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From a Terrace in Prague
by Lieut.-Col. B. Granville Baker
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Ferdinand I proved to be no such moody bigot as his brother Charles V, yet he was bent on stemming the tide of Protestantism, the floods of which flowed over from the Germany of Luther's way of thinking to mingle with the growing religious sects in Bohemia. This was not done without torture and bloodshed, so the Hradšany witnessed the sufferings, under the rack, of Augusta, the Bishop of the Unity of Bohemian Brethren, and the execution of several prominent citizens of Prague for defying royal authority in matters of conscience. Ferdinand, on the abdication of his father, succeeded him as Emperor, and left his son Maximilian to rule his turbulent Bohemian subjects. Maximilian stands out in history as a picturesque figure, but I cannot see that he did Bohemia any useful service. The fact that he had inherited the old dominions of the House of Habsburg, Upper and Lower Austria, and was also King of Hungary, kept him away from Bohemia a good deal. He called occasionally upon the Diet of this his richest possession for support against the Turks. The Diet thereupon called for religious freedom, and no interference with their spiritual affairs. The discussions that ensued seem to have led to no results. So we find one Habsburg after another on the throne of Bohemia, trying to coerce its people, and each one reducing the country to a state of greater discontent and disorder, until the crash came in 1618, when King Matthias had roused the Bohemian Estates to such a pitch of desperation that they proceeded to the act which precipitated the Thirty Years' War.

The Hradšany did not see much of Matthias, whereas his predecessor on the throne of Bohemia, Rudolph II, lived in the Royal Castle as a matter of habit. True he was dethroned occasionally by his younger brother Matthias, and no doubt Rudolph as King was hopelessly ineffective. He was probably rather mad. Nevertheless, a certain amount of interest can be drawn out of this Habsburg's connection with Prague, and the Hradšany can show you some traces of his peculiarities. So, for instance, you will find a quaint little alley of tiny houses scooped out of the stout north wall of the castle to eastward of St. George's Church.

Rudolph was unmarried; perhaps it was this fact that enabled him to waste money on all sorts of hobbies instead of going to his office with his little black bag and behaving generally as a "weel tappit" husband and king would do. Rudolph's hobbies were alchemy and astronomy. The chief object of the former extremely inexact science seems to have been to make gold by the synthetic process. Any charlatan who came along with a declared conviction that he could produce gold was welcomed by the King. It was for these his guests that Rudolph prepared those tiny dwellings in the narrow alley called "The Alchemists" or the "Gold Makers." They are snug, those tiny dwellings, so small that you should be able to open your front door without getting out of bed; you look down out of the deep embrasure of your window on to the tree-tops in the "Stag's Moat." The height of the wall from your window to the ditch does not invite you to try a leap by way of escape, so Rudolph's alchemist guests had to produce something or suffer from the King's displeasure. This, for instance, happened to two gentlemen from the British Isles, Dr. John Dee and Mr. Kelly. Both these visitors were going to supply Rudolph with wonders of alchemy, gold in profusion. They failed to give satisfaction, and were imprisoned—another injustice to Ireland! Did the fairy chorus that thrilled the listeners at the foot of Dalibor's strong dungeon chant that plaintive cry, "Has anyone here seen Kelly"?

Another of Rudolph's hobbies was astronomy, and he certainly assembled some eminent scientists in that line about him. Prominent among these lights of learning was one whom I have already mentioned, Tycho de Brahe. It appears that this turbulent scientist had made his own country, Denmark, too hot to hold him; he and his family were practically exiled from home, and in his wanderings Tycho turned to the Court of Prague, was kindly, generously entreated by King Rudolph, and no doubt did good work in return. You may see Tycho's effigy over his tomb in the Tyn Church; you may remark that his effigy shows little trace of a nose to his face. Tycho went without one for many years, as he lost his when young, in a duel. Keppler was also one of Rudolph's guests, a man of very different calibre, and certainly one of the most eminent astronomers of all times. There were, no doubt, any number of lesser lights in that line during those quaint old days when men turned to the starry heavens to learn the fate in store for them. Astronomy and alchemy were often mixed up together in those days, or rather astronomy seemed to get mixed up with one's daily life to such an extent that no princely household was complete without its pet astronomer. If things had gone a bit wrong of a morning, perhaps that "tired feeling" mixed with a touch of gout, and the evening had brought a domestic worry or two, you just walked round to your astronomer's for some indication concerning the future. After bumping about in dim religious gloom among stuffed crocodiles and such-like accessories to science of those days, you discovered your astronomer deeply engaged in describing cabalistic figures on parchment; he would raise his eyes with a far-away look, as if no henchman had hurried round a few minutes earlier to say that "the old man was carrying on something awful," your astronomer would descend to earth for a space and then at his master's command reascend to get thoroughly mixed up with the stars.

To those days of the later sixteenth century we may trace all manner of quaint customs, beliefs and observances. People were getting thoroughly into the way of thinking for themselves instead of believing what they were told, and they started many ingenious conceits whereon to pin their faith or perhaps strengthen it. I do not know that those quaint conceits were particularly helpful; personally I could not derive comfort from a belief popular in Bohemia, that King David sits in the moon playing on the harp. My sympathy would go out too strongly for my own comfort, towards David evoking melody in such a lonely spot, far from all his lady friends; I might even imagine him sighing for Saul's hurtling javelin to break the monotony. To these days belongs also the institution of the rosary by Pope Gregory XII, in memory of the victory of Christendom at Lepanto in 1571. The rosary was indeed known as early as the eleventh century, but not in universal use.

While Rudolph was busy with his alchemy, astronomy, and, I am happy to say, with literature as well, he resided in the Hradšany most of his time, and so the Mala Strana enjoyed all the amenities of a Court, the "certain liveliness" that pertains thereto having shifted from the Old Town to the left bank of the river. I have sought vainly for something interesting in the way of local colour, but can find nothing that even suggests the ingerence of a "fardingale" into the local history of Rudolph's reign. Instead of the gentler influence, I find only descriptions of swashbucklers, lackeys and bottlewashers, "ruffling" it in imitation of their masters. Here again we have indication of Italy's refining influence, a new invention which came rapidly into vogue, and unlike most of them, came to stay—the facciolette. What though the roystering pseudo-gallant had no shirt to which he might attach a fine collar, he must have his "facilet," as the chronicler spells it—in short, a handkerchief. Then again the tooth-pick came in for serious observation; it was considered an outward and visible sign of internal creature comfort, and was worn behind the ear when not in action. Tooth-pick practice is still going strong in Prague.

By way of attributing something good to Rudolph, I will make him responsible for a garden, said to have been very beautiful, which occupied some ground at the higher westward end of the "Stag's Moat." Here was a pleasance, where gallants and fair ladies disported themselves and watched the antics of wild animals. It was in this garden that Schiller placed the little drama he describes in Der Handschuh. Schiller gives the Spanish version of the story, where the gallant smacks the lady's face with the glove he had retrieved for her from among the lions, and then struts away for evermore. Romantic, but ill-tempered, whereas the local version here is that the gallant married the lady—perhaps she became insistent; anyway, a useful if commonplace ending.

