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Game and Playe of the Chesse - A Verbatim Reprint Of The First Edition, 1474
by Caxton
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strengthe she blyndeth the syght/ and maketh the wys hoos & rawe/ Ha A ryght euyll and fowle synne of dronkenship/ by the perissheth virginite/ whiche is suster of angellis possedynge alle goodnes and seurte of all Ioyes pardurable/ Noe was one tyme so chauffed with wyn/ that he discouerd and shewid to his sones his preuy membres in suche wyse as one of his sones mocqued hym/ And that other couerd hem/ And loth whiche was a man right chaste. was so assoted by moche drynkynge of wyn/ that on a montayne he knew his doughters carnelly/ And had to doo wyth them as they had ben his propre wyues. And crete reherceth that boece whiche was flour of the men/ tresor of rychesses/ singuler house of sapience myrour of the world/ Odour of good renome/ and glorye of his subgettis loste alle thyse thynges by his luxurye We haue seen that dyuerce that were Ioyned by grete amyte to geder whiles they were sobre/ that that one wolde put his body in paryll of deth for that other/ and whan they were eschauffed with wyn & dronke/ they haue ronne eche vpon other for to fle* hem/ And somme haue ben that haue slayn so his frende/ Herodes Antipas had not doon saynt Iohn baptist to ben beheded/ ne had y'e dyner ben full of glotonye and dronkenship/ Balthazar kynge of babilone had not ben chaced out of his kyngdom ne be slayn yf he had ben sobre amonge his peple whom tyrus and dares fonde dronken and slewe hym The hostelers ought to be well bespoken and courtoys of wordes to them that they receyue in to their loggynge For fayr speche & Ioyous chiere & debonayr/ cause men to gyue the hostelyer a good name/ And therfore it is said in a comyn prouerbe/ Courtoyse langage and well saynge is moche worth and coste lityll/ And in an other place it is said that curtoysie passeth beaulte/ Also for as moche as many paryls and aduentures may happen on the wayes and passages to hem that ben herberowed with in their Innes/ therfore they ought to accompanye them whan they departe and enseigne them the wayes and telle to them the paryls/ to thende that they may surely goo theyr viage and Iourney/ And also they ought to kepe their bodies, their goodes. And the good fame and renomee of their Innes/ we rede that loth whan he had receyuyd the angels in to his hous right debonairly whiche he had suppofid had ben mortall men and straūgers/ to thende that they shold eskape the disordinate and vnnaturell synne of lecherye of the sodamites/ by the vertu of good fayth/ he sette a part the naturell loue of a fader/ and proferd to them his doughters whiche were virgyns/ to thende that they shld kepe them and defende them fro that vyllayne and horrible synne/ And knowe y'e for certayn that alle tho thynges that ben taken and delyueryd to kepe to the hoste or hostesses they ought to be sauf and yelden agayn wyth out a payringe For the ooste ought to knowe/ who that entryth in to his hous for to be herberowhed taketh hit for his habitacion for the tyme/ he hymself and alle suche thynges as he bryngeth wyth hym ben comysed of ryght in the warde and kepynge of the hoost or hosteler And ought to be as sauf as they were put in his owen propre hous And also suche hoostis ought to hold seruantes in their houses whiche shold be trewe and wyth oute auarice In suche wise that they coueyte not to haue the goodes of their ghestes And that they take not away the prouender fro theyr horses whan hyt is gyuen to them/ that by thoccasion therof theyr horsis perisshe not ne faylle theyr maister whan they haue nede/ and myght falle in the handes of theyr enemyes/ For than sholde the seruantes because of that euyll/ wherfore theyr maisters shold see to For wyth oute doubte this thynge is worse than thefte Hit happend on a tyme in the parties of lomberdye in the cyte of Iene y't a noble man was logged in an hostelerye wyth moche compaignye/ And whan they had gyuen prouendour to their horses/ In the first oure of the nyght, the seruant of the hous cam secretly to fore y'e horses for to stele away their prouender/ And whan he cam to the lordes hors/ The hors caught wyth his teth his Arme and helde hit faste that he myght not escape/ And whan the theef sawe that he was so strongly holden/ he began to crye for the grete payne that he suffryd and felte/ In suche wyse that the noble mannes meyne cam with the hooste/ But in no maner/ ner for ought they coude doo They coude not take the theef out of the horses mouth vnto the tyme that the neyghbours whiche were noyed wyth the noyse cam and sawe hit/ And than the theef was knowen and taken and brought to fore the Iuge And confessid the feet and by sentence diffinytyf was hanged and lost his lyf/ And in the same wyse was an other that dyde so/ And the hors smote hym in the visage/ That the prynte of the horse shoo and nayles abode euer in his visage/ Another was right cruell and villaynous fylle at tholouse/ Hit happend a Ionge man and his fader wente a pilgremage to saynt Iames in Galyce And were logged in an hostelrye of an euyll hoost and full of right grete couetyse/ In so moche that he defired and coueyted the goodes of the two pilgrimes And here vpon auysed hym and put a cuppe of siluer secretly in the male that the yonge man bare/ And whan they departed oute of their loggynge/ he folowed after hem and sayd to fore the peple of the court that they had stolen and born away his cuppe/ And the yonge man excused hym selfe and his fader/ And sayde they were Innocent of that caas/ And than they serchid hem and the cuppe was founden in the male of the yonge man And forthwyth he was dampned to the deth and hanged as a theef/ and this feet doon all the goodes that langed to the pilgrym were deliuerid to the ooft as cōfisqued And than the fader wente for to do his pilgremage/ and whan he cam agayn he muste nedes come & passe by the place where his sone henge on the gibet And as he cam he complaygned to god and to saynt Iames how they might suffre this auenture to come vnto his sone,' Anone his sone that henge spack to his fader And sayde how that saynt Iames had kepte hym with out harme And bad his fader goo to the Iuge and shewe to hym the myracle/ And how he was Innocent of thot fayte/ And whan this thynge was knowen the sone of the pilgryme was taken down fro the gibet/ and the cause was brought to fore the Iuge And the hooste was accused of the trayson/ and he confessid his trespaas/ and sayd he dide hit for couetyse to haue his good And than the Iuge dampned hym for to be hanged on the same gibet where as the yonge pilgryme was hanged And that I haue sayd of the seruantes beynge men/ the same I saye of the women as chambriers and tapsters For semblable caas fille in spayne at saynt donne of a chamberier/ that put a cup in lyke wyse in the scrippe of a pilgryme/ be cause he wold not haue a doo wyth her in the synne of lecherye/ wherfore he was hanged And his fader & moder that were there with hym wente and dyde her pilgremage/ And whan they cam agayn they fonde her sone lyuynge/ And whan they wente and told the Iuge/ whiche Iuge sayd that he wolde not byleue hit tyll a cok and an henne which rosted on the fyre were a lyue & the cok crewe. And anon they began wexe a lyue & the cok crewe and began to crowe and to pasture/ and whan the Iuge sawe this miracle/ he wente and toke doun the sone/ and made the chamberyer to be taken and to be hanged/ wherfore I saye that the hoostes ought to hold no tapsters ne chamberyers/ but yf they were good meure and honeste/ For many harmes may be falle and come by the disordenat rewle of seruantes.



The seventh chapitre of the thirde Tractate treteth of kepars of townes customers and tolle gaderers &c.

