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Higher Lessons in English
by Alonzo Reed and Brainerd Kellogg
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LESSON 31.

OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS.

Introductory Hints.—He made the wall white. Here made does not fully express the act performed upon the wall. We do not mean to say, He made the white wall, but, He made-white (whitened) the wall. White helps made to express the act, and at the same time it denotes the quality attributed to the wall as the result of the act.

They made Victoria queen. Here made does not fully express the act performed upon Victoria. They did not make Victoria, but made-queen (crowned) Victoria. Queen helps made to express the act, and at the same time denotes the office to which the act raised Victoria.

A word that, like the adjective white or the noun queen, helps to complete the predicate and at the same time belongs to the object complement, differs from an attribute complement by belonging not to the subject but to the object complement, and so is called an Objective Complement.

As the objective complement generally denotes what the receiver of the act is made to be, in fact or in thought, it is sometimes called the factitive complement or the factitive object (Lat. facere, to make). [Footnote: See Lesson 37, last foot-note.]

Some of the other verbs which are thus completed are call, think, choose, and name.

DEFINITION.—The Objective Complement completes the predicate and belongs to the object complement.

Analysis.

1. They made Victoria queen.

They made / queen Victoria ====== =========================

Explanation.—The line that separates made from queen slants toward the object complement to show that queen belongs to the object.

Oral Analysis.—Queen is an objective complement completing made and belonging to Victoria; made Victoria queen is the complete predicate.

2. Some one has called the eye the window of the soul. 3. Destiny had made Mr. Churchill a schoolmaster. 4. President Hayes chose the Hon. Wm. M. Evarts Secretary of State. 5. After a break of sixty years in the ducal line of the English nobility, James I. created the worthless Villiers Duke of Buckingham. 6. We should consider time as a sacred trust.

Explanation.—As may be used simply to introduce an objective complement.

7. Ophelia and Polonius thought Hamlet really insane. 8. The President and the Senate appoint certain men ministers to foreign courts. 9. Shylock would have struck Jessica dead beside him. 10. Custom renders the feelings blunt and callous. 11. Socrates styled beauty a short-lived tyranny. 12. Madame de Stael calls beautiful architecture frozen music. 13. They named the state New York from the Duke of York. 14. Henry the Great consecrated the Edict of Nantes as the very ark of the constitution.

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LESSON 32.

COMPOSITION—COMPLEMENTS.

Caution.—Be careful to distinguish an adjective complement from an adverb modifier.

Explanation.—Mary arrived safe. We here wish to tell the condition of Mary on her arrival, and not the manner of her arriving. My head feels bad (is in a bad condition, as perceived by the sense of feeling). The sun shines bright (is bright, as perceived by its shining).

When the idea of being is prominent in the verb, as in the examples above, you see that the adjective, and not the adverb, follows.

Direction.Justify the use of these adjectives and adverbs:—

1. The boy is running wild. 2. The boy is running wildly about. 3. They all arrived safe and sound. 4. The day opened bright. 5. He felt awkward in the presence of ladies. 6. He felt around awkwardly for his chair. 7. The sun shines bright. 8. The sun shines brightly on the tree-tops. 9. He appeared prompt and willing. 10. He appeared promptly and willingly.

Direction.—Correct these errors and give your reasons:—

1. My head pains me very bad. 2. My friend has acted very strange in the matter. 3. Don't speak harsh. 4. It can be bought very cheaply. 5. I feel tolerable well. 6. She looks beautifully.

Direction.—Join to each of the nouns below three appropriate adjectives expressing the qualities as assumed, and then make complete sentences by asserting these qualities:—

Model. Hard brittle + glass. transparent

Glass is hard, brittle, and transparent.

Coal, iron, Niagara Falls, flowers, war, ships.

Direction.—Compose sentences containing these nouns as attribute complements:—

Emperor, mathematician, Longfellow, Richmond.

Direction.—Compose sentences, using these verbs as predicates, and these pronouns as attribute complements:—

Is, was, might have been; I, we, he, she, they.

Remark.—Notice that these forms of the pronouns—I, we, thou, he, she, ye, they, and who—are never used as object complements or as principal words in prepositional phrases; and that me, us, thee, him, her, them, and whom are never used as subjects or as attribute complements of sentences.

Direction.—Compose sentences in which each of the following verbs shall have two complements—the one an object complement, the other an objective complement:

Let some object complements be pronouns, and let some objective complements be introduced by as.

Model.—They call me chief. We regard composition as very important.

Make, appoint, consider, choose, call.

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LESSON 33.

NOUNS AS ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS.

Introductory Hints.—Solomon's temple was destroyed. Solomon's limits temple by telling what or whose temple is spoken of, and is therefore a modifier of temple.

The relation of Solomon to the temple is expressed by the apostrophe and s ('s) added to the noun Solomon. When s has been added to the noun to denote more than one, this relation of possession is expressed by the apostrophe alone ('); as, boys' hats. This same relation of possession may be expressed by the preposition of; Solomon's temple = the temple of Solomon.

Dom Pedro, the emperor, was welcomed by the Americans. The noun emperor modifies Dom Pedro by telling what Dom Pedro is meant. Both words name the same person.

Solomon's and emperor, like adjectives, modify nouns; but they are names of things, and are modified by adjectives and not by adverbs; as, the wise Solomon's temple; Dom Pedro, the Brazilian emperor. These are conclusive reasons for calling such words nouns.

They represent two kinds of Noun Modifiers—the Possessive and the Explanatory.

The Explanatory Modifier is often called an Appositive. It identifies or explains by adding another name of the same thing.

Analysis.

1. Elizabeth's favorite, Raleigh, was beheaded by James I.

favorite (Raleigh) was beheaded ==================== ============== Elizabeth's y James I -

Oral Analysts.—Elizabeth's and Raleigh are modifiers of the subject; the first word telling whose favorite is meant, the second what favorite. Elizabeth's favorite, Raleigh is the modified subject.

2. The best features of King James's translation of the Bible are derived from Tyndale's version. 3. St. Paul, the apostle, was beheaded in the reign of Nero. 4. A fool's bolt is soon shot. 5. The tadpole, or polliwog, becomes a frog. 6. An idle brain is the devil's workshop. 7. Mahomet, or Mohammed, was born in the year 569 and died in 632. 8. They scaled Mount Blanc—a daring feat.

They scaled Mount Blanc ( feat ) ==== =================== ======= a daring

Explanation.—Feat is explanatory of the sentence, They scaled Mount Blanc, and in the diagram it stands, enclosed in curves, on a short line placed after the sentence line.

9. Bees communicate to each other the death of the queen, by a rapid interlacing of the antennae. [Footnote: For uses of each other and one another, see Lesson 124.]

Explanation.—Each other may be treated as one term, or each may be made explanatory of bees.

10. The lamp of a man's life has three wicks—brain, blood, and breath.

Explanation.—Several words may together be explanatory of one.

11. The turtle's back-bone and breast-bone—its shell and coat of armor—are on the outside of its body.

back-bone shell ============= ======== ' /' are and' ==========(======/ 'and =)= ======= ' / urtle's its ' / breast-bone '/ The \' coat / =============/ ========/

12. Cromwell's rule as Protector began in the year 1653 and ended in 1658.

Explanation.—As, namely, to wit, viz., i.e., e.g., and that is may introduce explanatory modifiers, but they do not seem to connect them to the words modified. In the diagram they stand like as in Lesson 30. Protector is explanatory of Cromwell's.

13. In the latter half of the eighteenth century, three powerful nations, namely, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, united for the dismemberment of Poland. 14. John, the beloved disciple, lay on his Master's breast. 15. The petals of the daisy, day's-eye, close at night and in rainy weather.

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LESSON 34.

COMPOSITION—NOUNS AS ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS.

COMMA—RULE.—An Explanatory Modifier, when it does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it, is set off by the comma. [Footnote: See foot-note, Lesson 18]

Explanation.—The words I and O should be written in capital letters. The phrase I and O restricts words, that is, limits its application, and no comma is needed.

Jacob's favorite sons, Joseph and Benjamin, were Rachel's children. The phrase Joseph and Benjamin explains sons without restricting, and therefore should be set off by the comma.

In each of these expressions, I myself, we boys, William the Conqueror, the explanatory term combines closely with the word explained, and no comma is needed.

Direction.—Give the reasons for the insertion or the omission of commas in these sentences:—

1. My brother Henry and my brother George belong to a boat-club. 2. The author of Pilgrim's Progress, John Bunyan, was the son of a tinker. 3. Shakespeare, the great dramatist, was careless of his literary reputation. 4. The conqueror of Mexico, Cortez, was cruel in his treatment of Montezuma. 5. Pizarro, the conqueror of Peru, was a Spaniard. 6. The Emperors Napoleon and Alexander met and became fast friends on a raft at Tilsit.

Direction.—Insert commas below, where they are needed, and give your reasons:—

1. The Franks a warlike people of Germany gave their name to France. 2. My son Joseph has entered college. 3. You blocks! You stones! 0 you hard hearts! 4. Mecca a city in Arabia is sacred in the eyes of Mohammedans. 5. He himself could not go. 6. The poet Spenser lived in the reign of Elizabeth. 7. Elizabeth Queen of England ruled from 1558 to 1603.

Direction.Compose sentences containing these expressions as explanatory modifiers:—

The most useful metal; the capital of Turkey; the Imperial City; the great English poets; the hermit; a distinguished American statesman.