I gave you an instance of Rudolph's statecraft in that little matter of the "Passauer," and am not inclined to give you any more. His doings and those of his Habsburg successors brought so much suffering to Bohemia and Prague that I would rather be excused from giving any account of them. We have heard of Rudolph's brother Matthias, and how under him the strain put upon the people of Bohemia grew too severe, and how the Estates cut the Gordian Knot by throwing the King's lieutenants out of a window on the Hradšany. They happened to fall soft, on a midden, and got away unhurt. As a diplomatic action, this measure taken by the Estates lacked finesse, but it had one advantage over the usual diplomatic transactions in their devious course, that it was direct and final in its effect, namely, to precipitate a great devastating war, and to leave Bohemia hopelessly enchained for close on three centuries.

We have seen the "Winter King"[1] pass this way with his English wife, pause here to be crowned, and then after a short year's reign, fly from the country that trusted him when his army and the cause he was called upon to stand for went under in a sea of blood on the White Mountain. It is only about an hour on foot to the battlefield where the army of Protestant Bohemia, after retiring before the Imperialist host, made its final, fatal stand. After all, Frederick's short reign was only an interlude: the hand of the Habsburg had closed over Bohemia when Ferdinand I ascended its throne in 1526 by virtue of his marriage with Anna, and also, as I have said, by the free use of Austrian gold; and the victory won by Charles V at Muehlberg in 1547 had almost crushed the cause of Protestantism out of existence.

[Footnote 1: Frederick, Count of the Palatinate, was called the "Winter King," probably because he came to Prague one winter and left the next one.]

The battlefield where the independence of Bohemia was lost in November 1620 lies on a plateau, as background to which stands a peculiar building. Surrounded by a park and overlooking undulating country stands the "Star." It is a former royal hunting-box, built several centuries before the battle and planned as a six-pointed star. It has no architectural beauty; it is in appearance a somewhat ungainly landmark and must have been pretty uncomfortable to live in, even for the less exacting royalties of the Middle Ages, but it stands on what, for the Bohemian, should be holy ground. The forces of the Holy Roman Empire, aided by Bavarians and Spaniards, were arrayed against the army of Frederick, the "Winter King," which stood for religious freedom. Perhaps the Protestant forces were not united, they were composed of Czechs, Moravians, Germans and Hungarians, perhaps that their King had left them somewhat hurriedly, at any rate the spirit of the old covenanters, Hus and Žiška, no longer informed the Bohemian Army. The first to break were the Hungarians, and the conduct of the others was not up to tradition; only a small force of Moravians under Count Šlik refused to yield. They took their stand against the wall of the Star Park, along which the dead at some places lay ten or twelve high, according to contemporary writers.

Then the Jesuit-ridden Habsburg entered Prague and laid his heavy hand on all Bohemia, almost to the undoing of its people. But it is a wonderful thing, that power of a strong race to survive treachery and oppression until the time comes when it can reassert itself.

There are many accounts of this battle, most of them obviously biassed, so, for instance, the Imperialists declare that victory was won in the space of an hour, whereas Bohemian historians say that the fighting continued without a break from morning till late afternoon. The Imperialists ascribed their victory to the intervention of Our Lady. Some fifty years after their defeat the Bohemians erected a church and monastery to St. Mary on the White Mountain. You may see this church, looking somewhat dilapidated—I should say ashamed of itself—as it stands there a monument to the Bohemian nation's self-abasement.

We have witnessed the sequel to the defeat of Bohemia on the White Mountain, the execution of Bohemian nobles and other leaders on the open space between the Old Town Hall and the Church of Our Lady of Tyn. In the words of Gindely the historian: "These melancholy executions mark the end of the old and independent development of Bohemia. Members of the most prominent families of the Bohemian nobility, eminent citizens and learned men, in fact all the representatives of the culture of the land, ended here, and with them their cause. The destiny of the country was henceforth in the hands of foreigners, who had neither comprehension of nor sympathy with its former institutions."



CHAPTER XII

Is another long one, but the last of A Terrace in Prague. It tells little about Kings of Bohemia, and more about Jesuits and the work they left behind to mark the influence they wielded. There are churches and statues of their erection, but you are left to decide for yourself whether you like those works or not. Several historic figures appear on the scene: Tilly, Waldstein, Koenigsmark the Swedish General, and his chaplain, Dr. Klee. Mention is also made of some Britons, among them one with the homely name of Brown, an honest soldier who lies buried here in Prague. A tale of a supernatural event. A further talk of the river and about excursions. Finally, an attempt at an epilogue.

You will, I hope, agree with me that a man who sits upon a terrace and writes about the things he sees and what he thinks about them is entitled to bring his observations to a close whenever he considers it fit to do so. That point is now within reach. From the first I warned you that this is not a guide-book, and therefore not under the obligation of giving you a full and detailed catalogue of all the sights of Prague and how to see them. There is little more that I propose to tell you, it being my object to entice you out here to see for yourself. I will wait for you on my terrace, if you like, and while waiting will cast a final glance round the scene that has, I confess, acquired a strong hold of me.

The Hradšany, seen on a dull, chill day, always recalls to me what I have read about those days since the Bohemians lost their all on the White Mountain, until they broke free again only a few years ago. On dull days the long, plain, featureless walls of the Hradšany seem the very expression of life under the later Habsburg Kings of Bohemia. They were, on the whole, worthy, well-meaning sovereigns, their chief trouble being, it would seem, a hereditary incapacity for seeing any point of view but that to which their forbears, Jesuit-trained, and of limited outlook, had educated them. They were quite impervious to new ideas, very tenacious of old ones, and fully convinced of their own divine right. The Habsburg line of policy towards Bohemia was laid down by Ferdinand II—or shall I say for that monarch?—at the Te Deum sung in St. Stephen's Cathedral, at Vienna, to celebrate the victory of Rome over Bohemia's religious freedom. It would seem as if the King had moulded his policy on the text of the sermon preached by Brother Sabrinus, the Capuchin friar, on that occasion: "Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel." In carrying out this policy the King of Bohemia was ably assisted by the Jesuits. This congregation had been introduced into Bohemia by a former Ferdinand whose acquaintance we have made; the Jesuits had therefore stores of useful local knowledge at their command when they set about complementing the material victory won on the White Mountain by a spiritual conquest. The first thing was to re-establish Roman ritual, and the church chosen for this act was St. Martin's-in-the-Wall, where, as I have told you, the Sacrament was first given in both kinds by Jacobelius in 1414. Then it was thought fit to remove the statue of King George Podiebrad from the west front of the Tyn Church. The effigy showed this national hero pointing with his drawn sword towards the chalice above his head, of which he had been such a valiant defender.

Then followed persecution, exile, imprisonment and corporal punishment, in addition to the turmoil and sufferings of the Thirty Years' War. Ferdinand's father-confessor was a Jesuit, Lamormain, and under the latter's guidance Bohemia was being brought back to the fold, while elsewhere in Europe men like Tilly and Waldstein, whom Schiller preferred to call Wallenstein, were taking their part in the Catholic Reformation, with striking results, the sack of cities and the devastation of whole countries.

After the Catholic Reformers had seen to it that the leaders of the movement towards religious liberty had been put away, they set about bringing the Bohemians back to Rome in their own ingenious way. We have seen that among other remedies against heresy they introduced, or perhaps re-introduced, a national saint, John Nepomuk, had him canonized and an effigy of him set up on the Charles Bridge; this effigy was followed by many others, among them that of Loyola. Each pillar of the bridge that Charles built is crowned by the effigy of a saint or groups of saints, with most of whom, I regret to say, I am not acquainted. There are, however, some old friends—Saints Ludmilla, Wenceslaus, Cosmas and Damain, and Adalbert—who are intimately connected with the story of Prague. There is no denying the fact that these groups of statuary give a unique touch to the massive beauty of the Charles Bridge, but they do not appeal to me as works of art; this is probably due to my own shortcomings. To my thinking, the statue of St. George, which stands close by the south entrance to the cathedral on the Hradšany, is worth the whole collection on the Charles Bridge. This statue, the work of the brothers George and Martin of Aussenburk, was ordered expressly by Charles IV; it is an absolutely faithful representation of a knight's armour as worn in the fourteenth century. For the rest, the statuary on the bridge was not run up in the space of a few years; the work extended over about two centuries.