The gardes and kepars of of cytees ben signefied by the .vii. pawn whiche stondeth in the lyfte side to fore the knyght/ And is formed in the semblance of a man holdynge in his right hande grete keyes And in his lifte hande a potte & an elle for to mesure with And ought to haue on hys gurdell a purse open/ And by the keyes ben signefyed the kepars of the cytees and townes and comyn offices/ And by the potte and elle ben signefyed them that haue the charge to weye and mete & mesure truly And by the purse ben signefyed them that reseyue the costumes. tolles. scawage. peages/ and duetes of the cytees & townes And thyse peple ben sette by ryght to fore the knyght/ And hit behoueth that the gardes and offycers of the townes be taught And enseygned by the knyghtes/ And that they knowe and enquyre how y'e cytees or townes ben gouerned/ whiche apperteyneth to be kept and defended by the knyghtes. And first hit apperteyneth that the kepars of the cyte be dilygente. besy. clere seeynge and louers of the comyn prouffit & wele/ as well in the tyme of pees as in the tyme of warre/ They ought allewaye to goo in the cyte and enquyre of all thynges and ought rapporte to the gouernours of the cyte suche thynge as they fynde and knowe And suche thynge as apperteyneth and to the seuerte of the same/ and to denōnce and telle the defaultes and paryls that ther bee/ And yf hit be in tyme of warre they ought not to open the yates by nyght to no man/ And suche men as ben put in this office/ ought to be of good renome. & fame, trewe. and of good conscience/ In suche maner that they loue them of the Cyte or town/ And that they put to no man ony blame or vilanye with out cause by enuye. Couetyse ne by hate/ but they ought to be sory and heuy whan they see that ony man shold be complayned on for ony cause. For hit happeth ofte tymes that diuerce officers accuse the good peple fraudulently/ To thende that they myght haue a thanke & be preysed and to abide stille in theyr offices And trewly hit is a grete and hye maner of malyse to be in will to doo euyll and diffame other wyth oute cause to gete glorie to hymself Also the kepars and officers of cytees ought to be suche that they suffre no wronges ne vylonyes to fore the Iuges and gouernours of cytees wyth out cause to be doon to them that ben Innocents/ but they ought to haue theyr eyen and regarde vnto hym/ that knoweth the hertes and thoughtes of alle men/ And they ought to drede & doubte hym wyth oute whos grace theyr wacche and kepynge is nought And that promyseth to them that doubte hym shall be ewrous & happy/ And by hym ben alle thynges accomplisshid in good/ Hit is founden in the historyes of rome that Temperour Frederik the seconde dide do make a gate of marble of meruayllous werke and entayll in the cyte of capnane vpon the watre that renneth aboute the same/ and vpon this yate he made an ymage lyke hymself sittynge in his mageste/ and two Iuges whiche were sette/ one on the right side and that other on the lifte side. And vpon the sercle aboue the hede of the Iuge on y'e ryght side was wreton/ Alle they entre seurly that will liue purely/ And vpon the sercle of the Iuge on the lifte side was wreton/ The vntrewe man ought to doubte/ to doo thynge that he be put to prison fore/ and on the sercle aboue thempour was wreton/ I make them live in misery/ that I see lyue dismesurably/ And therfore hit apperteyneth to a Iuge to shewe to the peple for to drede and doubte to doo eyull/ And hit apperteyneth to the gardes and officers to doubte the Iuges and to do trewly their seruyces and offices And hit apperteyneth to a prynce to menace the traytours and the malefactours of right greuous paynes. And herof we fynde in the auncyent historyes of cecylle that the kynge denys had a broder whom he louyd sore well/ But allway where he wente he made heuy and tryste semblant/ And thus as they wente bothe to gyder on a tyme in a chare/ ther cam agayn hem two poure men wyth glad visage but in foule habite/ And y'e kynge anon as he sawe them/ sprange out of his chare and resseyuyd them worshipfully with grete reuerence/ wherfore his barons were not only ameruaylled but also angry in their corages/ notwithstandynge fere and drede letted them to demande hym the cause/ But they made his broder to demande the cause and to knowe the certaynte/ And whan he had herde his broder saye to hym the demande/ and that he was blessyd & also a kynge whiche was ryche and full of delites & worshipis/ he demanded hym yf he wold assaye & knowe the grace and beneurte of a kynge And his broder answerd y'e/ And that he desired and requyred hit of hym/ and than the kinge comanded vnto alle his fugettis that they shold obeye in alle thynges only vnto his broder And than whan the oure of dyner cam and alle thynge was redy/ the broder was sette at the table of the kynge And whan he sawe that he was seruyd wyth right noble botelliers and other officers. And he herde the sownes of musicque right melodious The kynge demanded hym than/ yf he supposid y't he were benerous and blessid. And he answerd I wene well that I am right well blessid and fortunat/ and that I haue well proued and fele and am expert therof And than the kynge secretly made to be hanged ouer his heed a sharp cuttynge swerde hangynge by an hors heer or a silken threde so small that no man myght see hit where by hit henge/ and whan he sawe his broder put no more his hand to the table/ ne had no more regarde vnto his seruantes/ he sayd to hym why ete y'e not/ ar y'e not blessid/ saye yf y'e fele ony thynge otherwyse than blessid and well/ And he answerde for as moche as I see this sharp swerde hangynge so subtilly and parillously ouer my hede I fele well that I am not blessid for I drede that hit shold falle on my hede/ and than discouerd the kynge vnto hem alle wherfore he was allway so heuy cherid and triste For where he was/ he thought alleway on the swerde of the secrete vengeance of god/ whiche he behelde alleway in his herte/ wherfore he had all way in hymself grete drede And therfore he worshipid gladly the poure peple wyth glad visage and good conscience And by this sheweth the kynge well/ that what man that is all way in drede is not all way mery or blessid. And herof fayth Quyntilian that this drede surmounteth alle other maleurtees and euyllys/ For it is maleurte of drede nyght and day/ And it is verite that to hym that Is doubtid of moche peple/ so muste he doubte moche/ And that lord is lasse than hys seruantes that dredeth hys seruantes/ And truly hit Is a ryght sure thynge to drede no thinge but god/ And sumtyme right hardy men ben constrayned to lyue in drede/ Drede causeth a man to be curyous and besy to kepe the thynges that ben commysed to hym that they perisshe not/ But to be to moche hardy & to moche ferdfull/ bothe two ben vices The comyn officers ought to be wise, discrete. and well aduysed in suche wyse that they take not of y'e peple ne requyre no more than they ought to haue by reson/ ne that they take of the sellars ne of the byars no more than the right custom and toll/ for they bere the name of a cōmun sone/ and therfore ought they to shewe them cōmune to all men/ and for as moche as the byars and sellars haue somtyme moche langage/ they ought to haue with them these vertues/ that is to wete pacience and good corage with honeste/ for they that ben despiteus to the cōmun/ ben otherwhile had in vilayns despite/ therfore beware y't thou haue no despite to the poure mendicants/ yf thou wilt come and atteyne to thingis fouerayn/ for the Iniurye that is don wyth oute cause/ torneth to diffame hym that doth hit/ A Iogheler on a tyme beheld socrates and sayd to hym/ thou hast the eyen of corrumpour of children & art as a traytre. And whan his disciples herde hym/ they wold auengid their maister/ But he repreuyd hem by suche sentence saynge/ Suffre my felaws for I am he and suche one as he saith/ by the sight of my visage/ But I refrayne and kepe me well from suche thynge/ This same socrates hymself was chidde and right fowll spoken to of his wyf/ and she Imposid to hym many grete Iniuries with out nombre/ and she was in a place a boue ouer his heed And whan she had brawlid I nowh/ she made her watre and pourid hit on his heed And he answerd to here no thynge agayn/ sauf whan he had dryed and wypid his heed he said/ he knewe well that after suche wynde and thonder sholde comen rayn and watre And the philosophres blamed hym that he coude not gouerne two women/ that was his wyf and his chambrere/ And shewde hym that one cokke gouerned well .xv. hennes He answerd to them that he was so vsed and accustomed wyth theyr chydynge that the chydynges of them ne of estrangers dyde hym no greef ne harme/ gyue thou place to hym that brawleth or chydeth/ and in suffrynge hym thou shalt be his vaynquysshour/ And Cathon fayth whan thou lyuyst ryghtfully recche the not of the wordes of euyll peple/ And therfore it is sayd in a comyn prouerbe/ he that well doth reccheth not who seeth hit/ & hit is not in our power to lette men to speke. And prosper sayth that to good men lacketh no goodnes/ ner to euyll men tencions stryfs and blames And pacience is a ryght noble vertu/ as a noble versifier sayth That pacience is a ryght noble maner to vaynquysshe. For he that suffreth ouercometh. And yf thou wylt vaynquysshe and ouercome/ lerne to suffre/ The peagers ner they that kepe passages ought not to take other peage ne passage money but suche as the prynce or the lawe haue establisshid/ so that they be not more robbeurs of moneye than reseyuours of peage and passage And hit apperteyneth to them to goo out of the paryllo*9 weyes and doubteuous for to kepe their office and they ought to Requyre theyr passage of them that owe to paye hit wyth oute noynge and contencion/ And they ought not to loue the comyn prouffyt so moche/ That they falle in the hurtynge of theyr conscience/ For that shold be a manere of robberye And herof sayth ysaye Woo to the that robbest/ For thou thy self shalt be robbed/ The gardes or porters of the gates of cytees and of the comyn good ought to be good and honeste. And alle trouthe ought to be in them and they ought not to take ne withdrawe the goodes of the comyn that they haue in kepynge/ more than apperteyneth to them for theyr pension or ffee/ So that they that ben made tresorers and kepars ben not named theuys/ For who that taketh more than his/ He shall neuer thryue wyth alle/ ner shall not enioye hit longe/ For of euyll gooten good the thyrde heyr shall neuer reioyce/ And this suffisith &c.



This chapitre of the thirder book treteth of Rybauldis players of dyse and messagers and corrours