Direction.Punctuate these expressions, and employ each of them in a sentence:—

See Remark, Lesson 21. Omit or, and note the effect.

1. Palestine or the Holy Land ——. 2. New York or the Empire State ——. 3. New Orleans or the Crescent City ——. 4. The five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch ——.

Remember that ('s) and (') are the possessive signs—(') being used when s has been added to denote more than one, and ('s) in other cases.

Direction.Copy the following, and note the use of the possessive sign:—

The lady's fan; the girl's bonnet; a dollar's worth; Burns's poems; Brown & Co.'s business; a day's work; men's clothing; children's toys; those girls' dresses; ladies' calls; three years' interest; five dollars' worth.

Direction.Make possessive modifiers of the following words, and join them to appropriate nouns:—

Woman, women; mouse, mice; buffalo, buffaloes; fairy, fairies; hero, heroes; baby, babies; calf, calves.

Caution.—Do not use ('s) or (') with the pronouns its, his, ours, yours, hers, theirs.

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LESSON 35.

NOUNS AS ADVERB MODIFIERS.

Introductory Hints.He gave me a book. Here we have what many grammarians call a double object. Book, naming the thing acted upon, they call the direct object; and me, naming the person toward whom the act is directed, they call the indirect, or dative, object.

You see that me and book do not, like Cornwallis and army, in Washington captured Cornwallis and his army, form a compound object complement; they cannot be connected by a conjunction, for they do not stand in the same relation to the verb gave. The meaning is not, He gave me and the book.

We treat these indirect objects, which generally denote the person to or for whom something is done, as equivalent to phrase modifiers. If we change the order of the words, a preposition must be supplied; as, He gave a book to me. He bought me a book; He bought a book for me. He asked me a question; He asked a question of me. When the indirect object precedes the direct, no preposition is expressed or understood.

Teach, tell, send, promise, permit, and lend are other examples of verbs that take indirect objects.

Besides these indirect objects, nouns denoting measure, quantity, weight, time, value, distance, or direction are often used adverbially, being equivalent to phrase modifiers. We walked four miles an hour; It weighs one pound; It is worth a dollar a yard; I went home that way; The wall is ten feet six inches high.

The idiom of the language does not often admit a preposition before nouns denoting measure, direction, etc. In your analysis you need not supply one.

Analysis.

1. They offered Caesar the crown three times.

They offered crown ======== ========================== times he - hree Caesar -

Oral Analysis.Caesar and times are nouns used adverbially, being equivalent to adverb phrases modifying the predicate offered.

2. We pay the President of the United States $50,000 a year. 3. He sent his daughter home that way. 4. I gave him a dollar a bushel for his wheat, and ten cents a pound for his sugar. 5. Shakespeare was fifty-two years old the very day of his death. 6. Serpents cast their skin once a year. 7. The famous Charter Oak of Hartford, Conn., fell Aug. 21, 1856. 8. Good land should yield its owner seventy-five bushels of corn an acre. 9. On the fatal field of Zutphen, Sept. 22, 1586, his attendants brought the wounded Sir Philip Sidney a cup of cold water. 10. He magnanimously gave a dying soldier the water. 11. The frog lives several weeks as a fish, and breathes by means of gills. 12. Queen Esther asked King Ahasuerus a favor. 13. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great philosophy. 14. The pure attar of roses is worth twenty or thirty dollars an ounce. 15. Puff-balls have grown six inches in diameter in a single night.

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LESSON 36.

REVIEW.

TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions, Lesson 16.

Direction.Review from Lesson 28 to Lesson 35, inclusive.

Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (for example, show clearly what two things are essential to a complete predicate; explain what is meant by a complement; distinguish clearly the three kinds of complements; show what parts of speech may be employed for each, and tell what general idea—action, quality, class, or identity—is expressed by each attribute complement or objective complement in your illustrations, etc.). Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules; explain and illustrate fully the distinction between an adjective complement and an adverb modifier; illustrate what is taught of the forms I, we, etc., me, us, etc.; explain and illustrate the use of the possessive sign.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 156-159.)

TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions to the teacher, pages 30, 150.

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LESSON 37.

VERBS AS ADJECTIVES AND AS NOUNS—PARTICIPLES.

Introductory Hints.Corn grows; Corn growing. Here growing differs from grows in lacking the power to assert. Growing is a form of the verb that cannot, like grows, make a complete predicate because it only assumes or implies that the corn does the act. Corn may be called the assumed subject of growing.

Birds, singing, delight us. Here singing does duty (1) as an adjective, describing birds by assuming or implying an act, and (2) as a verb by expressing the act of singing as going on at the time birds delight us.

By singing their songs birds delight us. Here singing has the nature of a verb and that of a noun. As a verb it has an object complement, songs; and as a noun it names the act, and stands as the principal word in a prepositional phrase.

Their singing so sweetly delights us. Here, also, singing has the nature of a verb and that of a noun. As a verb it has an adverb modifier, sweetly, and as a noun it names an act and takes a possessive modifier.

This form of the verb is called the Participle (Lat. pars, a part, and capere, to take) because it partakes of two natures and performs two offices—those of a verb and an adjective, or those of a verb and a noun. (For definition see Lesson 131.)

Singing birds delight us. Here singing has lost its verbal nature, and expresses a permanent quality of birds—telling what kind of birds,—and consequently is a mere adjective. The singing of the birds delights us. Here singing is simply a noun, naming the act and taking adjective modifiers.

There are two kinds of participles; [Footnote: Grammarians are not agreed as to what these words that have the nature of the verb and that of the noun should be called. Some would call the simple forms doing, writing, and injuring, in sentences (1), (6), and (7), Lesson 38, Infinitives. They would also call by the same name such compound forms as being accepted, having been shown, and having said in these expressions: "for the purpose of being accepted;" "is the having been shown over a place;" "I recollect his having said that." But does it not tax even credulity to believe that a simple Anglo-Saxon infinitive in -an, only one form of which followed a preposition, and that always to, could have developed into many compound forms, used in both voices, following almost any preposition, and modified by the and by nouns and pronouns in the possessive? No wonder the grammarian Mason says, "An infinitive in -ing, set down by some as a modification of the simple infinitive in -an or -en, is a perfectly unwarranted invention."

Others call these words modernized forms of the Anglo-Saxon Verbal Nouns in -ung, -ing. But this derivation of them encounters the stubborn fact that those verbal nouns never were compound, and never were or could be followed by objects. These words, on the contrary, are compound, as we have seen, and have objects. That they are from nouns in -ung is otherwise, and almost for the same reasons, as incredible as that they are from infinitives in -an.

Others call these words Gerunds. A gerund in Latin is a simple form of the verb in the active voice, never found in the nominative, and never in the accusative (objective) after a verb. A gerund in Anglo-Saxon is a simple form of the verb in the active voice—the dative case of the infinitive merely—used mainly to indicate purpose, and always preceded by the preposition to. To call these words in question gerunds is to stretch the term gerund immensely beyond its meaning in Anglo-Saxon, and make it cover words which sometimes (1) are highly compounded; sometimes (2) are used in the passive voice; sometimes (3) follow other prepositions than to; sometimes (4) do not follow any preposition; sometimes (5) are objects of verbs; sometimes (6) are subjects of verbs; sometimes (7) are modified by the; sometimes (8) are modified by a noun or pronoun in the possessive; and generally (9) do not indicate purpose. We submit that the extension of a class term so as to include words having these relations that the Anglo-Saxon gerund never had, is not warranted by any precedent except that furnished above in the extension of the term infinitive or of the term verbal noun!

Still others call some of these words Infinitives; some of them Verbal Nouns; and some of them Gerunds.

The forms in question—seeing, having seen, being seen, having been seen, and having been seeing, for instance—are now made from the verb in precisely the same way when partaking the nature of the noun as when partaking the nature of the adjective. What can they possibly be but the forms that all grammarians call participles extended to new uses? If the uses of the original participles have been extended, why may we not carry over the name? The name participle is as true to its etymology when applied to the nounal use of the verb as when applied to the adjectival use. For convenience of classification we call these disputed forms participles, as good grammarians long ago called them and still call them, though some of them may be traced back to the Saxon verbal noun or to the infinitive, and though the Saxon participle was adjectival. The name participle neither confounds terms nor misleads the student. The nounal and the adjectival uses of participial forms we distinguish very sharply.] one sharing the nature of the verb and that of the adjective; the other, the nature of the verb and that of the noun. Participles commonly end in ing, ed, or en.

The participle, like other forms of the verb, may be followed by an object complement or an attribute complement.

Analysis and Parsing.

The participle may be used as an adjective modifier.

1. Hearing a step, I turned.

I turned == ======== hea ring step a

Explanation.—The line standing for the participle is broken; one part slants to represent the adjective nature of the participle, and the other is horizontal to represent its verbal nature.

Oral Analysis.—The phrase hearing a step is a modifier of the subject; [Footnote: Logically, or in sense, hearing a step modifies the predicate also. I turned when or because I heard a step. See Lesson 79.] the principal word is hearing, which is completed by the noun step; step is modified by a.

Parsing.—Hearing is a form of the verb called participle because the act expressed by it is merely assumed, and it shares the nature of an adjective and that of a verb.

2. The fat of the body is fuel laid away for use.

Explanation.—The complement is here modified by a participle phrase.

