Enters the Serra da Estrella and says:
Joy that shakes and wakes the hill, The mighty mountain-range of me, Will increase the swelling sea And the sky with singing fill 5 Till Castilla dance in glee. And in this hour it is my will That the whole of me, no less, To Coimbra as a shepherdess, A Beira peasant-girl, shall come, 10 Since in Beira is my home. With me thither they who are mine, The hill-girls of nut-brown tresses, Each with her lover shall repair, Yea and all the shepherdesses 15 Who flocks upon my pastures keep. And the choicest of the kine And of the merino sheep, That I may have to offer there A present to our Queen of Queens 20 Who is fairest of the fair. Mistress she of broad demesnes Came unto our mountain land And among the hills hath she Borne a new princess of Spain 25 That we give to her again, Even a rose imperial As the most high Isabel, An image of Gabriel For the repose of Portugal, 30 Its precious ward and canopy. So clearly is God's purpose planned.
Fool. Good faith, no, not a whit he knows But the Virgin Mary knows. But he unto no good inclines 35 And only serves to burn the vines.
Serra. What a thing for thee to say!
Fool. Who? God? why, now, I swear to God That He must always have His way. For I was at Coimbra, I, 40 At the time this very queen In the palace bore a daughter: I will tell you all about it. This same queen, and may God bless her, The queen herself was in the palace, 45 For, you know, on such occasions She is rarely seen outside it. And the Lady of the Bedchamber, For she's from Castille, they say At this very time began to pray 50 A girl, not a boy, be given her. (Even here, see, goes our way) And would you know the reason why? The Empress had just before Given birth unto an Emperor, 55 And they will marry by and by. 'Twas different with my mother, she Cared not whether it might be A boy or eke a girl by chance But unto the Virgin Mary 60 Prayed she for deliverance.
Enter Gonçalo, a shepherd of the Serra, who comes from the Court, singing:
Flying, the magpie has flown away, O that 'twere brought to me again: In yonder covert 'Twas mine at will, 65 With its dark-brown eyes And its golden bill. O that 'twere brought to me again! By Heaven in fine trim to-day Our Serra is and all aglow!
70 S. Come, Gonçalo, come away, For I minded am to go, Leaving these my haunts straightway, Gathering you all together Forthwith and without delay 75 That we may all journey thither A visit to our queen to pay If God assist us on our way.
G. I am now come even thence And from all that I could tell 80 Our going thither will be well, Aye, 'twill be no vain pretence, For the child of royal line, The princess that has now had birth Seems, they say, a thing divine, 85 A star that ceases not to shine Though it has appeared on earth.
S. I'll tell thee how it is, I ween: Her birth is in a hill-country, Of a king fairest to be seen 90 Of all that are upon the earth And of a most lovely queen. And she is born in a city Which will bless her and blest has been And of great authority. 95 On lucky day too was she born, Of Mars, the god of victory, And the winds that very morn Brought rain needed instantly For the birth of grass and corn.
100 Fool. Sometimes God, it is a fact, Sometimes, I say, God doth act All upside down, as one might say. For unless I'm much mistaken Mondego will be in flood 105 And all the wine from the casks be taken: Could a demon do less good? For He so brings it about That the aldermen grow stout And like dry sticks girls wither away, 110 Purple the friars wax and red, Yellow and jaundiced are the lay, And lusty they whose youth is fled While the young grow weak and grey And for nothing doth He care. 115 At Coimbra when for oats they pray Of mussels enough and e'en to spare And fish likewise He sends straightway.
G. Serra, if you would fain go With shepherds and with shepherdesses 120 First their loves of long ago Must mutual agreement show That as yet no ending blesses. And for my part willingly Would I Madanela wed, 125 That design is in my head But I know not if she'll agree.
Enter Felipa, a shepherdess of the Serra, singing:
Two falcons to follow me have I, But one of them of love shall die. Two falcons had I, and the twain 130 Are here with me, being of love's train, But one of them of love shall die.
F. Gonçalo, hast thou seen my sheep, Tell me hast thou seen them now?
G. From the town I am just returned and trow 135 That I for thee thy flocks must keep.
F. Well, thou hast been married here: They only for thy coming stay.
G. What, married ere I can appear? Then am I in a pretty way.
140 F. Nay thou must marry on thy return And must go and live with her Unless Madanela thou wouldst prefer.
G. From the game's chance aside I turn.
F. Wouldst thou the best of them all thus spurn?
145 G. Is it, is it Alvarenga?
F. No, but Catherine Meigengra.
G. In evil fire would I rather burn. Of Meigengra is no question here: The greatest slattern, I assert, 150 Is she and if unsewn her skirt Not a stitch will it get from her, And though she covered be with dirt Yet will she never comb her hair, And at the merest word will she 155 Be vanquished of laughter utterly. She sweeps and lets the sweepings lie, She eats and will never wash the dishes, Her uncle beats her hourly, So laxly doth she flout his wishes. 160 Madanela's the apple of my eye. And there is no more to be said But tell Meigengra presently To reckon on another head.
F. Thy father has given his hand, thus clinching 165 The matter beyond any flinching.
G. To give her my foot would I be willing As if she were a melon's rind, But as for me, my heart and mind With love of Madanela are thrilling.
170 F. Yet richer Meigengra thou'lt find, For Madanela has not a shilling.
G. A curse upon money, say I, Which only brings me fresh distress: A single hour of happiness 175 'S worth all the gold beneath the sky. God give me but the girl I love Or deprive me of life's breath, And my marriage be with death If to her I faithless prove.
180 F. Well, I must go instantly After my flocks and see how they fare.
G. And I to my father will repair And find out how this thing may be.
Enter Catherina Meigengra, singing:
Lofty the mountain-height, 185 But stronger is love's might, Could he but hear!
F. Whither, Meigengra, sister, away?
C. 'Tis the heifer I go to seek, Hast thou seen it here, I pray?
190 F. I have not seen it all this week. But Gonçalo is just gone hence, Even from the Court came he And I gave him great offence When I spoke to him of thee, 195 As if thou wert a pestilence, Such disaffection hast thou won.
C. And by my life I'm glad of it For, sister, I have lost my wit For Ferdinand, my uncle's son. 200 If I do not marry him I will surely die of love. But Gonçalo can only move My thoughts, yes even in a dream, To distaste and weariness.
205 F. If for him thou dost not care He for thee cares even less.
C. Bad luck to him through all the land If to think of me he dare. But if Heaven only planned 210 My marriage with Ferdinand Death to me that day welcome were, Joy's victim, not of this distress. O Ferdinand, my uncle's son, For thee was all this love begun!
215 F. This your love, your Ferdinand, Secretly offered me his hand.
C. Was that long ago, I pray?
F. It was but on last Saturday.
C. What a villain then is he, 220 And men how full of all deceits, For he these last three years repeats That he's distraught for love of me. Felipa, dost thou speak in jest? I think indeed thou triflest, 225 But if with words thou wouldest play, Do not play upon my heart Since no jest is in the smart.
F. He came to me in the heat of the day, To the rock of the palm came he, 230 'Felipa, my life,' said he straightway, 'I am mad to marry thee.' And I say, say I to him: 'Go away and have a swim.'
C. Perhaps he was but mocking thee.
235 F. Nay I know what's mockery And because I said him No I could see his tears downflow.
C. Ill be the tears that are so shed, For with me also he will weep, 240 And the crops may be eaten by his sheep, He does not even turn his head.
F. Well, I must go up the hill, Perhaps my flock may be in sight.
C. Thou leavest me in a plight so ill 245 That I've forgotten mine outright. If one could but only know All the end in the beginning That one might have straightway so Knowledge that I now am winning!
Enter Ferdinand, singing:
250 With what eyes thou lookedst upon me That so fair I seemed to thee: How have other thoughts now won thee? Who has spoken ill of me?
C. Good Ferdinand, art thou here 255 To see Felipa, thy lady dear? But may thy coming even be Ill for thy flock and ill for thee.
F. Catherina, thus wouldst thou Deprive me of all power of speech? 260 Look straight at me, I beseech. But if thus thou changest now With lowering and angry brow, 'Who has spoken ill of me? With what eyes thou lookedst upon me?' etc.
265 C. Tell me, Ferdinand, I pray Why thou wouldest me betray? If Felipa is thy love, Why me thus with treachery prove?
F. By my life, thou'rt mocking me today.
270 C. O no, I jest not: didst not say That thou with her wouldst gladly wed?
F. 'Twas but for fun the words were said. In what I say will truth be found And believe no one else, I pray. 275 For as for me my life alway And soul and will in thee are bound.
C. With weeping since thy eyes were red Needs must be that thou lov'st her well.
F. I may have wept, I cannot tell, 280 But not for her my tears were shed. Felipa's not unlike thee, so At sight of her I thought of thee And fell to weeping bitterly At memory of all my woe. 285 And if she thought my tears did flow For her, how should I be to blame? For my love ever is the same On thee, thee only to bestow, And that it's thine well dost thou know.
290 C. How I hate thee, how I love thee, Ferdinand, were it mine to prove thee!
F. Now despair I utterly, Yes, I am most desperate, And good and ill come all too late. For thy father has married thee 295 To Gonçalo, and desolate I here remain, alone, deserted, Nothing of thee left to me But to be thus broken-hearted. And another's shalt thou be, 300 Taken to another place, And I, by the Devil's grace, Promise that I instantly Will a monk become: in fine So much of thee shall be mine 305 In imagination's play As was given me on that day When thine eyes began to shine.
C. Nay, but give me thy hand instead And I will say that I am wed.
310 F. Alas I have nothing now to give. My promise is already said That I will in a convent live.
C. How many perils mar the peace Of this gloomy sea of love, 315 From day to day they still increase And its tempests greater prove. If a monk then thou must be Husband mine will ne'er be seen: If a monk thou must be, for me 320 Thou leavest of necessity The fate of Dido, hapless queen.
F. Thou wilt find no sure escape With Gonçalo not to marry, For whatever plans thou shape 325 Thou wilt never round the cape And thy father the day will carry.
C. O deliver us from ill! May such never be my lot, For Gonçalo loves me not, 330 And Gonçalo I love less still. But there he comes, see, Ferdinand, Above there in the mountain pass, And Madanela goes before, She it is that he searches for.
335 F. Behind this hedge here we will stand And listen to them as they pass And we will see what's in his mind And if to thee he be inclined Or if thou art given o'er.
340 Enter Madanela, singing, and behind her Gonçalo:
When here below there's rain and snow What will it be on the mountain-height? On the hills of Coimbra 'twas snowing 345 and raining, What will it be on the mountain-height?
Gonçalo, what is your pretence?
G. Madanela, Madanela!
350 M. Go back at once, I say, go hence, Since thou hast so little sense.
G. Madanela, Madanela!
M. What another plague is here, What annoyance, by my soul! 355 What, wouldst thou now follow me?
G. I suppose I need not fear That thou shouldst eat me whole. But if me thou wouldest kill Because of this my love for thee 360 Not serious surely is thy will.
M. Gonçalo, go back, go back to thy plough, For all this is but vanity.
G. What reason canst thou give me now To refuse to marry me? 365 I shall have of wheat enow And thy life with me shall be As a goldfinch's free from toil. I will not have thee hoe the soil, I will not have thee work in the sun, 370 But thou shalt sit and take thy ease And by me all the work be done. Art thou willing, Madanela?
M. Gonçalo, go back, go back to thy plough, With none will I marry, I avow, 375 In the whole Serra da Estrella, In vain wilt thou persist and tease. Catalina is a very good girl And fair enough, though not a pearl, Comes of good stock and loves thee well, 380 And she is very sensible. Then take what's offered thee and so Shalt balm of thy desire know.