The rybaulders, players of dyse and of messagers and corrours ought to be sette to fore the rook/ For hit apperteyneth to the rook whiche is vicayre & lieutenant of the kynge to haue men couenable for to renne here and there for tenquyre & espie the place and cytees that myght be contrarye to the kynge/ And thys pawn that representeth thys peple ought to be formed in this maner/ he must haue the forme of a man that hath longe heeris and black and holdeth in his ryght hand a lityll monoye And in his lyfte hande thre Dyse And aboute hym a corde in stede of a gyrdell/ and ought to haue a boxe full o lettres And by the first/ whiche is money is vnderstand they that be fole large & wastours of theyr goodes/ And by the seconde whiche is the dyse Ben represented the players at dyse/ Rybauldes and butters/ And by the thyrde whiche is the boxe full of lettres ben representid the messagers. corrours/ And berars of lettres/ And y'e shall vnderstande that the roock whiche is vicaire of the kynge whan he seeth to fore hym suche peple as ben folelarge and wastours. He is bounden to constitute and ordeyne vpon them tutours and curatours to see that they etc not ne waste in suche maner theyr goodes ne theyr heritages/ that pouerte constrayne hem not to stele/ For he that of custome hath had haboundance of moneye and goth and dispendith hit folily and wasteth hit away/ whan he cometh to pouerte and hath nought/ he must nedes begge and axe his breed, orellis he must be a theef/ For suche maner of peple/ yf they haue ben delicyous they wyll not laboure/ for they haue not lerned hit And yf they be noble and comen of gentilmen/ they be ashamed to axe and begge/ And thus muste they by force whan they haue wasted theyr propre goodes yf they wyll lyue they muste stele and robbe the goodes of other And y'e shall vnderstande that folelarge is a right euyll vice/ for how well that she dooth good and prouffyt somtyme to other yet she doth harme and domage to hym that so wasteth. Caffiodore admonesteth the fole larges to kepe theyr thynges/ that by no necessite they falle in pouerte/ And that they be not constrayned to begge ne to stele of other men For he faith that hit is gretter subtilte to kepe well his owne goodes/ than to fynde strange thynge/ and that it is gretter vertue to kepe that is goten than to gete and wynne more/ and claudian saith in like wise in his book that hit is a gretter thynge & better to kepe that is goten Than to gete more And therfore hit is sayd y't the poure demandeth and beggeth er he felith/ and also hit is sayd that he y't dispendith more than he hath/ with oute strook he is smyten to the deth/ Ther was a noble man named Iohn de ganazath whiche was ryght ryche/ And this man had but two doughters whom he maryed to two noble men/ And whan he had maryed them/ he loued so well his sones in lawe their husbondes/ that in space & succession of tyme/ he departed to them alle his goodes temporell/ And as longe as he gaf to them they obeyed hym & were right diligent to plese and serue hym/ so hit befell that on a tyme that he had alle gyuen in so moche that he had ryght nought/ Than hit happend that they to whom he had gyuen his goodes/ whiche were wonte to be amyable & obeyssant to hym as longe as he gaf. Whan tyme cam that he was poure and knewe that he had not they becam unkynde Disagreable and disobeyssant/ And whan the fader sawe that he was deceyuyd by his debonayrte and loue of his doughters/ He desired and couetyed fore teschewe his pouerte/ At laste he wente to a marchant that he knewe of olde tyme. And requyred hym to lene to hym. x. thousand pound for to paye and rendre agayn wyth in thre dayes/ And he lente hit hym/ and whan he had brought hit in to his hows/ Hit happend that hit was a day of a solempne feste/ on whiche daye he gaf to his doughters and her hufbonde a right noble dyner/ and after dyner he entrid in to his chambre secretly wyth them/ And drewe out of a coffre that he had do make all newe shettynge with iii. lockis/ the menoye that the marchant had lente hym And poured out vpon a tapyte that his doughtres and theyr hufbondes myght see hit/ And whan he had shewid hit vnto them he put hit vp agayn and put hit in to the cheste saynynge that hit had ben all his And whan they were departed he bare the money home to the marchant that he had borowed hit of/ And the next day after his doughters and theyre hufbondes Axid of hym how moche moneye was in the cheste that was shette wyth. iii. lockis/ And than he fayned and saide that he had therein. xxv. thousand pound/ whiche he kepte for to make his testament and for to leue to his doughters and hem/ yf they wolde here hem as well to hym ward as they dyde whan they were maried/ And than whan they herde that/ they were right Ioyous and glad And they thoughte and concluded to serue hym honorably as well in clothynge as in mete and drynke & of alle other thynges necessarye to hym vnto his ende And after this whan the ende of hym began tapproche/ he callyd his doughters and her husbondes and sayd to hem in thys mauere/ y'e shall vnderstande that the moneye that is in the chest shette vnder. iii. lockes I wylle leue to yow Sanynge I wyll that y'e gyue in my prefence er I dye whilis I lyue to the frere prechours. C. pound and to the frere menours. C. pound/ And to the heremytes of saynt Augustyn .I. pound to thende that whan I am buryed and put in the erthe y'e may demande of them the keyes of y'e cheste where my tresour is Inne/ whiche keyes they kepe/ and I haue put on eche keye a bille & writynge In witnessinge of the thynges abouesayd/ And also y'e shall vnderstande that he dyde do to be gyuen whilis he laye in his deth bedde to eche churche and recluse and to poure peple a certayn quantyte of moneye by the handes of his doughters husbondes/ whiche they dyde gladly. In hope to haue shortly the money that they supposid had ben in the cheste/ And whan hit cam to the last day/ that he deyde/ He was born to churche and his exequye don and was buryed solempnly/ And the eyght daye the seruyse worshipfully accomplisshid/ They wente for to demande the keyes of the Religious men that they had kept/ whiche were deliueryd to them/ And than they wente and opend the coffre where they supposid the money had ben Inne/ And there they fonde no thyng but a grete clubbe/ And on the the handlynge was wreton/ J Iohn of canazath make this testament/ that he be slayn wyth this clubbe/ that leuyth his own prouffit. And gyuyth hit to other/ as who sayth hit is no wysedom for a man to gyue his good to his children and kepe none for hym self/ And y'e shall vnderstande that it is grete folye to dispende and waste his good/ In hope for to recoure hit of other/ be hit of sone or doughter or ryght nyghe kyn/ For aman ought to kepe in his hande in dispendynge his owen goodes/ to fore he see that he dyspende other mennys/ And he ought not to be holden for a good man/ That hath lityll renome and spendeth many thyngys/ And I trowe that suche persones wold gladly make noueltees as for to noye and greue feignories and meue warres and tencions agaynst them that habounde in rychesses and goodes/ And also make extorcyons clamours & trybulacyons ayenst theyr lordes to thende to waste the goodes of the peple. lyke as they haue wasted theyris And suche a wastour of goodes may neuer be good for the comyn prouffit. And y'e shall vnderstande that after these wastours of goodes we saye that the pleyars of dyse and they that vse bordellis ben worst of alle other For whan the hete of playnge at the dyse/ And the couetyse of theyr stynkynge lecherye hath brought hem to pouerte/ hit foloweth by force that they muste ben theuys and robbeurs And also dronkenship. glotonye. And alle maner of euyllis folowe them and myschief/ And they folowe gladly the companyes of knyghtes and of noble men whan they goon vnto the warre or batayllis And they coueyte not so moche the victorye as they do the robberie And they do moche harme as they goo And they brynge lityll gayn or wynnynge/ wherof hit happend on a tyme that fsaynt bernard rode on an hors aboute in the contrey And mette wyth an hasardour or dyse-player/ whiche sayd to hym/ thou goddes man wilte thou playe at dyse wyth me thyn hors ayenst my sowle/ to whom saynt Bernard answerd/ yf thou wilt oblige thy sowle to me ayenst my hors/ I wolle a lighte doun & playe wyth the/ and yf thou haue mo poyntes than I on thre dyse I promyse the thou shalt haue myn hors/ And than he was glad/ and anōn cafte. iii. dyse/ And on eche dyse was a fyfe/ whiche made. xviii. poynts And anone he toke the hors by the brydell/ as he that was fewr that he had wonne/ and said that the hors was his And than saynt Bernard sayde abyde my sone For ther ben mo poyntes on the dyse than. xviii. And than he caste the dyse/ In suche wyse that one of the. iii. dyse clefte a sonder in the myddes/ And on that one parte was fyfe and on that other an Aas/ And eche of that other was a fyfe/ And than Saynt Bernard sayde That he had wonne hys sowle for as moche as he had caste on thre dyse. xix. points/ And than whan thys player sawe and apperceyuyd thys myracle/ He gaf hys sowle to saynt Bernard and be cam a monke and finysshid his lyf in good werkes/ The corrours and berars of lettres ought hastely and spedily do her viage that comanded hem/ with oute taryenge/ For their taryenge might noye and greue them that sende hem forth/ or ellis them to whom they ben sent too/ And torne hem to ryght grete domage or villonye/ for whiche cause euery noble man ought well to take hede to whom he deliuere his lettres and his mandements/ and otherwhilis suche peple ben Ioghelers & dronkelewe/ And goon out of their waye for to see abbayes and noble men for to haue auantage And hit happeth ofte tymes/ that whan suche messagers or currours ben enpesshid by ony taryenge/ That other currours bere lettres contrarye to his/ And come to fore hym/ of which thinges ofte tymes cometh many thinges discouenable of losse of frendes of castellys & of lande & many other thinges as in the feet of marchandise &c. And otherwhile hit happeth that a prynce for the faulte of suche messangers lefeth to haue victorye vpon hys enemyes/ And also ther ben some that whan they come in a cyte where they haue not ben to fore/ that ben more besy to visyte the Cyte and the noble men that dwelle theryn/ Than they ben to doo theyr voyage/ whyche thynge they ought not to doo/ But yf they had specyall charge of them that sente hem forth so to doo. And also whan they be sente forth of ony lordes or marchauntes they ought to be well ware/ that they charge hem not wyth ouer moche mete on morenynges ne with to moche wyn on euenynges/ wherby her synewis and vaynes myght be greuy/ that they muste for faute of good rewle tarye But they ought to goo and come hastely for to reporte to their maistres answers as hit apperteyneth And this suffisen of the thynges aboue sayd.



BOOK IV.



_The fourth tractate & the last of the progression and draughtes of the forsayd playe of the chesse.

The first chapitre of the fourth tractate of the chesse borde in genere how it is made._

Ze haue deuised aboue the thinges that apperteyne vnto the formes of the chesse men and of theyr offices/ that is to wete as well of noble men as of the comyn peple/ than hit apperteyneth that we shold deuyse shortly how they yssue and goon oute of the places where they be sette/ And first we ought to speke of the forme and of the facion of the chequer after that hit representeth and was made after/ For hyt was made after the forme of the cyte of Babyloyne/ In the whiche this same playe was founden as hit is sayd afore/ And foure thinges The first is/ wher y'e shal vnderstande that y'e ought to consydere here in fore that. lxiiii. poyntes ben sette in the eschequer whiche ben alle square/ The seconde is wherfore the bordeur aboute his hyher than the squarenes of the poyntes/ The thirde is wherfore the comyn peple ben sette to fore the nobles/ The fourthe wherfore the nobles and the peples ben sette in their propre places Ther ben as many poyntes in y'e eschequer wyde as full And y'e shall first vnderftande wherfore that ther ben. lxiiii. poyntes in the eschequer/ For as the blessid saint Iherome saith/ the cyte of babilone was right grete and was made alle square/ and in euery quarter was. xvi. myle by nombre and mesure/ the whiche nombre foure tymes told was. lxiiii. myles/ After the maner of lombardye they be callid myles/ and in france leukes/ and in englong they be callid mylis also/ And for to reprefente the mesure of thys cyte/ In whiche thys playe or game was founden/ The philosopher that fonde hit first ordeyned a tablier conteynyng .lxiiii. poynts square/ the which ben comprised wyth in the bordour of the tablier/ ther ben xxxii. on that on fide &. xxxii. on that other whiche ben ordeyned for the beaulte of the playe/ and for to mewe the maner & drawynge of the chesse as hit shall appere in the chapitres folowynge/ and as to the seconde wherfore y'e bordour of theschequyer is hyher than the table wyth in. hit is to be vnderftande y't the bordour aboute representeth the walle of t'e cyte/ whiche is right hyghe/ And therfor made y'e philosopher the bordour more hyghe than y'e tablier. And as y'e blessid saint Iherome saith vpon y'e prophesie of ysaye/ that is to wete vpon a montayne of obscurete. whiche wordes were said of babilone whiche standeth in chaldee and nothinge of that babilone that stondeth in egipte/ for it is so y't babilone whiche standeth in chaldee was sette in a right grete playne/ & had so hyghe walles that by the heyghte of them/ was contynuell derkenes environed & obscurete/ that none erthely man might beholde and see the ende of y'e hyghnes of the walle/ And therfore ysaye callid hit y'e montaigne obscure/ And saint Iherome sayth y't the mesure of the heyght of this walle was thre thousand paas/ whiche extendeth vnto y'e lengthe of thre myle lombardes/ hit is to wete that lombarde mylis and english myles ben of one lengthe And in one of the corners of this cyte was made a toure treangle as a shelde wherof the heyght extended vnto the lengthe of .vii. thousand paas/ whiche is .vii. myle english And this tour was callyd the tour of Babell/ The walles aboute the tour made a woman whos name was semiranus as sayth virgilius/ As to the thirde wherfore the comyn peple ben sette to fore the nobles in the felde of the bataylle in one renge First for as moche as they ben necessarye to alle nobles For the rooke whiche standeth on the ryght syde and is vicaire of the kynge what may he doo yf the labourer were not sette to fore hym and labourid to mynystre to hym suche temporell thynges as be necessary for hym/ And what may the knyght doo yf he ne had to fore hym the smyth for to forge his armours. sadellis. axis and spores and suche thynges as apperteyneth to hym/ And what is a knyght worth wyth oute hors and armes/ certaynly nothynge more than on of the peple or lasse pauenture And in what maner shold the nobles lyue yf no man made cloth and bought and solde marchandyse/ And what shulde kynges and quenes and the other lordes doo yf they had no phisicyens ne cyrurgiens/ than I saye that the peple ben the glorye of the Crowne And susteyne. the lyf of the nobles And therfore thou that art a lord or a noble man or knyght/ despise not the comyn peple for as moche as they ben sette to fore the in y'e pleye The seconde cause is why the peple ben sette to fore the nobles and haue the table wyde to fore them/ is be cause they begyn the bataylle/ They ought to take hede and entende to do theyr offices and theyr craftes/ In suche wyse that they suffre the noble men to gouerne the cytees and to counceylle and make ordenances of the peple of the batayll how shold a labourer a plowman or a craftyman counceylle and make ordenance of suche thynges as he neuer lerned/ And wote ne knoweth the mater vpon what thynge the counceylle ought to be taken/ Certes the comyn peple ought not to entende to none other thynge but for to do their seruyse and the office whiche is couenable vnto hem/ And hyt apperteyneth not to hem to be of counceyllys ne at the aduocacions/ ne to menace ne to threte noman/ for ofte tymes by menaces and by force good counceylle is distroublid/ And where good counceyll faylleth/ there ofte tymes the cytees ben betrayed and destroyed/ And Plato sayth That the comyn thynges and the cytees ben blessid whan they ben gouerned by wyse men/ or whan the gouernours studye in wisedom/ And so hit apperteyneth to the comyn to lerne to vttre the maters & the maner of procuracion to fore they be counceyllours/ For hit happeth oftetymes that he that maketh hym wyser that he vnderstandeth is made more foole than he is/ And the fourth cause wherfore y't ther ben in the tabler as many poynts wyde as ben full. hit is to wete for that they what euer they be that haue peple to gouerne/ ought tenforce to haue cytees & caftellis & possessions for to sette his peple theryn/ And for to laboure & doo their ocupacion/ For for to haue the name of a kynge with out royame is a name voyde/ and honour with oute prouffit/ And alle noblesse wyth oute good maners/ and with out suche thinges as noblesse may be mayntenyd/ ought better be callid folye than noblesse. And shamefull pouerte is the more greuous whan hit cometh by nature of an hyhe and noble burth or hous. For noman gladly wole repreue a poure man of the comyn peple/ But euery man hath in despite a noble man that is poure yf he haue not in hym good maners and vertuous/ by whiche his pouerte is forgoten/ and truly a royame with oute haboundance of goodes by whiche hit may be gouerned and prospere/ may better be callyd a latrocynye or a nest of theeuys than a royame/ Alas what haboundance was some tymes in the royames. And what prosite/ In whiche was Iustice/ And euery man in his office contente/ how stood the cytees that tyme in worship and renome/ how was renomed the noble royame of Englond Alle the world dredde hit And spack worship of hit/ how hit now standeth and in what haboundance I reporte me to them that knowe hit yf ther ben theeuis wyth in the royame or on the see/ they knowe that laboure in the royame And sayle on the see I wote well the fame is grete therof I pray god saue that noble royame And sende good true and politicque counceyllours to the gouernours of the same &c./ And noblesse of lignage wyth oute puyssance and might is but vanyte and despite. And hit is so as we haue sayd to fore that theschequer whiche the philosopher ordeyned represented and figured the sayd cyte of Babilone And in lyke wyse may hit figure a royame and signefye alle the world And yf men regarde and take heed vnto the poyntes vnto the middes of euery quadrante and so to double euery quadrant to other the myles of this cyte all way doublinge vnto the nombre of .lxiiii. The nombre of the same shulde surmounte alle the world/ And not only the world but many worldes by the doublinge of mylis/ whiche doublinge so as a fore is sayd shuld surmounte alle thynges/ And thus endeth the first chapitre of the fourth booke.