3. The spinal marrow, proceeding from the brain, extends down-ward through the back-bone. 4. Van Twiller sat in a huge chair of solid oak, hewn in the celebrated forest of the Hague.

Explanation.—The principal word of a prepositional phrase is here modified by a participle phrase.

5. Lentulus, returning with victorious legions, had amused the populace with the sports of the amphitheater.

The participle may be used as an attribute complement.

6. The natives came crowding around.

Explanation.—Crowding here completes the predicate came, and belongs to the subject natives. The natives are represented as performing the act of coming and the accompanying act of crowding. The assertive force of the predicate came seems to extend over both verbs. [Footnote: Some grammarians prefer to treat the participle in such constructions as adverbial. But is crowding any more adverbial here than are pale and trembling in "The natives came pale and trembling"?]

7. The city lies sleeping. 8. They stood terrified. 9. The philosopher sat buried in thought.

and and ........ star ving sav - ing gru bbing - miser kept / ==== ====================

10. The old miser kept grubbing and saving and starving.

The participle may be used as an objective complement.

11. He kept me waiting.

Explanation.—Waiting completes kept and relates to the object complement me. Kept-waiting expresses the complete act performed upon me. He kept-waiting me=He detained me. The relation of waiting to me may be seen by changing the form of the verb; as, I was kept waiting. See Lesson 31.

12. I found my book growing dull. [Footnote: It will be seen by this and following examples that we extend the application of the term objective complement beyond its primary, or factitive, sense. In "I struck the man dead," the condition expressed by dead is the result of the act expressed by struck. In "I found the man dead," the condition is not the result of the act, and so grammarians say that in this second example dead should be treated simply as an "appositive" adjective modifying man. While dead does not belong to man as expressing the result of the act, it is made to belong to man through the asserting force of the verb, and therefore is not a mere modifier of man. Dead helps found to express the act. Not found, but found-dead tells what was done to the man.

If we put the sentence in the passive form, "The man was found dead," it will be seen that dead is more than a mere modifier; it belongs to man through the assertive force of was found. If dead is here merely an "appositive" adjective, "I found the man dead" must equal "I found the man, who was dead" (or, "and he was dead"). The two sentences obviously are not equal. "I caught him asleep" does not mean, "I caught him, and he was asleep."

If, in the construction discussed above, dead is an objective complement, quiet, stirring, and (to) stir in the following sentences are objective complements:—

I saw the leaves quiet. I saw the leaves stirring. I saw the leaves stir.

The adjective, the participle, and the infinitive do not here seem to differ essentially in office. See Lesson 31 and page 78.]

grow wing dull - I found / / book ===== ============================== my

Explanation.—The diagram representing the phrase complement is drawn above the complement line, on which it is made to rest by means of a support. All that stands on the complement line is regarded as the complement. Notice that the little mark before the phrase points toward the object complement. The adjective dull completes growing and belongs to book, the assumed subject of growing.

13. He owned himself defeated. 14. No one ever saw fat men heading a riot or herding together in turbulent mobs. 15. I felt my heart beating faster. 16. You may imagine me sitting there. 17. Saul, seeking his father's asses, found himself suddenly turned into a king.

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LESSON 38.

PARTICIPLES—CONTINUED.

Analysis and Parsing.

The participle may be used as principal word in a prepositional phrase.

1. We receive good by doing good.

We receive good ===== ==================== y -,doing good

Explanation.—The line representing the participle here is broken; the first part represents the participle as a noun, and the other as a verb.

Oral Analysis.—The phrase by doing good is a modifier of the predicate; by introduces the phrase; the principal word is doing, which is completed by the noun good.

Passing.—Doing is a participle; like a noun, it follows the preposition by, and, like a verb, it takes an object complement.

2. Portions of the brain may be cut off without producing any pain. 3. The Coliseum was once capable of seating ninety thousand persons. 4. Success generally depends on acting prudently, steadily, and vigorously. 5. You cannot fully sympathize with suffering without having suffered. (Suffering is here a noun.)

The participle may be the principal word in a phrase used as a subject or as an object complement.

6. Your writing that letter so neatly secured the position.

-, writing letter ' Your
eatly hat so / secured position ========= ========='=========== he

Explanation.—The diagram of the subject phrase is drawn above the subject line. All that rests on the subject line is regarded as the subject.

Oral Analysis.—The phrase your writing that letter so neatly is the subject; the principal word of it is writing, which is completed by letter; writing, as a noun, is modified by your, and, as a verb, by the adverb phrase so neatly.

7. We should avoid injuring the feelings of others. 8. My going there will depend upon my father's giving his consent. 9. Good reading aloud is a rare accomplishment.

The participial form may be used as a mere noun or a mere adjective.

10. The cackling of geese saved Rome.

11. Such was the exciting campaign, celebrated in many a long-forgotten song. [Footnote: "Manig man in Anglo-Saxon was used like German mancher mann, Latin multus vir, and the like, until the thirteenth century; when the article was inserted to emphasize the distribution before indicated by the singular number."—Prof. F. A. March.]

Explanation.—Many modifies song after song has been limited by a and long-forgotten.

12. All silencing of discussion is an assumption of infallibility. 13. He was a squeezing, grasping, hardened old sinner.

The participle may be used in independent or absolute phrases.

14. The bridge at Ashtabula giving way, the train fell into the river.

Explanation.—The diagram of the absolute phrase, which consists of a noun used independently with a participle, stands by itself. See lesson 44.

15. Talking of exercise, you have heard, of course, of Dickens's "constitutionals."

* * * * *

LESSON 39.

COMPOSITION—PARTICIPLES.

COMMA—RULE.—The Participle used as an adjective modifier, with the words belonging to it, is set off [Footnote: An expression in the body of a sentence is set off by two commas; at the beginning or at the end, by one comma.] by the comma unless restrictive.

Explanation.—A bird, lighting near my window, greeted me with a song. The bird sitting on the wall is a wren. Lighting describes without restricting; sitting restricts—limits the application of bird to a particular bird.

Direction.—Justify the punctuation of the participle phrases in Lesson 37.

Caution.—In using a participle, be careful to leave no doubt as to what you intend it to modify.

Direction.—Correct these errors in arrangement, and punctuate, giving your reasons:—

1. A gentleman will let his house going abroad for the summer to a small family containing all the improvements. 2. The town contains fifty houses and one hundred inhabitants built of brick. 3. Suits ready made of material cut by an experienced tailor handsomely trimmed and bought at a bargain are offered cheap. 4. Seated on the topmost branch of a tall tree busily engaged in gnawing an acorn we espied a squirrel. 5. A poor child was found in the streets by a wealthy and benevolent gentleman suffering from cold and hunger.

Direction.—Recast these sentences, making the reference of the participle clear, and punctuating correctly:—

Model.—Climbing to the top of the hill the Atlantic ocean was seen. Incorrect because it appears that the ocean did the climbing.

Climbing to the top of the hill, we saw the Atlantic ocean.

1. Entering the next room was seen a marble statue of Apollo. 2. By giving him a few hints he was prepared to do the work well. 3. Desiring an early start the horse was saddled by five o'clock.

Direction.—Compose sentences in which each of these three participles shall be used as an adjective modifier, as the principal word in a prepositional phrase, as the principal word in a phrase used as a subject or as an object complement, as a mere adjective, as a mere noun, and in an absolute phrase:—

Buzzing, leaping, waving.

* * * * *

LESSON 40.

VERBS AS NOUNS—INFINITIVES.

Introductory Hints.—I came to see you. Here the verb see, like the participle, lacks asserting power—I to see asserts nothing. See, following the preposition to, [Footnote: For the discussion of to with the infinitive, see Lesson 134.] names the act and is completed by you, and so does duty as a noun and as a verb. In office it is like the second kind of participles, described in Lesson 37, and from many grammarians has received the same name—some calling both gerunds, and others calling both infinitives. It differs from this participle in form, and in following only the preposition to. Came to see=came for seeing.

This form of the verb is frequently the principal word of a phrase used as a subject or as an object, complement; as, To read good books is profitable; I like to read good books. Here also the form with to is equivalent to the participle form reading. Reading good books is profitable.

As this form of the verb names the action in an indefinite way, without limiting it to a subject, we call it the Infinitive (Lat. infinitus, without limit). For definition, see Lesson 131. The infinitive, like the participle, may have what is called an assumed subject. The assumed subject denotes that to which the action or being expressed by the participle or the infinitive belongs.

Frequently the infinitive phrase expresses purpose, as in the first example given above, and in such cases to expresses relation, and performs its full function as a preposition; but, when the infinitive phrase is used as subject or as object complement, the to expresses no relation. It serves only to introduce the phrase, and in no way affects the meaning of the verb.

The infinitive, like other forms of the verb, may be followed by the different complements.

Analysis and Parsing.

The infinitive phrase may be used as an adjective modifier or an adverb modifier.

1. The hot-house is a trap to catch sunbeams.

hot-house is trap ============ ================ The a o catch sunbeams -'

Oral Analysis.—To introduces the phrase; catch is the principal word, and sunbeams completes it.

Parsing.—To is a preposition, introducing the phrase and showing the relation, in sense, of the principal word to trap; catch is a form of the verb called infinitive; like a noun, it follows the preposition to and names the action, and, like a verb, it is completed by sunbeams.

