job. 6. The work dragged a little—as it is apt to do by the hour.

1. The plumbers had occasion to make me several visits. 2. Sometimes they would find, upon arrival, that they had forgotten some indispensable tool; and one would go back to the shop, a mile and a half, after it; and his comrade would await his return with the most exemplary patience, and sit down and talk—always by the hour. 3. I do not know but it is a habit to have something wanted at the shop. 4. They seemed to me very good workmen, and always willing to stop, and talk about the job or anything else, when I went near them. 5. Nor had they any of that impetuous hurry that is said to be the bane of our American civilization. 6. To their credit be it said that I never observed anything of it in them. 7. They can afford to wait. 8. Two of them will sometimes wait nearly half a day, while a comrade goes for a tool. 9. They are patient and philosophical. 10. It is a great pleasure to meet such men. 11. One only wishes there was some work he could do for them by the hour.

The Uses of Words and Groups of Words.—How can you make the last part of 1 express more directly the cause of becoming disabled? Would you use a semicolon to separate the sentences thus joined, or would you use a comma? Give a reason for the comma after days, Find in 2 an adverb phrase that expresses purpose. Use an equivalent adjective in place of a couple of. Explain the use of there in 3. What adjective may be used in place of good in a good deal? What long complex phrase modifies deal? Put what after the preposition about and find a group of words that takes the place of a noun. Find in this group a subject and a predicate. Find in 4 an objective complement. Find a compound infinitive phrase and tell what it modifies. Notice that the dash helps to show the break made by repeating talk. When 5 is divided into two sentences, what word is dropped? This, then, must be the word that connected the two sentences. Notice that the two main parts of 5 are separated by a semicolon. This enables the writer to show that the two main divisions of 5 are more widely separated in meaning than are the parts of the second division where the comma is used. Give the three leading predicate verbs in 5 and their complements. If they had been made by the job is joined like an adverb to what verb? What is the predicate of this modifying group?

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