The seconde chaitre of the fourth tractate tretheth of the draught of the kynge/ And how he meuyth hym in the chequer.

We ought to knowe that in this world/ the kynges seygnourye and regne eche in his royame. And in this playe we ought to knowe by the nature of hit how the kynge meueth hym and yssueth oute of his place/ For y'e shall vnderstande that he is sette in the fourth quadrante or poynt of theschequer. And whan he is black/ he standeth in the white/ and the knyght on his ryght side in white/ And the Alphyn and the rooke in black/ And on the lifte side the foure holden the places opposite/ And the rayson may be suche/ For be cause that the knyghtes ben the glorye & the crowne of the kynge,' They ensiewe in semblable residence/ that they doo whan they ben sette semblably on the ryght side of the kynge & on the lyfte side of the quene/ And for as moche as the rook on the ryght syde is vicayre of the kynge he accompanyeth the quene in semblable siege that the Alphyn doth whiche is Iuge of the kynge/ And in lyke wyse the lifte rook & the lyfte Alphyn accompanye the kynge in semblable siege/ In suche wyse as they ben sette aboute the kynge in bothe sides wyth the Quene in manere of a crowne/ That they may seurely kepe the royame that reluyseth and shyneth in the kynge and in the Quene/ In suche wyse as they may conferme and diffende hym in theyr sieges and in theyr places. And the more hastily renne vpon his enemyes And for as moche as the Iuge, the knyght/ and the vicaire. kepe and garnysshe the kynge on that one syde/ They that ben sette on the other syde kepe the Quene/ And thus kepe they alle the strength and fermete of the royame/ And semblably otherwhile for to ordeyne the thynges that apperteyne to the counceyll/ and to the besoygne of the royame/ For yf eche man shold entende to his owen proper thynges/ And y't they defended not ner toke hede vnto the thingis y't apperteynen to the kynge to the comyn and to the royame/ the royalme shold anōn be deuided in parties And thus myght the Iuge regne/ And the name of the dignyte royall shold be lost/ And truly for as moche as the kynge holdeth the dignyte aboue alle other and the seygnourye royall/ therfore hit apperteyneth not that he absente hym longe/ ne wythdrawe hym ferre by space of tyme from the maister siege of his royame/ For whan he wele meue hym/ he ought not to passe at the first draught the nombre of .iii. poynts/ And whan he begynneth thus to meue from his whyt poynt/ he hath the nature of the rooks of the right syde and of the lifte syde for to goo black or whithe/ And also he may goo vnto the white poynt where the gardes of the Cyte ben sette And in this poynt he hath the nature of a knyght. And thyse two maners of meuynge apperteyneth otherwhile to the quene/ and for as moche as the kynge and the quene that ben conioyned to geder by mariage ben one thynge as one flessh and blood/ therfore may the kynge meue on the lifte side of his propre poynt also wele as he were sette in the place of the quene whiche is black/ and whan he goth right in maner of the rook only/ And hit happen that the aduersarie be not couered in ony poynt in the seconde ligne/ The kynge may not passe from his black poynt vnto the thirde ligne/ And thus he sortisith the nature of the rook on the ryght syde and lyfte syde vnto the place of the knyghtes and for to goo ryght to fore In to the whyte poynt to fore the marchant/ And the kynge also sortyst the nature of the knyghtes whan he goth on the ryght syde in two maners/ For he may put hym in the voyde space to fore the phisicyen/ And in the black space to fore the tauerner/ And on the other side he goth in to other two places in lyk wise that is to fore the smyth/ and the notarye/ And thus as in goynge out first in to .iiii. poynts he sorteth the nature of knyghtes/ and also the kynge sortiseth the nature of the alphins at his first yssu in to .ii. places And he may goo on bothe sides vnto the white place voyde/ that one to fore y'e smith on that on side/ and that other to for the tauerner on that other side/ All these yssues hath y'e kyng out of his propre place of his owen vertue whan he begynneth to meue. But whan he is ones meuyd fro his propre place/ He may not meue but in to one space or poynt/ and so from one to an other/ And than he sortiseth the nature of the comyn peple/ and thus by good right he hath in hymfelf the nature of alle/ For alle the vertue that is in the membres cometh of the heed and all meuyng of the body/ The begynnynge & lyf comen from the herte/ And all the dignyte that the subgettes haue by execucion/ and contynuell apparence of their meuynge & yssue/ The kynge deteyneth hit & is attribued to hym/ the victorye of the knightes/ the prudence of y'e Iuges/ the auctorite of the vicaires or legates The cōtynence of the quene/ the cōcorde & vnyte of y'e peple Ben not all thise thinges ascribed vnto the honour and worship of the kynge Jn his yssue whan he meuyd first The thirde ligne to fore the peple he neuer excedeth/ Fro in the .iii. nombre alle maner of states begynne to meue For the trynary nombre conteyneth .iii. parties/ whiche make a perfect nombre/ For a trynarye nombre hath. i. ii. iii. Whiche Ioyned to geder maken .vi. Whiche is the first parfyt nombre And signefieth in this place/ vi. persones named that constitute the fection of a royame That is to wete the kynge. the quene. Iuges, knyghtes. the vicaires or legats/ and the comyn peple And therfor the kynge ought to begynne in his first meuynge of .iii. poyntes/ that he shewe perfection of lyf as well in hym self as in other After that the kynge begynneth to meue he may lede wyth hym the quene/ after the maner of his yssue For why the quene foloweth vnto two angularye places/ after the maner of the alphyn/ and to a place indirect in the maner of a rook in to the black poynt to fore the phisicien/ herin is signefied that the women may not meue neyther make vowes of pylgremage ner of viage wythoute the wylle of theyr husbondes/ For yf a woman had a vowed ony thynge/ her husbonde lyuynge/ and agaynsaynge/ she may not yelde ne accomplisshe her vowe/ yf the husbond wyll goo oughwer. he may well goo wyth oute her And yf so be that the husbond wyll haue her wyth hym/ she is bounden to folowe hym/ And by reson For a man is the heed of a woman/ and not econuerso/ For as to suche thingis as longe to patrymony/ they ben lyke/ but the man hath power ouer her body/ And so hath not the woman ouer his And therfore whan the kynge begynneth to meue. the Quene may folowe/ And not alleway whan she meuyd it is no nede the kynge to meue/ For why four the first lignes be with in the limytes and space of the royame/ And vnto the thirde poynt the kynge may meue at his first meuynge out of his propre place/ And whan he passith the fourth ligne he goeth oute of his royame. And yf he passe oon poynt late hym beware/ For the persone of a kynge Is acounted more than a thousand of other/ For whan he exposeth hym vnto the paryllis of bataylle/ Hit is necessarye that he goo temperatly and slyly/ For yf he be taken or ded/ or ellis Inclusid and shette vp/ Alle the strengthes of alle other faylle and alle Is fynysshid and loste/ And therfore he hath nede to goo and meue wysely/ And also therfore he may not meue but one poynt after hys fyrst meuynge but where that euer he goo foreward or bacward or on that one syde or that other or ellis cornerwyse/ He may neuer approche hys aduersarye the kynge nerrer than in the thirde poynt/ And therfore the kynges in batayll ought neuer tapproche one nyghe that other/ And also whan the kynge hath goon so ferre that alle his men be lost/ than he is sole/ And than he may not endure longe whan he is brought to y't extremyte/ And also he ought to take hede that he stande not soo that a knyght or an other saith chek rook/ than the kyng loseth y'e rook/ That kynge is not well fortunat that leseth hym to whom his Auctoryte delegate apperteyneth/ who may doo the nedes of the royame yf he be priuyd taken or dede/ that was prouisour of alle the royame/ he shall bere a sack on his hede that Is shette in a cyte/ And alle they that were theryn ben taken in captiuite and shette vp &c.



