The Hookworm Disease.—This is a sickness affecting thousands of persons in the South. It is caused by tiny worms half as large as a pin hanging fast to the lining of the bowels. The worm is sometimes called the lazy germ because it destroys the red blood cells and makes the body feel weak and lazy. Children with these worms grow slowly, have a dry skin, and a swollen abdomen with a tender spot below the stomach.
The disease is easily cured by a physician, but it is better to prevent it by killing the germs in the waste from the bowels. For directions, address the Department of Health at the capital of your state. If the germs reach the ground they crawl around and may get into the well, and enter the body again with the drinking water. Generally, however, the worms enter through the skin of those going barefooted, and are carried by the blood to the lungs. From here they go up the windpipe to the throat, and then down the gullet to the bowels. It is their entrance through the skin that causes ground itch or dew itch. Wearing shoes will help prevent the disease.
A Strong Body Wins.—Nobody wants to be weak and sickly. Most all of us could keep well if we would try in the right way to keep the body strong.
To keep the body in health it must have plenty of sleep, enough good food well chewed, plenty of clean water, exercise every day, and an abundance of fresh air. The body is the temple of the soul. Don't hurt it with bad habits.
1. How many people are sick to-day in our country?
2. How can much sickness be avoided?
3. What causes sickness?
4. What is a contagious disease?
5. Name some contagious diseases.
6. How do we get a catching sickness?
7. Why should we be careful with the slops from the sick room?
8. Tell how children in Buffalo caught scarlet fever.
9. What is the danger in using a cup from which others have drunk?
10. How can you prevent others from getting your sickness?
11. Name some animals which carry sickness.
12. How can we keep away smallpox?
13. Give six rules to keep away colds.
14. How may the body be kept strong?
HELPING BEFORE THE DOCTOR COMES
The Need of Quick Help.—In many places in the country, or when out camping, it is impossible to get a doctor in less than two or three hours. Unless some one at hand can give aid before the doctor comes, much suffering and even death may result when a simple accident occurs. For this reason every one should know how to help in case of such accidents as burns, bleeding, choking, and sunstroke.
Clothing on Fire.—Children should never play about an open fire. A single spark lighting on a cotton dress may cause it to burst into a blaze so that within a few minutes the child is enveloped in flames.
The quickest way to put out such a fire is to wrap the child in a blanket, a piece of carpet, a coat, or any part of your clothing quickly removed. If nothing is at hand to wrap the sufferer in, roll him over and over in the dirt or weeds until the flames are smothered. When your clothing is on fire, you must not run, because this fans the fire and makes it burn.
Burns and Scalds.—If there is clothing on the part burned, it should be taken off slowly so as not to tear the skin. If the clothing sticks, soak it in oil a few minutes until it gets loose. Cover the burned part as quickly as possible with vaseline or a clean cloth soaked in a quart of boiled water containing a cup of washing soda. Let nothing dirty touch the burned surface and keep it well wrapped.
Bleeding.—A person can lose a quart of blood without danger of death and may live after more than two quarts have been lost, but it is wise to try to stop any flow of blood as quickly as possible. Tying a clean cloth folded several times over the cut will in most cases stop the flow. This will help a clot to form and will also close the ends of the cut vessels if the bandage is twisted tight with a stick.
If the cut is on a limb and the blood comes out in spurts, a bandage tied about the limb between the cut and the body may be twisted tight with a stick so as to press upon the artery and close it. A piece of wood or folded cloth placed over the artery under the bandage before it is tightened is helpful.
Nosebleed.—Some persons are troubled frequently with bleeding from the nose. The least knock may cause it to bleed for more than an hour. It may generally be stopped without sending for a doctor.
Sit up straight to keep the blood out of the head and press the middle part of the nose firmly between the fingers. Apply a cold wet cloth or a lump of ice wrapped in a cloth to the back of the neck. Put a bag of pounded ice on the root of the nose. If it does not stop in a half hour, wet a soft rag or a piece of cotton with cold tea or alum water and put it gently into the bleeding nostril so as to entirely close it. Do not blow the nose for several hours after the bleeding has stopped as this may start it again.
