Game and Playe of the Chesse - A Verbatim Reprint Of The First Edition, 1474
by Caxton
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that was mayster to plato sawe that his feldes & lande was destroyed and lost by the necligence of his seruant To whom he sayd yf I were not angry with the I wold take vengeance and turmente the/ Lo there y'e may see that he had leuer to leue to punysshe/ than to pugnysshe more by yre & wrath than by right And therfore sayth seneque/ doo no thynge that thou oughtest to doo whan y'u art angry/ For whan thou art angry thou woldest doo alle thynges after thy playsir/ And yf thou canst not vaynquysshe thyn yre/ than muste thyn yre ouercome the/ After thys ought they to haue wylfull pouerte/ lyke as hit was in the auncyent prynces/ For they coueyted more to be riche in wytte and good maners than in moneye/ And that reherceth Valerius in his .viii. booke that scipion of Affryque was accused vnto the Senate that he shold haue grete tresour/ And he answerd certes whan I submysed affryque in to your poeste/ I helde no thynge to myself that I myght faye this is myn save only the surname of affryque/ Ner the affryquans haue not founden in me ner in my broder ony auarice/ ner y't we were so couetouse that we had ne had gretter enuye to be riche of name than of rychesses/ And therfore sayth seneque that the kynge Altagone vsid gladly in his hows vessels of erthe/ And some sayde he dyde hit for couetyse/ But he sayde that hit was better and more noble thynge to myne in good maners than in vayssell And whan some men demanded hym why and for what cause he dyde so/ he answerd I am now kynge of secylle/ and was sone of a potter/ and for as moche as I doubte fortune. For whan I yssued out of the hous of my fader and moder/ I was sodaynly made riche/ wherfore I beholde the natiuyte of me and of my lignage/ whiche is humble & meke/ And alle these thynges cometh of wilfull pouerte/ for he entended more to the comyn prouffyt than to his owen/ And of thys pouerte speketh saynt Augustyn in the booke of the cyte of god That they that entende to the comyn prouffyt. sorowe more that wilfull pouerte is lost in rome/ than the richesses of rome/ For by the wilfull pouerte was the renomee of good maners kept entierly/ thus by this richesse pouerte is not only corrupt in thyse dayes ner the cyte ner the maners/ but also the thoughtes of the men ben corrupt by thys couetyse and by felonnye that is worse. than ony other enemye And of the cruelte of the peple of rome speketh the good man of noble memorye Iohn the monke late cardynall of rome in the decretall the syxte in the chapitre gens sancta where he sayth/ that they ben feloūs ayenst god. contrarye to holy thynges. traytres one to that other. enuyous to her neyghbours. proude vnto straungers. rebelle and vntrewe vnto theyr souerayns Not suffringe to them that ben of lower degree than they and nothinge shamfast to demande thinges discouenable and not to leue tyll they haue that they demande/ and not plesid but disagreable whan they haue resseyuyd the yeft They haue their tonges redy for to make grete boost/ and doo lityll/ They ben large in promysynges/ And smale gyuers/ they ben ryght fals deceyuours/ And ryght mordent and bitynge detractours/ For whiche thynge hit is a grete sorowe to see the humylite the pacyence And the good wisedom that was woute to be in this cyte of rome whiche is chief of alle the world is peruertid & torned in to maleheurte and thise euylles/ And me thynketh that in other partyes of crestiante they haue taken ensample of them to doo euyll/ They may saye that this is after the decretale of seygnourye and disobeysance/ that sayth That suche thynges that the souerayns doo/ Is lightly and sone taken in ensample of theyr subgets/ Also thise vicayres shold be large and liberall/ In so moche that suche peple as serue them ben duly payd and guerdoned of her labour/ For euery man doth his labour the better and lightlyer whan he seeth that he shall be well payd and rewarded/ And we rede that Titus the sone of vaspasian was so large and so liberall/ That he gaf and promysyd somewhat to euery man/ And whan hys moste pryuy frendes demanded of hym why he promysid more that he myght gyue/ he answerd for as moche as hyt apperteyneth not to a prynce that ony man shold departe sorowfull or tryste fro hym/ Than hit happend on a day that he gaf ner promysid no thynge to ony man And whan hit was euen auysed hymself/ he sayd to hys frendes/ O y'e my frendes thys day haue I lost for this day haue I don no good,' And also we rede of Iulius Cefar that he neuer saide in alle his lyue to his knyghtes goo oon but all way be sayde come come/ For I loue allway to be in youre companye/ And he knewe well that hit was lasse payne & trauayll to the knyghtes whan the prynce is in her companye that loueth hem & cōforted hem And also we rede of the same Iulius cesar in the booke of truphes of phylosophers/ that ther was an Auncyent knyght of his that was in paryll of a caas hangynge to fore the Iuges of rome so he callyd cefar on a tyme and said to hym to fore all men that he shold be his aduocate And cesar deliueryd and assigned to hym a right good aduocate And the knyght sayd to hym O cesar I put no vicaire in my place whan thou were in parill in y'e batayll of assise/ But I faught for the. And than he shewed to hym the places of his woundes that he had receyuyd in the batayll And than cam cesar in his propre persone for to be his aduocate & to plete his cause for hym/ he wold not haue the name of vnkyndenes/ but doubted that men shold saye that he were proude And that he wold not do for them that had seruyd hym They that can not do so moche/ as for to be belouyd of her knyghtes/ can not loue the knyghtes And this sufficeth of the rooks.


The thirde tractate of the offices of the comyn peple. The fyrst chapitre is of the office of the labourers and werkemen.

For as moche as the Noble persone canne not rewle ne gouerne with oute y'e seruyce and werke of the peple/ than hit behoueth to deuyse the oeuurages and the offices of the werkemen/ Than I shall begynne fyrst at the fyrst pawne/ that is in the playe of the chesse/ And signefieth a man of the comyn peple on fote For they be all named pietous that is as moche to saye as footemen And than we wyll begynne at the pawne whiche standeth to fore the rooke on the right side of the kinge for as moche as this pawne apperteyneth to serue the vicaire or lieutenant of the kynge and other officers vnder hym of necessaryes of vitayll/ And this maner a peple is figured and ought to be maad in the forme & shappe of a man holdynge in his ryght hande a spade or shouell And a rodde in the lifte hand/ The spade or shouell is for to delue & labour therwith the erthe/ And the rodde is for to dryue & conduyte wyth all the bestes vnto her pasture also he ought to haue on his gyrdell/ a crokyd hachet for to cutte of the supfluytees of the vignes & trees/ And we rede in the bible that the first labourer that euer was/ was Caym the firste sone of Adam that was so euyll that he slewe his broder Abel/ for as moche as the smoke of his tythes went strayt vnto heuen'/ And the smoke & fumee of the tythes of Caym wente downward vpon the erthe And how well that this cause was trewe/ yet was ther another cause of enuye that he had vnto his broder/ For whan Adam their fader maried them for to multyplie y'e erthe of hys lignye/ he wolde not marye ner Ioyne to gyder the two that were born attones/ but gaf vnto caym her that was born wyth Abel/ And to Abel her that was born with caym/ And thus began thenuye that caym had ayenst abel/ For his wyf was fayrer than cayms wyf And for this cause he slough abel with the chekebone of a beste/ & at that tyme was neuer no maner of yron blody of mannes blood/ And abel was y'e first martier in tholde testament/ And this caym dide many other euyl thinges whiche I leue/ for hit apperteyneth not to my mater/ But hit behoueth for necessite y't some shold labour the erthe after y'e synne of adam/ for to fore er adam synned/ the erthe brought forth fruyt with out labour of handes/ but syn he synned/ hit muste nedes be labourid with y'e handes of men And for as moche as the erthe is moder of alle thynges And that we were first formed and toke oure begynnyng of the erthe/ the same wyse at the laste. she shall be the ende vnto alle vs and to alle thynges/ And god that formed vs of the erthe hath ordeyned that by the laboure of men she shold gyue nourysshyng vnto alle that lyueth/ and first the labourer of y'e erthe ought to knowe his god that formed and made heuen & erthe of nought And ought to haue loyaulte and trouth in hymself/ and despise deth for to entende to his laboure And he ought to gyue thankyngis to hym that made hym And of whom he receyueth all his goodes temporall/ wherof his lyf is susteyned/ And also he is bounden to paye the dismes and tythes of alle his thynges And not as Caym dyde. But as Abell dyde of the beste that he chese allway for to gyue to god & to plese hym/ For they that grucche and be greuyd in that they rendre and gyue to god the tienthes of her goodes/ they ought to be aferd and haue drede that they shall falle in necessite And y't they might be dispoyllyd or robbed by warre or by tempeste that myght falle or happen in the contrey And hit is meruayll though hit so happen For that man that is disagreable vnto god And weneth y't the multiplynge of his goodes temporell cometh by the vertu of his owne coūceyll and his wytte/ the whiche is made by the only ordenance of hym that made alle. And by the same ordenance is soone taken away fro hym that is disagreable/ and hit is reson that whan a man haboundeth by fortune in goodes/ And knoweth not god/ by whom hit cometh/ that to hym come some other fortune by the whiche