2. Richelieu's title to command rested on sublime force of will and decision of character. 3. Many of the attempts to assassinate William the Silent were defeated. 4. We will strive to please you.

Explanation.—The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the predicate.

5. Ingenious Art steps forth to fashion and refine the race. 6. These harmless delusions tend to make us happy.

Explanation.—Happy completes make and relates to us.

7. Wounds made by words are hard to heal.

Explanation.—The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the adjective hard. To heal = to be healed.

8. The representative Yankee, selling his farm, wanders away to seek new lands, to clear new cornfields, to build another shingle palace, and again to sell off and wander. 9. These apples are not ripe enough to eat.

Explanation.—The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the adverb enough. To eat = to be eaten.

The infinitive phrase may be used as subject or complement.

10. To be good is to be great.

To o be good be great - / is / ======== ==================

Explanation.—To, in each of these phrases, shows no relation—it serves merely to introduce. The complements good and great are adjectives used abstractly, having no noun to relate to.

11. To bear our fate is to conquer it. 12. To be entirely just in our estimate of others is impossible. 13. The noblest vengeance is to forgive. 14. He seemed to be innocent.

Explanation.—The infinitive phrase here performs the office of an adjective. To be innocent = innocent.

15. The blind men's dogs appeared to know him. 16. We should learn to govern ourselves.

Explanation.—The infinitive phrase is here used as an object complement.

17. Each hill attempts to ape her voice.

* * * * *

LESSON 41.

INFINITIVES—CONTINUED.

Analysis.

The infinitive phrase may be used after a preposition as the principal term of another phrase.

1. My friend is about to leave me.

o leave me -' about / - friend is / ======== ===================== My

Explanation.—The preposition about introduces the phrase used as attribute complement; the principal part is the infinitive phrase to leave me.

2. Paul was now about to open his mouth. 3. No way remains but to go on.

Explanation.—But is here a preposition.

The infinitive and its assumed subject may form the principal term in a phrase introduced by the preposition for.

4. For us to know our faults is profitable.

us - o know faults For ' / our - / is profitable ============= ======================

Explanation.—For introduces the subject phrase; the principal part of the entire phrase is us to know our faults; the principal word is us, which is modified by the phrase to know our faults.

5. God never made his work for man to mend.

Explanation.—-The principal term of the phrase for man to mend is not man, but man to mend.

6. For a man to be proud of his learning is the greatest ignorance.

The infinitive phrase may be used as an explanatory modifier.

7. It is easy to find fault.

o find fault -' It (/ ) is easy ======== ==========

Explanation.—The infinitive phrase to find fault explains the subject it. Read the sentence without it, and you will see the real nature of the phrase. This use of it as a substitute for the real subject is a very common idiom of our language. It allows the real subject to follow the verb, and thus gives the sentence balance of parts.

8. It is not the way to argue down a vice to tell lies about it. 9. It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. 10. It is not all of life to live. 11. This task, to teach the young, may become delightful.

The infinitive phrase may be used as objective complement.

12. He made me wait.

Explanation.—The infinitive wait (here used without to) completes made and relates to me. He made-wait me = He detained me.

See "Introductory Hints," Lesson 31, and participles used as objective complements, Lesson 37. Compare I saw him do it with I saw him doing it. Compare also He made the stick bend—equaling He made-bend (= bent) the stick—with He made the stick straight—equaling He made-straight (= straightened) the stick.

The relation of these objective complements to me, him, and stick may be more clearly seen by changing the form of the verb, thus: I was made to wait; He was seen to do it, He was seen doing it; The stick was made to bend; The stick was made straight.

13.We found the report to be true. [Footnote: Some prefer to treat the report to be true as an object clause because it is equivalent to the clause that the report is true. But many expressions logically equivalent are entirely different in grammatical construction; as, I desire his promotion; I desire him to be promoted; I desire that he should be promoted. Besides, to teach that him is the subject, and to be promoted the predicate, of a clause would certainly be confusing.]

o be true We found / / report === ==========================

14. He commanded the bridge to be lowered. [Footnote: Notice the difference in construction between this sentence and the sentence He commanded him to lower the bridge. Him represents the one to whom the command is given, and to lower the bridge is the object complement. This last sentence = He commanded him that he should lower the bridge. Compare He told me to go with He told (to) me a story; also He taught me to read with He taught (to) me reading. In such sentences as (13) and (14) it may not always be expedient to demand that the pupil shall trace the exact relations of the infinitive phrase to the preceding noun and to the predicate verb. If preferred, in such cases, the infinitive and its assumed subject may be treated as a kind of phrase object, equivalent to a clause. This construction is similar to the Latin "accusative with the infinitive."]

15. I saw the leaves stir. [Footnote: See pages 68 and 69, foot-note.]

Explanation.—Stir is an infinitive without the to.

16. Being persuaded by Poppaesa, Hero caused his mother, Agrippina, to be assassinated.

* * * * *

LESSON 42.

INFINITIVES—CONTINUED.

Analysis.

The infinitive phrase may be used independently. [Footnote: These infinitive phrases can be expanded into dependent clauses. See Lesson 79.

For the infinitive after as, than, etc., see Lesson 63. Participles and infinitives unite with other verbs to make compound forms; as, have walked, shall walk.]

Explanation.—In the diagram the independent element must stand by itself.

1. England's debt, to put it in round numbers, is $4,000,000,000. 2. Every object has several faces, so to speak. 3. To make a long story short, Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette were executed.

Infinitives and Participles.

MISCELLANEOUS.

4. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord. 5. We require clothing in the summer to protect the body from the heat of the sun. 6. Rip Van Winkle could not account for everything's having changed so. 7. This sentence is not too difficult for me to analyze. 8. The fog came pouring in at every chink and keyhole, 9. Conscience, her first law broken, wounded lies. 10. To be, or not to be,—that is the question. 11. I supposed him to be a gentleman. 12. Food, keeping the body in health by making it warm and repairing its waste, is a necessity. 13. I will teach you the trick to prevent your being cheated another time. 14. She threatened to go beyond the sea, to throw herself out of the window, to drown herself. 15. Busied with public affairs, the council would sit for hours smoking and watching the smoke curl from their pipes to the ceiling.

* * * * *

LESSON 43.

COMPOSITION—THE INFINITIVE.

Direction.—Change the infinitives in these sentences into participles, and the participles into infinitives:—

Notice that to, the only preposition used with the infinitive, is changed to toward, for, of, at, in, or on, when the infinitive is changed to a participle.

1. I am inclined to believe it. 2. I am ashamed to be seen there. 3. She will be grieved to hear it. 4. They trembled to hear such words. 5. It will serve for amusing the children. 6. There is a time to laugh. 7. I rejoice to hear it. 8. You are prompt to obey. 9. They delight to do it. 10. I am surprised at seeing you. 11. Stones are used in ballasting vessels.

Direction.—Improve these sentences by changing the participles into infinitives, and the infinitives into participles:—

1. We began ascending the mountain. 2. He did not recollect to have paid it. 3. I commenced to write a letter. 4. It is inconvenient being poor. 5. It is not wise complaining.

Direction.—Vary these sentences as in the model:—

Model.—Rising early is healthful; To rise early is healthful; It is healthful to rise early; For one to rise early is healthful.

(Notice that the explanatory phrase after it is not set off by the comma.)

1. Reading good books is profitable. 2. Equivocating is disgraceful. 3. Slandering is base. 4. Indorsing another's paper is dangerous. 5. Swearing is sinful.

Direction.Write nine sentences, in three of which the infinitive phrase shall be used as an adjective, in three as an adverb, and in three as a noun.

Direction.Write eight sentences in which these verbs shall be followed by an infinitive without the to:—

Model.—We saw the sun sink behind the mountain.

Bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, and see.

* * * * *

LESSON 44.

WORDS AND PHRASES USED INDEPENDENTLY.

Introductory Hints.—In this Lesson we wish to notice words and phrases that in certain uses have no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence.

The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars. Dear Brutus serves only to arrest attention, and is independent by address.

Poor man! he never came back again. Poor man is independent by exclamation.

Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me. Rod and staff simply call attention to the objects before anything is said of them, and are independent by pleonasm—a construction used sometimes for rhetorical effect, but out of place in ordinary speech.

His master being absent, the business was neglected. His master being absent logically modifies the verb was neglected by assigning the cause, but the phrase has no connective expressed or understood, and is therefore grammatically independent. This is called the absolute phrase. An absolute phrase consists of a noun or a pronoun used independently with a modifying participle.

His conduct, generally speaking, was honorable. Speaking is a participle without connection, and with the adverb generally forms an independent phrase.

To confess the truth, I was wrong. The infinitive phrase is independent.

The adverbs well, now, why, there are sometimes independent; as, Well, life is an enigma; Now, that is strange; Why, it is already noon; There are pitch-pine Yankees and white-pine Yankees.

Interjections are without grammatical connection, as you have learned, and hence are independent.

Whatever is enclosed within marks of parenthesis is also independent of the rest of the sentence; as, I stake my fame (and I had fame), my heart, my hope, my soul, upon this cast.

Analysis.

1. The loveliest things in life, Tom, are but shadows.

Explanation.Tom is independent by address. But is an adjective modifying shadows.

2. There are one-story intellects, two-story intellects, and three-story intellects with skylights.

Explanation.—Often, as in this sentence, there is used idiomatically, merely to throw the subject after the verb, the idea of place having faded out of the word. To express place, another there may follow the predicate; as, There is gold there.

3. Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro. 4. Hope lost, all is lost. 5. The smith, a mighty man is he. 6. Why, this is not revenge. 7. Well, this is the forest of Arden. 8. Now, there is at Jerusalem, by the sheep-market, a pool. 9. To speak plainly, your habits are your worst enemies. 10. No accident occurring, we shall arrive to-morrow. 11. The teacher being sick, there was no school Friday. 12. Mr. President, I shall enter on no encomium upon Massachusetts. 13. Properly speaking, there can be no chance in our affairs. 14. But the enemies of tyranny—their path leads to the scaffold. 15. She (oh, the artfulness of the woman!) managed the matter extremely well.

retreat began ======== ====== later - day - A

16. A day later (Oct. 19, 1812) began the fatal retreat of the Grand Army, from Moscow.

See Lesson 35.

* * * * *

LESSON 45.

COMPOSITION—INDEPENDENT WORDS AND PHRASES.

COMMA—RULE.—Words and phrases independent or nearly so are set off by the comma.

Remark.—Interjections, as you have seen, are usually followed by the exclamation point; and there, used merely to introduce, is never set off by the comma. When the break after pleonastic expressions is slight, as in (5), Lesson 44, the comma is used; but, if it is more abrupt, as in (14), the dash is required. If the independent expression can be omitted without affecting the sense, it may be enclosed within marks of parenthesis, as in (15) and (16). (For the uses of the dash and the marks of parenthesis, see Lesson 148.)

Words and phrases nearly independent are those which, like however, of course, indeed, in short, by the bye, for instance, and accordingly, do not modify a word or a phrase alone, but rather the sentence as a whole; as, Lee did not, however, follow Washington's orders.

Direction.Write sentences illustrating the several kinds of independent expressions, and punctuate according to the Rule as explained.

Direction.Write short sentences in which these words and phrases, used in a manner nearly independent, shall occur, and punctuate them properly:—

In short, indeed, now and then, for instance, accordingly, moreover, however, at least, in general, no doubt, by the bye, by the way, then, too, of course, in fine, namely, above all, therefore.

Direction.Write short sentences in which these words shall modify same particular word or phrase so closely as not to be set off by the comma:—

Indeed, surely, too, then, now, further, why, again, still.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 160-162.)

TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions to the teacher, pages 30,150.

* * * * *

LESSON 46.

SENTENCES CLASSIFIED WITH RESPECT TO MEANING.

Introductory Hints.—In the previous Lessons we have considered the sentence with respect to the words and phrases composing it. Let us now look at it as a whole.

The mountains lift up their heads. This sentence is used simply to affirm, or to declare a fact, and is called a Declarative Sentence.

Do the mountains lift up their heads? This sentence expresses a question, and is called an Interrogative Sentence.

Lift up your heads. This sentence expresses a command, and is called an Imperative Sentence. Such expressions as You must go, You shall go are equivalent to imperative sentences, though they have not the imperative form.

How the mountains lift up their heads! In this sentence the thought is expressed with strong emotion. It is called an Exclamatory Sentence. How and what usually introduce such sentences; but a declarative, an interrogative, or an imperative sentence may become exclamatory when the speaker uses it mainly to give vent to his feelings; as, It is impossible! How can I endure it! Talk of hypocrisy after this!

DEFINITION.—A Declarative Sentence is one that is used to affirm or to deny.

DEFINITION.—An Interrogative Sentence is one that expresses a question.

DEFINITION.—An Imperative Sentence is one that expresses a command or an entreaty.

DEFINITION.—An Exclamatory Sentence is one that expresses sudden thought or strong feeling. [Footnote: For punctuation, see page 42.]

INTERROGATION POINT—RULE.—Every direct interrogative sentence should be followed by an interrogation point.

Remark.—When an interrogative sentence is made a part of another sentence, it may be direct; as, He asked, "What is the trouble?" or indirect; as, He asked what the trouble was. (See Lesson 74.)

Analysis.

Direction.Before analyzing these sentences, classify them, and justify the terminal marks of punctuation:

1. There are no accidents in the providence of God. 2. Why does the very murderer, his victim sleeping before him, and his glaring eye taking the measure of the blow, strike wide of the mortal part? 3. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss.

(The subject is you understood.)

4. How wonderful is the advent of spring! 5. Oh! a dainty plant is the ivy green! 6. Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work. 7. Alexander the Great died at Babylon in the thirty-third year of his age. 8. How sickness enlarges the dimensions of a man's self to himself! 9. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. 10. Lend me your ears. 11. What brilliant rings the planet Saturn has! 12. What power shall blanch the sullied snow of character? 13. The laws of nature are the thoughts of God. 14. How beautiful was the snow, falling all day long, all night long, on the roofs of the living, on the graves of the dead! 15. Who, in the darkest days of our Revolution, carried your flag into the very chops of the British Channel, bearded the lion in his den, and woke the echoes of old Albion's hills by the thunders of his cannon and the shouts of his triumph?

* * * * *

LESSON 47.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW

Analysis.

1. Poetry is only the eloquence and enthusiasm of religion.—Wordsworth. 2. Refusing to bare his head to any earthly potentate, Richelieu would permit no eminent author to stand bareheaded in his presence. —Stephen. 3. The Queen of England is simply a piece of historic heraldry; a flag, floating grandly over a Liberal ministry yesterday, over a Tory ministry to-day.—Conway. 4. The vulgar intellectual palate hankers after the titillation of foaming phrase.—Lowell. 5. Two mighty vortices, Pericles and Alexander the Great, drew into strong eddies about themselves all the glory and the pomp of Greek literature, Greek eloquence, Greek wisdom, Greek art.—De Quincey. 6. Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense, lie in three words— health, peace, and competence.—Pope. 7. Extreme admiration puts out the critic's eye.—Tyler. [Footnote: Weighty thoughts tersely expressed, like (7), (8), and (10) in this Lesson, are called Epigrams. What quality do you think they impart to one's style?] 8. The setting of a great hope is like the setting of the sun.— Longfellow. 9. Things mean, the Thistle, the Leek, the Broom of the Plantagenets, become noble by association.—F. W. Robertson. 10. Prayer is the key of the morning and the bolt of the night.— Beecher. 11. In that calm Syrian afternoon, memory, a pensive Ruth, went gleaning the silent fields of childhood, and found the scattered grain still golden, and the morning sunlight fresh and fair.—Curtis. [Footnote: In Ruth of this sentence, we have a type of the metaphor called Personification—a figure in which things are raised above their proper plane, taken up toward or to that of persons. Things take on dignity and importance as they rise in the scale of being.

Note, moreover, that in this instance of the figure we have an Allusion. All the interest that the Ruth of the Bible awakens in us this allusion gathers about so common a thing as memory.]

* * * * *

LESSON 48.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW.

Analysis.

1. By means of steam man realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the two-and-thirty winds in the boiler of his boat.—Emerson. 2. The Angel of Life winds our brains up once for all, then closes the case, and gives the key into the hands of the Angel of Resurrection.—Holmes. 3. I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old.—Canning. 4. The prominent nose of the New Englander is evidence of the constant linguistic exercise of that organ.—Warner. 5. Every Latin word has its function as noun or verb or adverb ticketed upon it.—Earle. 6. The Alps, piled in cold and still sublimity, are an image of despotism.—Phillips. 7. I want my husband to be submissive without looking so.—Gail Hamilton. 8. I love to lose myself in other men's minds.—Lamb. 9. Cheerfulness banishes all anxious care and discontent, soothes and composes the passions, and keeps the soul in a perpetual calm.—Addison. 10. To discover the true nature of comets has hitherto proved beyond the power of science.

Explanation.—Beyond the power of science = impossible, and is therefore an attribute complement. The preposition beyond shows the relation, in sense, of power to the subject phrase.

11. Authors must not, like Chinese soldiers, expect to win victories by turning somersets in the air.—Longfellow.

* * * * *

LESSON 49.

REVIEW OF PUNCTUATION.

Direction.—Give the reasons, so far as you have been taught, for the marks of punctuation used in Lessons 44, 46, 47, and 48.

* * * * *

LESSON 50.

REVIEW.

TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions, Lesson 16.

Direction.—Review from Lesson 37 to Lesson 46, inclusive.

Give, in some such way as we have outlined in preceding Review Lessons, the substance of the "Introductory Hints;" repeat and illustrate definitions and rules; illustrate the different uses of the participle and the infinitive, and illustrate the Caution regarding the use of the participle; illustrate the different ways in which words and phrases may be grammatically independent, and the punctuation of these independent elements.

* * * * *

LESSON 51.

ARRANGEMENT—USUAL ORDER.

TO THE TEACHER.—If, from lack of time or from the necessity of conforming to a prescribed course of study, it is found desirable to abridge these Lessons on Arrangement and Contraction, the exercises to be written may be omitted, and the pupil may be required to illustrate the positions of the different parts, in both the Usual and the Transposed order, and then to read the examples given, making the required changes orally.

The eight following Lessons may thus be reduced to two or three.

Let us recall the Usual Order of words and phrases in a simple declarative sentence.

The verb follows the subject, and the object complement follows the verb.

Example.—Drake circumnavigated the globe.

Direction.—Observing this order, write three sentences each with an object complement.

An adjective or a possessive modifier precedes its noun, and an explanatory modifier follows it.