Fainting.—Fainting may be caused by bad air, an overheated room, by fear, or by some other excitement. A fainting person falls down and appears to be asleep. The lips are pale and there may be cold sweat on the forehead. There is too little blood in the brain, and the heart is weak.
A fainting person should be laid flat on the floor or on a couch, and all doors and windows opened wide. Loosen all tight clothing and apply to the forehead a cloth wet with cold water. A faint usually lasts only a few minutes.
Sunstroke.—A person with sunstroke becomes giddy, sick at the stomach, and weak. He then gets drowsy and may seem as if asleep, but he cannot be aroused. The skin is hot and dry instead of being cold and pale, as in fainting. The doctor should be sent for at once.
The first aid for sunstroke is to put the patient in a cool cellar or an icehouse, raise the head, and wet the head, neck, and back of the chest with cold water. As soon as he wakens put him in a cool room.
Frostbite.—When out in very cold weather, the end of the nose, the tips of the ears, and the toes and fingers are sometimes frozen. If a person comes into a warm room, these frozen parts will give much pain. The parts should be rubbed with snow or ice water until a tingling sensation is felt.
Breaks in the Skin.—A small cut or tear in the skin may become very sore and cause much trouble if not cared for so as to keep the germs out. If there is dirt in the wound, as when made with a rusty nail or by the bite of a dog, it should be squeezed and washed with boiled water to make it perfectly clean. It may then be bound up in a clean cloth. A little turpentine poured on the wound will help kill the germs which may make it sore. If the dog is thought to be mad or the wound is too deep to be easily washed out to the bottom, a doctor should be called.
Snakebite.—The scratches made by the little teeth of most snakes, such as the milk snake, garter snake, and black snake, do no more harm than the scratch of a pin. The copperhead, the southern moccasin, and the rattlesnake have a pair of long teeth called fangs in the upper jaw. These teeth have little canals in them through which the snake presses poison into the bite.
If a person is bitten by one of these snakes, the doctor must be sent for and help given at once. Put a bandage above the bite and twist it tight with a stick. Make two or three deep cuts into the bitten place to let out the poisoned blood. Suck the wound to draw out the poison and apply ammonia.
Choking.—A hard piece of meat, a bone, or a peach seed may slip back into the throat and press so hard on the windpipe as to cut off the air from the lungs. If the object is not far back in the throat, it may be seized with the first finger. A few smart slaps on the upper part of the back while the body is bent forward may drive enough air out of the lungs to push the object outward.
Drowning.—Every one should learn to swim while young, but no one should venture in deep water. Stiffening of the muscles called cramps often causes the best swimmer to drown.
After a person has been under the water two or three minutes he appears lifeless. He may, however, be brought to life if laid face downward, his clothes loosened, and the lungs made to breathe. A heavy folded coat, a piece of sod, or a bunch of weeds should be put under the chest. Then standing astride of him place the hands on the lower ribs and bend forward gradually so as to press on the ribs and push the air out of the lungs. Then straighten your body and slowly lessen pressure on the patient's ribs so that the air will run into the lungs. In this way make the air go in and out of the lungs about fifteen times each minute.
Poisoning.—Whenever a person has taken poison, a physician should be sent for at once. In most cases an effort should be made to get the poison out of the stomach by causing vomiting. A glass or two of weak, warm soapsuds, a pint of water with a tablespoonful of mustard, or a glass of water with two tablespoonfuls of salt may be taken to make the stomach throw out the poison. Tickling the throat back of the tongue will help cause vomiting.
If a strong acid such as carbolic acid or a strong alkali such as ammonia has been taken, do not cause vomiting. For acids give chalk in warm water and a pint of milk. For an alkali give vinegar in water.
Ab do'men, 15.
Ad'e noids, 105, 106.