he may requyre grace and pardon And to knowe his god/ And we rede of the kynge Dauid that was first symple & one of the comyn peple/ that whan fortune had enhaunsed and sette hym in grete astate/ he lefte and forgate his god/ And fyll to aduoultrye and homicyde and other synnes/ Than anon his owne sone Absalom assaylled & began to persecute hym And than whan he sawe that fortune was contrarye to hym/ he began to take agayn his vertuous werkis and requyred pardoun and so retorned to god agayn. We rede also of the children of ysrael that were nyghe enfamyned in desert and sore hongry & thrusty that they prayd & requyred of god for remedy/ Anon he changed his wyll & sente to hem manna/ & flessh &c./ And whan they were replenesshid & fatte of the flessh of bestes & of the manna/ they made a calf of gold and worshippid hit. Whiche was a grete synne & Inyquyte/ For whan they were hongry they knewe god/ And whan theyre belyes were fylde & fatted/ they forgid ydoles & were ydolatrers. After this euery labourer ought to be faythfull & trewe That whan his maystre delyuereth to hym his lande to be laboured/ that he take no thinge to hymself but that hym ought to haue & is his/ but laboure truly & take cure and charge in the name of his maistre/ and do more diligently his maisters labours than his owen/ for the lyf of y'e most grete & noble men next god lieth in y'e handes of the labourers/ and thus all craftes & occupacions ben ordeyned not only to suffise to them only/ but to the comyn/ And so hit happeth ofte tyme that y'e labourer of the erthe vseth grete and boystous metes/ and bringeth to his maister more subtile & more deyntous metes/ And valerius reherceth in his. vi. book that ther was a wife & noble maistre y't was named Anthoni9 that was accused of a caas of aduoultrye/ & as the cause henge to fore the Iuges/ his accusers or denonciatours brought I labourer that closid his land for so moche as they sayde whan his maistre wente to doo the aduoultrye/ this same seruant bare the lanterne. wherof Anthonyus was sore abasshyd and doubted that he shold depose agaynst hym But the labourer that was named papirion sayd to his maister that he shold denye his cause hardyly vnto the Iuges For for to be tormentid/ his cause shold neuer be enpeyrid by hym/ ner no thynge shold yssue out of his mouth wherof he shold be noyed or greuyd And than was the labourer beten and tormentid and brent in many places of his body But he sayd neuer thynge wherof his mayster was hurte or noyed/ But the other that accused his maister were punysshid And papiryon was deliuerid of his paynes free and franc/ And also telleth valerius that ther was another labourer that was named penapion/ that seruyd a maister whos name was Themes which was of meruayllous faith to his maystre For hit befell that certain knyghtes cam to his maisters hows for to slee hym And anone as papiryon knewe hit/ he wente in to his maisters chambre And wold not be knowen For he dide on his maisters gowne and his rynge on his fynger/ And laye on his bedde And thus put hym self in parill of deth for to respite his maisters lyf/ But we see now a dayes many fooles that daigne not to vse groos metes of labourers. And flee the cours clothynge And maners of a seruant Euery wise man a seruant that truly serueth his maister is free and not bonde/ But a foole that is ouer proude is bonde/ For the debilite and feblenes of corage that is broken in conscience by pryde Enuye. or by couetyse is ryght seruytude/ yet they ought not to doubte to laboure for feere and drede of deth/ no man ought to loue to moche his lyf/ For hit is a fowll thynge for a man to renne to the deth for the enemye of his lyf/ And a wyse man and a stronge man ought not to flee for his lyf/ but to yssue For ther is no man that lyueth/ but he must nedes dye. And of this speketh claudyan and sayth that alle thoo thynges that the Ayer goth aboute and enuyronned. And alle thynge that the erthe laboureth/ Alle thyngys that ben conteyned wyth in the see Alle thynges that the floodes brynge forth/ Alle thynges that ben nourysshid and alle the bestes that ben vnder the heuen shall departe alle from the world/ And alle shall goo at his comandement/ As well Kynges Prynces and alle that the world enuyronned and gooth aboute/ Alle shall goo this waye/ Than he ought not to doubte for fere of deth. For as well shail dye the ryche as the poure/ deth maketh alle thynge lyke and putteth alle to an ende/ And therof made a noble versifier two versis whiche folowe Forma. genus. mores. sapiēcia. res. et honores/ Morte ruant subita sola manent merita/ Wherof the english is Beaulte. lignage. maners. wysedom. thynges & honoures/ shal ben deffetid by sodeyn deth/ no thynge shal abide but the merites/ And herof fynde we in Vitas patrum. that ther was an erle a riche & noble man that had a sone onely/ and whan this sone was of age to haue knowlech of the lawe/ he herde in a sermone that was prechid that deth spareth none/ ne riche ne poure/ and as well dyeth y'e yonge as the olde/ and that the deth ought specially to be doubted for .iii. causes/ one was/ y't noman knoweth whan he cometh/ and the seconde/ ner in what state he taketh a man/ And the thirde he wote neuer whither he shall goo. Therfore eche man shold dispise and flee the world and lyue well and hold hym toward god And when this yong man herde this thynge/ he wente oute of his contrey and fledde vnto a wyldernesse vnto an hermytage/ and whan his fader had loste hym he made grete sorowe/ and dyde do enquere & seke hym so moche at last he was founden in the hermitage/ and than his fader cam theder to hym and sayde/ dere sone come from thens/ thou shalt be after my deth erle and chyef of my lignage/ I shall be lost yf thou come not out from thens/ And he than that wyste non otherwise to eschewe the yre of his fader bethought hym and sayde/ dere fader ther is in your centre and lande a right euyll custome yf hit plese yow to put that away I shall gladly come out of this place and goo with yow The fader was glad and had grete Ioy And demaūded of hym what hit was And yf he wold telle hym he promysid him to take hit away and hit shold be left and sette aparte. Than he sayde dere fader ther dyen as well the yong folk in your contrey as the olde/ do that away I pray yow/ Whan his fader herde that he sayde Dere sone that may not be ner noman may put that away but god only/ Than answerd the sone to the fader/ than wylle I serue hym and dwelle here wyth hym that may do that. And so abode the childe in the hermytgage & lyuyd there in good werkes After this hit apperteyneth to a labourer to entende to his laboure and flee ydlenes/ And thou oughtest to knowe that Dauid preyseth moche in the sawlter the treve labourers and sayth/ Thou shalt ete the labour of thyn handes and thou art blessid/ and he shall do to the good And hit behoueth that the labourer entende to his labour on the werkedayes for to recuyell and gadre to gyder the fruyt of his labour/ And also he ought to reste on the holy day/ bothe he and his bestes. And a good labourer ought to norysshe and kepe his bestes/ And this is signefied by the rodde that he hath. Whiche is for to lede and dryue them to the pasture/ The fiste pastour that euer was/ was Abel whiche was Iuste and trewe/ and offryd to god the bestes vnto his sacrefice/ And hym ought he to folowe in craft & maners But no man that vseth the malice of Caym may ensue and folowe Abel/ And thus hit apperteyneth to the labourer to sette and graffe trees and vygnes/ and also to plante and cutte them And so dyde noe whiche was the first that planted the vygne after y'e deluge and flood For as Iosephus reherceth in y'e book of naturell thinges Noe was he that fonde fyrst the vygne/ And he fonde hym bitter and wylde/ And therfore he toke .iiii. maners of blood/ that is to wete the blood of a lyon. the blood of a lamb, the blood of a swyne. and the blood of an ape and medlid them alto geder with the erthe/ And than he cutte the vygne/ And put this aboute the rootes therof. To thende that the bitternes shold be put away/ and that hyt shold be swete/ And whan he had dronken of the fruyt of this vygne/ hit was so good and mighty that he becam so dronke/ that he dispoylled hym in suche wise y't his pryuy membres might be seen/ And his yongest sone cham mocqued and skorned hym And whan Noe was awakid & was sobre & fastinge/ he assemblid his sones and shewid to them the nature of the vygne and of the wyn/ And told to them the caufe why y't he had put the blood of the bestes aboute the roote of the vygne and that they shold knowe well y't otherwhile by y'e strength of the wyn men be made as hardy as the lyon and yrous And otherwhile they be made symple & shamefast as a lambe And lecherous as a fwyn/ And curyous and full of playe as an Ape/ For the Ape is of suche nature that whan he seeth one do a thynge he enforceth hym to doo the same/ and so doo many whan they ben dronke/ they will medle them wyth alle officers & matiers that apperteyne no thynge to them/ And whan they ben fastynge & sobre they can scarfely accomplisshe theyr owne thynges And therfore valerian reherceth that of auncyente and in olde tyme women dranke no wyn for as moche as by dronkenship they myght falle in ony filthe or vilonye And as Ouide sayth/ that the wyns otherwhyle apparaylle the corages in suche manere that they ben couenable to alle synnes whiche take away the hertes to doo well/ They make the poure riche/ as longe as the wyn is in his heed And shortly dronkenshyp is the begynnynge of alle euyllys/ And corrompith the body/ and destroyed the fowle and mynusshith the goodes temporels/ And this suffyseth for the labourer.

The seconde chapitre of the thirde tractate treteth of the forme and maner of the second pawne and of the maner of smyth.