G. Nay, but I pray thee do not seek To teach my heart what way to go.
385 M. Go hence, if nonsense thou must speak.
G. I say I will not marry her.
M. And I will not marry thee. But yonder comes Rodrigo, see, After Felipa, and I aver 390 That not a fig for him cares she.
Enter Rodrigo, singing:
My love, let's be going, be going together, Be going together. Rodrigo and Felipa were crossing the river, My love, let's be going. 395 How is it, Felipa, with thee?
F. And what business is that of thine? Days past I've bidden thee thy chatter To thy father to confine.
R. But that, my dear, does not suit me.
400 F. And why drag me into the matter?
R. Felipa, turn thy eyes this way And give me that fair hand of thine.
F. Away, away with thee, I say, What art thou to me, in the name of evil?
405 R. So, Felipa, thou art here, I see.
F. Rodrigo, wouldst thou begin again? If ever there was feather-brain, But I would not be uncivil.
R. Would then that thou mightest be 410 Now less shrewish and unkind. Yet even that is to my mind, So charming art thou unto me So graceful and so fair to see.
F. Everyone should regulate 415 At reason's bidding his request, Thou my heart requirest But I cannot give thee that Nor listen to thee save in jest. And as to my marrying I wis, 420 Although I keep the sheep, withal An honoured judge my father is And by his side the rest are small, He's best related of them all. At Court too he's been many a day 425 And the king once spoke to him, to say: 'In the district of Monsarraz And Fronteira, Affonso Vaz, What is the price of wheat, I pray?' So that here to marry would be for me, 430 Rodrigo, to act unreasonably.
R. Shouldest thou a courtier marry What amusement unto me And consolation that would carry! For if as a country-lout he harry 435 Thee all day and for evermore, Would I, what though my heart should grieve, Rejoice, since, though I thee adore, Me thus contemptuously dost thou leave, And if he bid thee keep thy place 440 As being but of low degree: Since thou despisest such as me Thee shall the mighty then abase.
F. When I see a courtier fine With his velvet slippers, and 445 His viola in his hand, 'Tis all up with this heart of mine Nor can I his ways withstand.
R. Gonçalo, come help me now At the labour of my plough 450 And I'll help thee anon with thine. For as to the other 'twill be in fine When its fortune shall allow.
G. As for Madanela, I Have ceased at last my luck to try.
455 R. Ah! then the same thing it must be As with Felipa and me.
G. Yes, 'tis even so we stand.
R. And how is't with thee, Ferdinand?
F. I am in both smiles and frowns, 460 And a lover's life is planned In a maze of ups and downs.
Enters a hermit who says:
H. Shepherds, for love of God, on me Pray bestow your charity.
R. Rather him it now behoves 465 Charitable towards us to be And tie the knots of all our loves.
H. Marrying is in God's hand And from Him comes fortune too, For by His especial grace 470 All men fortune may embrace And good sense assists thereto. Place yourselves beneath His sway, Take not any thought to choose But receive what comes your way, 475 For these idle loves, I say, You'll in sure repentance lose. Your names, my daughters, here you leave; My sons, now each your lot receive: Behave yourselves in such a sort 480 That you your infinite thanks shall give To God, and to the King and Court.
The hermit takes from his sleeve three small written pieces of paper and gives them to the shepherds that each may take his lot, and Ferdinand says:
Rodrigo shall the first lot claim. We'll see now if he acts aright.
R. In the Virgin Mary's name 485 Read it, padre, for the same Brings to me my day or night.
The hermit reads the writing:
'By Fortune's and by God's command Whosoever draws this lot Shall to Felipa give his hand, 490 Shall do so and reason not.'
R. I have won the victory, Felipa, come hither to me, my dear.
F. Away with thee, away, dost hear, Thinkest thou this will profit thee? 495 Ne'er such a victory shalt thou see.
G. Draw thy lot now, Ferdinand, Let's see what for thee is planned.
F. Here goes then in the name of Heaven; Read, padre, what is written there.
The hermit reads:
500 'The sentence is already given And its substance doth declare That thou shalt Madanela wed.'
M. Well, Ferdinand, I do not care, If it must be so, no more be said.
505 F. Many a day hast thou heard that from me But thou e'er hadst me in disdain.
C. O Ferdinand, my uncle's swain, Would that I might marry thee!
G. O Madanela, if only now 510 We had come together, I and thou.
C. Rather might I straight expire Than that Ferdinand should stay there So remote from my desire. Yet I do not greatly care, 515 Since to thee I am inclined, Gonçalo.
G. And even so, Catalina, art thou to my mind, But come away that I may know What graces I in thee shall find.
520 F. Rodrigo, as I look upon thee I begin to grow content.
R. If to that I have not won thee By me no further prayers be spent. For while I have courted thee 525 Daily hast thou flouted me.
C. Though from time to time I thus, Rodrigo, behaved, truly Very fond was I of thee. And when most contemptuous 530 Thy wife I refused to be 'Twas not that I had no love But, that I tested thee, to prove The heart of thy audacity.
Hermit. Now I have a mind to say 535 What I came to look for here. For my wish it is to stay In a hermitage that may Yield me plenty of good cheer. Ready-made would I find it: ill 540 Could I all these joys fulfil Worn out by toil and labour fell. Wide not narrow be my cell That I may dance therein at will; Be it in a desert land 545 Yielding wine and wheat alway, With a fountain near at hand And contemplation far away. Much fish and game in brake and pool Must I have for my own preserve 550 And as for my house it must never swerve From an even temperature, cool In summer and in winter warm. Yes, and a comfortable bed Would not do me any harm, 555 All of it of cedar-wood, A harpsichord hung at its head: So do I find a monk's life good. I would lie and take my rest And sleep on far into the day 560 So that I could not my matins say For noise of the whistling and the singing Of shepherdesses' songs clear ringing. On partridge would I sup and dine, Of stockfish should my luncheon be 565 And of wine the very best. And the Judge's daughter should make for me The bed on which I would recline. And even as my beads I tell She should forget her flock of sheep 570 And embrace me in my cell And bite my ears and make me weep: Yes, even thus it would be well. My brothers, since you know, I trow The recesses of each vale and hill 575 Be good enough to tell me now Where best I may so have my will And this holy life fulfil.
G. Yonder, padre, there's a briar All in flower, thick and green, 580 And its thorns are long and dire: Naked laid thereon, I ween You would soon lose your desire. Go and make no further stay, For the life you wish to live 585 The true God will never give Howsoe'er for it you pray.
Serra. Come, my sons, now come away, Each with his fair bride to-day, That our Queen and Sovereign we 590 May go visit speedily, And let none of you gainsay, For you must go all together, Since, if report say true, I ween I as nurse must serve the Queen 595 And therefore do I go thither. Such milk as mine you will not find No, not in all Portugal, So plentiful and such kind As God has blessèd me withal: 600 Pure butter were not more refined. And since she will be princess Of such flocks and all this land, No other nurse shall be to hand, For the perfect shepherdess 605 My hill-sides alone command.
G. From every village, house and town Great presents must with us come down.
S. The town of Sea of its store Shall five hundred cheeses send 610 All home-made, and furthermore Of calves will she send thrice five score And of her merino sheep A thousand, and lambs two hundred keep So fat that on no hills you'll find 615 Any more unto your mind. And two thousand sacks Gouvea Of chestnuts that there abound Of such size, so fine and round That all men will wonder where 620 Things so excellent are found. And Manteigas will prepare A store of milk for years twice seven, By Covilham much fine cloth be given That is manufactured there. 625 From the houses in the heather High upon the mountain-top, For pillows shall be sent a crop All of royal eagles' feather That men there are wont to gather. 630 From the Penados vale below And the hills where three roads meet That through rough mountain country go They will send as present meet Three hundred ermines white as snow 635 As edging of brocades to show. Mines of gold too I will bring And give all I have within If the Queen and if the King Order it to be brought in: 640 Plenty is there there to win.
G. And with presents none the less Will we in her honour sing With great joy and revelling That God hath willed the Queen to bless 645 For her people's happiness.
Enter two players from Sardoal, Jorge and Lopo, and the Serra says:
From Castille, brothers, do you hale Or from down yonder in the vale?
J. Now in the devil's name, amen, They would have us be Castilian men 650 A lizard I would rather be By the Holy Gospels verily.
S. Well and from what land come you then?
J. From Sardoal, and by your leave We are come hither to defy 655 The Serra our challenge to receive With us in song and dance to vie.
R. 'Tis a proud challenge for your ill, For shepherds are so many here And their dancing of such skill 660 That of none need they have fear.
L. Many peasants come yonder too From the hills for sustenance And we watch them sing and dance Even as up here they do: 665 Their way of it shall you see at a glance.
Lopo sings and dances in imitation of the men of the Serra:
Ah, should I lay my hand on you, Love, fair my love. A friend of mine, a friend of old, Sends unto me apples of gold, 670 How fair is love! A friend I loved, even my friend, Apples, apples of gold doth send. So fair is love! Apples of gold he sends amain, 675 The best of them was cleft in twain, So fair is love! [Apples of gold he sends to me, The best was cleft for all to see. How fair is love!]
680 That I think is, well or ill, How you dance on fell and hill. S. But now I would have you sing As in Sardoal they do. L. That is quite another thing, 685 Wait then and I'll show it you: Now no more my lady wills That I speak with her alone. How am I now woe-begone! On a day my lady said 690 That she would fain speak with me, Now I for my sins atone Since she says it may not be. How am I now woe-begone! For to me my lady said 695 That she fain would speak with me, Now I for my sins atone Since me now she will not see. How am I now woe-begone! Now I for my sins atone 700 Since she says it may not be, Through the world will I begone Where'er fortune carry me. How am I now woe-begone!
The players sing this song, dancing together, and when it is finished Felipa says:
I pray you go not away so, 705 But wait until the fiddle come, O wait until you hear the drum, Then how to move you'll scarcely know So dead with dancing shall you go.
C. And meanwhile by my life I ween 710 'Twere well that we our dance and song Should order here upon the green And we will go with it along To see the King and see the Queen.
All these shepherds took their places in the dance after their custom, but its song was sung to the accompaniment of the organ and with the following words:
O strike me not, mother, 715 The truth I'm confessing. For, mother, a squire Of our queen all on fire With love came to woo me: Of what he said to me 720 The truth I'm confessing. He came for to woo me And 'O,' said he to me, 'Were you in my power, Alone without dower!' 725 The truth I'm confessing.
And with this dance they went out and the play ended.
[p] LAUS DEO.