The seconde chapiter of the fourth book of the quene and how she yssueth oute of her place. [Transcriber's note: The printer's error in the original text, labeling the third chapter as "The seconde chapiter" is preserved here.]

Whan the Quene whiche is accompanyed vnto the kynge begynneth to meue from her propre place/ She goth in dowble manere/ that is to wete as an Alphyn whan she is black/ fhe may goo on the ryght syde & come in to the poynt to fore the notarye And on the lifte syde in the black poynt and come to fore the gardees of the cyte And hit is to wete that me sortiseth in her self the nature in .iii. maners first on the ryght syde to fore the alphyn/ Secondly on the lifte syde where the knyght is/ And thirdly indirectly vnto the black poynt to fore the phisicyen And the rayson why. Is for as moche as she hath in her self by grace/ the auctrorite that the rooks haue by cōmyscion/ For she may gyue & graute many thynges to her subgetts graciously And thus also ought she to haue parfyt wisedom/ as the alphyns haue whiche ben Iuges/ as hit sayd aboue in the chapitre of the Quene/ And she hath not the nature of knyghtes/ And hit is not fittynge ne couenable thynge for a woman to goo to bataylle for the fragilite and feblenes of her/ And therfore holdeth she not the waye in her draught as the knyghtes doon/ And whan she is meuyd ones oute of her place she may not goo but fro oon poynt to an other and yet cornerly whether hit be foreward or backward takynge or to be taken/ And here may be axid why the quene goth to the bataylle wyth the kynge/ certainly it is for the solace of hym/ and ostencion of loue/ And also the peple desire to haue sucession of the kynge And therfore the tartaris haue their wyues in to the felde with hem/ yet hit is not good that men haue theyr wyuys with hem/ but that they abyde in the cytees or within their owne termes/ For whan they ben oute of theyr cytees and limytes they ben not sure/ but holden suspecte/ they shold be shamfast and hold alle men suspect/ For dyna Iacob's doughter as longe as she was in the hows of her brethern/ she kept her virginite/ But assone as she wente for to see the strange Regyons. Anone she was corrupt and defowled of the sone of sichem/ Seneca sayth that the women that haue euyll visages ben gladly not chaste/ but theyr corage desireth gladly the companye of men/ And Solynus saith that no bestes femellys desyre to be towched of theyr males whan they haue conceyuyd/ Exept woman whyche ought to be a best Raysonable/ And in thys caas she lefeth her rayson/ And Sidrac wythnesseth the same And therfore in the olde lawe/ the faders hadd dyuerce wyues and Ancellys to thende whan one was wyth childe/ they myght take another/ They ought to haue the visage enclyned for teschewe the fight of the men/ that by the fight they be not meuyd with Incontynence and diffame of other/ And Ouyde sayth that ther ben some That how well that they eschewe the dede/ yet haue they grete Joye whan they ben prayed/ And therfore ought the good women flee the curyositees and places wher they myght falle in blame and noyse of the peple.



The fourth chapitre of the fourth book Is of the yssuynge of the Alphyn.

The manere and nature of the draught of the Alphyn is suche/ that he that is black in his propre fiege is sette on the right side of the kynge/ And he that is whyt is sette on the lifte side/ And ben callyd and named black and white/ But for no cause that they be so in subftance of her propre colour/ But for the colour of the places in whiche they ben sette/ And alleway be they black or white/ whan they ben sette in theyr places/ the alphyn on the ryght syde/ goynge oute of his place to the ryght sydeward comyth to fore the labourer/ And hit is reson that the Iuge ought to deffende and kepe the labourers and possessions whiche ben in his Iurisdiction by alle right and lawe/ And also he may goo on the lyste syde to the wyde place to fore the phisicien/ For lyke as the phisiciens haue the charge to hele the Infirmites of a man/ In lyke wyse haue the Iuges charge to appese alle stryues and contencions and reduce vnto vnyte/ And to punyfshe and correcte causes crymynels/ The lyste alphyn hath also two wayes fro his owen place oon toward y'e right syde vnto the black space voyde to fore the marchant/ For the marchants nede ofte tymes counceylle and ben in debate of questions whiche muste be determyned by the Iuges/ And that other yssue is vnto the place to fore the rybauldis/ And that ys be caufe that ofte tymes amonge them. falle noyses discencions thefte and manslaghter/ wherfore they ought to be punysshid by the Iuges/ And y'e shall vnderstande that the alphyn goth alleway corner wyse fro the thirde poynt to the thirde poynt kepynge all way his owne fiege/ For yf he be black/ he goth all way black/ And yf he be whyte he goth alleway whyte. the yssue or goynge cornerly or angularly signefieth cautele or fubtylyte/ whiche Iuges ought to haue/ The .iii. poyntes betoken .iii. thynges that the Iuge ought to attende/ A Iuge ought to furder rightfull & trewe causes. secondly he ought to gyue trewe counceyll/ and thirdly he ought to gyue and Iuge rightfull sentences after tha legeances/ And neuer to goo fro the ryghtwisnes of the lawe/ And it is to wete that the Alphyn goth in fix drawhtes alle the tablier round aboute/ and that he cometh agayn in to his owen place/ And how be hit that alle rayson and good perfection shold be in a kynge/ yet ought hit also specially be in them that ben conceyllours of the kynge and the Quene And the kynge ought not to doo ony thynge doubtouse/ tyll he haue axid counceyll of his Iuges And of the sages of the royame And therfore ought the Iuge to be parfaytly wyse and sage as well in science as in good maners/ And that is signefied whan they meue from thre poynts in to thre/ For the fixt nombre by whiche they goo alle theschequer/ And brynge hem agayn in to her propre place in suche wyse that thende of her moeuynge is conioyned agayn to the begynnynge of the place frowhens they departed/ And therfore hit is callid a parfayt moeuynge.



The fyfth chapitre of the fourth Tractate Is of the meuynge of the knyghtes.

After the yssue of the Alphyns we shall deuyse to yow the yssue & the moeuynge of the knyghtes/ And we saye that the knyght on the right syde is whyt/ And on the lifte syde black/ And the yssue and moeuynge of hem bothe is in one maner whan so is that the knyght on the ryght syde Is whyt/ The lyfte knyght is black/ The moeuynge of hem is suche/ That the whyte may goo in to the space of the alphyn/ as hit apperyth of the knyght on the right side that is whyte. And hath thre yssues fro his proper place/ one on his ryght syde in the place to fore the labourer/ And hit is well reson that whan the labourer and husbonde man hath laboured the feldes/ the knyghtes ought to kepe them/ to thentent that they haue vitailles for them self and their horses/ The second yssue is that he may meue hym vnto the black space to fore the notarye or draper. For he is bounden to deffende and kepe them that make his vestementis & couertours necessarye vnto his body. The thirde yssue is that he may go on the lifte syde in to the place to fore y'e marchant whiche is sette to fore the kynge/ the whiche is black/ And the refon is for as moche as he ought and is holden to deffende the kynge as well as his owen persone/ whan he passith the first draught/ he may goo foure wayes/ And whan he is in the myddes of the tabler he may goo in to .viii. places fondry/ to whiche he may renne And in lyke wise may the lyste knyght goo whiche is black and goth oute of his place in to white/ and in that maner goth the knyght fightynge by his myght/ and groweth and multiplieth in hys poyntis/ And ofte tymes by them the felde Is wonne or lost/ A knyghts vertue and myght is not knowen but by his fightynge/ and in his fightynge he doth moche harme for as moche as his myght extendeth in to fo many poyntis/ they ben in many peryllis in theyr fightynge/ And whan they escape they haue the honour of the game And thus is hit of euery man the more vailliant/ the more honoured And he that meketh hym self ofte tymes shyneth clerest.



The sixt chapitre of the fourth tractate treleth of the yssue of the rooks and of her progression.

The moeuynge and yssue of the rooks whiche ben vicairs of the kynge is suche/ that the ryght rook is black and the lifte rook is whyte/ And whan the chesse ben sette as well the nobles as the comyn peple first in their propre places/ The rooks by their propre vertue haue no wey to yssue but yf hyt be made to them by the nobles or comyn peple/ For they ben enclosed in their propre sieges/ And the refon why is suche That for as moche as they ben vicaires lieutenants or comyssioners of the kynge/ Theyr auctoryte is of none effecte to fore they yssue out/ And that they haue begonne tenhaunce theyr office/ For as longe as they be within the palais of the kynge/ So longe may they not vse ne execute theyr commyssion/ But anon as they yssue they may vse theyr auctorite/ And y'e shall vnderstande that their auctorite is grete/ for they represente the sone of the kynge/ and therfore where the tablier is voyde they may renne alle the tablier/ In lyke wyse as they goon thurgh the royame/ and they may goo as well white as black as well on the right side & lifte as foreward and backward/ And as fer may they renne as they fynde the tablier voyde whether hit be of his aduersaryes as of his owen felowship/ And whan the rook is in the myddell of the tablier/ he may goo whiche way he wyll in to foure right lignes on euery side/ and hit is to wete that he may in no wyse goo cornerwyse/ but allway ryght forth goynge & comynge as afore is sayd/ wherfore all the subgettis of the kinge as well good as euyll ought to knowe by their moeuynge that auctorite of y'e vicaires and comyssioners ought to be verray true rightwis & Iuste/ and y'e shall vnderstande that they ben stronge and vertuous in bataylle For the two rooks only may vaynquyfshe a kynge theyr aduersarye and take hym/ and take from hym his lyf and his royame/ And this was doon whan chirus kynge of perse And darius kynge of medes slewe baltazar and toke his royame from hym. Whiche was neuew to euylmoradach vnder whom this game was founden.



The seuenth chapitre of the fourth book treteth of the yssue of the comyn peple &c.