The first step taken towards an outward display of regained power was the destruction by the Jesuits of that old church which stood on the Mala Stranske Naměsti, in which, as I told you, the martyrs of 1621 partook of the Sacraments on their road to execution. The Church of St. Nicholas then reared its stately pile out of the medley of quaint old roofs and dormer windows immediately below my terrace. There were changes going on among those sleepy houses too, for the victory of the White Mountain and the Imperialist successes in the Thirty Years' War had brought to Bohemia a swarm of foreign adventurers, officers in the Emperor's armies, who acquired the property of exiled Bohemian nobility and set about building palaces for themselves. They are interesting too, these palaces in Prague, and some of them have beautiful gardens, as those of Fuerstenberg, Lobkovitz, Schoenborn and Waldstein. The latter palace has, indeed, more than ordinary interest on account of the strange man who built it.

Albrecht of Waldstein was a Bohemian noble of no very high degree, and belonged to a Protestant family. He seems to have had no great learning, but turned when he arrived at man's estate to the dark sciences, more especially astronomy, and from the study of this science he hoped to look behind the veil of the future and read his fortunes in the stars. He rose, no doubt on account of his ability, to high command, to a position of more real power than that of his imperial master. He amassed a vast fortune, and built himself a huge palace in Prague—from my terrace I could point to you its long line of roofs. To build his palace a number of smaller houses had to be pulled down, some twenty-three in all. Then Giovanni Marini, with his Italian and Dutch architects and landscape gardeners, set to work and built up this regal abode of gigantic proportions, a place as vast as Waldstein's ambition and dreams of power and conquest. For all he was of Protestant faith originally, Waldstein had as patron saint St. Wenceslaus, to whom he built a beautiful chapel in his palace. There are gardens and fountains, a Sala terrena, said to be the largest in Europe; there are magnolia-trees as old as the palace; there is a bower of black old yew-trees screening the space where this warrior-statesman received the ambassadors of kings who sought alliance with him. There is an uncanny air of desolation over all this vast demesne, an air of unsatisfied ambition, of vain striving and infinite sadness of remorse. I can picture to myself Waldstein pacing along that alley of clipped trees, now overgrown, scheming and planning. I am sure he was one of those whose vision showed to them the endless possibilities of power wielded from Prague as capital of a great Central European State, that he was of one mind with George Podiebrad, Charles IV, Přemysl Ottokar II, Libuša, and I will even include that Frankish adventurer, Samo. But Waldstein had to reckon with a Habsburg Emperor, King of Bohemia. The negotiations that his generalissimo had undoubtedly been carrying on with the French and the Swedes had roused the suspicions of Emperor Ferdinand, so Albrecht of Waldstein, Duke of Friedland, was rendered harmless; he was murdered by his own officers one night at Cheb (Eger,) a place you passed through on your way from Paris to Prague.

There is a quaint old-world atmosphere that clings about the Mala Strana, in its narrow streets and under its red roofs and dormer windows, an atmosphere that suggests all sorts of good deeds done in a quiet sort of way, of simple piety and a general steady level of intellectual effort. In this, I am glad to report, some English people, or rather Britons, took part. I have already mentioned Elizabeth Weston and her epitaph in the church dedicated to St. Thomas. This church has also been restored by the Jesuits; it was probably high time, for it had been dedicated in 1316, and was occasionally the scene of a "certain liveliness" which is likely to make repairs necessary. Apart from Swedes who used to come round pillaging, this church seems to have had its private, as it were parochial, troubles, a serious one in 1510, for instance, when a fracas arose one day during service between some Bohemians and some Hungarians. A fracas was always conducted with rapiers and daggers in those days, and must have been a picturesque, if inconvenient, event. It was all about a lady too, which sounds quite likely: it was said that she was not worth all the pother: this is the sort of thing some people would say. As a consequence of this fracas several Bohemians were executed for robbery with violence, which sheds a different light on the incident, but I do not think it matters much at this distance of time.

There was a monastery attached to St. Thomas's Church, or perhaps the other way about, and the monks had a fine library. When the Swedes, quite uninvited, called at Prague and occupied the Mala Strana in 1648, their commander, Koenigsmark, sent his chaplain, Master John Klee, to pick up the library of St. Thomas's: the Swedes were great collectors of books. Klee remained unmoved by all the entreaties of the good monks until one of them showed him some silver spoons. Klee began to waver; some one brought out a gilt cup; Klee fell, and left the good monks with their books, just carrying off the trifling tokens they had given him as souvenirs. A little kindness goes a long way.

In St. Thomas's there is also a painting ascribed to Rubens over the altar. It looks doubtful to me, but the light was bad, and I could form no opinion as to the picture's merit. Another painting in this church gave me a thrill, a Virgin and Child, both black! I hoped that at last I had discovered a picture I had heard so much of, "The Black Madonna"—a famous picture with a stirring history. There are said to have been several "Black Madonnas" in Bohemia at one time, and that of Stara Boleslav was the most precious of them. St. Ludmilla herself had given this picture to her pious grandson Wenceslaus, who, as we know, was murdered at Stara Boleslav. Podiwin, the most trusty henchman of Wenceslaus, buried this treasure when his master was murdered. You could not well let it fall into the hands of Brother Boleslav, the hefty heathen; he would have been incapable of appreciating the beautiful legend of how the young mother, filled with anxiety on the flight into Egypt, prayed that she and her Child might be turned black while their exile lasted. The picture was found again in 1160 by a ploughman; the Saxons, on their raid into Bohemia in 1635, stole it, and Ferdinand II redeemed it and brought it back to Prague. It should be somewhere in this city. I will leave the search for it to you, when you pay your visit to Prague, which is surely inevitable now that you have read so far in this book.

A tall, very thin spire, that peers up near the mass of the Nicholas Church, reminds me of others of British race, who had their day in Prague and, I feel sure, contributed to its reputation for religion and piety. These were the Englische Fraeulein, as the German chronicler calls them; this means English virgins or maidens—you cannot very well call them English misses—whose Order, founded by Clara Ward in the seventeenth century, was introduced into Prague in the eighteenth by a Princess Auersberg. I am not sure how these ladies passed their time, nor what their object was in life, but no doubt they maintained that state to which they considered themselves called, and this alone should be accounted unto them for righteousness in a gay town like Prague.