Examples.—Man's life is a brief span. Moses, the lawgiver, came down from the Mount.

Direction.—Observing this order, write four sentences, two with possessive modifiers and two with explanatory, each sentence containing an adjective.

The attribute complement, whether noun or adjective, follows the verb, the objective complement follows the object complement, and the indirect object precedes the direct.

Examples.—Egypt is the valley of the Nile. Eastern life is dreamy. They made Bonaparte consul. They offered Caesar a crown.

Direction.—Observing this order, write four sentences illustrating the positions of the noun and of the adjective when they perform these offices.

If adjectives are of unequal rank, the one most closely modifying the noun stands nearest to it; if of the same rank, they stand in the order of their length—the shortest first.

Examples.—Two honest young men enlisted. Cassino has a lean and hungry look. A rock, huge and precipitous, stood in our path.

Direction.—Observing this order, write three sentences illustrating the relative position of adjectives before and after the noun.

An adverb precedes the adjective, the adverb, or the phrase which it modifies; precedes or follows (more frequently follows) the simple verb or the verb with its complement; and follows one or more words of the verb if the verb is compound.

Examples.—The light far in the distance is so very bright. I soon found him. I hurt him badly. He had often been there.

Direction.—Observing this order, write sentences illustrating these several positions of the adverb.

Phrases follow the words they modify; if a word has two or more phrases, those most closely modifying it stand nearest to it.

Examples.—Facts once established are facts forever. He sailed for Liverpool on Monday.

Direction.—Observing this order, write sentences illustrating the positions of participle and prepositional phrases.

* * * * *

LESSON 52.

ARRANGEMENT—TRANSPOSED ORDER.

Introductory Hints.—The usual order of words, spoken of in the preceding Lesson, is not the only order admissible in an English sentence; on the contrary, great freedom in the placing of words and phrases is sometimes allowable. Let the relation of the words be kept obvious and, consequently, the thought clear, and in poetry, in impassioned oratory, in excited speech of any kind, one may deviate widely from this order.

A writer's meaning is never distributed evenly among his words; more of it lies in some words than in others. Under the influence of strong feeling, one may move words out of their accustomed place, and, by thus attracting attention to them, give them additional importance to the reader or hearer.

When any word or phrase in the predicate stands out of its usual place, appearing either at the front of the sentence or at the end, we have what we may call the Transposed Order. I dare not venture to go down into the cabin—Venture to go down into the cabin I dare not. You shall die—Die you shall. Their names will forever live on the lips of the people—Their names will, on the lips of the people, forever live.

When the word or phrase moved to the front carries the verb, or the principal word of it, before the subject, we have the extreme example of the transposed order; as, A yeoman had he. Strange is the magic of a turban. The whole of a verb is not placed at the beginning of a declarative sentence except in poetry; as, Flashed all their sabers bare.

TO THE TEACHER.——Where, in our directions in these Lessons on Arrangement and Contraction, we say change, transpose, or restore, the pupils need not write the sentences. They should study them and be able to read them. Require them to show what the sentence has lost or gained in the change.

Direction.—Change these sentences from the usual to the transposed order by moving words or phrases to the front, and explain the effect:—

1. He could not avoid it. 2. They were pretty lads. 3. The great Queen died in the year 1603. 4. He would not escape. 5. I must go. 6. She seemed young and sad. 7. He cried, "My son, my son!" 8. He ended his tale here. 9. The moon shone bright. 10. A frozen continent lies beyond the sea. 11. He was a contentious man. 12. It was quoted so. 13. Monmouth had never been accused of cowardice.

Direction.—Change these sentences from the transposed order to the usual, and explain the effect:—

1. Him, the Almighty Power hurled headlong. 2. Volatile he was. 3. Victories, indeed, they were. 4. Of noble race the lady came. 5. Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 6. Once again we'll sleep secure. 7. This double office the participle performs. 8. That gale I well remember. 9. Churlish he often seemed. 10. One strong thing I find here below. 11. Overhead I heard a murmur. 12. To their will we must succumb. 13. Him they hanged. 14. Freely ye have received.

Direction.—Write five sentences, each with one of the following nouns or adjectives as a complement; and five, each with one of the adverbs or phrases as predicate modifier; then transpose the ten with these same words moved to the front, and explain the effect:—

Giant, character, happy, him, serene, often, in the market, long and deeply, then, under foot.

Direction.—Transpose these sentences by placing the italicized words last, and note the effect:—

1. The clouds lowering upon our house are buried in the deep bosom of the ocean. 2. Aeneas did bear from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder the old Anchises. 3. Such a heart beats in the breast of my people. 4. The great fire roared up the deep and wide chimney.

Direction.—Change these to the usual order:—

1. No woman was ever in this wild humor wooed and won. 2. Let a shroud, stripped from some privileged corpse, be, for its proper price, displayed. 3. An old clock, early one summer's morning, before the stirring of the family, suddenly stopped. 4. Treasures of gold and of silver are, in the deep bosom of the earth, concealed. 5. Ease and grace in writing are, of all the acquisitions made in school, the most difficult and valuable.

Direction.—Write three sentences, each with the following noun or adjective or phrase in its usual place in the predicate, and then transpose, placing these words wherever they can properly go:—

Mountains, glad, by and by.

* * * * *

LESSON 53.

ARRANGEMENT—TRANSPOSED ORDER.

Direction.—Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the object complement and the verb to their customary places, and tell what is lost by the change:—

1. Thorns and thistles shall the earth bring forth. 2. "Exactly so," replied the pendulum. 3. Me restored he to mine office. 4. A changed France have we. 5. These evils hath sin wrought.

Direction.—Transpose these sentences by moving the object complement and the verb, and tell what is gained by the change:—

1. The dial-plate exclaimed, "Lazy wire!" 2. The maiden has such charms. 3. The English character has faults and plenty of them. 4. I will make one effort more to save you. 5. The king does possess great power. 6. You have learned much in this short journey.

Direction.—Write six transposed sentences with these nouns as object complements, and then restore them to their usual order:—

Pause, cry, peace, horse, words, gift.

Direction.—Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the attribute complement and the verb to their usual places, and tell what is lost by the change:—

1. A dainty plant is the ivy green. 2. Feet was I to the lame. 3. A mighty man is he. 4. As a mark of respect was the present given. 5. A giant towered he among men.

Direction.—Transpose these sentences by moving the attribute complement and the verb, and tell what is gained by the change:—

1. We are merry brides. 2. Washington is styled the "Father of his Country." 3. He was a stark mosstrooping Scot. 4. The man seemed an incarnate demon. 5. Henry VIII. had become a despot.

Direction.—Using these nouns as attribute complements, write three sentences in the usual order, and then transpose them:—

Rock, desert, fortress.

Direction.—Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the adjective complement and the verb to their customary places:—

1. Happy are we to-night, boys. 2. Good and upright is the Lord. 3. Hotter grew the air. 4. Pale looks your Grace. 5. Dark rolled the waves. 6. Louder waxed the applause. 7. Blood-red became the sun. 8. Doubtful seemed the battle. 9. Wise are all his ways. 10. Wide open stood the doors. 11. Weary had he grown. 12. Faithful proved he to the last.

Direction.—Transpose these sentences by moving the adjective complement and the verb:—

1. My regrets were bitter and unavailing. 2. The anger of the righteous is weighty. 3. The air seemed deep and dark. 4. She had grown tall and queenly. 5. The peacemakers are blessed. 6. I came into the world helpless. 7. The untrodden snow lay bloodless. 8. The fall of that house was great. 9. The uproar became intolerable. 10. The secretary stood alone.

Direction.—Write five transposed sentences, each with one of these adjectives as attribute complement, and then restore the sentences to the usual order:—

Tempestuous, huge, glorious, lively, fierce.

* * * * *

LESSON 54.

ARRANGEMENT—TRANSPOSED ORDER.

Direction.—Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the adverb and the verb to their customary places, and note the loss:—

1. Then burst his mighty heart. 2. Here stands the man. 3. Crack! went the ropes. 4. Down came the masts. 5. So died the great Columbus of the skies. 6. Tictac! tictac! go the wheels of thought. 7. Away went Gilpin. 8. Off went his bonnet. 9. Well have ye judged. 10. On swept the lines. 11. There dozed the donkeys. 12. Boom! boom! went the guns. 13. Thus waned the afternoon. 14. There thunders the cataract age after age.

Direction.—Transpose these sentences by moving the adverb and the verb:—

1. I will never desert Mr. Micawber. 2. The great event occurred soon after. 3. The boy stood there with dizzy brain. 4. The Spaniard's shot went whing! whing! 5. Catiline shall no longer plot her ruin. 6. A sincere word was never utterly lost. 7. It stands written so. 8. Venus was yet the morning star. 9. You must speak thus. 10. Lady Impudence goes up to the maid. 11. Thy proud waves shall be stayed here.

Direction.—Write ten sentences in the transposed order, using these adverbs:—

Still, here, now, so, seldom, there, out, yet, thus, never.

Direction.—Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the phrase and the verb to their customary places, and note the loss:—

1. Behind her rode Lalla Rookh. 2. Seven years after the Restoration appeared Paradise Lost. 3. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred. 4. To such straits is a kaiser driven. 5. Upon such a grating hinge opened the door of his daily life. 6. Between them lay a mountain ridge. 7. In purple was she robed. 8. Near the surface are found the implements of bronze. 9. Through the narrow bazaar pressed the demure donkeys. 10. In those days came John the Baptist. 11. On the 17th of June, 1775, was fought the battle of Bunker Hill. 12. Three times were the Romans driven back.