AUTO DA ALMA
The Auto da Alma, produced probably in 1518, which in some sense forms a Portuguese pendant to the Recuerde el alma of Jorge Manrique (1440?-79), is a Passion play, corresponding to the modern Stabat on the eve of Good Friday, and was suggested, perhaps, by Juan del Enzina's Representacion a la muy bendita pasion y muerte de nuestro precioso Redentor. It was not, however, acted in a convent or church, but in the new riverside palace which saw so many splendid serões during King Manuel's reign (1495-1521). King Manuel was now in the full tide of prosperity. His sister, Queen Lianor or Eleanor (1458-1525), Gil Vicente's patroness, who so keenly encouraged Portuguese art and literature, was the widow (and first cousin) of his predecessor, King João II. The theme of the play, the contention of Angel and Devil for the possession of a human soul, was far from new. Its treatment, however, was original and the versification is clear-cut and well sustained throughout, while a deep sincerity and glowing fervour raise the whole play to the loftiest heights. The metre is mostly in verses of seven short (8848484) lines (abcaabc) with an occasional slight variation. There is a French version of the play, presumably in verse (see Durendal, No. 10: Oct. 1913: Le Mystère de l'Âme; tr. J. Vandervelden and Luis de Almeida Braga), but the difficult task of translating it would require, to be successful, the delicate precision of a Théophile Gautier. In his hands it might have become in French a thing of beauty and a joy for ever, as it is in the original Portuguese. As to the text, without emulating the pedantry of the critic who added a fourth season to Shelley's three, and thereby provoked a splendid outburst of wrath from Swinburne, we may assume that in passages where Vicente appears to have gone out of his way to avoid a required rhyme, this is merely a case of corruption repeated in successive editions. Thus in the Auto Pastoril Portugues, where Catalina minha dama rhymes with toucada we may perhaps substitute fada for dama. (Cf. Serra da Estrella, l. 530: amigo for marido.) So here verse 114 must read tristeza, not tristura, to rhyme with crueza. In 3 one of the mantimentos should perhaps be alimentos: see Lucas Fernández, Farsas (1867), p. 247 (cf. the two vaydades in 14); in 26 fortunas should probably read farturas (cf. essas farturas in the Dialogo sobre a Ressurreiçam); in 35 the words mui fermosos, or a single longer word, have evidently dropped out; in 54 tendes was perhaps an alteration by some critic who did not realize that the Angel might naturally associate itself with the Church (or with the Soul) and say temos; the last line of 100 was perhaps the word pecadora or e senhora (cf. Fr. Luis de León, Los Nombres de Cristo, Bk I: mi única abogada y señora); in 108 also a line is missing and a rhyme required for figura (lavrado must go with Deos, triste with vereis, omitting seu). On the other hand it is hardly necessary to alter 42 or 45 (although here esmaltado is in the air) or 46 so as to make them exactly fit the metre.
1 perigos dos immigos, cf. Os Trabalhos de Jesus, 1665 ed. p. 94: o caminho do Ceo he cercado de inimigos e perigos para o perder. Qualibus in tenebris vitae quantisque periclis Degitur hoc aevi quodcunque est!
7 Cf. Newman, The Dream of Gerontius, l. 292 et seq.:
O man, strange composite of heaven and earth, Majesty dwarfed to baseness, fragrant flower, etc.
7-10 These exquisite verses have something of the scent and perfection of wild flowers, and that mystic rapture which is not to be found in Goethe's more worldly Faust. We may, if we like, call the Auto da Alma (as also the witch-scene in the Auto das Fadas) a 16th century Faust, but really no parallel can be drawn between the two plays. The ethereal beauty of Vicente's lyrical auto, carved in delicate ivory, is far less varied and human: it has scarcely a touch of the cynicism and not a touch of the coarseness of Goethe's splendid work cast in bronze. It can be compared at most with such lyrical passages as Christ ist erstanden or Ach neige, Du Schmerzenreiche, Dein Antlitz gnadig meiner Not, and as a whole is a mere lily of the valley by the side of a purple hyacinth.
9 Planta sois e caminheira. Cf. the white-flowered 'wayfaring tree.'
16-17 This passage resembles those in the Spanish plays Prevaricación de Adán and La Residencia del Hombre quoted in the Revista de Filología Española, t. IV (1917), No. 1, p. 15-17.
17 Cf. The Dream of Gerontius, l. 280 et seq.: 'Then was I sent from Heaven to set right, etc.'
18 porá grosa, attack, criticize, gloss. (= glosar. Cf. the modern 'to grouse.')
35 Cf. Antonio Prestes, Auto dos Cantarinhos (Obras, 1871 ed. p. 457): todo Valença em chapins. The chapim was rather a high-heeled shoe than a slipper. The reference is to the Spanish city Valencia del Cid. Cf. Fr. Juan de la Cerda ap. R. Altamira, Historia de España, III, 728: 'En una mujer ataviada se ve un mundo: mirando los chapines se verá a Valencia'; Alonso Jerónimo de Salas Barbadillo in El Cortesano Descortés (1621) speaks of 'un presente de chapines valencianos'; and in La Pícara Justina (1912 ed. vol. I, p. 70) we have 'un chapin valenciano.'
38 marcante. In the Auto da Feira the Devil is similarly a bufarinheiro (pedlar) and mercante.
43 a for da corte. For = foro (v. Gonçalvez Viana, A postilas, vol. I, p. 353).
58 Cf. Plato, Respublica, 365: [Greek: adikêteon kai thuteon apo tôn adikêmatôn, k.t.l.] Vicente in his plays often inculcates the need of something more than a formal religion.
xiquer. Cf. Auto da Barca do Inferno: Isto hi xiquer irá.
59-60 These two verses are in the true spirit of Goethe's Mephistopheles.
62 esta peçonha. Would Vicente have written thus (cf. 66 and Obras, III, 344, sermon addressed to Queen Lianor; and also Garcia de Resende, Miscellanea, 1917 ed. p. 50) of the soul had there been the slightest gossip or suspicion that his patroness, Queen Lianor, had poisoned her husband? (See the most interesting studies in Critica e Historia, por Anselmo Braamcamp Freire, vol. I. Lisbon, 1910.)
71 Cf. The Dream of Gerontius, l. 210-1:
Nor do I know my attitude, Nor if I stand or lie or sit or kneel.
73 day passada = perdoai, dai licença. Cf. Jorge Ferreira de Vasconcellos, Eufrosina, II, 5. 1616 ed. f. 79 v.
77 In Basque pastorales one of the main attributes of the devils and the wicked is that they are never quiet on the stage. In the Auto da Cananea (1534), a play in many ways resembling the Auto da Alma, the line Como andas desosegado recurs, addressed by Belzebu to Satanas. It is the 'incessant pacing to and fro' of The Dream of Gerontius (l. 446). In its beauty and intensity as a whole and in many details Cardinal Newman's The Dream of Gerontius is strikingly similar to the Auto da Alma. But in it the strife is o'er, the battle won, and the sanctified soul, rising refreshed from sleep with a feeling of 'an inexpressive lightness and sense of freedom,' passes serenely, accompanied by its guardian angel, above the 'sullen howl' of the demons in the middle region. Cf. Calte por amor de Deus, leixai-me, não me persigais with 'But hark! upon my sense Comes a fierce hubbub which would make me fear Could I be frighted' (l. 395-7).
80 Cf. Amador Arraez, Dialogos, No. 1, 1604 ed. f. lv.: S. Jeronimo diz que é grande o reino, potencia e alçada das lagrimas...atormentam mais aos Demonios que a pena infernal.
84 The author of the Vexilla regis hymn was Venantius Fortunatus (530-600).
95 Cf. Antonio Feo, Trattados Quadragesimais (1609), II f. 23: assy na Cruz como no monte Oliueto chorou porque vio vir a quem ouuera de chorar.
97 Cf. Gomez Manrique, Fechas para la Semana Santa (ap. M. Pelayo, Antología, t. III, p. 92).
108 Cf. Juan del Enzina, Teatro (1893), p. 39: Veis aqui donde vereis Su figura figurada Del original sacada.
116 dais o seu a cujo he, cf. Triunfo do Inverno: Porque se devem de dar As cousas a cujas são; C. Res. I (1910), p. 64: dar o seu a cujo hee.
121 Cf. Gomez Manrique, Fechas (Antolog. t. III, p. 93):
Y vamos, vamos al huerto Do veredes sepultado Vuestro fijo muy prouado De muy cruda muerte muerto.
EXHORTAÇAO DA GUERRA
The expedition to capture from the Moors the important town of Azamor in N. W. Africa consisted of over 400 ships (Luis Anriquez in his poem in the Cancioneiro Geral says 450) and a force of 18,000 soldiers, of which 3000 were provided by James, Duke of Braganza, who commanded the expedition. It set sail from Lisbon on the 17th of August, 1513. (Damião de Goes and Osorio say the 17th, Luis Anriquez the 15th, which was evidently the day (the Feast of the Assumption) fixed for departure.) It was entirely successful and the news of the fall of Azamor caused great rejoicings both at Lisbon and Rome. The play was evidently touched up afterwards, for it includes the sending of the elephant to Rome (1514) and the marriages of the princesses. It is barely possible that it was written after the victory, in which case the words na partida would be retrospective and the date given in the 1st edition was not a slip. Parts of the play suit 1514 better than 1513. Tristão da Cunha's special mission (cf. lines 195-6) to the Pope (with Garcia de Resende for secretary) left early in 1514 and entered Rome on March 12. One of the objects of the mission was to obtain a grant of the tithes (ll. 194, 224) for the Crown to use for the war in Africa. (The request was granted but King Manuel subsequently renounced them in return for 150,000 gold coins.) The exhortations of l. 351 et seq., l. 514 et seq., l. 559 et seq. are better suited to a time when more men and money were needed actively to continue the war than when an army of 18,000 was equipped and ready to leave. The Pope in 1514 promised indulgences to all those who should contribute money for the African war and also granted King Manuel a portion of church property in Portugal (cf. ll. 475-84 and 535-48) for the same object (l. 546: pera Africa conquistar). The King's aim is now to build a cathedral in Fez (l. 573-4). There is no mention of Azamor. This was the first of the great patriotic outbursts (cf. the Auto da Fama and other plays) in which Vicente appears not as a satirist or religious reformer but as an enthusiastic imperialist, and which still delight and stir his countrymen.
18 Prince Luis (1506-55), one of the most gallant, talented and interesting of Portuguese infantes, was no doubt present at the serão and would be delighted by this reference. (The youngest princes, Afonso, born in 1509, and Henrique, born in 1512, are not mentioned. They both became Cardinals and the latter King of Portugal, 1578-80.) The princes are similarly addressed in the Cortes de Jupiter in 1521.
46 Mercury opens the Auto da Feira with a similar string of absurdities (suggested by Enzina's perogrulladas), e.g. Que se o ceo fora quadrado Não fora redondo, Senhor; E se o sol fora azulado D'azul fora seu cor. (If square the sky were found then it would not be round, and if the sun were blue then blue would be its hue.) Os disparates de 'Joan de Lenzina' (Ferreira, Ulys. IV, 7) were well-known in Portugal.
94, 113, 129 No meaning is to be squeezed out of these cabbalistic words.
116 We have an even more detailed description in the Sumario da Historia de Deos:
A furna das trevas, ponte de navalhas, o lago dos prantos, a horta dos dragos, os tanques da ira, os lagos da neve, os raios ardentes, sala dos tormentos, varanda das dores, cozinha dos gritos, Açougue das pragas, a torre dos pingos, o valle das forcas.
125 Vicente was more tolerant than most contemporary writers who inveighed against the blindness and malice of the Jews.
132 The necromancer evokes spirits which he is unable to control. He calls them brothers but they answer in effect: 'Du gleich'st dem Geist den du begreif'st, nicht mir.'
151 The almude = 12 gallons.
156 Cabrela e Landeira is a village near Montemôr-o-Novo. Cf. Sum. da Hist. de Deos:
Satanas: Sabes Rio-frio e toda aquela terra, aldea Gallega, a Landeira e Ranginha e de Lavra a Coruche? Tudo é terra minha.
157 Cartaxo, a small town in the district of Santarem.
158 The village of Lumiar is now connected with Lisbon by a tramway.
159 Mealhada, a parish in the district of Aveiro.
162 Cf. uva terrantes (indigenous).
164 Ribatejo = the country along the river Tejo (Tagus). Cf. Auto da Feira: Vai-te ao sino do Cranguejo, Signum Cancer, Ribatejo.
168 Arruda dos Vinhos and Caparica are villages in a vine-growing district on the left bank of the Tagus opposite Lisbon, near Almada.