There is yet one other Briton of whom I must tell you in connection with the story of old Prague. His name is Brown, and I met him, or rather his effigy, in Vienna many years ago. To give him all his style and title, or as much as I can recollect—Field-Marshal Count Brown, but for all that a good stout Briton. He happened to serve the Empress Maria Theresia, and served her well. When her arch-enemy, Frederick of Prussia, came this way, Brown was one of those who came out to meet him; was wounded and died of his wounds in Prague. Frederick of Prussia was obliged to raise the siege of Prague, according to popular opinion forced thereto by supernatural powers. It is said that one night, just after the battle of Prague, fought some five miles out, at a place called Stěrboholy, and while the siege of Prague was still in progress, the guard at one of the gates was surprised by a visitor. He appeared suddenly coming from the city on a black horse, dressed in ancient costume and wearing, mark you, a prince's cap. He demanded right of egress, the gate was opened, and the night-rider vanished into the darkness. The next day came news of the Austrian victory at Kolin, and everyone knew that one of Bohemia's ancient champions had decided the issue of that day. The pious generally ascribe the victory to St. Wenceslaus; if supernatural agency was at work, I am more inclined to attribute this ingerence to Brother Boleslav, the hearty heathen: it was more in his line.

Those dark days passed, and a century elapsed before the Prussians came pouring in again to disturb the Pax Austriaca which held Bohemia enveloped. They came as before, over the passes and through the Gate of Bohemia at that dear little town among the pine forests, Nachod. But all this is ancient history, is past and over, and the serene atmosphere of Good King Charles's gracious days is glowing over Prague again. Old Prague, the somnolent city of centuries after Bohemia's freedom went, is regaining her place and rising to her high mission as capital of a free and independent State, the most promising of those that arose out of the ruins of the Habsburg dynasty's dominions. Old customs, no doubt, are vanishing: I have looked in vain for the bootmakers' Fidlovačka and the tailors' revels in Stromovka, the butchers' special form of annual rejoicing seems also to have fallen into desuetude. Like pious souls, as they undoubtedly are, the butchers of Prague choose an ancient and respectable church for their peculiar celebration, which, to my thinking, has a somewhat pagan savour; indeed, the profoundly learned trace the practice back to the days when Thor was worshipped in the gloomy forests of Central Europe. The church chosen by the butchers for their special ritualistic function was that dedicated to St. James, son of Zebedee. This church was originally one of the oldest in Prague; it stands in that close-packed quarter of the Old Town, near Our Lady of Tyn. The present edifice shows no traces of its earliest aspect when founded by the Order of Minorities in 1232; it has been damaged and restored until its present appearance was evolved, but it seems to have been loyally patronized by the Old Town butchers, whose bravery, we know, did much towards safeguarding the city both during the Hussite troubles and against the Swedes. Stout fellows, those old butchers of Prague; their holiday diversion, observed each 25th of July, was to dress up a goat, to carry it to the top of St. James's church-tower and throw it over into the street with "music and song," in which the goat probably joined until he arrived on the pavement below. Strenuous enjoyment on a hot summer's day, I should say, having been in personal contact with a goat myself on occasion, but I really cannot see where the fun comes in. By the aid of a map you may discern the church-tower of St. James's, but you will no longer see the goat hurtling through space. One by one these dear old customs are dying out. Nevertheless, our Pragers still enjoy life, more than ever I should say, contrasting the city of to-day with that of some ten years ago. I have touched on some of the forms of amusement and recreation you may indulge in; you will also find a pleasant social life developing among the cheery and hospitable Pragers. And there is always the river, which among its many reflections, by the way, also includes those of a very modern and rather German-looking building which stands somewhat by itself among disconnected groups of old and new buildings, near that quaint old house by the Jewish Cemetery. The building I refer to is called the Rudolfinum, after one of the unhappiest of all the Habsburgs, and served originally as an academy of music. It still fills up with sound from time to time, though not necessarily with harmony; it is the Parliament of the Republic of Czecho-Slovakia.

The present tendency in Prague is to erect handsome modern buildings all along the right bank of the river: Government offices, Ministries chiefly, will occupy them. At present the different Ministries are housed in ancient palaces dotted about the city. Foreign Affairs are controlled (and very ably too) from the Hradšany, as is only right, and here are also the offices of the Presidency and the President's official residence. The Ministry of Commerce inhabits Waldstein's Palace, that of Finance the Palace of Clam-Galas, which is well worth seeing on account of its portico. But I fancy it will be some time before all the grand plans for reconstruction and bringing Prague up to the requirements of a capital city have been carried out, and the silver river will be quite content to reflect the glorious monuments of the past for some little time longer. The river, no doubt, could tell us a deal about the chances and changes of the mortals that lived on its banks; we have seen it reflect so many events, joyous, tragic, even comic. On the whole it wears a thoroughly contented look on its shining countenance—the look of one who knows he is thoroughly appreciated. And knowing this, the river has put up with all manner of trammels which men call "regulation"; there are weirs and locks and all manner of improvements which not even Charles IV had thought of constructing for the good of his people. But then there are the islands left, and the Vltava's friends, the Pragers, come down to those islands of an evening and make music, which must reconcile the river to changed conditions. One island, that of Kampa, has already been pointed out to you; there are others. Of these, two count for our purpose, namely, of getting the best we can out of glorious old Prague. Of these two islands, one is named Žofin, which is derived from Sophie, possibly the wife of Good King Wenceslaus. Mind you, I am not at all certain about this; there is a large bathing establishment on this island, which not only recalls the cheery memory of Wenceslaus, but also that of Susanna; therefore to bring in the name of long-suffering Queen Sophie does not seem to me quite nice: what do you think? The next island is a larger one, almost in midstream, whereas Žofin keeps the right bank and has just enough space for a very pretty flower-garden, and a well-kept restaurant where you may enjoy good food and good music under the shade of the spreading chestnut-trees. The larger island is called Střelesky Ostrov, which means that it has something to do with shooting. Indeed, in years of long ago, in the days of bows and arrows, and crossbow and bolt, when archery was compulsory, this island was the rendezvous of marksmen. Being a serious concern, archery, and subsequently all manner of shooting, was put under the spiritual charge of St. Sebastian. It is very sporting of this saint to have accepted this honorary office. Here again, on this island, you may dine and drink and listen to good music. You may also shoot at glass balls with an air-gun. Ichabod!

* * * * *

Wherever there is a good navigable river, there you have many occasions for excursions. Steamers of all sizes, painted in the national colours of Bohemia, white and red, ply up and down the Vltava. In fact, from Prague, now that all the locks are completed, you may travel down the Vltava to the Elbe and right away to New York by water if you will—change at Hamburg.

There are walks and excursions within easy reach of the centre of the city. You take a tram—it is quite worth it, and is comparatively easy on a Sunday afternoon to anyone who has played "forward" in a "rugger" team. When buying a tram-ticket always make a sound like "pshesses" at the conductor. He will not mind it in the least; in fact, he will take special pains about punching your ticket, which, by virtue of the strange noise you made, enables you to change into another tram. The tram takes you to the outskirts, where you may start walking or just sink into a beer-garden, according to your degree of physical fitness after the journey. You will be pleased to hear that the edict of King John anent no drinks within two miles of the city has been withdrawn, so you may settle down in the Stromovka or the Kinsky Garden for the afternoon. This latter garden, by the way, is one of the most attractive features of Prague. One of the Kinskys sold it to the town, which makes the best use of it and keeps it in good order for the benefit of the public. You will also do well to visit that little chateau place which you will see on entering the garden. In it you will find a delectable collection of old Bohemian and Moravian costumes, furniture and household goods which will help you to realize how and why these people cling so tenaciously to all that pertains to their race.