One yffue and one mouynge apperteyneth vnto alle the peple/ For they may goo fro the poynt they stande in at the first meuynge vnto the thirde poynt right forth to fore them/ & whan they haue so don they may afterward meue no more but fro one poynt ryght forth in to an other/ And they may neuer retorne backward And thus goynge forth fro poynt to poynt They may gete by vertue and strengthe/ that thynge that the other noble fynde by dignyte/ And yf the knyghtes and other nobles helpe hem that they come to the ferthest lygne to fore them where theyr aduersaryes were sette. They acquyre the dignyte that the quene hath graunted to her by grace/ For yf ony of them may come to thys sayd ligne/ yf he be white as labourer draper phisicyen or kepar of the cyte ben/ they reteyne suche dignyte as the quene hath/ for they haue goten hit/ and than retornynge agayn homeward/ they may goo lyke as it is sayd in the chapitre of the quene And yf ony of the pawns that is black/ as the smyth the marchant the tauerner and the rybaulde may come wyth oute domage in to the same vtterist ligne/ he shall gete by his vertu the dignyte of the black quene And y'e shall vnderftande/ whan thyse comyn peple meue right forth in her ligne/ and fynde ony noble persone or of the peple of their aduersaries sette in the poynt at on ony side to fore hym/ In that corner poynt he may take his aduersarye wherther hit be on the right side or on the lifte/ And the cause is that the aduersaries ben suspecyous that the comyn peple lye In a wayte to Robbe her goodes or to take her persones whan they goo vpward right forth. And therfore he may take in the right angle to fore hym one of his aduersaries/ As he had espied his persone/ And in the lifte angle as robber of his goodes/ and whether hit be goynge foreward or retornynge fro black to whyte or whyte to black/ the pawn must allway goo in his right ligne/ and all way take in the corner that he findeth in his waye/ but he may not goo on neyther side tyll he hath ben in the furdest ligne of theschequer/ And that he hath taken the nature of the draughtes of the quene/ And than he is a fiers/ And than he may goo on alle sides cornerwyse fro poynt to poynt only as the quene doth fightynge and takynge whom he findeth in his waye/ And whan he is thus comen to the place where y'e nobles his aduersaries were sette he shall be named white fiers or black fiers/ after the poynt that he is in/ and there taketh he the dignyte of the quene &c. And all these thinges may appere to them that beholden y'e play of the chesse/ and y'e shall vnderstande that no noble man ought to haue despite of the comyn peple/ for hit hath ben ofte tymes seen/ that by their vertu & witte/ Diuerce of them haue comen to right highe & grete astate as poopes bisshoppes Emerours and kynges/ As we haue in the historye of Dauid that was made kynge/ of a shepherd and one of the comyn peple/ and of many other &c. And in lyke wyse we rede of the contrary/ that many noble men haue ben brought to myserye by their defaulte As of gyges whiche was right riche of landes and of richesses And was so proude that he wente and demanded of the god appollo/ yf ther were ony in the world more riche or more happy than he was/ and than he herde a voys that yssued out of the fosse or pitte of the sacrefices/ that a peple named agalaus sophide whiche were poure of goodes and riche of corage was more acceptable than he whiche was kynge And thus the god Appollo alowed more the sapience & the seurte of the poure man and of his lityll mayne/ than he dide the astate and the persone of giges ne of his ryche mayne/ And hit is more to alowe a lityll thynge seurly poursiewed than moche good taken in fere and drede And for as moche as a man of lowe lignage is by his vertue enhaunsed so moche the more he ought to be glorious and of good renomee/ virgile that was born in lombardye of y'e nacion of mantua and was of lowe and symple lignage/ yet he was souerayn in wisedom and science and the moste noble of alle the poetes/ of whome the renome is and shall be durynge the world/ so hit happend that an other poete axid and demanded of hym wherfore he setted not the versis of homere in his book/ And he answerd that he shold be of right grete strength and force that shold pluck the clubbe out of hercules handes/ And thys suffyceth the state and draughtis of the comyn peple &c.



The eyght chapitre and the last of the fourth book of the epilogacion and recapitulation of this book.

For as moche as we see and knowe that the memorye of the peple is not retentyf but right forgetefull whan some here longe talis & historyes whiche they can not alle reteyne in her mynde or recorde Therfore I haue put in this present chapitre all y'e thynges abouesayd as shortly as I haue conne/ First this playe or game was founden in the tyme of euilmerodach kynge of Babilone/ And exerses the philosopher otherwyse named philometer fonde hit/ And the cause why/ was for the corre3tion of the kynge lyke as hit apperith in thre the first chapitres/ for the said kynge was so tyrannous and felon that he might suffre no correction/ But slewe them and dide do put hem to deth/ that corre3tid hym/ and had than do put to deth many right wyse men Than the peple beynge sorowfull and ryght euyll plesid of this euyll lyf of the kynge prayd and requyred the philosopher/ that he wolde repryse and telle the kynge of his folye/ And than the philosopher answerd that he shold be dede yf he so dide/ and the peple sayd to hym/ Certes thou oughtest sonner wille to dye to thende that thy renome myght come to the peple/ than the lyf of the kynge shold contynue in euyll for lacke of thy counceyll/ or by faulte of reprehension of the/ or that thou darst not doo and shewe/ that thou faist/ And whan the philosopher herd this he promisid to the peple y't he wold put hym in deuoyr to correcte hym/ and than he began to thynke in what maner he myght escape the deth and kepe to the peple his promesse/ And than thus he made in this maner and ordeyned the schequer of. lxiiii. poynts as Is afore sayd/ And dide doo make the forme of chequers of gold and siluer In humayne fygure after the facyons and formes as we haue dyuysid and shiewid to yow to fore in theyr chapitres/ And ordeyned the moeuynge and thestate after that it is said in the chapitres of theschesses And whan the philosopher had thus ordeyned the playe or game/ and that hit plesid alle them that sawe hit/ on a tyme as the philosopher playd on hit/ the kynge cam and sawe hit and desired to playe at this game/ And than the phylosopher began tenseigne and teche the kynge the science of the playe & the draughtes. Saynge to hym fyrst how the kynge ought to haue in hymself pytie. debonairte and rightwisnes as hit is said to fore in the chapitre of the kynge And he enseygned to hym the estate of the queue and what maners she ought to haue And than of the alphyns as connceyllours and luges of the royame And after the nature of the knyghtes/ how they ought to be wise. trewe and curtoys and alle the ordre of knyghthode And than after/ the nature of the vicaires & rooks as hit apperyth in theyr chappitre And after this how the comyn peple ought to goo eche in his office/ And how they ought to serue the nobles. And whan the philosopher had thus taught and enseigned the kynge and his nobles by the maner of the playe and had rephended hym of his euyll maners/ The kynge demanded hym vpon payne of deth to telle hym the cause why and wherfore he had made & founden thys playe and game And what thynge meuyd hym therto/ And than the philosopher constrayned by fere and drede answerd/ that he had promysid to the peple whiche had requyred hym that he shold correcte and reprise the kynge of his euyll vices/ but for as moche as he doubtid the deth and had seen that the kynge dide do flee the fages & wyse men/ That were so hardy to blame hym of his vices/ he was in grete anguysshe & sorowe/ how he myght fynde a maner to correcte & reprehende the kynge/ And to saue his owen lyf/ and thus he thought longe & studyed that he fonde thys game or playe/ Whiche he hath do sette forth for to amende and corre3te the lyf of the kynge and to change his maners/ and he adioustyd with all that he had founden this game for so moche as the lordes and nobles habondynge in delyces & richessis/ And enioynge temporell peas shold eschewe ydlenes by playnge of this game/ And for to gyue hem cause to leue her pensisnes and sorowes/ In auysynge & studyynge this game. And whan the kynge had herd alle thyse causes/ He thought that the philosopher had founde a good maner of correction/ And than he thanketh hym gretly/ and thus by thenseygnement and lernynge of the phylosopher he changid his lyf his maners & alle his euyll condicions And by this maner hit happend that the kynge that to fore tyme had ben vicyous and disordynate in his liuyng was made Iuste. and vertuous. debonayre. gracious and and full of vertues vnto alle peple/ And a man that lyuyth in this world without vertues liueth not as a man but as a beste[56]/ And therfore my ryght redoubted lord I pray almighty god to saue the kyng our souerain lord & to gyue hym grace to yssue as a kynge & tabounde in all vertues/ & to be assisted with all other his lordes in such wyse y't his noble royame of Englond may prospere & habounde in vertues/ and y't synne may be eschewid iustice kepte/ the royame defended good men rewarded malefa3tours punysshid & the ydle peple to be put to laboure that he wyth the nobles of the royame may regne gloriously In conquerynge his rightfull enheritaunce/ that verray peas and charite may endure in bothe his royames/ and that marchandise may haue his cours in suche wise that euery man eschewe synne/ and encrece in vertuous occupacions/ Praynge your good grace to resseyue this lityll and symple book made vnder the hope and shadowe of your noble protection by hym that is your most humble seruant/ in gree and thanke And I shall praye almighty god for your longe lyf & welfare/ whiche he preserue And sende yow thaccomplisshement of your hye noble. Ioyous and vertuous desirs Amen:/: Fynysshid the last day of marche the yer of our lord god. a. thousand foure honderd and lxxiiii



[Footnote 1: Blades' "Life of Caxton," ii., 12.]

[Footnote 2: Mr. Blades enumerates only ten, but between the publication of his work in 1863 and the appearance in 1880 of a more popular one, an eleventh copy turned up. It is described further on. As both editions of Mr. Blades' book are frequently cited, it may be stated here that where the reference is to the page only, the one volume edition of 1880 is meant.]

[Footnote 3: Blades, ii., 12.]

[Footnote 4: Van der Linde, "Geschichte und Literatur des Schachspiels," Berlin, 1874, ii., 125.]

[Footnote 5: Blades, ii., 48.]

[Footnote 6: Blades, ii., 97.]

[Footnote 7: Blades, ii., 95.]

[Footnote 8: Dibdin's "Bibliotheca Spenceriana," iv., 195.]

[Footnote 9: See Prosper Marchand, "Dict. Hist.," t. i., p. 181.]

[Footnote 10: "Les Bibliotheques Francoises de La Croix du Maine et de Du Verdier." n. e. Paris, 1782, t. i., p. 493.]

[Footnote 11: Dr. Van der Linde, "Geschichte," 114.]

[Footnote 12: Cf. Van der Linde, "Geschichte," and his "Jartausend."]

[Footnote 13: Jaubert, cited by Van der Linde, "Geschichte," t. i., p. 122.]

[Footnote 14: Blades' "Caxton," 173-175.]

[Footnote 15: Blades, i., 166.]

[Footnote 16: "Geschichte," i., 29. There is a manuscript copy in the Chetham Library, Manchester, which he does not name. It came from the Farmer Collection, and is in a volume containing a number of fifteenth century Latin tracts. See account of European MSS. in the Chetham Library, Manchester, by James Orchard Halliwell, F.R.S., Manchester, 1842, p. 15.]