173 estrema = marco (Sp. mojon). Cf. Auto da Festa, ed. Conde de Sabugosa (1906), p. 110: Este he da pedra do estremo.
174 diadema is usually masculine, but Antonio Vieira has it both ways.
176 Seixal (2500-3000 inh.) in the district of Almada.
177 Almada, formerly Almadãa (Arab = the mine, but as Englishmen settled there in the 12th century it was later given the fanciful derivation All made or All made it), a town of 10,000 inh., opposite Lisbon on the left bank of the Tagus.
179 Tojal (= whin-moor, gorse-common), a small village near Olivaes (= olive groves), in the Lisbon district.
195 The impression produced by the arrival in Rome of King Manuel's elephant, panther and other magnificent gifts was vividly described by several writers. Cf. Damião de Goes, Chron. de D. Manuel, Pt 3, cap. 55, 56, 57 (1619 ed. f. 223 v.-227). According to Ulrich von Hutten the elephant 'fuit mirabile animal, habens longum rostrum in magna quantitate; et quando vidit Papam tunc geniculavit ei et dixit cum terribili voce bar, bar, bar' (apud Theophilo Braga, Gil Vicente e as Origens do Theatro Nacional (1898), p. 191). Cf. also Manuel Bernardez, Nova Floresta, V, 93-4. The head of this celebrated elephant forms the background to a portrait of Tristão da Cunha (head of the embassy to the Pope) reproduced in Senhor Joaquim de Vasconcellos' edition of Francisco de Hollanda's Da Pintura Antigva (Porto, 1918).
229 In 1517 among other exotic presents a rhinoceros was sent to the Pope. It was however shipwrecked and drowned on the way. It had the honour of being drawn by Albrecht Durer.
238 Vicente seems to have coined this intensive of bellisima.
243-4 Cesar = King Manuel. Hecuba=his second wife, Queen Maria, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.
249 Prince João, born in 1502, afterwards King João III (1521-57).
259 The Infanta Isabel (1503-39) married her first cousin the Emperor Charles V, and in her honour on that occasion Vicente composed his Templo de Apolo (1526). Her marriage may have already been planned in 1513, but more probably Vicente altered the passage when he was preparing the 1st edition of his works during the last months of his life. Gil Vicente more than once refers to her great beauty. Her portrait by Titian in the Madrid Prado fully bears out his praises and the expression on her face places this among the most fascinating portraits of women. The Empress is sitting by a window looking on to a beautiful country of woods and blue mountains, in her hand is a book; but one feels that she is thinking of neither book nor scenery but that her thoughts go back in saudade to the soft air and merry days of Lisbon. It might indeed be a picture of Saudade. There is a slight flush on her pale oval face. Her almond-shaped eyes are grey-green, her nose delicately aquiline. In the eyes and in the general expression there is a look of undeniable sadness. Her dress of plum, cherry-pink, gold and brown gives a gorgeously mellow effect and the curtain at the back is plum-brown. If the colouring seems at first too rich this is due to the criminal gold frame which clashes with the dress and the chestnut-golden hair. In a dark frame the picture would be twice as beautiful. The Empress' dress gleams with pearls and she has a jewel with pearls—set perhaps by Gil Vicente—in her hair, large pearl earrings and a necklace of large pearls. She died at Toledo at the age of 36 and lies in the grim Pantheon of the Kings in the Escorial crypt.
266 Of Prince Fernando, born in 1507, Damião de Goes, who knew him personally, says: 'assi na mocidade como depois de ser homem foi de bom parecer e bem disposto, muito inclinado a letras e dado ao estudo das historias verdadeiras e imigo das fabulosas... Era colerico e apressado em seus negocios e muito animoso, com mostra e desejo de se achar em algun grande feito de guerra, mas nem o tempo nem o estudo do Regno deram pera isso lugar' (Chron. de D. Manuel, II, xix). Cf. Osorio, De Rebvs Emmanvelis (1571), p. 189: 'Fuit in antiquitate pervestiganda valde curiosus: maximarum rerum studio flagrabat multisque virtutibus illo loco dignis praeditus erat.'
275 Princess Beatrice as a matter of fact married Charles, Duke of Savoy, and on the occasion of her departure from Lisbon by sea with a magnificent suite Vicente wrote the Cortes de Jupiter (1521) with the romance:
Nina era la Ifanta, Dona Beatriz se dezia, Nieta del buen Rei Hernando, el mejor rei de Castilla, Hija del Rei Don Manuel y Reina Doña Maria, etc.
284 Cf. the Auto das Fadas (with which this play has many points of resemblance): Feiticeira (ao principle e infantes): ó que joias esmaltadas, ó que boninas dos ceos, ó que rosas perfumadas!
331-2 Cf. Divisa da Cidade de Coimbra: Vai delas a eles tão grande avantagem... como haverá...do vivo a hũa imagem.
341 Godos, Goths, i.e. of ancient race, 'Norman blood.'
346 For dioso = idoso v. C. Geral, vol. II (1910), p. 153. Fernam Lopez, Chron. J. I. Pt. 2, cap. 10, has deoso.
384 pequenas quadrilhas. When Afonso de Albuquerque began his glorious career (1509-15) there were in India but a few hundred Portuguese fighting men, and most of these badly armed. The whole population of Portugal during this time of fighting and discovery in N.-West, West and East Africa and India is by some calculated at a million and a half, by others at between two and three millions.
416 Prov. mais são as vozes que as nozes.
418 For this line cf. Pedro Ferrus: Que por todo el mundo suena (ap. Menéndez y Pelayo, Antología, t. I, p. 159 and Enzina, Egloga, V (ib. t. VII, p. 57)).
420 pois que...pessoa, a homely version of Goethe's Was du ererbt von deinen Vatern hast Erwirb' es um es zu besitzen.
470-4 These lines are translated from the Spanish poet Gomez Manrique (1415?-1490?). See Menéndez y Pelayo, Antología, t. VII, p. ccx.
Cf. Jorge Ferreira de Vasconcellos, Ulysippo, V, 7: Vos quando vos tirarem de Ansias e passiones mias e guando Roma conquistava.
487 dom zote. Cf. supra zopete and Sp. zote, zopo, zopenco, zoquete (a dolt); low Latin sottus; Dutch zot; Fr. sot; Eng. sot (bebe sem desfolegar). Zote occurs twice in the Auto Pastoril Portugues: muito gamenho (cf. Fr. gamin) zote and Auto da Fé, l. 5.
534 trepas is the Span. form (Port, tripas?).
538 soyços the old, soldados the new, word for 'soldiers.' Cf. Lucas Fernández, Farsas (1867), p. 89: Entra el soldado, o soizo, o infante.
559 This rousing chorus fitly ends a play from every page of which breathes the most ardent patriotism. Small wonder that King Sebastião (1557-78), with his visions of conquest and glory, read Vicente with pleasure as a boy.
561 Cf. Gaspar Correa, Lendas da India, IV, 561-2: o Governador logo sobio e o frade diante dele bradando a grandes brados, dizendo: 'O fieis Christãos, olhai para Christo, vosso capitão, que vai diante' (1546).
FARSA DOS ALMOCREVES
This is one of the most famous of those lively farces with which Gil Vicente for a quarter of a century delighted the Portuguese Court and which still hold the reader by their vividness and charm. Its fame rests on the portraiture of the poverty-stricken but magnificent nobleman who has been a favourite object of satire with writers in the Peninsula since the time of Martial, and who in a poem of the Cancioneiro Geral is described in almost the identical words of Vicente's prefatory note:
o gram estado e a renda casi nada (Arrenegos que que fez Gregoryo Affonsso).
An alternative title of the play is Auto do Fidalgo Pobre, but the extremely natural presentment of the two carriers in the second part justifies the more popular name. The Court, fleeing from plague at Lisbon, was in the celebrated little university town of Coimbra on the Mondego and here Gil Vicente in the following year staged his Divisa da Cidade de Coimbra, the Farsa dos Almocreves, and (in October) the Tragicomedia da Serra da Estrella and Sá de Miranda, in open rivalry, produced his Fabula do Mondego. But Gil Vicente was not to be silenced by the introduction of the new poetry from Italy and to these two years, 1526 and 1527, belong no less than seven (or perhaps eight) of his plays. Yet what a difference in his own position and in the state of the nation since his first farce—Quem tem farelos? twenty years before! The magnificent King Manuel was dead, and his son, the more care-ridden João III, was on the throne:
tão ocupado co'este Turco, co'este Papa co'esta França.
There was plague and famine in the land. The discovery of a direct route to the East and its apparently inexhaustible wealth had not brought prosperity to the Portuguese provinces. There the chief effect had been to make men discontented with their lot and to lure away even the humblest workers to seek their fortune and often to find death or a far less independent poverty:
até os pastores hão de ser d'el-Rei samica.
The result was that the old rustic jollity which Vicente had known so well in his youth was dying out, and the very songs of the peasants took a plaintive air:
E no mais triste ratinho s'enxergava hũa alegria que agora não tem caminho. Se olhardes as cantigas do prazer acostumado todas tem som lamentado, carregado de fadigas, longe do tempo passado. O d' então era cantar e bailar como ha de ser, o cantar pera folgar, o bailar pera prazer, que agora é mao d'achar.
Nor could it be expected that the rich parvenu, the mushroom courtier, the fidalgo 'que não sabe se o é,' the palace page fresh from keeping goats in the serra, the Court chaplain anxious to hide his humble origin, would greatly relish Vicente's plays which satirized them and in which rustic scenes and songs and memories appeared at every turn. It was much like mentioning the rope in the house of the hanged, and these dainty and sophisticated persons would turn with relief to the revival of the more decorous ancient drama inaugurated by Trissino in Italy and in Portugal by Sá de Miranda.
3 este Arnado. Cf. Bernardo de Brito, Chronica de Cister, III, 18: 'se foi [Afonso Henriquez] ao longo do Mondego por um campo q então e no tempo de agora se chama o Arnado, trocado ja pelas enchentes do rio de campo cuberto de flores em um areal esteril e sem nenhũa verdura.' Cf. Cancioneiro da Vaticana, No. 1014: 'en Coimbra caeu ben provado, caeu en Runa ata en o Arnado.'
7 See the Spanish romance (ap. Menéndez y Pelayo. Antología, t. VIII, p. 124): 'Yo me estaba allá en Coimbra que yo me la hube ganado.'
8, 9 The sense of these two obscure lines is apparently: 'Since Coimbra so chastises us that we are left without a penny.' Ruy Moniz in the Canc. Geral, vol. II (1910), p. 142, has çimbrar ou casar. In Spanish cimbrar = 'to brandish a rod,' 'to bend.' In the Auto del Repelon, printed in 1509, Enzina has: El palo bien assimado Cimbrado naquella tiesta (Teatro (1893), p. 236) and Fernández (p. 25) No vos cimbre yo el cayado. Cf. Antonio Prestes, Autos (ed. 1871), p. 211: E o vilão vindo me zimbra: reprender-me! and João Gomes de Abreu (C. Ger. vol. IV (1915), p. 304) seraa rrijo çimbrado. preto = real preto, contrasted with the white (i.e. silver) real.
12 Pelos campos de Mondego cavaleiros vi somar were two very well-known lines apparently belonging to a real historical Portuguese romance on the death of Ines de Castro. They occur in Garcia de Resende's poem on her death. See C. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Estudos sobre o romanceiro peninsular.
13 Cf. Tragicomedia da Serra da Estrella (1527): Pedem-lhe em Coimbra cevada E elle dá-lhe mexilhões.
19 milham, green maize cut young for fodder.