The seconde pawne y't standeth to fore the knyght on the right side of the kynge hath the forme and figure of a man as a smyth and that is reson For hit apperteyneth to y'e knyghtes to haue bridellys sadellys spores and many other thynges made by the handes of smythes and ought to holde an hamer in his right hande. And in his lyfte hand a dolabre and he ought to haue on his gyrdell a trowell For by this is signefied all maner of werkemen/ as goldsmithes. marchallis, smithes of all forges/ forgers and makers of monoye & all maner of smythes ben signefyed by [55] the hamer/ The carpenters ben signefyed by the dolabre or squyer/ And by the trowell we vnderstande all masons & keruars of stones/ tylers/ and alle them that make howses castels & tours/ And to alle these crafty men hit apperteyneth that they be trewe. wise and stronge/ and hit is nede y't they haue in hemself faith and loyaulte/ For vnto the goldsmythes behoueth gold & siluer And alle other metallys. yren & steel to other/ And vnto the carpenters and masons/ ben put to theyr edifices the bodyes and goodes of the peple/ And also men put in the handes of the maronners body and goodes of the peple/ And in the garde and sewerte of them men put body & sowle in the paryls of the see/ and therfore ought they to be trewe/ vnto whom men commytte suche grete charge and so grete thynges vpon her fayth and truste. And therfore sayth the philosopher/ he that leseth his fayth and beleue/ may lose no gretter ne more thynge. And fayth is a fouerayn good and cometh of the good wyll of the herte and of his mynde And for no necessite wyll deceyue no man/ And is not corrupt for no mede. Valerius reherceth that Fabius had receyuyd of hanybal certayn prysoners that he helde of the romayns for a certayn some of money whiche he promysid to paye to the sayd hanyball/ And whan he cam vnto the senatours of rome and desired to haue y'e money lente for hem They answerd that they wold not paye ner lene And than fabius sente his sone to rome & made hym to selle his heritage & patrimonye/ and fente the money that he resseyuyd therof vnto hanibal/ And had leuer & louyd better to be poure in his contrey of herytage/ than of byleue and fayth/ But in thyfe dayes hit were grete folye to haue fuche affiance in moche peple but yf they had ben preuyd afore For oftentymes men truste in them by whom they ben deceyuyd at theyr nede/ And it is to wete that these crafty men and werkemen ben souerainly prouffitable vnto the world And wyth oute artificers and werkmen the world myght not be gouerned/ And knowe thou verily that alle tho thynges that ben engendrid on the erthe and on the see/ ben made and formed for to do prouffit vnto the lignage of man/ for man was formed for to haue generacion/ that the men myght helpe and prouffit eche other And here in ought we to folowe nature/ For she shewed to vs that we shold do comyn prouffit one to an other/ And y'e first fondement of Iustice is that no man shold noye or greue other But that they ought doo the comyn prouffit/ For men saye in reproche That I see of thyn/ I hope hit shall be myn But who is he in thyse dayes that entendeth more to the comyn prouffit than to his owne/ Certaynly none/ But all way a man ought to haue drede and feere of his owne hows/ whan he seeth his neyghbours hous a fyre And therfore ought men gladly helpe the comyn prouffit/ for men otherwhile sette not be a lityll fyre And might quenche hit in the begynnyng/ that afterward makyth a grete blasyng fyre. And fortune hath of no thinge so grete playsir/ as for to torne & werke all way/ And nature is so noble a thynge that were as she is she wyll susteyne and kepe/ but this rewle of nature hath fayllid longe tyme/ how well that the decree sayth that alle the thynges that ben ayenst the lawe of nature/ ought to be taken away and put a part And he sayth to fore in the .viii. distinction that the ryght lawe of nature differenceth ofte tymes for custome & statutes establisshid/ for by lawe of nature all thinge ought to be comyn to euery man/ and this lawe was of old tyme And men wene yet specially y't the troians kept this lawe And we rede that the multitude of the Troians was one herte and one sowle/ And verayly we fynde that in tyme passid the philosophres dyde the same/ And also hit is to be supposyd that suche as haue theyr goodes comune & not propre is most acceptable to god/ For ellys wold not thise religious men as monkes freris chanons obseruantes & all other auowe hem & kepe the wilfull pouerte that they ben professid too/ For in trouth I haue my self ben conuersant in a religio'9 hous of white freris at gaunt Which haue all thynge in comyn amonge them/ and not one richer than an other/ in so moche that yf a man gaf to a frere .iii. d or .iiii. d to praye for hym in his masse/ as sone as the masse is doon he deliuerith hit to his ouerest or procuratour in whyche hows ben many vertuous and deuoute freris And yf that lyf were not the beste and the most holiest/ holy church wold neuer suffre hit in religion And acordynge thereto we rede in plato whiche sayth y't the cyte is well and Iustely gouernid and ordeyned in the whiche no man maye saye by right, by cuftome. ne by ordenance/ this is myn/ but I say to the certaynly that syn this custome cam forth to say this is myn/ And this is thyn/ no man thought to preferre the comyn prouffit so moche as his owen/ And alle werkemen ought to be wise & well aduysyd so that they haue none enuye ne none euyll suspecion one to an other/ for god wylle that our humayne nature be couetous of two thynges/ that is of Religion. And of wysedom/ but in this caas ben some often tymes deceyued For they take ofte tymes religion and leue wisedom And they take wysedom and reffuse religion And none may be vraye and trewe with oute other For hit apperteyneth not to a wyse man to do ony thynge that he may repente hym of hit/ And he ought to do no thynge ayenst his wyll/ but to do alle thynge nobly, meurely. fermely. and honestly And yf he haue enuye vpon ony. hit is folye For he on whom he hath enuye is more honest and of more hauoir than he whiche is so enuyous/ For a man may haue none enuye on an other/ but be cause he is more fortunat and hath more grace than hym self/ For enuye is a sorowe of corage y't cometh of dysordynance of the prouffit of another man And knowe thou verily that he that is full of bounte shall neuer haue enuye of an other/ But thenuyous man seeth and thynketh alleway that euery man is more noble/ And more fortunat that hymself And sayth alleway to hymself/ that man wynneth more than I/ and myn neyghebours haue more plente of bestes/ and her thynges multiplye more than myn/ and therfore thou oughtest knowe that enuye is the most grettest dedely synne that is/ for she tormenteth hym that hath her wythin hym/ wyth oute tormentynge or doyng ony harme to hym/ on whome he hath enuye. And an enuyous man hath no vertue in hymself/ for he corrumpeth hymself for as moche as he hateth allway the welthe and vertues of other/ and thus ought they to kepe them that they take none euyll suspecōn For a man naturally whan his affection hath suspecion in ony man that he weneth that he doth/ hit semeth to hym verily that it is doon. And hit is an euyll thynge for a man to haue suspecion on hymfelf/ For we rede that dionyse of zecyll a tyrant Was so suspecionous that he had so grete fere and drede For as moche as he was hated of all men/ that he putte his frendes oute of theyr offices that they had/ And put other strangers in theyr places for to kepe his body/ and chese suche as were ryght Cruell and felons/ And for fere and doubte of the barbours/ he made hys doughters to lerne shaue and kembe/ And whan they were grete. He wold not they shold vse ony yron to be occupied by them/ but to brenne and senge his heeris/ and manaced them and durst not truste in them/ And in lyke wyse they had none affiance in hym And also he dyde do enuyronne the place where he laye wyth grete diches and brode lyke a castell/ And he entryd by a drawbrygge whiche closyd after hym/ And hys knyghtes laye wyth oute wyth his gardes whiche wacchid and kept straytly thys forteresse/ And whan plato sawe thys Dionyse kynge of cezille thus enuyronned and set aboute wyth gardes & wacche-men for the cause of his suspecion sayd to hym openly to fore all men kinge why hast thou don so moche euyll & harme/ that the behoueth to be kept wyth so moche peple/ And therfore I saye that hit apperteyneth not to ony man that wylle truly behaue hym self in his werkis to be suspecyous/ And also they ought to be stronge and seure in theyr werkes/ And specyally they that ben maysters and maronners on the see/ for yf they be tumerous and ferdfull they shold make a ferde them that ben in theyr shippis/ that knowe not the paryls/ And so hit might happene that by that drede and fere alle men shold leue theyr labour/ And so they myght be perisshid and despeyred in theyr corages/ For a shippe is soone perisshid and lost by a lityll tempest/ whan the gouernour faylleth to gouerne his shippe for drede/ And can gyue no counceyll to other than it is no meruayll/ thangh they be a ferd that ben in his gouernance/ And therfore ought be in them strengthe force and corage/ and ought to considere the peryls that might falle/ And the gouernour specially ought not to doubte/ And if hit happen that ony paryll falle/ he ought to promyse to the other good hoope/ And hit apperteyneth well/ that a man of good and hardy corage be sette in that office/ In suche wyse that he haue ferme and seure mynde ayenst the paryls that oftetymes happen in the see/ and with this ought the maroners haue good and ferme creance and beleue in god/ and to be of good reconforte & of fayr langage vnto them that he gouerneth in suche paryls/ And this sufficeth to yow as touchynge the labourers.

The thirde chapitre of the thirde book treteth of the office of notaryes aduocats skryueners and drapers or clothmakers.

The thirde pawne whiche is sette to fore the Alphyn on the right side ought to be figured as a clerk And hit is reson that he shold so be/ For as moche as amonge y'e comon peple of whom we speke in thys book they plete the differencis contencions and causes otherwhile the whiche behoueth the Alphins to gyue sentence and Iuge as Iuges And hit is reson that the Alphin or Iuge haue his notarye/ by whom y'e processe may be wreton/ And this pawne ought to be made and figured in this mamere/ he muste be made like a man that holdeth in his right hand a pair of sheres or forcetis/ and in the lifte hand a grete knyf and on his gurdell a penuer and an ynkhorn/ and on his eere a penne to wryte wyth And that ben the Instrumentis & the offices that ben made and put in writynge autentyque/ and ought to haue passed to fore the Iuges as libelles writtes condempnacions and sentences/ And that is signefied by the scriptoire and the penne and on that other part hit appertayneth to them to cutte cloth. shere. dighte. and dye/ and that is signefied by the forcettis or sheres/ and the other ought to shaue berdes and kembe the heeris/ And the other ben coupers. coryers. tawiers. skynners. bouchers and cordwanners/ and these ben signefyed by the knyf that he holdeth in his hand and some of thise forsayd crafty men ben named drapers or clothmakers for so moche as they werke wyth wolle. and the Notayres. skynners. coryours. and cardewaners werke by skynnes and hydes/ As parchemyn velume. peltrye and cordewan/ And the Tayllours. cutters of cloth, weuars. fullars. dyers/ And many other craftes ocupye and vse wulle/ And alle thyse crafty men & many other that I haue not named/ ought to doo theyr craft and mestyer/ where as they ben duly ordeyned Curyously and truly/ Also ther ought to be amonge thyse crafty men amyable companye and trewe/ honest contenance/ And trouthe in their wordes/ And hit is to wete that the notaries ben right prouffitable and ought to be good & trewe for the comyn And they ought to kepe them fro appropriynge to themself that thynge y't apperteyneth to the comyn And yf they be good to them self/ they ben good to other. And yf they be euyll for themself/ they ben euyll for other And the processes that ben made to fore the Iuges ought to ben wreton & passid by them/ and hit is to wete that by their writynge in the processis may come moche prouffit And also yf they wryte otherwyse than they ought to doo/ may ensewe moche harme and domage to the comyn Therfore ought they to take good heede that they change not ne corrumpe in no wyse the content of the sentence. For than ben they first forsworn And ben bounden to make amendes to them that by theyr tricherye they haue endomaged/ And also ought they to rede visite and to knowe the statutes. ordenances and the lawes of the cytees of the contre/ where they dwelle and enhabite/ And they ought to considere yf ther be ony thynge therein conteyned ayenst right and reson/ and yf they fynde ony thinge contraire/ they ought to admoneste and warne them that gouerne/ that suche thynges may be chauged into better astate/ For custome establisshid ayenst good maners and agaynst the fayth/ ought not to be holden by right. For as hit is sayd in the decree in the chapitre to fore/ alle ordenance made ayenst ryght ought to be holden for nought Alas who is now that aduocate or notaire that hath charge to wryte and kepe sentence that putteth his entente to kepe more the comyn prouffit or as moche as his owen/ But alle drede of god is put a back/ and they deceyue the symple men And drawen them to the courtes disordinatly and constrayned them to swere and make othes not couenable/ And in assemblyng the peple thus to gyder they make moo traysons in the cytees than they make good alyances And otherwhile they deceyue their souerayns/ whan they may doo hit couertly For ther is no thynge at this day that so moche greueth rome and Italye as doth the college of notaries and aduocates publicque For they ben not of oon a corde/ Alas and in Engeland what hurte doon the aduocats. men of lawe. And attorneyes of court to the comyn peple of y'e royame as well in the spirituell lawe as in the temporall/ how torne they the lawe and statutes at their pleasir/ how ete they the peple/ how enpouere they the comynte/ I suppose that in alle Cristendom ar not so many pletars attorneys and men of the lawe as ben in englond onely/ for yf they were nombrid all that lange to the courtes of the channcery kinges benche. comyn place. cheker. ressayt and helle And the bagge berars of the same/ hit shold amounte to a grete multitude And how alle thyse lyue & of whome. yf hit shold be vttrid & told/ hit shold not be beleuyd. For they entende to theyr synguler wele and prouffyt and not to the comyn/ how well they ought to be of good wyll to gyder/ and admoneste and warne the cytes eche in his right in suche wise that they myght haue pees and loue one with an other And tullius saith that frendshippe and good wyll that one ought to haue ayenst an other for the wele of hym that he loueth/ wyth the semblable wylle of hym/ ought to be put forth to fore alle other thynges/ And ther is no thynge so resemblynge and lyke to the bees that maken honye ne so couenable in prosperite and in aduersite as is loue/ For by loue gladly the bees holden them to gyder/ And yf ony trespace to that other anone they renne vpon the malefactour for to punysshe hym/ And verray trewe loue faylleth neuer for wele ne for euyll/ and the most swete and the most confortynge thynge is for to haue a frende to whom a man may saye his secrete/ as well as to hym self/ But verayly amytye and frendship is somtyme founded vpon som thinge delectable And this amytye cometh of yongthe/ in the whiche dwelleth a disordinate heete.