Touching the Kinsky Garden is another one, also beautiful, called Nebozizek. These gardens are separated by a wall that descends from the top of the height down to the street below, the "Famine Wall" it is called, for a thoughtful King of Bohemia, Charles IV again, caused it to be built in order to provide work during a lean year some centuries ago. A gap in the Famine Wall, which you reach by shady winding ways, gives you a glorious and unexpected view of the Hradšany; the winding ways lead you up to the summit of the Petřin, as this height is called, where you may find an outlook tower, a church, a diorama showing a scene from the Thirty Years' War, and a beer-garden—so entertainment is provided for all tastes. There is a way down from the top of Petřin shaded by chestnut-trees, its stages marked by fourteen chapels, the Stations of the Cross, until it narrows in between garden walls over which you see Strahov and the Hradšany rising in graceful dignity out of a maze of red-tiled roofs and foliage.

Then you may wander on past Strahov and over open rolling country to the battlefield of the White Mountain and to the Star, those places of tragic memory in the history of Bohemia. It is usual to speak slightingly of the immediate environment of Prague as being uninteresting and indeed unlovely; I protest strongly against this, and that because I have traversed the fields and lanes on foot, not dashing through the landscape in a motor-car, and therefore claim to have seen the scenery round about the capital. The citizens of Prague seem to be of my way of thinking, to judge by the numbers that set out on Sundays to the heights that encompass the town on its western side. The good people of Prague enjoy their Sunday beer in the Star Park Restaurant, and take their walks abroad among the pleasant valleys that run down to the river on its left bank. From the plateau of the White Mountain you may find your way into one of these pleasant valleys, that of the Šarka. You enter it by a narrow rocky gorge, and as it has a distinctly romantic look, legend has fastened on to it and echoes a tale of Bohemian Amazons led by a lady of the name of Šarka, who was discontented with the dominance of mere man. The legend is somewhat obscure, but as the Bohemians, like other people, prefer a happy ending to their stories (they have till recently known but few in their own history), we may take it that the Amazonian ladies arrived at the natural issue out of their troubles. Amongst these rocks is an open-air theatre where concerts are given; here one glorious Sunday afternoon in autumn I was once again privileged to hear Kubelik play.

The Šarka brook trips along gaily towards the Vltava under overhanging rocks, by wooded slopes and fresh meadows. It tries to be useful in driving the "Devil's Mill"; that sinister personage seems to have started quite a number of such concerns in Bohemia. It is a pleasant little place, tucked away among rocks and trees, and its chief business appears to be the supplying of refreshments. Of the occasional rocks that jut out above the trees, one claims to be the jumping-off place of a Prague damsel who was tired of life; such places are pretty frequent in all scenery with any pretence to romance. Given a rocky eminence, you will always find that somebody or other has leapt therefrom and thus given it a name, the "Maiden's Leap" or the "Knight's Leap." It is obvious, for instance, that the Vyšehrad, the rocky eminence on which stood the first castle of Bohemia's rulers before ever Prague was built, should have a jumping-off story. A knight was imprisoned in the Vyšehrad Castle; he asked leave to ride round the castle, for change of air no doubt, when suddenly he wheeled about, put his horse at the river and leapt—of course he got safely away. Let us hope that the damsel of Prague who leapt into the Šarka Valley also fell soft and got away.

These little valleys that lead down to the river are all the more delightful as you seem to come upon them by surprise. The general aspect of the high ground above the river is that of a highly cultivated undulating country with prim and rather uninteresting-looking clusters of white-washed cottages gathered round the church-tower with its quaint bulbous top-hamper which, to my thinking, recalls the Dresden china Zwiebel Muster of one's youth, but is really supposed to be due to eastern influence. Again, from the river you see wooded slopes, cherry orchards and factory chimneys. But turning down towards the river you suddenly come upon a jolly little tinkling brook, falling over rocks that peep out of gorse bushes, winding about among lush meadows where geese chatter contentedly, and seem so far remote from broad acres under waving corn that you get the "wind on the heath" all to yourself, and feel yet farther removed from smoking factories. And even these latter blend with the landscape in a manner which English factories can never acquire. They are tucked away in cosy little valleys, and even in large groups do not disturb the harmony of the landscape. They also seem an expression of the national character, steady and hardworking, yet capable of fitting in completely with the joyous beauty kindly Nature spreads all about.

* * * * *

Within easy reach of Prague, with its hundred towers, are many historic places, landmarks in the story of Bohemia. Foremost among these is the Castle of Karlov Tyn. It stands on a rocky spur in a wooded valley, between four hills. You catch a sudden and fleeting glimpse of it as you approach Prague from Paris by the line that runs along the winding River Berounka. If you are blessed with the healthy curiosity of the traveller in foreign parts, you will insist on a closer inspection of this lordly castle. It looks new; this is the result of well-meant restoration undertaken some years ago; it is really of great and historic antiquity.

Charles IV, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and first Bohemian King of that name, began the building of this castle in 1348 as a fitting casket for the Crown jewels and the charter of the land he loved. During the reign of subsequent Kings of Bohemia, this castle, though it passed through many of the vicissitudes peculiar to mediaeval history, kept up its traditional importance in the land. It was besieged by the Hussites in 1422, and parts of it were burnt down and allowed to go to ruin. Over a century later it was restored, but suffered eclipse after the Thirty Years' War, was even in pawn for several years, and did not quite retrieve its fallen fortunes until after the coup d'etat of 1918. The deeds by which the two leading patron saints of Bohemia gained sanctity are set forth in quite well-preserved frescoes.

IVOKLAT CASTLE.]

While on the subject of castles—and you must forgive me for rambling,—I should like to tell you about another one that stands some little way farther up the valley of the Berounka, tucked away out of sight of the railway. The history of this Castle of Křivoklat dates yet farther back than that of Karlov Tyn, for we read of its restoration in the twelfth century by Prince Vladislaus I, a scion of the House of Přemysl. Charles IV loved to live here, and restored the place for the first of his four wives, Blanche of Valois. Other guests more or less distinguished visited here, some of them involuntarily; these latter were generally lodged in the Huderka Tower suitably fitted with oubliettes. Among these guests were two already mentioned, a leading religious light, John Augusta, Bishop of the Bohemian Brethren, and another less certain light, Kelly, the Irish alchemist. "Irish alchemist" has rather a racy flavour; the idea of an Irishman engaged in such pursuit suggests endless ingenuous possibilities. With Kelly was also the Englishman, Dr. John Dee, who was in like condemnation. No doubt the two were a precious pair of rogues, but King Rudolph II had asked for trouble by encouraging alchemists from all over Europe to visit him in Prague. The present-day compeers of Dee and Kelly are no doubt the self-constituted experts on politics, finance, commerce and other questions which puzzle international commissions, conferences and such-like amenities of our times. Anyway, Dr. Dee and Mr. Kelly failed to give satisfaction, and so were incarcerated at Křivoklat. A charming place it must have been when the forests were denser and shy deer tripped down to the water's edge of an evening. Charming it is still with its haunting memories that seem to linger more fondly than at Karlov Tyn, perhaps because the modern renovator has not been so busy here. The quaint old corners still have an old-world, homely look which the renovator invariably destroys. Despite the trees that add deep shadows to the sombre masonry, you may yet call up visions of knights tilting in the uneven overgrown courtyard while fair ladies looked on from a balcony specially added for the purpose, and in such manner as to produce a very quaint effect of perspective. You may yet imagine yourself as one of a reverent crowd listening awestruck to bold utterance of religious truths from a Bohemian preacher in that beautiful pulpit of carved stone which still adorns the gateway that leads to the inner court. And if you have the gift of placing yourself back among those earnest seekers after truth who lived in and suffered for their faith, you will draw nearer to the real spirit of the sons of Bohemia.