32 ratinhos, peasants from Beira. They play a large part in Portuguese comedy.
80 azemel = almocreve. Both words are of Arabic origin. Cf. almofreixe infra.
93 Endoenças = indulgentiae. Semana de Endoenças = Holy Week.
103 In the Auto da Lusitania Vicente says jestingly, perhaps in imitation of the Spanish romances, that he was born at Pederneira (a small sea-side town in the district of Leiria). He mentions it again in the Cortes de Jupiter and in the Templo de Apolo.
109 Cf. Alvaro Barreto in Cancioneiro Geral, vol. I (1910), p. 322: poẽ me tudo em huũ item.
120 It was the plea of Arias Gonzalo that the inhabitants of Zamora were not answerable for the guilt of Vellido Dolfos who had treacherously killed King Sancho:
[?]Qué culpa tienen los viejos? [?]qué culpa tienen los niños? [?]qué culpa tienen los muertos...?
129 balcarriadas. Cf. Auto das Fadas: Venhas muitieramá com tuas balcarriadas; Auto da Festa: tão grão balcarriada; Auto da Barca do Purgatorio: Nunca tal balcarriada Nem maré tão desastrada. Couto, Asia, VII, 5, vii: Tal balcarriada (act of folly) foi esta. The Canc. Geral, vol. IV (1915), p. 370, has the form barquarryadas.
134 Cf. Auto da Lusitania: um aito bem acordado Que tenha ave e piós (= well-proportioned).
135 The numerous servants of the starving fidalgos are satirized by Nicolaus Clenardus and others. Like the English as described by a German in the 18th century they were 'lovers of show, liking to be followed wherever they go by whole troops of servants' (A Journey into England, by Paul Hentzer. Trans. Horace Walpole, 1757). Clenardus in his celebrated letter from Evora (1535) says that a Portuguese is followed by more servants in the streets than he spends sixpences in his house. He mentions specifically the number eight.
141 Alcobaça is the town famous for its beautiful Cistercian convent.
161 Alifante. Cf. infra, avangelho. A for e is still common in Galicia: e.g. mamoria (memory). Cf. Span. Basque barri (new), for Fr. Basque berri.
165 The Dean was Diogo Ortiz de Vilhegas ([+] 1544) successively Bishop of São Tomé (1534) and Ceuta (1540). See A. Braamcamp Freire in Revista de Historia, No. 25 (1918), p. 3.
224 bastiães = bestiães, figures in relief. Gomez Manrique has bestiones in this sense.
247 In Antonio Prestes' play Auto do Mouro Encantado the golden apples prove to be pieces of coal. So Mello in his Apologos Dialogaes speaks of the treasure of moiras encantadas which all turns to coal.
269 In Rey, the popular form of El-Rei (the king) is frequent also in the plays of Simão Machado, who died about a century after Vicente.
272 It is tempting to add the word madraço (fool, ignoramus) for the sake of the rhyme. If O recado que elle dá were spoken very fast the line would bear the addition.
293 Here, as often, the deeper purpose of Vicente's satire appears beneath his fun. The growing depopulation of the provinces was becoming painfully evident to those who cared for Portugal.
302 Jorge Ferreira, Ulysippo, III, 5: não haveria corpo, por mais que fosse de aço milanes, que podesse sofrer quanta costura lhe seria necessaria; ib. III, 7: temos muita costura esta noite; muita costura e tarefa; Antonio Vieira, Cartas: tambem aqui teremos costura (1 de agosto de 1673).
310 trapa in Port. = 'a gin,' 'a trap,' but in Sp., as perhaps here, = 'noise,' 'uproar.'
327 Cf. Farsa dos Fisicos: Praticamos ali O Leste e o Oeste e o Brasil and III, 377; Chiado, Auto da Natural Invençam, ed. Conde de Sabugosa (1917), p. 74.
348 The carrier comes along singing snatches of a pastorela of which we have other examples, of more intricate rhythm, in the Cancioneiro da Vaticana and the poems of the Archpriest of Hita and the Marqués de Santillana. A modern Galician cantiga says that
O cantar d'os arrieiros E um cantariño guapo: Ten unha volta n'o medio Para dicir 'Arré macho.'
(Pérez Ballesteros, Cancionero Popular Gallego, vol II, p. 215.)
355 Cf. O Clerigo da Beira: Nuno Ribeiro Que nunca paga dinheiro E sempre arreganha os dentes; and Ah Deos! quem te furtasse Bolsa, Nuna Ribeiro. Homem vai buscar dinheiro, A todo ele disse: Ja dinheiro feito é.
360 uxtix, uxte. Ferreira de Vasconcellos, Eufrosina, II, 4: Tanto me deu por uxte como por arre.
atafal. Cf. Barca do Purgatorio (I, 258): amanhade-lhe o atafal (not amanhã dé-lhe).
363 Candosa, a village of some 1400 inh. in the district of Coimbra.
369 xulo = chulo, pícaro. The derivation of chulo is uncertain (v. Gonçalvez Viana, Apostilas, vol. I (1906), p. 299). While Dozy derives it from Arabic xul, A. A. Koster suggests the same origin as that of Fr. joli, It. giulivo, Catalan joliu [= gay. Cf. Eng. jolly and the Portuguese word used by D. João de Castro: joliz], viz. the Old German word jol (gaiety). Vid. Quelques mots espagnols et portugais d'origine orientale (Zeitschrift fur rom. Philologie, Bd. 38 (1914), S. 481-2). The Valencian form for July (Choliol) may strengthen this view.
372 Tareja is the old Portuguese form of Theresa.
375 bareja = mosca varejeira.
379 Aveiro. A town of about 7500 inh., 40 miles S. of Oporto. It was nearly taken by the Royalists in 1919.
398 For the naturalness of this conversation cf. that of the peasants Amancio Vaz and Deniz Lourenço in the Auto da Feira.
410 Pero Vaz' point is that the mules will not stop to feed in the cool shade of the trees but do so in the shelterless charneca.
429 Cf. the act of D. João de Castro (1500-48) as before him of Afonso de Albuquerque in pawning hairs of his beard, and the proverb Queixadas sem barbas não merecem ser honradas.
435 O juiz de çamora. In the romance Ya se sale Diego Ordoñez Arias Gonzalo of Zamora says: 'A Dios pongo por juez porque es justo su juicio.' So that the judge of Zamora = God.
438-9 No one was better situated than Gil Vicente to criticize—and suffer the slights of—the brand-new nobility of the Portuguese Court. The nearer they were to the plough the more disdainful were they likely to be to a mere goldsmith and poet.
454 desingulas (= dissimulas). Cf. Auto Pastoril Portugues: não o dessengules mais. Duarte Nunes de Leão, Origem da Lingva Portvgvesa (1606), cap. 18, includes dissingular (= dissimular) among the vocabulos que vsão os plebeios ou idiotas que os homens polidos não deuem vsar.
467 For the form Diz cf. Auto das Fadas: Estevão Dis, and O Juiz da Beira: Anna Dias, Diez, Diz (= Diaz).
473 Pero Vaz evidently did not know the cantiga:
A molher do almocreve Passa vida regalada Sem se importar se o marido Fica morto na estrada.
Cf. the Galician quatrain (Pérez Ballesteros, Cane. Pop. Gall. II, 219):
A vida d'o carreteiro É unha vida penada, Non vai o domingo á misa Nin dorme n'a sua cama.
478 Vicente refers to the Medina fair in the Auto da Feira and again in O Juiz da Beira: morador en Carrion Y mercader en Medina.
498 Folgosas. There are two small villages in Portugal called Folgosa, but reference here is no doubt to an inn or small group of houses.
506 Vicente several times refers to Val de Cobelo, e.g. Comedia de Rubena: E achasse os meus porquinhos Cajuso em Val de Cobelo, and the shepherd in the Auto da Barca do Purgatorio: estando em Val de Cobelo.
529-30 Cf. Sá de Miranda, 1885 ed., No. 108, l. 261: Inda hoje vemos que em França Vivem nisto mais á antiga, etc. Couto (Dec. V, vi, 4) speaking of the mingling of classes, says: 'no nosso Portugal anda isto mui corrupto.'
537 Cf. Comedia de Rubena: E broslados (= bordados) uns letreiros Que dizem Amores Amores.
559 The ancient town of Viseu or Vizeu (9000 inh.) in Beira has now sunk from its former importance.
560 pertem for pertence.
565 arauia = algaravia. So ingresia, germania, etc. (cf. the French word charabia).
586 Cf. O Juiz da Beira: pois tem a morte na mão (= not 'there is death in that hand' as was said of Keats, but 'he is at death's door').
591 The original reading da sertãy (rhyming with mãy in l. 588) is confirmed by the Auto da Lusitania: rendeiro na Sertãe. The town of Certã in the district of Castello Branco now has some 5000 inh.
603 Cf. Jorge Ferreira, Aulegrafia, I, 4: Ó senhor, grão saber vir.
657 tam mancias, i.e. Macias, o Namorado, the prince of lovers. For the form Mancias cf. palanciana used for palaciana.
671 los tus cabellos niña. Cf. Ferreira de Vasconcellos, Aulegrafia, f. 113: Sob los teus cabelos, ninha, dormiria.
675 Cf. Jorge Ferreira, Eufrosina. Prologo: Eu por mim digo com a cantiga se o dizem digão, etc.; Cortes de Jupiter: Cantará c'os atabaques: Se disserão digão, alma minha and Barbieri, Cancionero Musical, No. 127: Si lo dicen digan, Alma mia, etc. E wrongly gives the words alma minha to the next quotation.
676 Cf. Auto da India: Quem vos anojou, meu bem, Bem anojado me tem.
707 Cf. Auto das Fadas: Son los suspiros que damos In hac vita lachrymarum.
713 Camões, Filodemo, IV, 4, has tudo terei numa palha, 'I will not care a straw' (cf. Vicente in the Auto da Festa: Que os homens verdadeiros não são tidos numa palha), but here the meaning is different.
TRAGICOMEDIA PASTORIL DA SERRA DA ESTRELLA
It is remarkable that just at the time when Sá de Miranda had returned to Portugal with the new metres from Italy and was frankly contemptuous of Gil Vicente's rough mirth and rustic verse, Gil Vicente felt his position strong enough to present this lengthy play before the King and Court at Coimbra on occasion of the birth of the King's daughter Maria. There is no action in the play, and King Manuel would perhaps have yawned at these shepherds' quarrels, relieved not at all by the parvo's wit or the hermit's grossness and only occasionally by a touch of lyric poetry; but perhaps these simple scenes were welcome to the growing artificiality of the Court. For us the beautiful cossante Um amigo que eu havia stands out like a single orange gleaming from a dark-foliaged tree. The interest lies in the customs of the shepherds and their snatches of song and in the intimate knowledge of the Serra da Estrella shown by the author.
10 The Serra da Estrella, the highest mountain-range in Portugal (6500 ft), is in the province of Beira.
17 meyrinhas = maiorinho (merino).
30 esperauel (as here and in Comedia de Rubena), or esparavel. Cf. Damião de Goes, Chron. de D. Manuel (1617), f. 25 v.: a modo de sobreceo d'esparavel.
32 Cf. the vilão's complaints of God in the Romagem de Aggravados.
35 nega = senão.
51 As in Browning's A Grammarian's Funeral they are advancing as they converse: 'thither our path lies.'
103 Nega se meu embeleco = se não me engano. This line occurs in the Templo de Apolo. The Auto da Festa text has nego se meu embaleco.
113 mancebelhões. Cf. Correa, Lendas, IV, 426: Folgara de ser mais mancebelhão.