Air and health, 111-116.
Air sacs, 102, 103.
Air tubes, 103.
Alcohol, 20, 35. and blood, 124, 125. and blood vessels, 126. and brain, 158-162. and clothing, 98, 99. and crime, 160, 161. and digestion, 57, 58. and health, 74, 75. and kidneys, 93. and lungs, 109, 110. and muscles, 146-148. and senses, 172. and skin, 92, 93.
Alcoholic drinks, 68-73. as food, 27, 29.
A or'ta, 16.
Appetite, 58, 59.
Arteries, 19, 119.
Bac te'ria, 36, 39. of disease, 175-177. of milk, 43.
Bedbugs and disease, 134, 178.
Beef tea, 31.
Beer and digestion, 57, 58. as a food, 27, 35. and heart, 125. making of, 70.
Bile, 52, 55.
Bleeding, to stop, 123, 124, 184, 185.
Blood, 17, 117, 118.
Blood vessels, 19, 118-122.
Body, parts of, 15-19.
Bowels, 47, 52, 53.
Brain, use of, 18.
Building foods, 22, 23.
Burns and scalds, 184.
Capillaries, 119, 120.
Carbon dioxide, 102, 111.
Cer'e brum, 150, 151.
Chewing and health, 49-50.
Cigarettes, 82, 162.
Cleanliness, 44, 91.
Co'ca ine, 162.
Coffee, 82, 83, 164.
Consumption, 109, 180-181.
Cooking of eggs, 34. of meat, 30, 31.
Diaphragm (di'a fram), 16, 104
Digestion, organs of, 47-52.
Diphtheria, 175, 178.
Disease, cause of, 25-27. from alcohol, 76, 77. from bad air, 114. from drinking cup, 108, 177. from dust, 108, 109. of eyes, 169. from flies, 108. from insects, 127-134. from milk, 43-46, 178. prevention of, 174-182.
Disease, from spit, 107, 108, 178, 179. victory over, 12.
Dis til la'tion, 73.
Drinking cup and disease, 108, 177.
Drunkards, cause of, 14.
Dust and disease, 37, 108, 109.
Dys pep'si a, 50.
Eggs, 23, 33, 34.
Epidermis, 85, 86.
Fats, 22, 23.
Feeding of body, 21.
Feet, care of, 98.
Fish as food, 30.
Fleas and disease, 134.
Flies and disease, 45-46, 108, 132-134, 176, 178.
Food, amount needed, 27. and health, 30-35. digestion of, 47-55. entrance to blood, 52, 54.
Fruits, 33, 34.
Fuel foods, 23, 24.
Gastric juice, 51.
Germs, 36-40. of disease, 175, 176. of milk, 43. of spit, 107.
Growth of body, 20.
Gullet, 16, 53.
Habit, 133, 154.
Heart, 16, 100, 118, 122.
Hookworm disease, 181, 182.
Hy'gi ene, 10.
Insects and health, 129-134.
Intestines, 47, 52, 53.
Joints, 139, 140.
Kidneys, 17, 92.
Larynx (lar'inks), 102.
Life, length of, 9.
Ligaments, 135, 139, 140.
Liver, 16, 53, 54, 55, 100.
Meat, 23. cooking of, 30. spoiling of, 38, 39.
Mi'crobes, 36, 37.
Milk, 23, 29, 41-46. and scarlet fever, 176. as a food, 31. souring of, 39.
Mineral foods, 24.
Mold, 37, 38.
Morphine, 83, 84, 162, 163.
Mosquitoes and disease, 127-132.
Muscles and health, 144-148.
Nails, 87, 88.
Nar cot'ics, 158-164.
Nerves, 19, 149, 151, 152.
Nose, 104-106, 171.
Nose bleed, 181.
Opium, 83, 84, 162, 163.
Organs of body, 16.
Oysters as a food, 30.
Pan'cre as, 16, 48, 52, 53.
Pa ral'y sis, 155.