And this reflection leads to yet another historic spot within easy reach of Prague, Tabor. This is a pleasant little town some two hours by rail from the capital. Seen from the railway as it stands on a gentle rise, its tall church-tower and red roofs reflected in the waters of a winding lake, it looks what it is now, a very peaceful spot. But if you go about its narrow streets you come upon many relics of the town's eventful past. It comes as a surprise to find that the side towards the south, towards Austria, descends precipitously to the River Losnice, a striking contrast to the placid lake which first greeted you. This lake was called Jordan, the city Tabor, by those who, following the teaching of Hus, ordered their lives and thoughts by Holy Writ. The Hussites under their leader Žižka, one of the ablest generals of all time, had decided to build them a city and fixed upon this site for the sake of its undoubted strategic value and its capacity for defence.

Tabor, however, takes me rather too far afield; I mentioned it for the benefit of those who study archaeology; these will find interesting instances of Bohemia's fifteenth-century architecture in this the stronghold of Žižka and the followers of Hus.

* * * * *



In these my reflections on things seen and noted from "a Terrace in Prague" I have endeavoured to arouse your interest in this grand old city. I have pointed out to you from the terrace of my choice monuments to a glorious past, to a glowing vital history of this the capital of an ancient realm. I leave it now to you to fill in the gaps I have left, either purposely—for I want you to come here and see for yourself—or inadvertently; and I have already admitted my limited knowledge of a great subject. So come out here and choose your point of view, and carry on the reflections I have started; there is endless scope. As Luetzow says: "When throwing a stone through a window in Prague you throw with it a morsel of history." This is not meant to encourage stone-throwing, a practice that meets with little appreciation here. What is meant is that there is a vast field lying before you, as you look out over the city, a field which will render you good returns for any attempt you make to cultivate it. If your outlook be academic, at your feet lies one of Europe's oldest universities; if your interests turn to architecture, this little work alone should give you some idea of the wealth of material lying here to your hand. If you are one of those rare mortals who study history for the sake of applying its moral to the conduct of the world's affairs, then you have here a deep well from which to draw inspiration. Look at those figures that rise above the heads of their fellows in the shadowy pageant of Bohemia's capital, at those whose vision carried well beyond the narrow frontiers of their country and the limitations of their age. Ottokar II and Charles IV, George Podiebrad and Waldstein, all these saw the inner meaning of Libuša's prophecy: "I see a grand city, the fame of which reaches to the skies."

Libuša's prophecy has been fulfilled, her forecast of Prague's place in the world has come true. In the days of Ottokar II, Prague held high place as a capital of a great State. Charles IV rescued this city that he loved, and made of it the rallying point of Central European culture. King George Podiebrad felt the high importance of this his native country's capital, and from it he wove his web of treaties and agreements for the betterment of Central Europe by means of his League of Peace. Dark Waldstein had formed great and ambitious plans, possibly not so altruistic as those of his spiritual kinsmen, the great men mentioned above. You have seen how one after another these giants of Bohemia saw their plans brought to nought. Ottokar II succumbed to the first Habsburger that threw his shadow over Bohemia. The successors of Charles and George Podiebrad could not stand up against the forces of reaction that beat down Bohemia's efforts towards finding herself and taking her rightful place in the comity of nations. Of Waldstein's plans and ambitions there are only dark traces, obscure indications; he, a man of penetrating vision, must have realized the possibilities of his country, and must have been bent on securing for it the place it is entitled to. But he in his turn perished at the instigation of a Habsburger. And so we see the searching light of greatness light up the city from time to time, and in almost regular intervals of a century at a time; then came heavy banks of cloud to obscure the fair prospect. The clouds have rolled away again; again bright sunshine draws out the memories of Golden Prague and raises hopes of a glorious future. This time the fate of Prague and the land and people she stands for does not depend upon dynastic considerations nor the will or vision of one ruler or another. The destinies of Prague are in the hands of a sovereign people; it is theirs to make or mar them.

Here is matter for deep study, such as will in time justify prediction. Mark also well the signs of the times as you look out over Prague, and note whether the spirit of the great departed has not returned to inform the people of Bohemia and of the lands that make up the Succession State of the old Austrian Empire, the Republic of Czecho-Slovakia.

If I have succeeded in arousing your interest, my task is completed; it is then for you to take up the tale—"From a Terrace in Prague."



INDEX

Aaron, 113

Abbeville, 150

Adalbert, Bishop, 84, 92, 141, 161, 237

Adela of Austria, 118

Adolph of Nassau, 132

Adrian I, Pope, 161

Adriatic, 119

AEneas Silvius (see Pope Pius II), 27

AEthelstan, King of England, 76

Aix-la-Chapelle, 76, 159

Albrecht of Habsburg, 132, 133

Alexander Borgia, Pope, 209

Alexander III, Pope, 126

All Saints' Church, 93

Amarapura, 24

Andrew, Bishop, 108, 109

Anne of Bohemia, 176, 177, 185

Arabia, 28

Arkona, 97

Arles, 151

Arnold, 213

Arnulf, German King, 65, 74

Arpad, 74

Arras, Matthew of, 153, 159

Arthur, King of Britain, 136

Aube, 39

Augsburg, 82

Austria, 21, 117, 118, 132, 143, 251

Avari, 26

Avignon, 143, 144, 151, 153

Babenberg, 118

Baikal, Lake, 117

Bale, 219

Baltic, 119

Bas Schevi von Treunberg, 114

Bavaria, 16, 22, 53, 134, 156, 199

Beatrice of Bourbon, 139

Bechyn, Tobias of, 133

Bela, King of Hungary, 118, 119

Belfort, 39

Belna, 55

Benedictines, 142

Beneš of Loun, 153

Beneš of Weitmil, 150

Berlin, 18

Berounka, 16, 23, 164, 171, 248, 249

Blanche Taque, 149

Blanche of Valois, 139, 249

Boievari, 16, 134

Boleslav I, 66, 67, 71, 78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 97, 240, 242

Boleslav II, 83, 84, 85, 89, 159

Boleslav III, 90

Boleslav the Brave, 83, 89, 90, 91

Boleslav, Towns Old and Young, 80, 152, 240

Bologna, 100, 168

Bořivoj, 63-66, 161

Božena, 90, 91

Brahe, Tycho de, 100, 114, 206, 228

Breslau, 40, 83

Břetislav I, 91, 92, 94, 97

Břetislav II, 96, 97

Brezova, Lawrence of, 155

Britons, 23, 241

Brno, 18

Brown, Field-Marshal, Count, 241

Brusnice, 57

Brunswick, 22

Bruex, 109

Buiarnum, 112

Bulgars, 119

Burgundy, 151

Burma, 24, 25

Byzantium, 24

Cantacuzene, 24

Carinthia, John Henry of, 143

Carlsbad, 23, 151

Carlyle, 133, 134, 137

Caro, Abigdor, Rabbi, 114

Carolingian, 65

Casimir of Poland, 145

Celts, 16, 39, 40, 134

Ceylon, 25

Charlemagne, 18, 19, 26, 65, 73, 75, 76, 159, 210

Charles IV, Emperor, 121, 137-145, 149-160, 163, 164, 167, 168, 170, 172-175, 179, 180, 193, 195, 205, 217-220, 237, 239, 240, 244, 246, 249, 253