127 The corresponding a-lines might be:
Dous açores que eu amava Aqui andam nesta casa.
172 argem for prata. Similarly in Spanish there is the old form argen for argento (= plata). Cf. the proverb Quien tiene argen tiene todo bien.
190 somana for semana. So romendo for remendo and v. infra: perem for porem.
225 gingrar. Nuno Pereira in the Cancioneiro Geral (1910 ed., vol. I, p. 305) has o gingrar de meu caseiro. Cf. Enzina, Auto del Repelon: Hora déjalos gingrar (Teatro, 1893, p. 241).
241 sois. Cf. Barca do Purgatorio: sem sois motrete de pão; Farsa dos Fisicos: não vos quer sois olhar.
290-1 = odi et amo.
322 As a rule Vicente's shepherds are natural enough but we may be permitted to doubt whether any shepherdess of the Serra da Estrella would have spoken of 'ending like Queen Dido.' She had probably been reading Lucas Fernández, Farsas (1867), p. 56.
328 A, B, C, D and E unaccountably print querê-lo (through the bad attraction of malo) although querer is needed to rhyme with quer.
367 pintisirgo = pintasilgo.
410 grauisca. Vicente appears to have coined the word from grave and arisca.
427 Fronteira, a village of nearly 3000 inh. in the district of Portalegre. Monsarraz is of about the same size, in the district of Evora.
435 tinhosa cada mea hora. Cf. Jorge Ferreira de Vasconcellos, Aulegrafia, f. 89: he hũa tinhosa que ontem guardava patas em Barquerena.
440 cartaxo. Cf. Aulegrafia, f. 10: figo bafureiro em unhas de cartaixo.
443 A pleasant sketch of the presumptuous peasant, then become a common type in Portugal. Felipa considers that to marry a shepherd would be beneath her and her heart leaps up when she beholds a courtier in velvet slippers.
462 The hermit was of course a part of the stock-in-trade of mediaeval plays. He appears in Vicente as early as 1503 (Auto dos Reis Magos). The most interesting alteration in the heavily censored (1586) edition of the Serra da Estrella is not the excision of over a hundred lines about the evil-minded hermit but the substitution in l. 100 of un rey for Dios. Regalist Vicente would never have allowed himself to say that 'a king sometimes acts awry.'
530 For amigo we should probably read marido to rhyme with atrevido.
564 moxama = salted tuna (Sp. mojama or almojama).
566 Cf. J. Ferreira de Vasconcellos, Aulegrafia (1619), f. 84: sejais bem casada com a filha do juiz.
608 Sea, Cea or Ceia, a pleasant little town of some 3000 inh. in the heart of the Serra. (Sea, Sintra, etc. is the 16th cent, spelling, now restored.)
616 Gouvea or Gouveia in the same district and about the same size as Sea. The three other Gouveas in Portugal are smaller villages.
621 Manteigas, a small picturesque town immediately below the highest part of the Serra and nearly 2500 ft above sea-level.
623 Covilham, a larger town (15000 inh.), still known for its cloth factories.
652 Sardoal has about 5000 inh. For its ancient reputation for dancing cf. O Juiz da Beira:
Eu bailei em Santarem, Sendo os Iffantes pequenos, E bailei no Sardoal.
666 This cossante needs for its completion a fourth verse. This was so obvious that it was omitted in the writing of the play.
684 Esse he outro carrascal, a rural form of the phrase une autre paire de manches. The contrast is between the rustic cossante and the more 'cultivated' or Court cantigas that follow (Ja não quer and Não me firais).
711 The chacota, chacotasinha was a peasant's dance accompanied by a simple song the structure of which answered to the movements of the dance. Here, however, it is danced to the sound of the organ and the words of a Court song in which, nevertheless, the repetition of the rustic dance-cossantes is preserved.
724 Cf. Farsa de Ines Pereira: Eu vos trago um bom marido...diz que em camisa vos quer (= 'sans dot').
 Triunfo do Inverno (1529), l. 13-25.
LIST OF PROVERBS IN GIL VICENTE'S WORKS
A amiga e o amigo mais aquenta que bom lenho III, 127 A candea morta gaita á porta II, 215 Ado corre [el río] más manso allí está más peligroso II, 169 Amor louco, eu por ti e tu por outro I, 139 Ante a Pascoa vem os Ramos III, 124 A ruim comprador llevar-lhe ruim borcado I, 160 Asegundo sam os tempos assi hão de ser os tentos I, 103 Asegun fuere el señor ansi abrirá camino a ser servido II, 86 Asno muerto cevada I, 279 10 Asno que me leve quero e nam cavalo folão III, 154 Ausencia aparta amor II, 276 Bem passa de guloso o que come o que não tem III, 370 Cada louco com sua teima III, 135 Caza mata el porfiar III, 302 Come e folga terás boa vida I, 343 Dá-me tu a mi dinheiro e dá ao demo o conselho I, 167 Del mal lo menos I, 231 Donde vindes? D'Almolina. Que trazedes? Farinha. Tornae lá, que nam é minha III, 107 Dormirei, dormirei, boas novas acharei II, 26 20 El amor verdadero, el más firme es el primero II, 275 El diabo no es tan feo como Apeles lo pintaba II, 267 El que pergunta no yerra I, 69 É melhor que vamos sos que nam mal acompanhadas II, 525 Em tempo de figos nam ha hi nenhuns amigos III, 370 Fala com Deus, serás bom rendeiro I, 344 Filho nam comas nam rebentarás I, 343 França e Roma nam se fez num dia I, 335 Frol de pessegueiro, fermosa e nam presta nada II, 40 Grão a grão gallo farta III, 249 30 Maior é o ano que o mes III, 124 Mais quero asno que me leve que cavalo que me derrube III, 121 Mata o cavalo de sela e bo é o asno que me leva III, 130 Nam achegues á forca nam te enforcarão I, 343 Nam comas quente nam perderás o dente I, 343 Nam peques na lei nam temerás rei I, 344 Nam sejas pobre morrerás honrado I, 344 Nam se tomam trutas a bragas enxutas III, 177 No se cogen las flores sino espina sofriendo III, 322 Nos ninhos d'ora a um ano nam ha passaro ogano III, 370 40 O dar quebra os penedos I, 237 Onde força ha perdemos direito I, 310 O que ha de ser ha de ser II, 16; III, 144, 295 O que nam haveis de comer leixae-o a outrem mexer III, 137 Pared cayada papel de locos III, 336 Perdida é a decoada na cabeça d'asno pegada III, 166 Pobreza e alegria nunca dormem n'hũa cama II, 518 Por bem querer mal haver I, 135 Porfia mata caza II, 301 Poupa em queimada bem pintada e mal lograda II, 40 50 Pusóse el perro em bragas de acero III, 334 Quando perderes põe-te de lodo I, 344 Quando te dam o porquinho vae logo c'o baracinho II, 466 Quem bem renega bem cre I, 271 Quem bem tem e mal escolhe por mal que lhe vem nam se enoje III, 150 Quem casa por amores nam vos é nega dolores I, 128 Quem chora ou canta más fadas espanta I, 343 Quem com mal anda chore e nam cante I, 343 Quem com mal anda nam cuide ninguem que lhe venha bem I, 343 Quem espera padece III, 382 60 Quem muito pede muito fede III, 372 Quem nam faz mal nam merece pena I, 343 Quem nam mente nam vem de boa gente I, 343 Quem nam parece esquece III, 382 Quem nam pede nam tem III, 382 Quem porcos acha menos em cada mouta lhe roncam (cf. III, 26) III, 279 Quem quer fogo busque a lenha III, 371 Quem quiser comer comigo traga em que se assentar III, 371 Quem sempre faz mal poucas vezes faz bem I, 344 Quem so se aconselha so se depena I, 343 70 Quereis conhecer o ruim dae-lhe o oficio a servir II, 390 Quien al cordojo se dió más cordojo se lhe pega I, 12 Quien canta no tiene tormento II, 453 Quien no anda no gana II, 117 Quien no se aventura no espere por ventura II, 116 Quien paga los trabajos dé el afan II, 85 Se nada ganhares nam sejas siseiro I, 344 Se sempre calares nunca mentirás I, 343 Se tu te guardares eu te guardarei I, 344 Sob mao pano está o bom bebedor I, 162 80 Sol de Janeiro sempre anda traz do outeiro II, 40 Todo o mal é de quem o tem I, 337 Todos los caminos a la puente van a dar III, 198 Una cosa piensa el bayo y otra quien lo ensilla III, 369 Viguela sin lanza, etc. III, 295 Vilão forte, pé dormente III, 12
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GIL VICENTE
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(38) J. DE SOUSA MONTEIRO. A Dansa Macabra (Nota preliminar a tres autos de G. V.) in Revista de Portugal, vol. I (1889), p. 233-50.
(39) VISCONDE DE OUGUELLA. G. V. Lisboa, 1890.
(40) A. SCHAEFFER. Geschichte des Spanischen Nationaldramas (1890), vol. I, p. 26-33.
(41) D. GARCIA PERES. Catálogo Razonado (1890), p. 564-8.
(42) J. LEITE DE VASCONCELLOS. Nota sobre a linguagem de G. V. in Revista Lusitana (1891), p. 340-2.
(43) W. STORCK. Aus Portugal und Brasilien (1892). Notes, p. 258-62.
(44) C. MICHAELIS DE VASCONCELLOS. Grundriss der rom. Phil. (1894), Bd. 2, Abtg. 2, p. 280-7.
(45) VISCONDE SANCHES DE BAENA. G. V. Marinha Grande, 1894 [Review by C. Michaelis de Vasconcellos in Litteraturblatt fur germanische und romanische Philologie, Bd. XVII (1896), p. 87-97].
(46) VISCONDE JULIO DE CASTILHO. Mocidade de G. V. (O Poeta). Lisboa, 1896.
(47) D. JOÃO DA CAMARA. Natal e G. V. in O Occidente, vol. XIX (1896), p. 282-5.
(48) J. I. BRITO REBELLO. G. V. in Revista de Educação e Ensino, anno 12 (1897), p. 241-58, 308-15, 394-406.
(49) E. PRESTAGE. The Portuguese Drama in the Sixteenth Century: G. V. in The Manchester Quarterly, vol. XVI (July 1897).
(50) M. MENÉNDEZ Y PELAYO in Antología de poetas líricos, tom. VII (1898), p. clxiii-ccxxv.
(51) TH. BRAGA. G. V. e as origens do theatro nacional. Porto, 1898.
(52) TH. BRAGA. Eschola de G. V. Porto, 1898.
(53) VISCONDE J. DE CASTILHO and A. BRAAMCAMP FREIRE, Indices do Cancioneiro de Resende e das Obras de G. V. Lisboa, 1900. Repr. in G. V. Obras, vol. III (1914).
(54) J. DA ANNUNCIAÇÃO [[+] 1847]. G. V. in Revista Lusitana, vol. VI (1900), p. 59-63.
(55) G. A. DE VASCONCELLOS ABREU. Contos, Apologos e Fabulas da India: influencia indirecta no Auto de Mofina Mendez de G. V. Lisboa, 1902.
(56) A. R. GONÇALVEZ VIANA. Lusismos no castellano de G. V. in Revista do Conservatorio Real de Lisboa (1902). Repr. in Palestras Filolójicas (1910), p. 243-67.
(57) J. I. BRITO REBELLO. G. V. in O Occidente, vol. XXV (1902), p. 122-3.
(58) DAMASCENO NUNES. G. V. e o theatro nacional in O Occidente, vol. XXV, p. 127-8.