Direction.—Transpose these sentences by moving the phrase and the verb:—

1. The disciples came at the same time. 2. The dreamy murmur of insects was heard over our heads. 3. An ancient and stately hall stood near the village. 4. His trusty sword lay by his side. 5. Pepin eventually succeeded to Charles Martel. 6. The house stands somewhat back from the street. 7. Our sphere turns on its axis. 8. The bridle is red with the sign of despair. 9. I have served in twenty campaigns. 10. Touch proper lies in the finger-tips and in the lips.

Direction.—Write ten sentences in the usual order, using these prepositions to introduce phrases, and then transpose the sentences, and compare the two orders:—

Beyond, upon, toward, of, by, into, between, in, at, to.

Direction.—Write six sentences in the transposed order, beginning them with these words:—

There (independent), nor, neither.

* * * * *

LESSON 55.

ARRANGEMENT—INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

If the interrogative word is subject or a modifier of it, the order is usual.

Examples.—Who came last evening? What star shines brightest?

Direction.—Write five interrogative sentences, using the first word below as a subject; the second as a subject and then as a modifier of the subject; the third as a subject and then as a modifier of the subject:—

Who, which, what.

If the interrogative word is object complement or attribute complement or a modifier of either, the order is transposed.

Examples.—Whom did you see? What are personal consequences? Which course will you choose?

Direction.—Write an interrogative sentence with the first word below as object complement, and another with the second word as attribute complement. Write four with the third and the fourth as complements, and four with the third and the fourth as modifiers of the complement:—

Whom, who, which, what.

If the interrogative word is an adverb, the order is transposed.

Examples.—Why is the forum crowded? Where are the flowers, the fair young flowers?

Direction.—Write five interrogative sentences, using these adverbs:—

How, when, where, whither, why.

If there is no interrogative word, the subject stands after the verb when this is simple; after the first word of it when it is compound.

Examples.—Have you your lesson? Has the gentleman finished?

Direction.—Write six interrogative sentences, using these words:—

Is, has, can learn, might have gone, could have been found, must see.

Direction.—Change the sentences you have written in this Lesson into declarative sentences.

* * * * *

LESSON 56.

ARRANGEMENT—IMPERATIVE AND EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES.

The subject is usually omitted in the imperative sentence; but, when it is expressed, the sentence is in the transposed order.

Examples.—Praise ye the Lord. Give (thou) me three grains of corn.

Direction.—Using these verbs, write ten sentences, in five of which the subject shall be omitted; and in five, expressed:—

Remember, listen, lend, love, live, choose, use, obey, strive, devote.

Although any sentence may without change of order become exclamatory (Lesson 46), yet exclamatory sentences ordinarily begin with how or what, and are usually in the transposed order.

Examples.—How quietly the child sleeps! How excellent is thy loving-kindness! What visions have I seen! What a life his was!

Direction.—Write six exclamatory sentences with the word how modifying (1) an adjective, (2) a verb, and (3) an adverb—in three sentences let the verb follow, and in three precede, the subject. Write four sentences with the word what modifying (1) an object complement and (2) an attribute complement—in two sentences let the verb follow, and in two precede, the subject.

* * * * *

LESSON 57.

CONTRACTION OF SENTENCES.

Direction.—Contract these sentences by omitting the repeated modifiers and prepositions, and all the conjunctions except the last:—

1. Webster was a great lawyer, a great statesman, a great debater, and a great writer. 2. By their valor, by their policy, and by their matrimonial alliances, they became powerful. 3. Samuel Adams's habits were simple and frugal and unostentatious. 4. Flowers are so fragile, so delicate, and so ornamental! 5. They are truly prosperous and truly happy. 6. The means used were persuasions and petitions and remonstrances and resolutions and defiance. 7. Carthage was the mistress of oceans, of kingdoms, and of nations.

Direction.—Expand these by repeating the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, and the conjunction:—

1. He was a good son, father, brother, friend. 2. The tourist traveled in Spain, Greece, Egypt, and Palestine. 3. Bayard was very brave, truthful, and chivalrous. 4. Honor, revenge, shame, and contempt inflamed his heart.

Direction.—Write six sentences, each with one of these words used four times; and then contract them as above, and note the effect of the repetition and of the omission:—

Poor, how, with, through, or, and.

Direction.—Expand these sentences by supplying subjects:—

1. Give us this day our daily bread. 2. Why dost stare so? 3. Thank you, sir. 4. Hear me for my cause. 5. Where hast been these six months? 6. Bless me! 7. Save us.

Direction.—Expand these by supplying the verb or some part of it:—

1. Nobody there. 2. Death to the tyrant. 3. All aboard! 4. All hands to the pumps! 5. What to me fame? 6. Short, indeed, his career. 7. When Adam thus to Eve. 8. I must after him. 9. Thou shalt back to France. 10. Whose footsteps these?

Direction.—Expand these by supplying both subject and verb, and note the loss in vivacity:—

1. Upon them with the lance. 2. At your service, sir. 3. Why so unkind? 4. Forward, the light brigade! 5. Half-past nine. 6. Off with you. 7. My kingdom for a horse! 8. Hence, you idle creatures! 9. Coffee for two. 10. Shine, sir? 11. Back to thy punishment, false fugitive. 12. On with the dance. 13. Strange, strange! 14. Once more unto the breach. 15. Away, away! 16. Impossible!

Direction.—Contract these by omitting the subject or the verb:—

1. Art thou gone? 2. Will you take your chance? 3. His career was ably run. 4. Are you a captain? 5. May long life be to the republic. 6. How great is the mystery! 7. Canst thou wonder? 8. May a prosperous voyage be to you. 9. Are you here?

Direction.—Contract these by omitting both subject and verb, and note the gain in force and animation:—

1. I offer a world for sale. 2. Now, then, go you to breakfast. 3. Sit you down, soothless insulter. 4. I want a word with you, wife. 5. Those are my sentiments, madam. 6. Bring ye lights there. 7. It is true, sir. 8. We will drink a health to Preciosa. 9. I offer a penny for your thoughts. 10. Whither are you going so early?

Direction.—Construct ten full sentences, using in each, one of these adverbs or phrases or nouns, and then contract the sentences by omitting both subject and verb:—

Why, hence, to arms, silence, out, to your tents, peaches, room, for the guns, water.

* * * * *

LESSON 58.

REVIEW.

TO THE TEACHER.—See suggestions, Lesson 16.

Direction.—Review from Lesson 51 to Lesson 57, inclusive.

Illustrate the different positions—Usual and Transposed—that the words and phrases of a declarative sentence may take; illustrate the different positions of the parts of an interrogative, of an imperative, and of an exclamatory sentence; illustrate the different ways of contracting sentences.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 162-165.)

TO THE TEACHER.—See notes to the teacher, pages 30, 150.

* * * * *

LESSON 59.

COMPLEX SENTENCE—ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.

Introductory Hints.—The sentences given for analysis in the preceding Lessons contain each but one subject and one predicate. They are called Simple Sentences.

A discreet youth makes friends. In Lesson 17 you learned that you could expand the adjective discreet into a phrase, and say, A youth of discretion makes friends. You are now to learn that you can expand it into an expression that asserts, and say, A youth that is discreet makes friends. This part of the sentence and the other part, A youth makes friends, containing each a subject and a predicate, we call Clauses.

The adjective clause that is discreet, performing the office of a single word, we call a Dependent Clause; A youth makes friends, not performing such office, we call an Independent Clause.

The whole sentence, composed of an independent and a dependent clause, we call a Complex Sentence.

A dependent clause that does the work of an adjective is called an Adjective Clause.

Analysis.

1. They that touch pitch will be defiled.

They will be defiled ====== ==================== ' ' ' that ' touch pitch ' -

Explanation.—The relative importance of the two clauses is shown by their position, by their connection, and by the difference in the shading of the lines. The pronoun that is written on the subject line of the dependent clause. That performs the office of a conjunction also. This office is shown by the dotted line. As modifiers are joined by slanting lines to the words they modify, you learn from this diagram that that touch pitch is a modifier of they.

Oral Analysis.—This is a complex sentence because it consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause. They will be defiled is the independent clause, and that touch pitch is the dependent. That touch pitch is a modifier of they because it limits the meaning of they; the dependent clause is connected by its subject that to they.

TO THE TEACHER.—Illustrate the connecting force of who, which, and that by substituting for them the words for which they stand, and noting the loss of connection.

2. The lever which moves the world of mind is the printing-press. 3. Wine makes the face of him who drinks it to excess blush for his habits.

Explanation.—The adjective clause does not always modify the subject.

4. Photography is the art which enables commonplace mediocrity to look like genius. 5. In 1685 Louis XIV. signed the ordinance that revoked the Edict of Nantes. 6. The thirteen colonies were welded together by the measures which Samuel Adams framed.

Explanation.—The pronoun connecting an adjective clause is not always a subject.

7. The guilt of the slave-trade, [Footnote: See Lesson 61, foot-note.] which sprang out of the traffic with Guinea, rests with John Hawkins. 8. I found the place to which you referred.