Charles V, Emperor, 226, 231

Charles the Simple, of France, 76

Chateau Thierry, 22

Cheb, 16, 23, 26, 98, 164, 239

Chlodovech, King of the Franks, 163

Clarissa, Order of, 109

Clement VI, Pope, 142

Clerval, Massieu de, 27

Cluny, 96, 99, 100

Conrad III, Emperor, 98

Conradin, 22, 108

Constance, 182, 185, 203

Constance of Hungary, 109

Constantine the Great, 15

Constantine Porphyrogenitus, 76

Constantinople, 15, 24, 76, 99, 218

Cornwall, Richard of, 109, 118, 119, 150

Cosmas of Prague, 25-27, 54, 57, 63

Cranach, Lucas, 154

Crawford, Marion, 180

Crecy, 136, 140, 144, 149, 150

Czechus, 53, 64

Dacio, 99

Dagobert, 26

Dalibor, Daliborka, 121, 122, 123

Dalimil, 91

Danes, 73, 74

Danube, 16, 40, 53, 210

David, 15

Dee, Dr. John, 228, 249

Dienzenhofer, 159, 222

Dragomira, 66, 72, 77

Dresden, 20

Dubravka, 83, 90

Duerer, 102

Dvořak, 211

Edinburgh, 200

Edward, Black Prince, 136, 145

Edward III of England, 135, 145, 150

Edward VII of England, 23

Eger, see Cheb

Eggenburg, 21

Elbe, 18, 20, 80, 245

Emanuel, Emperor, 99

Emaus, 78, 92, 94, 140, 141, 142, 173

England, 73, 100, 109, 117, 118, 140, 150, 181, 195, 204, 218

Ernest of Pardubic, Bishop, 144, 167

Falckenstein, Zavis of, 124

Faust, Dr., 208

Felix III, Pope, 161

Ferdinand, Archduke, 45, 225, 226

Ferdinand I, Emperor, 154

Ferdinand II, Emperor, 240

Ferdinand III, Emperor, 142, 156, 237, 239

Fidlovatchka, 46, 47, 242

Fischer, Peter, 154

Flemings, 39

France, 39, 136, 150, 151, 220

Francis I of France, 225

Franconia, 22

Franks, 18, 26, 134

Frederick Barbarossa, 23, 99, 107, 110, 117

Frederick, Count Palatine, 154, 156, 187, 188, 230, 231

Frederick, Duke of Austria, 118

Frederick the Fair, of Austria, 143

Frederick the Great of Prussia, 52, 101, 156, 159, 241

Fuerstenberg, 60

Galileo, Galilei, 114

Gans, David, 114

Gauls, 39

Gebhard, Bishop, 185

George Podiebrad, 154-157, 186, 207, 209, 218, 221, 236, 239, 253

Germans, 58, 65, 95, 111, 198, 199, 200

Ghibelline, Waiblingen, 22

Gibraltar, 60

Gindeley, 232

Gnesen, 92, 125

Golden Bull, 157, 179

Gothic, 62, 93, 114, 127, 142, 158, 185, 207, 224

Gregory VII, Pope, 94

Gregory XII, Pope, 229

Gregory of Tours, 163

Guido, Cardinal, 98, 99

Guelf, Welf, 22

Habsburg, 21, 101, 114, 119-121, 124, 125, 131, 132, 134, 136, 154, 156, 175, 186, 187, 194, 199-210, 218, 221, 223, 225

Hajek, 100

Hamilton, Sir William and Lady, 102

Hanover, 134

Harrachove, 85

Henri IV of France, 194

Henry and Kunigunde, Saints, 158

Henry of Carinthia, 133, 135, 137

Henry of Luxemburg, 133

Henry the Fowler, 66, 76, 77, 84, 162

Henry II, German King, 90

Henry III, Emperor, 91

Henry IV, Emperor, 94

Henry VI, Emperor, 108

Hohenburg on Unstrutt, 94

Hohenstaufen, 108

Holstein, 74

Holy Cross, Chapel, 94

Hradešin, 58

Hradšany, 52, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 63, 72, 78, 84, 93, 94, 96, 110, 121, 131, 135, 144, 152, 154, 159, 171, 194, 195, 217, 224, 226, 227, 229, 235, 246

Humbolt, Alexander von, 27

Hungarians, 74-76, 94, 121, 146

Hungary, 26, 109, 117, 125, 136, 144, 210, 218

Hus, John, 48, 182-185, 188, 202-204, 218, 232, 251

Hussites, 142, 154, 155, 159, 185, 198, 199, 218, 243, 249, 251

Ibrahim Ibn Jacub, 28, 84, 85, 112

Innocent III, Pope, 108

Innsbruck, 137

Irish Monks, 126, 210

Irrawaddy, 25

Isabella of England, 109

Italy, 136-138, 149, 151, 204, 230

Jacobelius, 236

Jagoilla, dynasty, 225

James I of England, 154, 188

Jaromir, 90

Jeřabek, Dr., 113

Jerusalem, 15

Jesuits, 38, 53, 182, 187, 188, 194, 195, 222, 236, 239

Jilove, 58

Joan of Arc, 181

John, King of Bohemia, 45, 131, 135-145, 150-153, 173, 205, 245

John, King of England, 109, 118

John, of Jenstein, 181

John VIII, Pope, 161

Jordan, 21, 251

Josefor, 113

Joseph, Emperor, 47

Judith, Queen, 93, 94, 127, 168, 180

Juggernaut, 34

Jungmann, 194, 213

Kalina, 213

Karlov Tyn, Karlstein, 66, 164, 248-250

Kazi, 55

Keppler, 114, 206, 228

Kiev, 83, 119

Kinsky, 44, 245, 246

Klee, Dr. John, 240

Kolin, 242

Koenigsberg, 118

Koenigsmark, 240

Kossovo, 201

Kostelec, 58

Kralove Hradec, Koeniggraetz, 135

Kressenbrunn, 119

Křivoklat, 249, 250

Krok, 55, 56

Kroměřiže, Milič of, 174, 179, 206

Kubelik, 247

Kulm, 97

Kutna Hora, 124, 217, 218

Labe, see Elbe

Ladislas Posthumus, 154, 218, 225

Latins, 39

Lechfeld, 82

Lehel, 82

Leipzig, 218

Lemberg, 83

Leo, Pope, 76

Leopold, Archduke of Austria, 194

Leopold, Duke of Austria, 117

Lepanto, 229

Letna, 44, 94, 171, 214

Levy Hradec, 64

Libuša, 53-57, 59-61, 93, 100, 110, 112, 121, 125, 239, 253

Lichtenberg, Ulrich of, 133

Liegnitz, 117

Lion of Bohemia, 62, 117

Lisbon, 15

Lithuanians, 136, 143, 144

Loew, Jehuda ben Bezalel, Rabbi, 115

Lombards, 53, 151

London, 24, 206

Lothair, Emperor, 97-98

Louis of Brandenburg, 143

Louis, Duke of Bavaria, 136

Louis, German King, 144, 145, 150

Louis VII, King of France, 99

Louis IX, King of France, 219

Ludmilla, 63, 66, 71, 77, 84, 109, 161, 237, 240

Luther, 226

Luetzow, Count, 26, 27, 79, 82, 119, 136, 144, 182, 220, 252

Luxemburg, 38, 41, 131-134, 137, 138, 140-143, 153

Maintz, Archbishop of, 84, 109, 144

Mandalay, 24, 58

Marcus Aurelius, 40, 189

Margaret Maultasche, 137, 143

Maria Theresia, 156, 241

Marienbad, 23

Marne, 39

Mastino della Scala, 137

Matthias, Emperor, 227, 230

Maximilian I, Emperor, 45, 154

Maximilian II, Emperor, 226

Mecklenburg, 134

Medigo de Candia, Solomon, 114

Melantrich, 207

Michael Angelo, 38

Mieceslav, 83

Milada, 84, 159, 161

Milan, 99, 100, 151

Milton, 194

Mnata, 63, 198, 199, 221

Montmartre, 52

Montparnasse, 52

Morava, 40

Moravia, 53, 63, 65, 74, 82, 83, 91, 98, 108, 117, 118, 133, 140, 143, 198, 199, 221