Patent medicines, 84.
Pharynx (far'inks), 47.
Plague, 134, 175.
Pro'te ids, 22.
Sa li'va, 48, 49.
Scarlet fever, 175, 176, 178.
Sense organs, 165-173.
Sick, number of, 9.
Sickness, how caused, 11. prevention of, 174-182.
Skin, 85-93. senses of, 172.
Sleep, 156, 157. and disease, 113, 114.
Sleeping sickness, 134.
Slops, care of, 175.
Smallpox, 12, 178-180.
Snakebites, 186, 187.
Sore throat, 175.
Spinal cord, 16, 19, 151, 154, 155.
Spit, care of, 175, 178.
Spitting and health, 107, 108.
Starch, 23, 24.
Stimulants, 158, 164.
Stomach, 16, 47, 50-53, 100.
Sugars, 22, 23.
Sweeping and health, 37.
Swimming, 145, 146, 187.
Sym pa thet'ic nerves, 155.
Taste, 171, 172.
Tea, 82, 83, 164.
Tobacco, 20. and air, 116. and blood, 125. and brain, 162. and digestion, 56, 57. as food, 34, 35. and health, 78-82. and heart, 126. and lungs, 110. and muscles, 148. and senses, 172, 173.
Tonsil, 105, 106.
Toothache, 62, 63.
Tuberculosis, 107, 108, 175. and bad air, 114, 115. cause of, 178, 180. prevention of, 107-109, 111-116, 180-181.
Typhoid fever, 175. how caused, 25-27, 28, 134.
Vaccination, 179, 180.
Vegetables as food, 32, 33.
Veins, 28, 121.
Vocal cords, 105, 106.
Voice, 106, 107.
Voice box, 102.
War, deaths from, 11.
Waste, giving out of, 17.
Water, use of, 24, 92.
Water and health, 25-27, 28.
Water in food, 25.
Whisky, 72, 73.
Whooping cough, 175.
Windpipe, 16, 102, 103.
Wine, 27, 28. and digestion, 58. making of, 70-71.
Yeast, 39, 40, 69.
Yellow fever, 12, 13, 129, 130.
BALDWIN AND BENDER'S READERS
Reading with Expression
By JAMES BALDWIN, Author of Baldwin's School Readers, Harper's Readers, etc. and IDA C. BENDER, Supervisor of Primary Grades, Buffalo, New York.
AN EIGHT BOOK SERIES or A FIVE BOOK SERIES
The authorship of this series is conclusive evidence of its rare worth, of its happy union of the ideal and the practical. The chief design of the books is to help pupils to acquire the art and habit of reading so well as to give pleasure both to themselves and to those who listen to them. They teach reading with expression, and the selections have, to a large extent, been chosen for this purpose.
These readers are very teachable and readable, and are unusually interesting both in selections and in illustrations. The selections are of a very high literary quality. Besides the choicest schoolbook classics, there are a large number which have never before appeared in school readers. The contents are well balanced between prose and poetry, and the subject matter is unusually varied. Beginning with the Third Reader, selections relating to similar subjects or requiring similar methods of study or recitation, are grouped together. Many selections are in dialogue form and suitable for dramatization.
The First Reader may be used with any method of teaching reading, for it combines the best ideas of each. A number of helpful new features are also included. Each reading lesson is on a right-hand page, and is approached by a series of preparatory exercises on the preceding left-hand page.
The illustrations constitute the finest and most attractive collection ever brought together in a series of readers. There are over 600 in all, every one made especially for these books by an artist of national reputation.
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY
HICKS'S CHAMPION SPELLING BOOK
By WARREN E. HICKS, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Cleveland, Ohio
Complete, $0.25—Part One, $0.18—Part Two, $0.18
This book embodies the method that enabled the pupils in the Cleveland schools after two years to win the National Education Association Spelling Contest of 1908.