I found place ==== ================== he ' ' you referred ' ' o ' which ' -

9. The spirit in which we act is the highest matter. 10. It was the same book that I referred to.

Explanation.—The phrase to that modifies referred. That connects the adjective clause. When the pronoun that connects an adjective clause, the preposition never precedes. The diagram is similar to that of (8).

11. She that I spoke to was blind. 12. Grouchy did not arrive at the time that Napoleon most needed him.

Explanation.—A preposition is wanting. That = in which. (Can you find a word that would here sound better than that?)

13. Attention is the stuff that memory is made of. 14. It is to you that I speak.

Explanation.—Here the preposition, which usually would stand last in the sentence, is found before the complement of the independent clause. In analysis restore the preposition to its usual place—It is you that I speak to. That I speak to modifies the subject.

15. It was from me that he received the information.

(Me must be changed to I when from is restored to its usual position.)

16. Islands are the tops of mountains whose base is in the bed of the ocean.

mountains - ' ' base is ' - ' '.....whose

Explanation.—The connecting pronoun is here a possessive modifier of base.

17. Unhappy is the man whose mother does not make all mothers interesting.

* * * * *

LESSON 60.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES—CONTINUED.

Analysis.

1. Trillions of waves of ether enter the eye and hit the retina in the time you take to breathe.

Explanation.—The connecting pronoun that [Footnote: When whom, which, and that would, if used, be object complements, they are often omitted. Macaulay is the only writer we have found who seldom or never omits them.] is omitted.

2. The smith takes his name from his smoothing the metals he works on. 3. Socrates was one of the greatest sages the world ever saw. 4. Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth.

Explanation.—The adjective clause modifies the omitted antecedent of whom. Supply him.

5. He did what was right.

He did x ==== ====================== ' ' what ' was right - -

Explanation.—The adjective clause modifies the omitted word thing, or some word whose meaning is general or indefinite. [Footnote: Many grammarians prefer to treat what was right as a noun clause (see Lesson 71), the object of did. They would treat in the same way clauses introduced by whoever, whatever, whichever.

"What was originally an interrogative and introduced substantive clauses. Its use as a compound relative is an extension of its use as an indirect interrogative; it is confined to clauses which may be parsed as substantives, and before which no antecedent is needed, or permitted to be expressed. Its possessive whose has, however, attained the full construction of a relative."—Prof. F. A. March.]

6. What is false in this world below betrays itself in a love of show. 7. The swan achieved what the goose conceived. 8. What men he had were true.

The relative pronoun what here precedes its noun like an adjective. Analyze as if arranged thus: The men what (= that or whom) he had were true.

9. Whoever does a good deed is instantly ennobled.

Explanation.—The adjective clause modifies the omitted subject (man or he) of the independent clause.

10. I told him to bring whichever was the lightest. 11. Whatever crushes individuality is despotism. 12. A depot is a place where stores are deposited.

depot is place ======= ============== A a ' where stores ' are deposited - -

Explanation.—The line representing where is made up of two parts. The upper part represents where as a conjunction connecting the adjective clause to place, and the lower part represents it as an adverb modifying are deposited. As where performs these two offices, it may be called a conjunctive adverb. By changing where to the equivalent phrase in which, and using a diagram similar to (8), Lesson 59, the double nature of the conjunctive adverb will be seen.

13. He raised the maid from where she knelt. (Supply the place before where.) 14. Youth is the time when the seeds of character are sown. 15. Shylock would give the duke no reason why he followed a losing suit against Antonio. 16. Mark the majestic simplicity of those laws whereby the operations of the universe are conducted.

* * * * *

LESSON 61.

COMPOSITION—ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.

COMMA—RULE.—The Adjective Clause, when not restrictive, is set off by the comma.

Explanation.—I picked the apple that was ripe. I picked the apple, which was ripe. In the first sentence the adjective clause restricts or limits apple, telling which one was picked; in the second the adjective clause is added merely to describe the apple picked, the sentence being nearly equivalent to, I picked the apple, and it was ripe. This difference in meaning is shown by the punctuation.[Footnote: There are other constructions in which the relative is more nearly equivalent to and he or and it; as, I gave the letter to my friend, who will return it to you.

Those who prefer to let their classification be governed by the logical relation rather than by the grammatical construction call such a sentence compound, making the relative clause independent, or co-ordinate with its antecedent clause.

Such classification will often require very careful discrimination; as, for instance, between the preceding sentence and the following: I gave the letter to my friend, who can be trusted.

But we know of no author who, in every case, governs his classification of phrases and clauses strictly by their logical relations. Let us examine the following sentences:—

John, who did not know the law, is innocent. John is innocent; he did not know the law. John is innocent because he did not know the law.

No grammarian, we think, would class each of these three italicized clauses as an adverb clause of cause. Do they differ in logical force? The student should carefully note all those constructions in which the grammatical form and the logical force differ. (See pages 119, 121, 138, 139, 142, 143.)]

Caution.—The adjective clause should be placed as near as possible to the word it modifies.

Direction.—Correct the following errors of position, and insert the comma when needed:—

1. The Knights of the Round Table flourished in the reign of King Arthur who vied with their chief in chivalrous exploits. 2. Solomon was the son of David who built the Temple. 3. My brother caught the fish on a small hook baited with a worm which we had for breakfast. 4. I have no right to decide who am interested.

Direction.—Construct five complex sentences, each containing an adjective clause equivalent to one of the following adjectives:— Ambitious, respectful, quick-witted, talkative, lovable.

Direction.—Change the following simple sentences to complex sentences by expanding the participle phrases into adjective clauses:—

1. Those fighting custom with grammar are foolish. 2. The Constitution framed by our fathers is the sheet-anchor of our liberties. 3. I am thy father's spirit, doomed for a certain term to walk the night. 4. Some people, having lived abroad, undervalue the advantages of their native land. 5. A wife and children, threatened with widowhood and orphanage, have knelt at your feet on the very threshold of the Senate Chamber.

Direction.—Change these simple sentences to complex sentences by expanding the infinitive phrases into adjective clauses:—

1. I have many things to tell you. 2. There were none to deliver. 3. He had an ax to grind. 4. It was a sight to gladden the heart. 5. It was a din to fright a monster's ear.

Direction.—Form complex sentences in which these pronouns and conjunctive adverbs shall be used to connect adjective clauses:—

Who, which, that, what, whoever, and whatever.

When, where, and why.

Direction.—Change "that which", in the following sentences to "what", and "what" to "that which"; "whoever" to "he who", and "whatever" to "anything" or "everything which"; "where" and "when" to "at", "on", or "in which"; "wherein" to "in which"; and "whereby" to "by which":—

1. That which is seen is temporal. 2. What God hath joined together let not man put asunder. 3. Whoever lives a pious life blesses his race. 4. Whatever we do has an influence. 5. Scholars have grown old and blind, striving to put their hands on the very spot where brave men died. 6. The year when Chaucer was born is uncertain. 7. The play's the thing wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king. 8. You take my life in taking the means whereby I live.

Direction.—Expand these possessive and explanatory modifiers into adjective clauses:—

1. A man's heart deviseth his way. 2. Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense, Lie in three words—health, peace, and competence.

* * * * *

LESSON 62.

Direction.—Analyze the first nine sentences in the preceding Lesson, and write illustrative sentences as here directed:—

Give an example of an adjective clause modifying a subject; one modifying a complement; one modifying the principal word of a phrase; one modifying some word omitted; one whose connective is a subject; one whose connective is a complement; one whose connective is the principal word of a phrase; one whose connective is a possessive modifier; one whose connective is omitted; one whose connective is an adverb.

* * * * *

LESSON 63.

COMPLEX SENTENCE—ADVERB CLAUSE.

Introductory Hints.—He arrived late. You have learned that you can expand the adverb late into a phrase, and say, He arrived at midnight. You are now to learn that you can expand it into a clause of Time, and say, He arrived when the clock struck twelve.

He stood where I am. The clause introduced by where expresses Place, and is equivalent to the adverb here or to the phrase in this place.

This exercise is as profitable as it is pleasant. The clause introduced by as ... as modifies profitable, telling the Degree of the quality expressed by it.

A clause that does the work of an adverb is an Adverb Clause.

Analysis.

The adverb clause may express time.

1. When pleasure calls, we listen.

we listen == ======== 'When ' pleasure calls -

Explanation.—When modifies both listen and calls, denoting that the two acts take place at the same time. It also connects pleasure calls, as an adverb modifier, to listen. The offices of the conjunctive adverb when may be better understood by expanding it into two phrases thus: We listen at the time at which pleasure calls. At the time modifies listen, at which modifies calls, and which connects.

The line representing when is made up of three parts to picture these three offices. The part representing when as a modifier of calls is, for convenience, placed above its principal line instead of below it.

2. While Louis XIV. reigned, Europe was at war. 3. When my father and my mother forsake me, then ths Lord will take me up.

Lord will take me ====== ===================== The up .. then ' ' 'When father ' my ' ' ' forsake me 'and - ' / ' / mother ' / '/ my

Explanation.—By changing then into at the time, and when into at which, the offices of these two words will be clearly seen. For explanation of the line representing when, see Lesson 14 and (1) above.

4. Cato, before he durst give himself the fatal stroke, spent the night in reading Plato's "Immortality." [Footnote: Some prefer, in constructions like this, to treat before, ere, after, till, until, and since as prepositions followed by noun clauses.] 5. Many a year is in its grave since I crossed this restless wave. [Footnote: See (11), Lesson 38, and foot-note.]

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