Mozart, 212, 224

Muehldorf, 136, 143

Nachod, 22, 242

Nancy, 22

Naples, 108

Narodni Třida, 90, 139

Nebozizek, 44, 246

Nelson, 102

Nepomuk, John, 181-184, 237

Neruda, John, 224

Norsemen, 39

Nuremberg, 22

Nusle, 46, 47

Ofen, Buda, 125

Oise, 39

Olomouc, Olmuetz, 62

Oppenheim, Rabbi, 114

Otto of Brandenburg, 124

Otto of Brunswick, 108

Ottokar I, Přemysl, 107, 108, 110

Ottokar II, Přemysl, 108, 109, 114, 118-121, 124-127, 132, 145, 239

Oxford, 168

Palacky, 27, 82, 133, 136, 220

Paleologue, 24

Palestrina, 126

Paris, 15, 21, 22, 24, 39, 40, 52, 76, 134, 139, 145, 164, 168, 248

Parler, John and Peter, 153, 207

Pergolesi, 43

Petřin, 57, 100, 103, 246

Philip of Suabia, 109

Pilsen, 16, 18

Pincio, 37

Pius II, Pope, 27

Poland, 83, 90-92, 125, 144-209, 219, 220, 224

Poles, 117

Přemysl, 55-57, 62, 63, 66, 98, 107, 108, 111, 125, 133

Prussia, Duke of, 45

Prussians, 75, 84, 118, 134, 242

Rabindranath Thagore, 212

Racusani, 100

Radecky, 223

Ratisbon, 65, 107, 126

Rhone, 39

Richard II, King of England, 176, 185

Richtenthal, 157

Riegrovy, 44

Řip, 54, 161

Rodin, 27, 37, 38

Romans, 40

Rome, 16, 24, 37, 38, 52, 74, 95, 109, 151, 157, 182, 199, 203, 209, 218, 219, 220, 236

Rostock, 18

Roumania, 219

Rudolph I, 120, 132

Rudolph II, 194, 227-230

Ruegen, 97, 162

Rugevit, 97

Rugians, 53

Russia, Russians, 112, 117, 119

St. Agnes, 109, 110

St. Anthony, 84, 157

St. Boniface, 210

St. Cletus, 126

Saints Cosmas and Damian, 79, 94, 140, 161

St. Cyriak, 126

St. George, 54, 83, 93, 96, 159, 227, 237

St. Hedwig, 109

St. Henry, 43

St. Hieronymus, 141

St. Longinus, 94, 160

St. Martin, 94, 213, 236

St. Methodius, 63, 65, 141, 161

St. Nicholas, 101, 223

St. Patrick, 126

St. Procopius, 60, 141

St. Remy, 149

St. Rufus, 124, 145

St. Sigismund, 163

St. Thomas, 101, 239, 240

St. Thomas a Becket, 204

St. Vitus, 72, 77, 144, 152, 156, 162, 163

Salonika, 161

Samo the Frank, 26, 239

Saone, 39

Saracens, 74-76

Šarka, 44, 247

Saville, Sir Thomas, 100

Saxons, 18, 19, 94, 134, 155, 240

Saxony, 47, 162, 199

Schiller, 230

Scots, 73, 126, 187

Seine, 39

Serbs, 119, 201

Shakespeare, 199

Sigismund, Emperor, 155, 185, 186, 217, 218

Silesia, 83, 117

Šlik, Count, 232

Slovakia, 83

Smetana, 57, 122, 171, 211

Smichov, 35, 93

Soběslav, 97

Somme, 150

Spira, Aaron, 115

Spytihnev, 65, 74, 153

Stadic, 55, 133

Star, the, 43

Staronova, Škola, 113

Stephen I, King of Hungary, 91

Stephen III, King of Hungary, 99

Stěrboholy, 241

Stettin, 18, 40

Strahov, 100-103, 154, 246

Strasbourg, 22

Strelitz, 18

Stromovka, 44, 45, 242

Strzezislava, 63

Stuttgart, 22

Styria, 118

Susanna, 178

Svantovit, 97

Svatopluk of Moravia, 63, 65

Swedes, 100, 116, 117, 239, 240

Tabor, 21, 251

Tagus, 15

Tartars, 117

Teplitz, 97

Teta, 55

Teutons, 19, 20, 75, 200

Thebaw, 25

Thietmar, Bishop, 84

Thuringians, 53

Thurn, Count, 194

Tilly, 237

Tomek, 27

Turks, 218

Tyn Church, 94, 201, 205-207, 232, 236, 242

Tyrol, 143

Ulrich, Přemysl, 90, 91

Urban VI, Pope, 185

Utraquists, 142, 195, 209

Vaclav, see Wenceslaus

Vaclavske Naměsti, 72, 139, 160

Venetia, 157

Venice, 219

Verona, 137, 203

Vienna, 21, 126, 171, 236, 241

Vikings, 75, 76

Viollet-le-Duc, 27

Vladislav I, 249

Vladislav II, 99-101, 107, 158, 209, 220, 221-226

Vladivoj, 89

Vltava, 16, 18, 25, 44, 52, 57, 58, 84, 85, 93, 170, 171, 173, 180, 185-187, 244-246

Vratislav I, 65, 74, 84, 85

Vratislav II, 94-96

Vyšehrad, 26, 46, 52-57, 83, 93, 110, 121, 158, 168, 174

Waldhauser, Conrad, 174, 179, 206

Waldstein, Wallenstein, 237-239, 244, 253

Wallachians, 119

Watson, Dr. R. Seton, 134, 202

Wenceslaus I, King of Bohemia, 110, 111, 114, 121

Wenceslaus II, King of Bohemia, 117, 118, 121, 124, 125, 131-133, 141

Wenceslaus III, King of Bohemia, 62

Wenceslaus IV, King of Bohemia, 41, 72, 175-185, 195, 206, 208, 209, 244

Wenceslaus, Saint and Prince of Bohemia, 62, 66, 67, 71-80, 83, 84, 93, 109, 140, 152-154, 161-163, 213, 237, 238, 242

Weston, Elizabeth, 101, 239

Wettin, 20, 21

White Mountain, 127, 154, 156, 182, 198, 199, 230, 232, 235, 238, 246

Wilson, President U.S.A., 208

Wiprecht of Groitch, 95

Wittekind, 18

Wittelsbach, 136, 143

Wogastisburg, 26

Wun Thu, 25

Wuertemberg, 22

Wycliffe, 185, 198

Yonne, 39

Zamek, 44

Zbraslav, 58

Zderad, 96

Zion, 15

Žiška, 16, 155, 232, 251

Znoymo, Conrad of, 100

THE END

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