And otherwhile amytie is founded vpon honeste/ And this amytie is vertuouse/ Of the whiche tullius faith y't ther is an amytie vertuous by the whiche a man ought to do to his frende alle that he requyreth by rayson For for to do to hym a thynge dishonneste it is ayenst the nature of verray frendshipe & amytie/ And thus for frendshipe ne for fauour a man ought not to doo ony thinge vnresonable ayenst the comyn prouffit ner agaynst his fayth ne ayenst his oth/ for yf alle tho thynges that the frendes desire and requyre were accomplisshid & doon/ hit shold seme that they shold be dishoneste coniuracions/ And they myght otherwhile more greue & hurte than prouffit and ayde/ And herof sayth seneque that amytie is of suche wylle as the frende wylle/ And to reffuse that ought to be reffusid by rayson/ And yet he sayth more, that a man ought to alowe and preyse his frende to fore the peple/ and to correcte and to chastyse hym pryuyly. For the lawe of amytie is suche For a man ought not to demande ner doo to be doon to his frende no vyllayns thynge that ought to be kept secrete And valerian sayth that it is a fowll thynge and an euyll excufacion/ yf a man conffesse that he hath done ony euyll for his frende ayenst right and rayson/ And sayth that ther was a good man named Taffile whiche herde one his frende requyre of hym a thynge dishonnefte whiche he denyed and wold not doo And than his frende sayth to hym in grete dispyte/ what nede haue I of thy frendship & amytie whan thou wylt not doo that thynge that I requyre of the And Taffile answerd to hym/ what nede haue I of the frendship and of the amytie of the/ yf I shold doo for the thynge dishonefte And thus loue is founded otherwhile vpon good prouffitable/ and this loue endureth as longe as he seeth his prouffit And herof men faye a comyn prouerbe in england/ that loue lasteth as longe as the money endureth/ and whan the money faylleth than there is no loue/ and varro reherceth in his smmes/ that y' riche men ben alle louyd by this loue/ for their frendes ben lyke as y'e huse whiche is aboute the grayn/ and no man may proue his frende so well as in aduersite/ or whan he is poure/ for the veray trewe frende faylleth at no nede/ And seneque saith y't some folowe the empour for riches/ and so doon y'e flies the hony for the swetenes/ and the wolf the karayn And thise companye folowe the proye/ and not the man And tullius saith that Tarquyn y'e proude had a neuewe of his suster which was named brutus/ and this neuewe had banysshid tarquyn out of rome and had sente hym in exyle/ And than sayd he first that he parceyuyd & knewe his frendes whiche were trewe & untrewe/ and y't he neuer perceyuyd a fore tyme whan he was puyssant for to doo their wyll/ and sayd well that the loue that they had to hym/ endured not but as longe as it was to them prouffitable/ and therfore ought till the ryche men of the world take hede/ be they Kynges Prynces or ducs to what peple they doo prouffit & how they may and ought be louyd of theyr peple/ For cathon sayth in his book/ see to whom thougyuyst/ and this loue whiche is founded vpon theyr prouffit/ whiche faylleth and endureth not/ may better be callyd and said marchandyse than loue/ For yf we repute this loue to our prouffit only/ and nothynge to the prouffyt of hym that we loue/ It is more marchandyse than loue/ For he byeth our loue for the prouffit that he doth to vs/ and therfor saith the versifier thise two versis Tempore felici multi murmerantur amici Cum fortuna perit nullus amicus erit/ whiche is to saye in English that as longe as a man is ewrous and fortunat he hath many frendes but whan fortune torneth and perisshith, ther abideth not to hym one frende/ And of this loue ben louyd the medowes, feldes, Trees and the bestes for the prouffit that men take of them/ But the loue of the men ought to be charyte, veray gracious and pure by good fayth/ And the veray trewe frendes ben knowen in pure aduersite/ and pers alphons saith in his book of moralite that ther was a philosophre in arabye that had an onely sone/ of whom he demanded what frendes he had goten hym in his lyf. And he answerd that he had many And his fader sayd to hym/ I am an olde man/ And yet coude I neuer fynde but one frende in alle my lyf/ And I trowe verily that it is no lytyll thynge for to haue a frende/ and hit is well gretter and more a man to haue many/ And hit appertayneth and behoueth a man to assaye and preue his frende er he haue nede And than comanded the philosopher his sone/ that he shold goo and slee a swyne/ and putte hit in a sack/ and fayne that hit were a man dede that he had slayn and bere hit to his frendes for to burye hit secretly/ And whan the sone had don as his fader comanded to hym and had requyred his frendes one after an other as a fore is sayd/ They denyed hym/ And answerd to hym that he was a vylayne to requyre & desire of them thynge that was so peryllous And than he cam agayn to his fader and sayd to hym how he had requyred alle his frendes/ And that he had not founden one that wolde helpe hym in his nede And than his fader said to hym that he shold goo and requyre his frende whiche had but one/ and requyre hym that he shold helpe hym in his nede And whan he had requyred hym/ Anone he put oute alle his mayne oute of his hows/ And whan they were oute of the waye or a slepe he dide do make secretly a pytte in the grounde/ And whan hyt was redy and wold haue buryed the body/ he fonde hit an hogge or a swyne and not a man/ And thus thys sone preuyd thys man to be a veray trewe frende of his fader/ And preuyd that his frendes were fals frendes of fortune/ And yet reherceth the sayd piers Alphons/ That ther were two marchantes one of Bandach and that other of Egipte whiche were so Joyned to gyder by so grete frendshippe that he of Bandach cam on a tyme for to see hys frende in Egipte/ of whom he was receyuyd ryght honourably And thys marchant of Egipte had in his hows a fayr yonge mayden whom he shold haue had in maryage to hymslf/ Of the whiche mayde thys marchant of Bandach was esrysd wyth her loue so ardantly that he was ryght seeke/ And that men supposid hym to dye. And than the other dyde doo come the phisicyens whiche sayd that in hym was none other sekenes sauf passyon of loue/ Than he axid of the seeke man yf ther wer ony woman in hys hows that he louyd and made alle the women of his hows to come to fore hym/ And than he chees her that shold haue ben that others wyf and sayd that he was seek for the loue of her/ Than hys frende sayd to hym Frende conforte your self/ For trewly I gyue her to yow to wyf wyth alle the dowayre that is gyuen to me wyth her/ And had leuer to suffre to be wyth oute wyf than to lese the body of his frende And than he of Bandach wedded the mayde. And wente wyth his wyf and wyth his richesse ayen in to his contrey And after this anone after hit happend that the marchant of Egipte be cam so poure by euyll fortune/ that he was constrayned to feche and begge his brede by the contrey in so moche that he cam to bandach. And whan he entrid in to the toun hit was derke nyght that he coude not fynde the hows of his frende/ but wente and laye this nyght in an olde temple/ And on the morn whan he shold yssue oute of the temple/ the officers of the toun arestid hym and sayd that he was an homycide and had slayn a man whiche laye there dede And anōn he confessid hit wyth a good wylle/ And had leuyr to ben hangid/ than to dye in that myserable and poure lyf that he suffrid And thus whan he was brought to Iugement And sentence shold haue ben gyuen ayenst hym as an homicide/ his frende of bandach cam and sawe hym and anone knewe y't this was his good frende of Egipte And forthwyth stept in and sayde that he hymself was culpable of the deth of this man/ and not that other/ and enforced hym in alle maners for to delyuer and excuse that other/ And than whan that he that had don the feet and had slayn the man sawe this thynge/ he considerid in hym sels that these two men were Innocente. of this feet/ And doubtynge the dyuyn Iugement he cam to fore the Iuge and confessid alle the feet by ordre/ And whan the Iuge sawe and herd alle this mater/ and also the causes he considerid the ferme and trewe loue that was betwene the two frendes And vnderstode the cause why that one wold saue that other/ and the trouth of the fayte of the homicide And than he pardoned alle the feet hoolly and entierly/ and after the marchant of bandach brought hym of egipte wyth hym in to his hous/ and gaf to hym his suster in mariage/ and departid to hym half his goodes/ And so bothe of hem were riche/ And thus were they bothe veray faythfull and trewe frendes/ Furthermore Notaires. men of lawe and crafty men shold and ought to loue eche other And also ought to be contynent chaste & honeste/ For by theyr craftes they ought so to be by necessite/ For they conuerse & accompanye them ofte tyme with women And therfor hit apperteyneth to them to be chaste and honeste And that they meue not the women ner entyse them to lawhe/ and Iape by ony disordinate ensignees or tokens/ Titus liuyus reherceth that the philosopher democreon dyde do put oute his eyen for as moche as he myght not beholde the women wyth oute flesshely desire/ And how well hit is said before that he dide hit for other certayn cause yet was this one of the pryncipall causes/ And Valerian telleth that ther was a yonge man of rome of ryght excellent beaute/ And how well that he was ryght chaste/ For as moche as his beaute meuyd many women to desyre hym/ in so moche that he vnderstode that the parents and frendes of them had suspecion in hym/ he dyde his visage to be cutte wyth a knyf and lancettis endlonge and ouerthwart for to deforme his visage/ And had leuer haue a fowle visage and disformed/ than the beaute of hys visage shold meue other to synne/ And also we rede that ther was a Nonne a virgyne dyde do put oute bothe her eyen For as moche as the beaute of her eyen meuyd a kynge to loue her/ whyche eyen she sente to the kynge in a presente/ And also we rede that plato the ryght ryche and wyse phylosophre lefte hys owne lande and Contre. And cheese