(59) TH. BRAGA. G. V. e o nacionalismo in Revista de Guimarães, vol. XIX (1902), p. 53-5.
(60) C. MALHEIRO DIAS. G. V. Algumas determinantes do seu genio litterario in Revista de Guimarães, vol. XIX, p. 57-66.
(61) A. F. BARATA. G. V. e Evora. Evora, 1902.
(62) J. LEITE DE VASCONCELLOS. G. V. e a linguagem popular. Lisboa, 1902.
(63) G. DE ABREU. G. V. A independencia do seu espiritu in Revista de Guimarães, vol. XIX, p. 84-96.
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(65) A. HERMANO. G. V. in Revista de Guimarães, vol. XIX, p. 71-83.
(66) J. I. BRITO REBELLO. Ementas Historicas. II. G. V. Lisboa, 1902.
(67) W. E. A. AXON. G. V. and Lafontaine. London and Dorking, 1903.
(68) F. M. DE SOUSA VITERBO. G. V. Dois traços para a sua biographia in Archivo Historico Portuguez, anno 1 (1903), p. 219-28.
(69) J. RIBEIRO. G. V. in Paginas de Esthetica (1905), p. 77-83.
(70) CONDE DE SABUGOSA. Auto da Festa (Explicação previa, p. 7-94). Lisboa, 1906.
(71) CONDE DE SABUGOSA. Um auto de G. V. Processo de Vasco Abul in Embrechados (1907), p. 65-80.
(72) A. L. STIEFEL. Zu G. V. in Archiv fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen, vol. CXIX (1907), p. 192-5.
(73) SILEX [i.e. A. Braamcamp Freire]. G. V., Poeta-ourives in O Jornal do Commercio, Feb. 5-9, 14, 19, 1907.
(74) J. MENDES DOS REMEDIOS in Obras de G. V., vol. I (1907), Prefacio, p. v-lix.
(75) C. MICHAELIS DE VASCONCELLOS. Estudos sobre o romanceiro peninsular (1907-9), p. 318-20.
(76) J. J. NUNES. As cantigas parallelisticas de G. V. in Revista Lusitana, vol. XII (1909), p. 241-67.
(77) M. A. VAZ DE CARVALHO in No meu cantinho (1909).
(78) J. DE SOUSA MONTEIRO. Estudo sobre o 'Auto Pastoril Castelhano' de G. V. in Boletim da Segunda Classe da Ac. das Sciencias de Lisboa, vol. II (1910), p. 235-41.
(79) J. LEITE DE VASCONCELLOS in Lições de Philologia Portuguesa (1911), p. 355-60.
(80) O. DE PRATT. O Auto da Festa de G. V. in Revista Lusitana (1911), p. 238-46.
(81) Sobre um verso de G. V. in Diario de Noticias (1912); Repr. in Revista Lusitana (1912), p. 268-89.
(82) A. BRAAMCAMP FREIRE. G. V. in Diario de Noticias, Dec. 16, 1912.
(83) J. I. BRITO REBELLO. G. V. Lisboa, 1912.
(84) C. MICHAELIS DE VASCONCELLOS. Notas Vicentinas I in Revista da Universidade de Coimbra, vol. I (1912), p. 205-93.
(85) J. M. DE QUEIROZ VELLOSO. G. V. e a sua obra. Lisboa, 1914.
(86) A. LOPES VIEIRA. A Campanha Vicentina. Lisboa, 1914.
(87) F. DE ALMEIDA. A Reforma protestante e as irreverencias de G. V. in Lusitana, anno 1 (1914), p. 207-13; Repr. in Historia da Igreja em Portugal, vol. III, pt 2 (1917), p. 119-226.
(88) A. BRAAMCAMP FREIRE. G. V. poeta-ourives. (Novas notas.) Coimbra, 1914.
(89) TH. BRAGA. G. V. e a creação do theatro nacional in Hist. da Litt. Port. II. Renascença (1914), p. 36-102.
(90) C. MICHAELIS DE VASCONCELLOS. Notas sobre a canção perdida Este es calbi orabi in Revista Lusitana (1915), p. 1-15.
(91) J. CEJADOR Y FRAUCA. Hist. de la lengua y lit. castellana (1915), vol. I, p. 457-60.
(92) F. DE FIGUEIREDO. Caracteristicas da litt. portuguesa (1915), p. 27-30. Eng. tr. (1916), p. 18-22.
(93) O. DE PRATT. Sobre um verso de G. V. Lisboa, 1915.
(94) A. LOPES VIEIRA. Autos de G. V. (1916), Prefacio, p. 9-30.
(95) J. I. BRITO REBELLO. A proposito de G. V. in Boletim da Segunda Classe da Ac. das Sciencias de Lisboa, vol. X (1916), p. 315-8.
(96) W. S. HENDRIX. The 'Auto da Barca do Inferno of G. V.' and the Spanish 'Tragicomedia Alegórica del Parayso y del Infierno' in Modern Philology, vol. XIII (1916), p. 173-84.
(97) A. BRAAMCAMP FREIRE. G. V., trovador, mestre da balança in Revista de Historia, Nos. 21, 22, 24, 25, 26 (1917-8).
(98) A. COELHO DE MAGALHÃES. Tentativas pedagógicas. II. A obra vicentina no ensino secundario in A Águia, Nos. 67-8 (1917), p. 5-16.
(99) A. A. MARQUES. G. V. e as suas obras. Portalegre, 1917.
(100) F. DE FIGUEIREDO. Hist. da Litt. Classica (1917), p. 61-108.
(101) C. MICHAELIS DE VASCONCELLOS. Notas Vicentinas II in Rev. da Univ. de Coimbra, vol. VI (1918), p. 263-303.
(102) C. MICHAELIS DE VASCONCELLOS. Notas Vicentinas III, ib. vol. VII (1919), p. 35-51.
 For a more detailed account of some of the works here recorded see C. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Notas Vicentinas I (1912).
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF GIL VICENTE'S LIFE
G.V.'s Life Order of G.V.'s Plays Contemporary Events
c.1465? Birth of G.V. c.1465 Death of François Villon. 1466 Death of Donatello. 1467 Birth of Desiderius Erasmus. 1469 Death of Jorge Manrique. — Birth of Niccolò Machiavelli. 1469? Birth of Juan del Enzina. 1470 Birth of Pietro Bembo. — Birth of Garcia de Resende. 1471 Birth of Albrecht Durer. 1474 Birth of Lodovico Ariosto. 1475 Birth of Michael Angelo. 1477 Birth of Titian. 1478 Birth of Baldassare Castiglione ( 1526). — Birth of Gian Giorgio Trissino. — Birth of Sir Thomas More. 1481 Accession of João II. 1482 Birth of Bernardim Ribeiro. 1483 Birth of Raffael. — Birth of Martin Luther. — Birth of Francesco Guicciardini. — Beheadal of Duke of Braganza. [1484-6 Snr Braamcamp Freire assigns G.V.'s first marriage to one of these years] 1484 King João II stabs to death the Duke of Viseu. 1485 [or later] Birth of Sá de Miranda. [1486-8 Acc. to Snr Braamcamp Freire, birth of G. V.'s eldest son] 1486 Birth of Andrea del Sarto. — Death of Andrea Verrocchio. 1487 Cape of Good Hope rounded by Bartholomeu Dias. 1489 Birth of Thomas Cranmer. 1490? G.V. comes to Court at Evora? c.1490? G.V.'s first marriage [to Branca Bezerra]? 1490 Marriage of Prince Afonso and Isabel, d. of the Catholic Kings. — Birth of Vittoria Colonna. 1491 Death of Prince Afonso at Santarem. — Birth of S. Ignacio de Loyola. — Christopher Columbus sails for America. — First Portuguese book printed in Portugal. c.1492? Birth of G.V.'s eldest son, Gaspar? 1492 Conquest of Granada. 1493 Columbus arrives at Lisbon (6 March) after discovering America. — Birth of André de Resende. 1493 or 4 Birth of Nicolaus Clenardus. 1494 Death of Angelo Poliziano. 1494 or 5 Birth of François Rabelais. 1495 (25 Oct.) Accession of King Manuel. 1496? Birth of Clément Marot ( 1544). 1497 (July) Vasco da Gama leaves Lisbon. — Forced conversion of Jews in Portugal. — Birth of Hans Holbein. — Birth of Philip Melancthon. 1498 Girolamo Savonarola burnt at Florence. 1499 (Sept.) Return of Gama from India. 1500 Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovers Brazil. — Death of Sandro Botticelli. — Birth of Benvenuto Cellini. — Birth of Emperor Charles V. — Birth of Dom João de Castro. 1502 (6 June) Birth of João III. 1502 (Lisbon, 7 or 8 June) Auto da Visitaçam(1). — (Lisbon, Christmas) Auto Pastoril Castelhano(2). 1503-6 G.V. fashions the celebrated Belem monstrance with the first tribute of gold from India. 1503 (Lisbon, 6 Jan.) Auto dos Reis Magos (3). 1503 Birth of Garci Lasso de la Vega. — Birth of Sir Thomas Wyatt. — Famine and plague in Portugal. — The cousins Albuquerque and Duarte Pacheco Pereira sail for India. — (24 Oct.) Birth of Infanta (afterwards Empress) Isabel. 1504 (Lisbon) Auto de S. Martinho (4). 1504 Heroic campaign of D. Pacheco Pereira in India. — (31 Dec.) Birth of Inf. Beatriz. 1505? Birth of G.V.'s second son, Belchior. 1505 Riots against Jews at Evora. 1505 (end July) Arrival at Lisbon of 15 ships laden with spices. Solemn procession in honor of D. Pacheco. 1506 G.V. preaches a sermon in verse on the birth of Prince Luis (3 March). 1506 (Low Sunday, Pascoela) Massacre of Jews at Lisbon. — Birth of S. Francis Xavier. — Birth of Inf. Luis ( 1555). — (30 Sept.) Death of D. Beatriz (King Manuel's mother). 1507 (5 June) Birth of Inf. Fernando. 1508 The King raises interdict placed on Lisbon after massacre of Jews. 1508 (Dec.) or 1509 (Jan.) (Lisbon) Quem tem farelos? (5). — News brought to the King at Evora of the siege of Arzila. 1509? G.V. writes some verses for a poetical contest at Almada, printed in the Canc. de Resende (1516). 1509 (Jan.) D. Pacheco defeats the French pirate Mondragon. 1509 (15 Feb.) G.V. is appointed Vedor (overseer) of all works in gold and silver in the Convent of Thomar, the Hospital of All Saints, Lisbon, and the Convent of Belem. 1509 (Almada, Holy Week?) Auto da India (6). — (23 Ap.) Birth of Inf. Afonso. 1509 Birth of Jean Calvin. — Afonso de Albuquerque Governor of India. 1510 Death of Dom Francisco de Almeida, first Viceroy of India. — Albuquerque attacks Calicut and takes Goa. 1510? Birth of Lope de Rueda. 1510 (Almeirim, Christmas) Auto da Fé (7). 1511 Albuquerque takes Malaca. 1511 (Lisbon, Carnival?) Auto das Fadas (8). — Henry VIII of England sends King Manuel, his brother-in-law, the Order of the Garter. 1512 (31 Jan.) Birth of Cardinal-King Henrique ( 1580). 1512 (Lisbon, early in the year) Farsa dos Fisicos (9). 1512 (21 Dec.) G.V. is elected one of the Twenty-four by the Lisbon Guild of Goldsmiths. 