By this method a spelling lesson of ten words is given each day from the spoken vocabulary of the pupil. Of these ten words two are selected for intensive study, and in the spelling book are made prominent in both position and type at the head of each day's lessons, these two words being followed by the remaining eight words in smaller type. Systematic review is provided throughout the book. Each of the ten prominent words taught intensively in a week is listed as a subordinate word in the next two weeks; included in a written spelling contest at the end of eight weeks; again in the annual contest at the end of the year; and again as a subordinate word in the following year's work; used five times in all within two years.
The Champion Spelling Book consists of a series of lessons arranged as above for six school years, from the third to the eighth, inclusive. It presents about 1,200 words each year, and teaches 312 of them with especial clearness and intensity. It also includes occasional supplementary exercises which serve as aids in teaching sounds, vowels, homonyms, rules of spelling, abbreviated forms, suffixes, prefixes, the use of hyphens, plurals, dictation work, and word building. The words have been selected from lists, supplied by grade teachers of Cleveland schools, of words ordinarily misspelled by the pupils of their respective grades.
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY
SPENCERS' PRACTICAL WRITING
By PLATT R. SPENCER'S SONS
Books 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 Per dozen, $0.60
SPENCERS' PRACTICAL WRITING has been devised because of the distinct and wide-spread reaction from the use of vertical writing in schools. It is thoroughly up-to-date, embodying all the advantages of the old and of the new. Each word can be written by one continuous movement of the pen.
The books teach a plain, practical hand, moderate in slant, and free from ornamental curves, shades, and meaningless lines. The stem letters are long enough to be clear and unmistakable. The capitals are about two spaces in height.
The copies begin with words and gradually develop into sentences. The letters, both large and small, are taught systematically. In the first two books the writing is somewhat larger than is customary because it is more easily learned by young children. These books also contain many illustrations in outline. The ruling is very simple.
Instruction is afforded showing how the pupil should sit at the desk, and hold the pen and paper. A series of drill movement exercises, thirty-three in number, with directions for their use, accompanies each book.
SPENCERIAN PRACTICAL WRITING SPELLER
Per dozen, $0.48
This simple, inexpensive device provides abundant drill in writing words. At the same time it trains pupils to form their copies in accordance with the most modern and popular system of penmanship, and saves much valuable time for both teacher and pupil.
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY
MAXWELL'S NEW GRAMMARS
By WILLIAM H. MAXWELL, Ph.D., LL.D. Superintendent of Schools, City of New York
Elementary Grammar $0.40
School Grammar $0.60
The ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR presents in very small space all the grammar usually taught in elementary schools.
It gives the pupil an insight into the general forms in which thought is expressed, and enables him to see the meaning of complicated sentences. The explanatory matter is made clear by the use of simple language, by the elimination of unnecessary technical terms, and by the frequent introduction of illustrative sentences. The definitions are simple and precise. The exercises are abundant and peculiarly ingenious. A novel device for parsing and analysis permits these two subjects to be combined in one exercise for purposes of drill.
The SCHOOL GRAMMAR contains everything needed by students in upper grammar grades and secondary schools. It covers fully the requirements of the Syllabus in English issued by the New York State Education Department.
The book treats of grammar only, and presents many exercises which call for considerable reflection on the meaning of the expressions to be analyzed. Throughout, stress is laid on the broader distinctions of thought and expression. The common errors of written and spoken language are so classified as to make it comparatively easy for pupils to detect and correct them through the application of the rules of grammar. The book ends with an historical sketch of the English language, an article on the formation of words, and a list of equivalent terms employed by other grammarians. The full index makes the volume useful for reference.
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY
* Inconsistent hyphenation in the word "skinlike" retained.
* Pg 91 Added period after "Clean" located in "Keeping the Skin Clean".
* Pg 182 Added period after "sickness" located in "animals which carry sickness".
* Pg 188 Removed extraneous comma after "back" located in "throat back, of the tongue".
* Pg 190 Index page reference "47" amended to "67" located in "Mouth, 60-47".