his mansion and dwellynge in achadomye a town/ whiche was not only destroyed but also was full of pestelence/ so that by the cure and charge and customance of sorowe that be there suffrid/ myght eschewe the heetes and occasions of lecherye/ And many of his disciples dyde in lyke wyse/ Helemand reherceth that demostenes the philosopher lay ones by a right noble woman for his disporte/ and playnge with her he demanded of her what he shold gyue to haue to doo wyth her/ And she answerd to hym/ a thousand pens/ and he sayd agayn to her I shold repente me to bye hit so dere/ And whan he aduysed hym that he was so sore chauffid to speke to her for taccōplissh his flesshely defire/ he dispoyled hym alle naked and wente and putte hym in the middes of the snowe And ouide reherceth that this thynge is the leste that maye helpe and moste greue the louers And therfore saynt Augustyn reherceth in his book de Ciuitate dei that ther was a ryght noble romayne named merculian that wan and toke the noble cyte of siracuse And to fore er he dyde do assaylle hit or befyghte hit/ and er he had do be shedde ony blood/ he wepte and shedde many teeris to fore the cyte And that was for the cause that he doubted that his peple shold defoyle and corrumpe to moche dishonestly the chastyte of the toun And ordeyned vpon payne of deth that no man shold be so hardy to take and defoylle ony woman by force what that euer she were/ After this the craftymen ought to vnderstond for to be trewe/ and to haue trouthe in her mouthes And that theyr dedes folowe theyr wordes For he that sayth one thynge and doth another/ he condempneth hymself by his word Also they ought to see well to that they be of one Acorde in good, by entente, by word, and by dede/ so that they ben not discordant in no caas/ But euery man haue pure veryte and trouth in hym self/ For god hym self is pure verite/ And men say comynly that trouthe seketh none hernes ne corners/ And trouthe is a vertu by the whyche alle drede and fraude is put away/ Men saye truly whan they saye that they knowe/ And they that knowe not trouthe/ ought to knowe hit/ And alleway vse trouthe/ For Saynt Austyn sayth that they that wene to knowe trouthe/ And lyuyth euyll & viciously It is folye yf he knoweth hit not/ And also he sayth in an other place that it is better to suffre peyne for trouthe. Than for to haue a benefete by falsenes or by flaterye. And man that is callyd a beste resonable and doth not his werkes after reson and trouthe/ Is more bestyall than ony beste brute/ And knowe y'e that for to come to the trouthe/ Hit cometh of a raysonable forsight in his mynde/ And lyenge cometh of an outrageous and contrarye thought in his mynde/ For he that lyeth wetyngly/ Knoweth well that hit is agaynst the trouthe that he thynketh/ And herof speketh Saynt Bernard and sayth/ That the mouthe that lyeth destroyeth the sowle/ And yet sayth Saynt Austyn in an other place For to saye ony thynge/ And to doo the contrarye. maketh doctryne suspecious/ And knowe y'e veryly that for to lye is a right perillous thynge to body and sowle For the lye that the auncyent enemye made Eue & adam to beleue hym/ made hem for to be dampned wyth alle theyr lignage to the deth pardurable And made hem to be cast oute of Paradyse terrestre/ For he made them to beleue that god had not forboden them the fruyt. But only be cause they shold not knowe that her maister knewe But how well that the deuyll said thise wordes yet had she double entente to hem bothe For they knewe ann as they had tasted of the fruyt that they were dampned to the deth pardurable/ And god knewe it well to fore But they supposid well to haue knowen many other thynges And to belyke vnto his knowleche and science And therfor fayth saynt poule in a pistyll/ hit ne apperteyneth to saure or knowe more than behoueth to saure or knowe/ but to fauoure or knowe by mesure or fobrenes/ And valerian reherceth that ther was a good woman of siracusane that wold not lye vnto the kynge of *ecylle whiche was named dyonyse And this kynge was so full of tyrannye & so cruell that alle the world defired his deth and cursid hym/ Saauf this woman onely whiche was so olde that she had seen thre or .iiii. kynges regnynge in the contre/ And euery mornynge as sone as she was rysen she prayd to god that he wold gyue vnto the tyrant good lyf and longe And that she myght neuer see his deth/ And when the kynge dyonise knewe this he sent for her And meruayllid moche herof For he knewe well that he was fore behated/ And demaunded her/ what cause meuyd her to pray for hym. And she answerd and said to hym Syre whan I was a mayde we had a right euyll tyrant to our kynge of whom we coueyted fore the deth And whan he was ded ther cam after hym a worse/ of whom we coueyted also the deth/ And whan we were deliueryd of hym/ thou camst to be our lord whiche arte worste of alle other. And now I doubte yf we haue one after the he shall be worse than thou art/ And therfore I shall pray for the And whan dionyse vnderstod that she was so hardy in sayynge the truthe/ he durste not doo tormente her for shame be cause she was so olde.

The fourth chapitre of the thirde book treteth of the maner of the fourth pawn and of the marchants or changers.

The fourth pawn is sette to for the kynge And is formed in the fourme of a man holding in his ryght hand a balance/ And the weyght in the lifte hand/ And to fore hym a table And at his gurdell a purse fulle of monoye redy for to gyue to them that requyre hit And by this peple ben signefied the marchans of cloth lynnen and wollen & of all other marchandises And by the table that is to for hym is signefied y'e changeurs/ And they that lene money/ And they that bye & selle by the weyght ben signefyed by the balances and weight And the customers. tollers/ and resseyuours of rentes & of money ben signefied by the purse And knowe y'e that alle they that ben signefied by this peple ought to flee auaryce and couetyse/ And eschewe brekynge of the dayes of payement/ And ought to holde and kepe theyr promyssis/ And ought also to rendre & restore y't/ that is gyuen to them to kepe/ And therfor hit is reson that this peple be sette to for y'e kynge/ for as moche as they signefie the resseyuours of the tresours royall that ought all way to be redy to fore y'e kynge/ and to answere for hym to the knightes and other persones for their wages & souldyes And therfore haue I sayd that they ought to flee auarice. For auarice is as moche to say as an adourer or as worshipar of fals ymages/ & herof saith Tullius that auarice is a couetise to gete y't thing that is aboue necessite/ & it is a loue disordinate to haue ony thynge And it is one of the werst thyngis that is And specially to prynces and to them that gouerne the thynges of the comunete And this vice caufeth a man to do euyll/ And this doynge euyll is whan hit regneth in olde men And herof saith Seneque That alle wordly thynges ben mortifyed and appetissid in olde men reserued auaryce only/ whiche alleway abideth wyth hym and dyeth wyth hym But I vnderstande not well the cause wherof this cometh ne wherfore hit may be And hit is a fowle thynge and contrarie to reson That whan a man is at ende of his Iourney for to lengthe his viage and to ordeyne more vitayll than hym behoueth And this may well be lykened to the auarycious wolf For the wolf doth neuer good tyll he be dede And thus it is sayd in the prouerbis of the wisemen/ that thauaricious man doth no good tyll that he be ded/ And he desireth no thynge but to lyue longe in this synne For the couetouse man certaynly is not good for ony thynge For he is euyll to hymself and to the riche and to the poure. And fynde cause to gayn saye theyr desire/ and herof reherceth seneque and sayth that Antigonus was a couetous prynce/ & whan Tinque whiche was his frende requyred of hym a besaūt/ he answerd to hym that he demanded more than hit apperteyned to hym And than tinque constrayned by grete necessite axid and requyred of hym a peny/ And he answerd to hym that hit was no yefte couenable for a kynge and so he was allway redy to fynde a cause nought to gyue For he myght haue gyuen to hym a besaūt as a kynge to his frende/ And the peny as to a poure man And ther is no thynge so lytyll/ but that the humanyte of a kynge may gyue hit Auarice full of couetyse is a maner of alle vices of luxurye And Josephus reherceth in the book of auncyent histories/ that ther was in rome a ryght noble lady named Paulyne/ And was of the most noble of rome/ right honeste for the noblesse of chastete/ whiche was maryed in the tyme that the women gloryfied them in theyr chastete vnto a yonge man fayr. noble. and riche aboue alle other/ and was lyke and semblable to his wyf in alle caasis/ And this paulyne was belouyd of a knight named emmerancian And was so ardautly esprysed in her loue that he sente to her many right riche yeftes/ And made to her many grete promissis/ but he might neuer torne the herte of her whiche was on her side also colde and harde as marbill But had leuer to reffuse his yeftes and his promisses. Than to entende to couetise & to lose her chastete/ and we rede also in the historyes of rome that ther was a noble lady of rome/ whiche lyuyd a solitarye lyf and was chaste & honeste/ And had gadrid to gyder a grete some of gold/ And had hid hit in the erthe in a pytte wyth in her hous/ And whan she was ded/ the bisshop dyde do burye her in the churche well and honestly/ And anone after this gold was founden & born to the bisshop/ And the bisshop had to caste hit in to the pytte wher she was buryed. And .iii. dayes men herd her crye & make grete noyse/ and saye that she brennyd in grete payne/ and they herd her ofte tymes thus tormentid in y'e chirche/ the neighbours wente to the bisshop & told hym therof/ and y'e bisshop gaf hem leue to open the sepulcre/ and whan they had opend hit/ they fonde all the gold molten with fyre full of sulphre/ And was poured and put in her mouth/ and they herd one saye/ thou desiredest this gold by couetyse take hit and drynke hit/ And than they toke the body out of the tombe And hit was cast oute in a preuy place