[Footnote 17: "Bulletin du Bibliophile," 1836-1837, 2ieme serie, p. 527.]

[Footnote 18: "Academy," July 12, 1881.]

[Footnote 19: Blades' "Life of Caxton," vol. ii., p. 9.]

[Footnote 20: "De regimine Principum," a poem by Thomas Occleve, written in the reign of Henry IV. Edited, for the first time, by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., &c. Printed for the Roxburghe Club. London: J. B. Nichols, 1860, 410.]

[Footnote 21: Warton's "History of English Poetry," 1871, iii., 44.]

[Footnote 22: The fires of purgatory are finely and amply illustrated in the story at p. 110, whilst the power of the saints and the value of pilgrimages would be impressed upon the hearers by the narrative of the miracles wrought by St. James of Compostella (p. 136)]

[Footnote 23: "Hist. of Siege of Troye."]

[Footnote 24: "Works of Polidore Virgil." London, 1663, p. 95.]

[Footnote 25: Graesse: Tresor, s.v. Sydrach. See also Warton's "History of English Poetry," 1871, vol. ii., p. 144, Hazlitt's "Handbook of Early English Literature," p. 43.]

[Footnote 26: Hoeffer: "Nouvelle Biographie Universelle."]

[Footnote 27: Hoeffer, "Nouvelle Biographie Generale," xxxiii. 818.]

[Footnote 28: Brunei, "Manuel du Libraire," s. v. Gesta.]

[Footnote 29: "Gesta Romanorum," edited by Herrtage. London, 1879, p. vii.]

[Footnote 30: Occleve, "De Regimine Principum," p. 199.]

[Footnote 31: "Curiosities of Search Room." London, 1880, p. 32.]

[Footnote 32: "Percy Anecdotes: Domestic Life," iv. 446.]

[Footnote 33: Dunlop, "History of Fiction," 1876, p. 259.]

[Footnote 34: "Latin Stories," edited by Thomas Wright. Percy Society, 1842, p. 222.]

[Footnote 35: See "Gesta Romanorum," edit, by Herrtage, p. 364.]

[Footnote 36: "On Two Collections of Mediaeval Moralized Tales," by John K. Ingram, LL.D. Dublin, 1882, p. 137.]

[Footnote 37: Muratori: "Rerum Italicarum Scriptores," t. i. p. 465.]

[Footnote 38: Wright, "Latin Stories," p. 235.]

[Footnote 39: "Francis of Assisi," Mrs. Oliphant. London, 1874, p. 87.]

[Footnote 40: "Valerius Maximus," vi. 2, 3.]

[Footnote 41: It will be sufficient here to refer for further details to the following works:—"Geschichte und Literatur des Schachspiels," von Antonius van der Linde, Berlin, 1874, 2 vols.; "Quellenstudien zur Gefchichte des Schachspiels," von Dr. A. v.d.Linde, Berlin, 1881.]

[Footnote 42: This dedication is omitted in the second edition.]

[Footnote 43: Second edit. reads "Thossyce of notaries/ aduocates scriueners and drapers and clothmakers capitulo iii"]

[Footnote 44: Sec. edit. reads "The forme of phisiciens leches spycers and appotycaryes"]

[Footnote 45: Sec. edit. "Of tauerners hostelers & vitaillers"]

[Footnote 46: Sec. edit. "Of kepers of townes Receyuers of custum and tollenars"]

[Footnote 47: Sec. edit. "Of messagers currours Rybauldes and players at the dyse"]

[Footnote 48: "democrite" in the sec. edit.]

[Footnote 49: "beclyppe" in sec. edit.]

[Footnote 50: "demotene" in sec. edit.]

[Footnote 51: "demostenes" in sec. edit.]

[Footnote 52: "blisful" in the sec. edit.—The reading of the first edition is evidently a misprint.]

[Footnote 53: Sec. edit. "buneuentayns."]

[Footnote 54: sec. edit, "y nough."]

[Footnote 55: sec. edit. "by the martel or hamer."]

[Footnore 55: "And therfore &c." to the end, is wanting in the second edition, and, instead thereof, the treatife concludes in the following manner—

"Thenne late euery man of what condycion he be that redyth or herith this litel book redde take therby enfaumple to amende hym.

Explicit per Caxton."]



GLOSSARY

Aas; ace. Aduocacions; Latin advocationis, assembly of advocates, the bar. Agaynesaynge; gain-saying. Alphyns. The alphin, or elephant, was the piece answering to the bishop in the modern game of chess. Ameruaylled; astonished. Ample, ampole; Latin ampulla, vessel for holding liquids. Ancellys; Latin ancilla, handmaids, concubines. Appertly; openly. Appetissid; satisfied, satiated. Ardautly [ardantly]; ardently. Arrache; French arracher, to pull, to pluck.

Auenture; adventure. Axe; ask.

Barate; trouble, suffering. Beaulte; beauty. Benerous; French benir, blessed. Besaunt; besant, a Byzantine gold coin. Beneurte; French bonheur, good fortune. Bole; bull. Bourdellys; brothels, stews. Butters; freebooters. Butyn; French butin, plunder, spoils.

Chamberyer; Chambrere; woman servant, concubine. Chequer; chefs-board. Chauffed; French echauffer, to warm. Compaignon; French compagnon, companion. Connynge; cunning, knowledge. Corrompith; French corrompre, to corrupt. Couenable; French convenable, proper, fit. Courrours; French coureurs, runners, messengers. Curatours; guardians, trustees.

Dampned; condemned. Debonairly; debonairte, French de ban air, in a good manner, with good will. Depesshed; French depecher, defpatched. Deporte; deport. Devour; French devoir, duty. Dismes; Latin decimal, tenths, or tithes. Disobeyfance; disobedience. Difpendynge; spending. Distemprance; intemperance. Dolabre; Latin dolabra, axe, pick-axe. Doubted; redoubted, of doughty. Drawhtes; draughts, movements. Drof; drove. Dronkelewe; drunkenness. Dronkenshyp; drunkenness. Dyse; dice.

Enbrasid; embraced. Enpessheth; French empecher, to forbid. Enpoigne; French empoigner, to take in hand. Enfeygned; French enfeigner, to teach. Eschauffed; French echauffer, to warm. Esmoued; French emouvoir, to move. Espicers; French epicier. Espryfed; French epris, taken. Ewrous, in; French heureuse, happy.

Feet; French fait, act, feat. Ferremens. See Serremens. Flessly; fleshily. Folelarge; prodigal, extravagant. Fumee; French fumee, smoke, vapour. Garnyfche; garnish, adorn, set off. Genere; general. Goddes man; godsman, saint or religious person. Gossibs; gossyb; gossips, gossip. Gree; French gre, liking. Grucche; grudge. Guarisshors; French guerir, to cure.

Hauoyr; French avoir, possessions. Herberowe; harbour. Historiagraph; historian. Hoos; hoarse.

Iape; jape, trick.

Jolye, lvii; fine (French joli).

Keruars; carvers.

Langed; belonged. Latrocynye; Latin latrocinium. Lecherye; lechery. Letted; prevented.

Male; mail, trunk. Maleheurte; French malheur, misfortune, sorrow. Maronners; mariners. Martel; hammer. Meure; French moeurs, manners. Mordent; biting. Mortifyed; mortified, deadened. Mufyque; mufic.

Nonne; nun. Noye; annoyance.

Oeuurages; French outrages, works. Oftencion; show. Olefauntes; elephants. Oughwer; over. Oultrage; outrage.

Pardurable; everlasting. Parfyt; French parfait, perfeft. Pawon; pawn. Payringe; "without a pareing," i.e. undiminished. Peages; peagers; French peage, peager. A local tax on merchandise in paflage for the maintenance of roads and bridges. A gatherer of the peage. Pensee; French pensee, thought. Pourueance; providence. Rawe; rough. Renomee; renown. Roynyous; ruinous. Rybauldes; ribalds.

Saciat; satiated. Sawlter; salter. Scawage; scavage, toll or tax. Semblant; French sembler, to appear, to seem. Serremens; cerements. Siege; feat. Slear; slayer. Spores; spurs. Spyncoppis; spiders. Stracched; stretched. Supplye; French supplier, to supplicate. Syfe; fix.

Tacches; gifts, bequests. A. S. tacan, having the double meaning of giving and taking. Tapyte; carpet. Tencyons; temptations. Trycheur; tricker. Tryste; sad. Tutours; tutors, guardians.

Vignours; vine-dresser.

Wetyngly; knowingly.

Yates; gates. Yre; ire.



INDEX

Abel, Abner, Absalom, Abstrastion, Abysay, Accusation, false, Adam, Adultery, Adversity, Advocates, AEgidius Romanus. See Colonna. Agyos, Albert gauor, Alchorne library, Alexander, Alisander, Alixanander, Alphyn, Altagone, Ambrose, St., Amity, Ammenhaufen, Ammomtes, Amos florus, Amphicrates, Anastatius, Anaximenes, Andrea, Giovanni, Anger, Anguissola, Anna, Anthonie, Anthonius, Anthony, St., Anthonyus, Antigonus, Antonius, Antygone, Ape, Apollo, Apollodorus, Apothecaries, Aquinas, St. Thomas, Archezille, Arismetryque, Arispe, Aristides, Aristippus, Aristotle, Armour, Astronomy, Athenes, Aubrey, John, Audley, Lord, Augustine, St., Augustus, Caesar, Aulus Gellius, Austyn, Saynt. See Augustine. Auycene, Auycenne, Avarice, Avicenna, Axedrez,

Babylon and the Chess-board, Baldness of Caesar, Baltazar, Bankes, Rev. Edw., Barbers, women, Bafille le grant, Basil, St., Bearers of letters, Beauty and chastity. Bees, Begging, Beringen, H. von, Bernard, W., Bernard, St., Biblical allusions, Bibliography of the Chess-book, Birds, Blades, William, Blindness, philosophical, Blind, raised letters for, Boasting, Bocchus, Bodleian Library, Body of Man a castle of Jefus, Boece, Boecius, Boethius, Boneuentan, Borrowing, Boys, R., Breath, stinking, Brevio, Giovanni, Bribery, Bromyard, John of, Brudgys. See Bruges. Bruges, Brunet, J.C., Brutus, Burgundy, Duchess of, Bull of copper, Bulls,