Seneque reherceth in the book of the cryes of women that auarice is foundement of alle vices/ And valerian reherceth that auarice is a ferdfull garde or kepar of rychessis for he that hath on hym or in his kepynge moche money or other rychessis/ is allway a ferd to lose hit or to be robbid or to be slayn therfore/ And he is not ewrous ner happy that by couetyse geteth hit/ And alle the euyllys of this vice of auarice had a man of rome named septemulle For he was a frende of one named tarchus And this septemulle brente so sore and so cruelly in this synne of couetyse/ that he had no shame to smyte of the hede of his frende by trayson/ For as moche as one framosian had promysed to hym as moche weyght of pure gold as the heed weyed And he bare the sayd heed vpon a staf thurgh the cyte of rome/ and he wyded the brayn out therof and fyld hit full of leed for to weye the heuyer This was a right horrible and cruell auarice Ptolome kynge of the Egipciens poursewed auarice in an other manere For whan anthonie emperour of rome sawe that he was right riche of gold and siluer/ he had hym in grete hate and tormentid hym right cruelly And whan he shold perishe be cause of his richessis/ he toke alle his hauoyr and put hit in a shippe And wente wyth alle in to the hye see to thende for to drowne and perishe there the shippe and his rychesses be cause Anthonie his enemye shold not haue hit/ And whan he was there he durst not perisshe hit ner myght not fynde in his herte to departe from hit/ but cam and brought hit agayn in to his hows where he resseyuyd the reward of deth therfore. And wyth oute doubte he was not lord of the richesse but the richesse was lady ouer hym/ And therfore hit is sayd in prouerbe that a man ought to seignorye ouer the riches/ and not for to serue hit/ and yf thou canst dewly vse thy rychesse than she is thy chamberyer/ And yf thou can not departe from hit and vse hit honestly at thy playsir/ knowe verily y't she is thy lady For the richesse neuer satisfieth the couetouse/ but the more he hath/ the more he desireth/ And saluste sayth that auarice distourblith fayth poeste honeste and alle these other good vertues/ And taketh for these vertues pryde. cruelte. And to forgete god/ And saith that alle thynges be vendable And after this they ought to be ware that they leue not to moche/ ner make so grete creances by which they may falle in pouerte/ For saynt Ambrose saith upon tobye. pouerte hath no lawe/ for to owe hit is a shame/ & to owe and not paye is a more shame/ yf y'u be poure beware how thou borowest/ and thinke how thou maist paye & rendre agayn yf y'u be ryche y'u hast none nede to borowe & axe/ & it is said in the prouerbes y't hit is fraude to take/ that y'u wilt not ner maist rendre & paye agayn/ and also hit is said in reproche/ whan I leue I am thy frend/ & whan I axe I am thy enemye/ as wo saith/ god at the lenynge/ & the deuyll at rendrynge/ And seneque sayth in his auctorites/ that they y't gladly borowe/ ought gladly to paye/ and ought to surmonte in corage to loue hem the better be cause they leue hem & ayde hem in her nede/ For for benefetes & good tornes doon to a man ought to gyue hym thankinges therfore/ And moche more ought a man to repaye that Is lente hym in his nede/ But now in these dayes many men by lenynge of their money haue made of their frendes enemyes/ And herof speketh Domas the philosopher and sayth that my frende borowed money of me/ And I haue lost my frende and my money attones/ Ther was a marchant of Gene & also a chaungeour/ whos name was Albert gauor/ And this albert was a man of grete trouth and loyaulte/ for on a tyme ther was a man cam to hym and said & affermed that he had delyueryd in to his banke .v. honderd floryns of gold to kepe whiche was not trouth for he lyed/ whyche fyue honderd floryns the said Albert knewe not of/ ner coude fynde in all hys bookes ony suche money to hym due And this lyar coude not brynge no wytnessis/ but began to braye. crye and deffame the said albert And than this Albert callid to hym this marchaūt and sayd/ Dere frende take here v. honderd florins whyche thou affermest and sayst that thou hast deliuerid to me And forthwyth tolde hem and toke hem to hym And lo this good man had leuer to lose his good than his good name and renome And this other marchant toke these florins that he had wrongfully receyuyd/ and enployed them in diuerce marchandise in so moche that he gate and encresid and wan with them .xv. thousand florins And whan he sawe that he approchid toward his deth/ and that he had no children He establisshid albert his heyr in alle thingis And sayd that with the .v. honderd florins that he had receyuyd of albert falsely/ he had goten all y't he had in the world And thus by dyuyne pourueance he that had be a theef fraudelent/ was made afterward a trewe procurour and attorney of the sayd albert/ But now in this dayes ther ben marchaūs that do marchandise with other mens money whiche is taken to hem to kepe/ And whan they ben requyred to repaye hit they haue no shame to denye hit appertly/ wherof hit happend that ther was a marchant whyche had a good & grete name and renome of kepynge well suche thynges as was delyueryd to hym to kepe/ But whan he sawe place and tyme/ he reteynyd hyt lyke a theef/ So hyt befelle that a marchant of withoute forth herd the good reporte & fame of this man/ cam to hym and deliuerid hym grete tresour to kepe/ And this tresour abode thre yer in his kepynge. And after this thre yer thys marchant cam & requyred to haue hys good deliueryd to hym agaym/ And thys man knewe well that he had no recorde ne wytnes to preue on hym this duete/ Nor he had no obligacion ne wrytynge of hym therof/ In suche wyse that he denyed alle entyerly/ And sayd playnly he knewe hym not. And whan thys good man herde and vnderstode thys. he wente sorowfully and wepynge from hym so ferre and longe that an old woman mette wyth hym/ And demanded of hym the cause of hys wepynge/ And he sayd to her/ woman hit apperteyneth no thynge to the Go thy way/ And she prayd hym that he wold telle her the cause of hys sorowe/ For parauenture she myght gyue hym counceylle good and prouffytable. And than this man told to her by ordre the caas of his fortune/ And the old woman that was wyse & subtyll demanded of hym yf he had in that cyte ony frende whiche wold be faythfull and trewe to hym And he sayd y'e that he had dyuerce frendes/ Than said she goo thou to them and saye to them that they do ordeyne and bye dyuerce cofres & chestis/ And that they do fylle them with som olde thinges of no value/ and that they fayne And saye that they be full of gold, siluer & other Iewels and of moche grete tresour/ And than that they brynge them to this sayd marchant And to saye to hym that he wold kepe them/ For as moche as they had grete trust and affiance in hym And also that they haue herd of his grete trouthe and good renome/ And also they wold goo in to a fer contre And shold be longe er they retorned agayn And whilis they speke to hym of this mater/ thou shalt come vpon them and requyre hym that he do deliuere to the/ that thou tokest to hym/ And I trowe be cause of tho good men that than shall profre to hym the sayd tresour/ And for the couetise to haue hit/ he shall deliuere to the thy good agayn/ But beware late hym not knowe in no wyse that they ben thy frendes ner of thy knowleche This was a grete and good coūceyll of a woman And verily hit cometh of nature oftentymes to women to gyue counceyll shortly and vnauysedly to thynges that ben in doute or perillous and nedeth hasty remedye/ And as y'e haue herd/ this good man dyde And dyde after her counceyll And cam vpon them whan they spack of the mater to the marchant for to deliuere to hym the sayd cofres to kepe whyche his frendes had fayned and requyred of hym that he had taken to hym to kepe/ and than anōn the sayd marchant sayd to hym I knowe the now well. For I haue auysed me that thou art suche a man/ And camst to me suche a tyme/ And deliuerest to me suche a thynge whiche I haue well kept/ And than callyd his clerck/ and bad hym goo fecche suche a thynge in suche a place/ and deliuere hit to that good man For he deliuerid hit to me/ And than the good man receyuyd his good. And wente his way right Ioyously and gladd/ And this marchant trycheur and deceyuour was defrauded from his euyll malice/ And he ne had neyther that one ne that other ony thynge that was of value/ And therfore hit Is sayd in prouerbe to defraude the beguylar is no fraude/ And he that doth well foloweth oure lord And seneke faith that charyte enseygneth and techeth that men shold paye well For good payement is sometyme good confession/ And this marchant trycheour & deceyuour resembleth & Is lyke to an hound that bereth a chese in his mouth whan he swymmeth ouer a watre For whan he is on the watre He seeth the shadowe of the chese in the watre/ And than he weneth hit be an other chese/ And for couetyse to haue that/ he openth his mouth to cacche that/ And than the chese that he bare fallyth doun in to the watre/ And thus he loseth bothe two/ And in the same wise was seruyd this marchant deceyuour/ For for to haue the coffres/ whiche he had not seen/ He deliueryd agayn that he wold haue holden wrongfully & thus by his couetise and propre malice he was deceyuyd/ And therfore hit apperteyneth to euery good & wyse man to knowe & considere in hym self how moche he had resseyuyd of other men/ And vpon what condicion hit was deliuerid to hym And hit is to wete y't this thinge apperteyneth to resseyuours & to chaungeours And to alle true marchans and other what som euyr they bee/ and ought to kepe their bookes of resaytes & of payements of whom & to whom and what tyme & day. and yf y'e demande what thynge makyth them to forgete suche thynges as ben taken to them to kepe I answere & saye that hyt Is grete couetyse for to haue tho thynges to themself and neuer to departe from them/ And it is all her thought and desire to assemble alle the good that they may gete For they beleue on none other god/ but on her richessis theyr hertes ben so obstynat/ and this sufficeth of the marchantes.

This fifth chapitre of the thirde book treteh of phisiciens spicers and Apotyquarys.

The pawōn that is sette to fore the quene signefyeth the phisicyen/ spicer and Apotyquaire/ and is formed in the figure of a man/ And he is sette in a chayer as a maystre and holdeth in his right hand a book/ And an ample or a boxe wyth oynementis in his lyft hand/ And at his gurdell his Instrumentis of yron and of siluer for to make Incysions and to serche woundes and hurtes/ and to cutte apostumes/ And by thyse thynges ben knowen the cyrurgyens/ By the book ben vnderstanden the phisicyens/ and alle gramaryens. logicyens/ maistres of lawe. of Geometrye. Arismetryque. musique and of astronomye/ And by the ampole/ ben signefyed the makers of pigmentaries spicers and apotiquayres/ and they that make confections and confytes and medecynes made wyth precyous spyces And by the ferremens and Intrumentis that hangen on the gurdell ben signefied the cyrurgyens & the maistres And knowe y'e for certain that a maystre & phisicyen ought to knowe the proporcions of lettres of gramayre/ the monemens the conclusions and the sophyms of logyque. the gracio'9 speche and vtterance of rethorique/ the mesures of the houres and dayes/ and of the cours and astronomye/ the nombre of arsmetryk/ & the Ioyous songes of musyque And of all thyse tofore named/ the maistres of rethorique ben the chyef maistres in speculatyf/ And the two laste that ben practisiens and werkers ben callyd phisicyens and cyrurgyens/ how well they ben sage and curyous in thyse sciences/ And how well that mannes lyf is otherwhile put in thordonance of the phisicyen or cyrurgyen/ yf he haue not sagesse and wysedom in hym self of dyuerce wrytynges and is not expert/ And medlyth hym in the craft of phisique/ He ought better be callyd a slear of peple than a phisicyen or cyrurgyen. For he may not be a maystre but yf he be seure and expert in the craft of phisike that he sle not moo than he cureth and maketh hoole/ And therfore sayth Auycenne in an Enphormye/ yf thou curest the seke man. And knowest not the cause/ wherof the maladye ought to be cured/ Hit ought to be sayd that thou hast cured hym by fortune and happe more than by ony comynge. And in alle thyse maner of peple/ Ther ought to be meurte of good maners/ Curtoysie of wordes/ Chastite of the body promysse of helthe/ And as to them that ben seke contynuell visitacion of them/ And they ought to enquere the cause of theyr sekenessis and the sygnes and tokens of theyr maladyes/ As is rehercid in the bookes of the au[ct]ours by ryght grete diligence/ And specially in the bookes of ypocras galyene and of Auycene And whan many maysters and phisicyens ben assemblid to fore the pacyent or seke man/ They ought not there to argue and dispute one agaynst an other/ But they ought to make good and symple colacion to geder. In suche wyse as they be not seen in theyr desputynge one agaynst an other/ for to encroche and gete more glorye of the world to them self/ than to trete the salute and helthe of the pacyent and seke man/ I meruayll why that whan they fee and knowe that whan the seke man hath grete nede of helthe wherfore than they make gretter obiection of contraryousnes for as moche as the lyf of man is demened and put amonge them but hit is be cause that he is reputed most sage and wise that argueth and bryngeth in moste subtyltes/ And alle this maner is amonge doctours of lawe that treteth no thynge of mannes lyf. But of temporelle thynges/ that he is holden most wyse and best lerned/ that by his counceyll can beste acorde the contencions and discencions of men And therfore ought the phisicyens and cyrurgyens leue whan they be to fore the seke men all discencions and contrariousnes of wordes/ in suche wyse that hit appere that they studye more for to cure the seke men than for to despute And therfore is the phisicien duly sette to fore the quene/ So that it is figured that he ought to haue in hymself chastite and contynence of body For hit apperteyneth somtyme vnto the phisicien to visite and cure Quenes duchesses and countesses and alle other ladyes and see and beholde some secrete sekenessis that falle and come otherwhile in the secretis of nature And therfore hit apperteyneth to them that they be chaste and followe honeste and chastite/ and that they be ensample to other of good contynence/ For valerian reherceth that ypocras was of meruayllous contynence of his body/ For whan he was in the scoles of Athenes/ he had by hym a ryght fayr woman whyche was comyn And the yonge scolers and the Ioly felaws that were students promisyd to the woman a besaūt/ yf she myght or coude torne the corage of ypocras for to haue to doon wyth her/ And she cam to hym by nyght and dyde so moche by her craft that she laye wyth hym in his bedd/ but she coude neuer do so moche y't she myghte corrumpe his chaste liuynge ne defoule the crowne of his conscience/ and whan the yonge men knewe that she had ben with hym all the night And coude not chaunge his contynence/ they began to mocque her/ And to axe and demande of her the besant that they had gyuen to her. And she answerd That hit was holden & gaged vpon an ymage/ For as moche as she might not change his contynence she callyd hym an ymage/ And in semblable wyse reherceth Valerian of Scenocrates philosopher that ther laye with hym a woman all night And tempted hym disordinatly/ but that ryght chafte man/ made neuer femblant to her/ Ner he neuer remeuyd from his ferme purpoos/ In fuche wyfe as fhe departid from hym alle confufid and fhamed/ Cornelius fcipion that was fent by the romayns for to gouerne fpayne/ as fone as he entryd in to the caftellis & in to the townes of that lande He began to take away all the thynges that miht ftyre or meue his men to lecherye wherfore men fayd that he drof & chaced oute of the ofte moo than two thoufand bourdellys/ And he that was wyfe knewe well that delyte of lecherye corrupted and apayred the corages of tho men that ben abandonned to that fame delyte/ And herof hit is fayd in the fables of the poetes in the first book of the Truphes of the Philofophers by figure. That they that entryd in to the fontayne of the firenes or mermaydens/ were corrumpid and they toke them away with hem/ And alfo y'e ought to knowe that they ought to entende diligently to the cures of the enfermytees in cyrugerye/ They ought to make theyr playfters acordynge to the woundes or fores/ yf the wounde be rounde The enplaftre muft be round/ and yf hyt be longe/ hyt mufte be longe/ and otherwhile hit mufte be cured by his contrarye/ lyke as it apperteyneth to phifique/ For the hete is cured by cold/ and the colde by hete/ and Ioye by forowe/ and fbrowe by Ioye/ and hit happeth ofte tymes that moche peple be in grete paryll in takynge to moche Ioye and lefe her membris/ and become half benomen in the fodayn Ioye/ And Ioye is a replection of thynge that is delectable fprad a brode in all the membris with right grete gladnes And all men entende and desire to haue the sayd ryght grete Ioye naturelly/ But they knowe not what may ensue and come therof And this Ioye cometh otherwhile of vertue of conscience/ And the wyse man is not wyth out this Ioye And this Ioye is neuer Interrupt ne in deffaulte at no tyme For hit cometh of nature And fortune may not take a waye that nature geueth. And merciall saith that Ioyes fugitiues abide not longe But flee away anōn And valerian reherceth that he that hath force and strengthe raysonable/ hath hit of verray matier of complection and that cometh of loue And this Ioye hath as moche power to departe the sowle fro the body/ as hath the thondre/ wherof hit happend that ther was a woman named lyna whiche had her husbonde in the warre in the shippis of the romayns/ And she supposid verily that he was ded/ But hit happend that he cam agayn home And as he entryd in to his yate/ his wif met wyth hym sodeynly not warned of his comyng. whiche was so glad and Ioyous/ that in enbrasynge hym she fyll doun ded Also of an other woman to whom was reportid by a fals messanger that her sone was ded/ whiche wente home soroufully to her hows/ And afterward whan her sone cam to her/ As sone as she sawe hym/ she was so esmoued wyth Ioye y't she deyde to fore hym/ But this is not so grete meruaylle of women as is of the men/ For the women ben likened vnto softe waxe or softe ayer and therfor she is callid mulier whyche Is as moche to saye in latyn as mollys aer. And in english soyfte ayer/ And it happeth ofte tymes that the nature of them that ben softe and mole/ taketh sonner Inpression than the nature of men that is rude and stronge/ Valerye reherceth & sayth that a knyght of rome named Instaulosus that had newly conquerid and subiuged the yle of Corsika/ And as he sacrefyed his goddes/ he receyuyd lettres from the senate of rome In whiche were conteyned dyuerse supplicacyons/ The whiche whan he vnderstood he was so glad and so enterprysed wyth Ioye/ that he knewe not what to doo And than a great fumee or smoke yssued out of the fyre In whiche he dispayred and fyll in to the fyre/ where he was anone ded/ And also it is sayd that Philomenus lawhed so sore and distemperatly that he deyde alle lawhynge/ And we rede that ypocras the phisicien fonde remedye for thys Ioye/ For whan he had longe dwellyd oute of his contreye for to lerne connynge and wysedom/ And shold retorne vnto his parentis and frendes/ whan he approchid nyghe them/ He sente a messanger to fore for to telle to them his comynge/ and comanded hym to saye that he cam/ for they had not longe to fore seen hym/ And y't they shold attempre them in that Ioye er they shold see hym/ And also we rede that Titus the sone of vaspasian whan he had conquerd Iherusalem and abode in y'e contrees by/ he herde y't his fader vaspasian was chosen by alle the senate for to gouerne the empire of rome/ wherfore he had so right grete Ioye that sodaynly he loste the strength of all his membres And be cam all Impotent And whan Iosephus that made the historye of the romayns ayenst the Iewis/ whiche was a ryght wyse phisicien sawe and knewe the cause of this sekenes of the sayd Titus/ he enquyred of his folk yf he had in hate ony man gretly so moche that he myght not here speke of hym ner well see hym And one of the seruantes of Titus sayd that he had one persone in hate so moche. That ther was no man in his court so hardy that durste name hym in his presence/ and than Iosephus assigned a day whan this man shold come/ and ordeyned a table to sette in y'e sight of