Cadrus, duc of athenes, Caesolis. See Cessoles. Cain, Calderino, Giovanni, Calengius, Cambridge Public Library, Cambyfes, Cantanus, Capayre, Carpenters, Carthage, Carvers, Cassalis. See Cessoles. Cassiodorus, Castle of Jesus Christ, Castulis. See Cessoles. Casulis. See Cessoles. Cato, Cauftons, Caxton, William, prologue of Chess-book, epilogue, finished in 1474, his account of the translation, printed at Bruges, translated from the French, adapts De Vignay's dedications, translates Vegetius, chief dates of his life, opinion of lawyers, epilogue to Chefs-book, editions of it, representative of a new time for literature, at Ghent Caym. Cesar. Cesolis. See Cessoles. Cessole. See Cessoles. Cessoles, Jacques de. Cessulis. See Cessoles. Cesulis. See Cessoles. Cezolis, de. See Cessoles. Cezoli. See Cessoles. Cham. Changers. Charlemagne. Chastity. Chequer. Chess-book, copies of first edition described; prices at which it has sold; where printed; second edition described; when printed; prices at which it has sold; translated from the French; Ferron's version; version in French verse; De Vignay's version. Chess, game of. — how the board is made. — manner of its invention. — moralized. — movements of pieces. Chetham Library. Child hostages. Children, ungrateful. Chivalry. Cicero. Cities, guarding. Clarence, George, Duke of. Claudian. Clip. Cloth cutters. — merchants. — workers. Colatyne. Colonna, Guido. Common life. Common people; not to be despised; not to be at councils; those who have become great. — profit. — weal. Commonwealth. Communities. Community of goods. Contemplation. Continence. Connaxa, Jehan. Cordwainers. Cossoles, de. See Cessoles. Council, women apt in. Courage. Courcelles, de. See Cessoles. Couriers. Covetousness. Crafts. Crete. Crime and punishment. Crown apostrophized. Cruelty. Cunliffe, H. — J. Cures, accidental and scientific. Curse. Cursus. Curtius Marcus. Curtius Quintus. Customary and natural law. Customers. Cyrurgyens. Cyrus.

Dacciesole. See Cessoles. Damiani, Cardinal, Damiano, Damocles, Damon, Dares (Darius), Daughters and their ancestresses, Daughter, dutiful, David, Death, from joy, Defence of the people, Defortes, Delves, Sir Thomas, Demetrius Phalerus, Democrion, Democritus, Democritus of Abdera, Demothenes, Denys, De Vignay. See Vignay. Devonshire, Duke of, Dialogus creaturarum Dibdin, T.F., Dice, play for a foul, Didymus, Diogenes, Diogenes Laertius, Diomedes, Diomedes, a "theefe of the see," Dion Cassius, Dionysius, Dionyse, Disobedient children, Divine right, Dog and the Shadow, Drapers, Draughts of the Chess, Drunkenness, danger of, Duele, Dunlop, J., Durand, Du Verdier, Dydymus, Dyers, Dyna, Dyonyse,

Ebert, Ecclesiastes, Edward I., Edward IV., Education of kings, Education of physician, Egidius Romanus. See Colonna. Election, or hereditary succession? Elephants, Elimandus, Emelie, Emmerancian, Emyon, England's good old times, Enulphus, Envy, Ermoaldus, Ethics, Eustace, Guillaum, Eve, Evilmerodach, Example,

Fabian, Fabius, Fabricius, Faith, Faron. See Ferron. Fear, Fears of a tyrant, Feron. See Ferron. Ferron, Jean, Fevre, Raoul le, Fidelity, Figgins, V., Florus, Folly Fools Forbes, D. Forgers Fornier Fortune misdoubted Framosian Francis of Assisi Frederick II. Friend in need Friends, many and few and enemies Friendship Frugality Fullers

Gaguin, Robert Galen Galeren Galyene Game at Chesse Ganazath, John of Gaunt Gauchay, H. de Gauchy, H. de Gazee, Angelin Genoa Geometry Gereon, St. Gesta Romanorum Ghent, White-friars Gibbet Gifts Gildo Gilles de Rome. See Colonna. Gluttony Godaches Godebert Golden Legend Goldsmiths Good old times Goribert Goribald Government of wise men Graesse, J.G.T. Grammarians Gregory Nazianzen Grenville Library Grymald Guards of cities Guests and hosts Guido Guilt not to be punished in wrath Guye Gyles of Regement of Prynces Gyges

Hain, Ludovici Hakam II. Halliwell, J. O. Ham Hanniball Haroun-al-Rashid Hate Hazlitt, W. C. Health Helemand. See Helinand. Helemond. See Helinand. Helemonde, See Helinand. Helimond. See Helinand. Helinand Helmond. See Helinand. Heredity, influence of Hereford, N. de Hermits Herodes Antipas Heredotus Herrtage, S. J. Hippocrates Hoeffer Holford, J. Holy Mawle Holy Scripture Homer Honesty Horse and the thief Hospitallers Hosts, duties of Hound and the cheese Hunger and piety

Idols Iene (Genoa) Inglis Library Ingram, Prof. Inns Inns, thievish servants Instaulosus Intemperance

James of Compostella Jaubert Jean II. of France Jehanne de Borgoigne Jerome Joab John Baptist John of Ganazath John the Monke (Giovanni Andrea) Josephus Jovinian Joy, its dangers Jherome. See Jerome. Judas Machabeus Judges' duties skin Jugglers Julius Caesar Justice

Keepers of towns King, estate and duties of should take council unpleasantness of the office Kings, unlettered Knight, education estate and duties Knight's followers Koepke, Dr. E.

Labourers' office and duties La Croix du Maine Langley, John Large, Alderman Robert Latrunculi Laws like cobwebs Law courts Lawyers Lear and his daughters Leber, C. Lechery Legenda Aurea Legende Doree Lending Letter-carriers Liberality Liber de Moribus Hominum. See Cessoles. Lineage, high and low Linde, Dr. A. van Ligurgyus Literature Livy Logicians Lot Love Love of the commonweal Love of nature Lowndes, W. T. Loyalty Lucan Lucretia Luther Luxury Lycurgus Lydgate Lying Lyna Lylimachus

Macrobius Madden, Sir F. Mainwaring, Sir H. Magnanimity Malechete Mansion, Colard, teacher and partner of Caxton Marchand, Prosper Mariners Marshals Martial Masons Meats and Drinks Medicines Mennel, Dr. J. Meon Merchandise Merchant, anecdote Merchant, dishonest Merchant who valued his good name Merchants Merchants of Bandach and Egipte Merciall Merculian Mercy Messengers Metalworkers Meung, Jehan de Mollis Aer Money, its force Moneyers Money-lenders, Mulier, derivation of Muratori Music

Natural laws Nature, rule of Nero Nicephorus Noah Nobility Noblemen Nogaret Normandie, Duc de Notaries, office of Novella Nun, anecdote of a

Oaths Oaths of princes Occleve Octauian Oddrale Office no inheritance Offices Officials Oldbuck, Jonathan Originality Osma, Bishop of Ovid

Palamedes Papirion Papirus Paradise lost Pardoning a mother for the daughter's sake Passage money Patharich Paul, St. Paul, the historiagraph Paulus, Diaconus Paulyne Pawn Pembroke, Earl of Penapion Percy Anecdotes Pers Alphons. See Petrus Alphonsus Petit, L. M. Petrus Alphonsus, Philarde, Philip Augustus, Philippe le Bel, Philippe le Hardi, Philomenus, Philostratus, Philometor, Phisias. See Pythias. Physicians, Physiognomy, Pigmentaries, Pilgrimages, Piron, Pirre, Pitman, Isaac, Pity, Plaisters, Plato, Polygamy, Polygamy or polyandry? Pompeye, Porters of gates, Porus, Poverty, Princes' oaths and promises, Prisoners, Prodigality, Promises, Proverbs, Ptolome, Publius Ceser, Purgatory, Pyrrhus, Pythias,

Quaritch, Bernard, Quarrels, Queen, estate and duties, Quintilian, Quintus Catullus,

Reason, Regimine Principum. See Colonna. Religion, Religious communities, Renatus, Vegetius Flavius, Reyna Vezina, Ribalds, Riches, Rivers, Robbers, Robbery, Romanus, Egidius. See Colonna. Romans, character of, Rome, Gilles de. See Colonna. Rook, Rook, chess-piece, Rooks, form and manners,

Sallust, Scenocrates, Schoolmaster who betrays the children, Scipio, Scott, Sir Walter, Scriveners, Scylla, Secrets, Semiramis, Seneca, Septemulle, Servants, Sesselis. See Cessoles. Shakespeare, Shamefastness, Scheible, J., Ships and shipwrecks, Sidrac, Slander, Sloane, John, Smith, office and duty of, Smith, R., Snuffy Davy, Sobriety, Socrates, Solinus, Solomon, Solynus, Speculum Laicorum, Spelling reform, Spencer, Earl, Spicers, Stars and clouds, Stephan, St. James of Compostella, Suicide, Surgeons, Syrens, Fountain of the, Symmachus, Syrians,

Tacitus, Tailors, Tarascon, Bertrand de, Tarchus, Tarentum, Tarpeia, Tarquin, Tartar women go to the wars, Tassile, Taverners, Tessalis. See Ceffoles. Tessellis. See Ceffoles. Themes, Themistides, Theodorus Cyrenaicus, Theodosius, Theophrastus, Theryle, Thessolonia, J. de. See Cessoles. Thessolonica, J. de. See Cessoles. Thessolus, J. de. See Cessoles. Thieves, Thievish inn servants, Thobie, Thorn's Anecdotes and Traditions, Tiberius, Timon, Tinque, Titus, Toll-gatherers, Torture, Trajan, Treachery, 60, 61. Trevisa, John, Troy, and the invention of Chess, Troy-book, Truphes of the Philosophers, Trustee, dishonest, Truth, Tullius. See Cicero. Turgeius Pompeius, Tyranny, Tyrus. See Cyrus.

Valere. See Valerius Maximus. Valerian, Valerius Maximus, Valerye. See Valerius Maximus. Varro, Vergil, Polydore, Vespasian, Vessels, earthen, Victory, Victuallers, Vignay, Jehan de, Vine legend, Virgil, Virginity, Visions, Vitas Patrum Vow of a woman

Wages should be paid punctually War Warton, T. Warwick, George, Earl of Weavers Weft, J. White Friars at Ghent Wilbraham, Roger Wilson, "Snuffy Davy" Wine Wine forbidden to women Wine, origin of Wisdom Woollen merchants Workmen Workmen, office and duty Woman advice education vow and lawyers dangers abroad forbidden to drink wine going to the wars Women barbers Wright, T.

Xanthippe Xenocrates Xenophon Xerxes the philosopher

Ylye Youth and government Ypocras Ysaye

THE END

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