Titus/ and dide hit to be replenysshid plenteuously wyth alle dayntees/ and ordeyned men to be armed to kepe hym in suche wyse that no man shold hurte hym by the comandement of Titus/ and ordeyned boutellers. Coques/ and other officers for to serue hym worshipfully lyke an Emour/ and whan all this was redy/ Iosephus brought in this man that tytus hated and sette hym at the table to fore his eyen and was seruyd of yonge men wyth grete reuerence ryght cortoisly/ And whan titus behelde his enemye sette to fore hym wyth so grete honour/ He began to chauffe hym self by grete felonnye And comanded his men that this man sholde be slayn/ And whan he sawe/ that none wold obeye hym But that they all way seruyd hym reuerently/ he waxe so ardante/ and enbrasid wyth so grete yre/ that he that had lost alle the force and strengthe of his body and was alle Impotent in alle his membres/ Recoured the helthe agayn and strengthe of his membris/ by the hete that entryd in to the vaynes and sinewis And Iosephus dide so moche that he was recouerid and hole/ And that he helde that man no more for his enemye/ but helde hym for a verray true frende/ And afterward made hym his loyall felawe and compaignon And the espicers and Apotecayres ought to make truly suche thynges as Is comanded to them by the physicyens/ And they ought taccomplisshe theyr billis and charge curyously wyth grete dilygence/ that for none other cause they shold be ocupied but in makynge medicynes or confections truly. And that they ought vpon paryll of theyr sowle not to forgete/ by negligence ne rechelesnes to gyue one medecyne for an other/ In suche wyse that they be not slears of men/ And that they do putte no false thynges In her spyces for to empayre or encrecynge the weyght. For yf they so doo they may better be callyd theuys than espiciers or apotecayris/ And they that ben acustomed to make oynements they ought to make hyt proprely of true stuf and of good odoure after the receptes of the auncyent doctours/ And after the forme that the phisicyens and cyrurgyens deuyse vnto them/ Also they ought to beware that for none auayle ne gyfte that they myght haue/ that they put in theyr medicynes no thynge venemous ner doynge hurte or scathe to ony persone of whom they haue none good ne veray knowlege/ to thende that they to whom the medicynes shold be gyuen/ torne not to them hurte ne domage/ ne in destructions of theyr neyghbours/ and also that they that haue mynystrid tho thyngis to them/ ben not taken for parteners of the blame and of the synne of them The cyrurgyens ought also to be debonayr. amyable. & to haue pytye of their pacyents. And also they ought not be hasty to launse and cutte apostumes and soores/ ne open the heedes/ ner to arrache bones broken/ but yf the cause be apparant/ For they myght ellys lose theyr good renome And myght better be callyd bouchers than helars or guarisshors of woundes and soores And also hit behoueth that alle this maner of peple foresayd that haue the charge for to make hole and guarisshe alle maner of maladyes and Infirmitees that they first haue the cure of themself/ and they ought to purge themself fro alle apostumes and alle vices/ In suche wyse that they be net and honeste and enformed in alle good maners/ And that they shewe hem hole and pure & redy for to hele other And herof sayth Boecius de Consolacione In his first booke that the sterres that ben hid vnder the clowdes maye gyue no light. And therfore yf ony man wole beholde clerly the verite. Late hym wythdrawe hym fro the obscurete and derkenes of the clowdes of ignorance/ for whan the engyne of a man sheweth in Ioye or in sorowe/ The pensee or thought is enuoluped in obscurete & vnder the clowdes.

The sixthe chapitre of the thirde book treteth of the sixth pawn/ whiche is lykened to tauerners hostelers and vitayllers.

The sixthe pawn whiche standeth to fore the Alphyn on the lyfte syde is made in thys forme. For hit is a man that hath the right hande stracched oute as for to calle men/ And holdeth in his lyfte hande a loof of breed and a cuppe of wyn/ And on his gurdell hangynge a boudell of keyes/ And this resembleth the Tauerners. hostelers. and sellars of vitaylle. And thise ought proprely to be sette to fore the/ Alphyn as to fore a Iuge For ther sourdeth ofte tymes amonge hem contencion noyse and stryf/ whiche behoueth to be determyned and trayted by the alphyn/ whiche is Iuge of the kynge/ And hit apperteyneth to them for to seke and enquyre for good wyns and good vitayll for to gyue and selle to the byers/ And to them that they herberowe/ And hit apperteyneth to them well to kepe their herberowes and Innes/ and alle tho thyngis that they brynge in to their loggynge and for to putte hyt in seure and sauf warde and kepynge/ And the firste of them Is signefyed by the lyfte hande in whiche he bereth brede and wyn/ and the seconde is signefied by the right hande whiche Is stracched oute to calle men/ And the thirde is representid by the keyes hangynge on y'e gurdell And thyse maner of peple ought teschewethe synne of glotonye/ For moche peple comen in to theyr howses for to drynke and to ete for whyche cause they ought resonably to rewle them self and to refrayne them from to moche mete and drynke/ to thende that they myght the more honestly delyuere thyngis nedefull vnto the peple that come vnto them/ And no thynge by oultrage that myght noye the body/ For hit happeth ofte tymes that ther cometh of glotonye tencyons. stryfs. ryottes. wronges. and molestacyons/ by whiche men lese other while their handes. theyr eyen. and other of their membres/ And somtyme ben slayn or hurt vnto the deth/ As it is wreton In vitas patrum As on a tyme an heremyte wente for to visite his gossibs/ And the deuyll apperyd to hym on the waye in lykenes of an other heremyte for to tempte hym/ and saide thou hast lefte thyn heremitage And goost to visyte thy gossibs/ The behoueth by force to doo one of y'e thre thynges that I shall saye to the/ thou shalt chese whether thou wylt be dronke/ or ellys haue to do flessly wyth thy gossib or ellys thou shalt sle her husbond whiche is thy gossip also/ And the hermyte that thought for to chese the leste euyll chace for to be dronke/ and whan he cam vnto them he dranke so moche that he was veray dronke And whan he was dronke and eschaussed wyth the wyn/ he wold haue a doo wyth hys gossib/ And her husbonde withstode hym. And than the hermyte slewe hym/ And after that laye by his gossib and knewe her flessly/ And thus by this synne of dronkenship he accomplisshid the two other synnes/ By whyche thynge y'e may vnderstande and knowe y't whan the deuyll wyll take one of the castellis of Ihesu cryst/ that is to wete the body of a man or of a woman/ he doth as a prynce that setteth a siege to fore a castell that he wold wynne/ whiche entēdeth to wynne the gate/ For he knoweth well whan he hath wonne the gate/ he may sone doo hys wylle wyth the castell. And in lyke wyse doth the deuyll wyth euery man and woman For whan he hathe wonne the gate/ that is to wete the gate of y'e mouth by glotonye or by other synne He may doo wyth the offices of the body alle his wylle as y'e haue herd to fore/ And therfore ought euery man ete and drynke sobrely in suche wyse as he may lyue. And not lyue to ete glotonsly & for to drynke dronke. y'e see comunly that a grete bole is suffisid wyth right a lityll pasture/ And that a wode suffiseth to many olefauntes And hit behoueth a man to be fedde by the erthe or by the see/ neuertheles it is no grete thynge to fede the bely/ no thynge so grete as is the desire of many metes Wherof Quyntylian sayth/ That hit happeth ofte tymes in grete festes & dyners/ that we be fylde wyth the sight of the noble and lichorous metis and whan we wolde ete we ben saciat and fild/ And therfore hit is sayd in prouerbe/ hit is better to fylle the bely than the eye/ And lucan sayth that glotonye is the moder of alle vices/ and especiall of lecherye/ and also is destroyer of all goodes And may not haue suffisance of lityll thynge/ A couetous honger what sekest thou mete and vitayllis on the lande & in the see/ And thy Ioye is nothynge ellis but to haue playnteuous disshes & well fylde at thy table lerne how men may demene his lyf with lityll thynge/ And Cathon sayth in no wyse obeye to glotonye whiche is frende to lecherye/ And the holy doctour saynt Augustyn sayth/ the wyn eschausseth the bely that falleth anone to lecherye/ The bely and the membrers engendreurs ben neyghebours to lecherye/ And thus the vice of glotonye prouoketh lecherye/ wherof cometh forgetenes of his mynde and destruction of alle quyk and sharp reson And is cause of distemance of his wittes/ what synne is fowler than this synne and more stynkynge ne more domageous For this synne hath taken away the vertue of the man/ his prowesse languisshed/ his vertue is torned to diffame/ the strengthe of body and of corage is torned by the/ And therfore sayth Basille le grant/ late vs take hede how we serue the bely & the throte by glotonye lyke as we were dombe bestes/ and we studye for to be lyke vnto belucs of the see/ to whom nature hath gyuen to be alleway enclined toward the erthe & ther to loke for to serue theyr belyes/ And herof saith Boecius de consolacione in his fourth book/ that a man that lyuyth and doth not the condicions of a man/ may neuer be in good condicion/ Than muste hit nedes be that he be transported in nature of a beste or of a belue of the see. How well that ryght grete men and women full of meruayllous sciences and noble counceyll in thise dayes in the world ben kept and nourisshid in this glotonye of wyns and metes/ and ofte tymes ben ouerseen/ how suppose y'e/ is hit not right a perillous thinge that a lord or gouernour of the peple and cōmun wele/ how well that he be wyse/ yf he eschauffe hym sone so that y'e wyn or other drynke surpryse hym and ouercome his brayn. his wisedom is loste/ For as Cathon sayth/ Ire enpessheth the corage in suche as he may not kepe verite and trouthe And anon as he is chauffed/ lecherye is meuyd in hym in suche wyse that the lecherye maketh hym to medle in dyuerse villayns dedes/ For than his wyfedom is a slepe and goon/ And therfore fayth Ouide in his booke De remedio amoris/ yf thou take many and dyuerce wyns/ they apparylle and enforce the corages to lecherye And Thobie witnessith in his booke/ that luxurye destroyeth the body/ and mynussheth richesses/ she loseth the sowle/ she febleth y'e

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