1513 James, Duke of Braganza, sets sail from Lisbon with a splendidly-equipped fleet of 450 vessels to capture Azamor. — Albuquerque in the Red Sea and at Aden. 1513 (4 Feb.) G.V. is appointed Mestre da Balança. 1513 (Lisbon, Holy Week?) O Velho da Horta (10). — (Lisbon, August) Exhortação da Guerra (11). — (17 Oct.) G.V. is elected by the Twenty-four to be one of their four representatives on the Lisbon Town Council. 1513? (Lisbon, Christmas) Auto da Sibila Cassandra (12). — Leo X, son of Lorenzo de' Medici, becomes Pope. 1514 (1512-14?) G.V. loses his first wife, Branca Bezerra. 1514 (Lisbon) Comedia do Viuvo (13). 1514 Portuguese Embassy to Pope Leo X with magnificent presents from the East. Garcia de Resende and the rest of the Mission reach Italy end of Jan. 1514. 1515 (7 Sept.) Birth of Inf. Duarte. — (21 Sept.) G.V. receives a grant of 20 milreis for the dowry of his sister Felipa Borges. 1515? (Lisbon, 2nd half of year) Auto da Fama (14). [Snr Braamcamp Freire assigns the Auto da Festa to this year 1515.] — (Dec.) Death of Albuquerque in India. — Birth of Santa Teresa at Avila. 1516 (9 Sept.) Birth of Inf. Antonio. 1516? (Lisbon, Christmas) Auto dos Quatro Tempos (15). — Discovery of Mexico. — Garcia de Resende's Cancioneiro Geral published. — Death of Giovanni Bellini. 1517 Luther starts the Reformation. — (Feb.) King Manuel organises a fight between a rhinoceros and an elephant in an enclosed space in front of Lisbon's Casa da Contrataçam da India. — (7 March) Death of Queen Maria. 1517 (Lisbon) Auto da Barca do Inferno (16). 1517 (6 Aug.) G.V. resigns the post of Mestre da Balança in favour of Diogo Rodriguez. 1517? G.V. marries Melicia Rodriguez. 1518? (Lisbon, Holy Week) Auto da Alma (17). 1517 or 18 Birth of Francisco de Hollanda. 1518 (23 Nov.) Queen Lianor (King Manuel's third wife) arrives in Portugal. 1518 (Lisbon, Christmas) Auto da Barca do Purgatorio (18). [General Brito Rebello, Dr Theophilo Braga and Senhor Braamcamp Freire assign the verses to the Conde de Vimioso to this year 1518.] — Birth of Tintoretto. c.1519? Birth of G.V.'s eldest daughter, Paula. 1519 (Lisbon, Holy Week) Auto da Barca da Gloria (19). 1519 King Charles of Spain elected Emperor (Charles V). — Death of Leonardo da Vinci. — Death of John Colet. 1520 G.V. makes arrangements for the royal entry into Lisbon. 1520? Birth of G.V.'s son Luis. — (18 Feb.) Birth of Inf. Carlos at Evora ( Lisbon, 15 Ap. 1521). — Death of Raffael. — Death of John Skelton. — Fernão de Magalhães discovers the 'Straits of Magellan.' 1521 (Jan.) King and Queen's entry into Lisbon. — (Lisbon, Holy Week?) Comedia de Rubena (20). — (Lisbon, 4 Aug.) Cortes de Jupiter (21). — (8 June) Birth of Inf. Maria ( 1577). — Solemn reception in Lisbon of Embassy from Venice. — Departure of Inf. Beatriz to wed the Duke of Savoy. — (13 Dec.) Death of King Manuel. — (Dec.) Proclamation of João III. — Death of Magalhães. 1522 Pranto de Maria Parda. — Famine in Portugal. 1523 G.V. receives the sum of six milreis. — Clement VII becomes Pope. — (Thomar, July-Sept.) Farsa de Ines Pereira (22).
— (Evora, Christmas) Auto Pastoril Portugues (23).
1524 G.V. receives two pensions (12 and 8 milreis). — (Evora, 2nd half of year) Fragoa de Amor (24) — Birth of Pierre Ronsard. — Birth of Luis de Camões. — Death of Dom Vasco da Gama. 1525 G.V. receives a pension of three bushels of wheat. 1525? (Evora, Holy Week) Farsa das Ciganas (25). — (Lisbon?) Dom Duardos (26). — (Almeirim, Oct.-Nov.?) O Juiz da Beira (27). — (Evora, Christmas) Auto da Festa (28). — Trovas ao Conde de Vimioso. — Plague and famine at Lisbon. — François I taken prisoner at battle of Pavia. — (17 Nov.) Death of Queen Lianor (widow of João II). — Birth of Joachim du Bellay.
1526 (Lisbon, Jan.) Templo de Apolo (29). 1526-8 (Almeirim) Sumario da Historia de Deos (30). — (Almeirim) Dialogo sobre a Ressurreiçam (31). 1526 Marriage of Emperor Charles V and Isabel, d. of King Manuel. — Sá de Miranda returns from Italy. — Boscán tackles the hendecasyllable. 1527 (Lisbon) Nao de Amores (32). — (Coimbra) Divisa da Cidade de Coimbra (33). — (Coimbra) Farsa dos Almocreves (34). — (Coimbra) Tragicomedia da Serra da Estrella (35). — Birth of Inf. Maria. — Birth of Fray Luis de León. — Birth of Philip II of Spain. — Sack of Rome. — Death of Machiavelli. — Trovas a Dom João III. 1528 G.V. receives a further pension of 12 milreis. 1528 (Lisbon, Christmas) Auto da Feira (36). 1528 Death of Durer. — Birth of Antonio Ferreira. 1529 Birth of Inf. Isabel. 1529? Death of Juan del Enzina. 1529 (Lisbon, April) Triunfo do Inverno (37). 1529-30 (Lisbon, Christmas? Between Sept. 1529 and Feb. 19, 1530) O Clerigo da Beira (38). c.1530? Birth of G.V.'s daughter Valeria Borges. 1530 (15 Feb.) Birth of Inf. Beatriz. 1531 (Jan.) G.V. preaches a sermon to the monks at Santarem on occasion of the earthquake. c.1530 Trovas a Felipe Guilhen. 1531 Jubileu de Amores acted at Brussels. — Birth of Inf. Manuel. — (Jan.) Great earthquake at Lisbon and other towns. — First Bull for establishment of Inquisition in Portugal. 1531? Death of Bartolomé de Torres Naharro. 1532 (Lisbon) Auto da Lusitania (39). 1533 (Evora) Romagem de Aggravados (40). — (Evora) Amadis de Gaula (41). — Birth of Michel de Montaigne. — Clenardus comes to Portugal from Salamanca. 1533? Death of Duarte Pacheco. 1534 (Oudivellas) Auto da Cananea (42). — (Evora, Christmas) Auto da Mofina Mendes (43). — Birth of Fernando de Herrera, el Divino. 1535 G.V. receives 8 milreis as dress allowance (vestiaria). — [The Conde de Sabugosa assigns the Auto da Festa to this year.] — Sir Thomas More executed. 1536 (Evora) Floresta de Enganos (44). 1536 Death of Erasmus. — Death of Garci Lasso de la Vega. — Death of Garcia de Resende. — Introduction of Inquisition into Portugal. 1536? Death of G.V. at Evora.
INDEX OF PERSONS AND PLACES
Abrantes, 48 Abul (Vasco), xviii Aden, xxi Afonso V, x Afonso Prince, xii, xiii Afonso (Gregorio), xxxviii Africa, x, xix, xxii, 34, 75 Alarcón (Pedro Antonio de), l Albuquerque (Afonso de), xix, xxi, xxxv, 77 Alcobaça, 39, 40 Aleandro, Cardinal, xxvii, xxx Alfonso X, xl Almada, xix, 27, 76 Almeida (Dom Francisco de), xxxv Almeida Garrett, Visconde, xlii, li Almeirim, xix, xxii, xxvi, xli Alvarez (Francisco), xxix Amadis de Gaula, xxx, xlv Anriquez (Luis), xiii Apolonio, Libro de, xlvii Aristotle, xxxvi, xliii, xlvi Arruda, 27, 76 Arzila, xix Astorga, Marqués de, xxxi Aulegrafia, xxxix Aveiro, 46, 81 Azamor, xx, xxi, 23, 75
Barcellos, x Barros (João de), xviii Beatriz, Dona, xiv, xv Beatriz, Duchess of Savoy, xxiii, 29, 77 Beira, xi, xxxvii, xxxix, xl, xliii, 55, 71 Belem, xv, xvi, xviii, xxxv Berceo (Gonzalo de), xxxvii Bezerra (Branca), xxi Bible, The, xxx, xxxvii, xlii, xliii, xlviii Biscay, 37 Borges (Felipa), xiii Borges (Valeria), xxxi Braamcamp Freire (Anselmo), vi, ix, xii, xvi, xix, xx, xxii, xxv, xxvi, xxvii, xxix Braga (Theophilo), ix, xvi Braganza, Ferdinand, Duke of, x Braganza, James, Duke of, xx, 23, 75 Brazil, xiv, 53 Brito Rebello (Jacinto Ignacio), x, xviii, xxvi Brittany, 37 Browning (Robert), xlix, 82 Brussels, xxx
Calderón (Pedro), xliv, li Camões (Luis de), xxv Cananor, xv Cancioneiro da Vaticana, xlii Cancioneiro Geral, ix, xiii, xxxvii, xlii, xliii, xlv Candosa, 80 Caparica, 27, 76 Cartaxo, 26, 76 Castilla, xxviii, xxxii, xlv, 55, 69 Catharine, Queen, xxv, xxix, xlv Caviceo (Jacopo), xliv Cea. See Sea Celestina, xlvi Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, Les, l Certã. See Sertãe Cervantes (Miguel de), li Charles V, xxv Chiado. See Ribeiro (A.) Cintra. See Sintra Clenardus (Nicolaus), 80 Cochin, x Coimbra, xxix, xli, 37, 55, 56, 57, 63, 78 Colares, xxii Colón (Fernando), xliv Columbus (Christopher), xiv Conde Lucanor, El, xlviii, l Correa Garcão (Pedro Antonio), li Coutinho, Marshal, xix Covilham, 68, 83 Crato, xxii Crete, xxxii Cronica Troyana, xx Cunha (Tristão da), xix, 75, 76
Dante Alighieri, xliii Danza de la Muerte, xxiv, xxxvii, xxxviii, xli, xlii, xliv Diaz (Hernando), xliv Durer (Albrecht), 76
England, xlvii Enzina (Juan del), xi, xiii, xx, xxi, xxxi, xli, xlii, xliv, xlv, 73, 75 Evora, x, xii, xiii, xxii, xxv, xxviii, xxx, xxxi, xli, xliii
Felipe, Infante, xxx Ferdinand the Catholic, xxi, xxxvii Fernández (Lucas), xi, xxii, xxxvi, 73, 83 Fernando, Infante, 29, 77 Fez, 31, 35 Flanders, 49 Fortunatus (Venantius), 74 France, xlii, xlvii, 26, 44, 49, 50, 81 François I, xxx Fronteira, 64, 83
Gama (Vasco da), xv Gaunt (John of), x Gautier (Théophile), 73 Germany, 49 Gesta Romanorum, xlvii Goa, xxi Goes (Damião de), xi, xxiii, xxxii, 77 Goethe (Johann Wolfgang von), 11, 73, 74 Gouvea, 68, 83 Gower (John), xlvii Granada, xiv Guimarães, x, xii Guinea, 40
Henry, Cardinal-King, 75 Henry, the Navigator, x Herculano (Alexandre), ix Hita, Archpriest of. See Ruiz Holland, xlvii Hollanda (Francisco de), 76 Hutten (Ulrich von), 76
India, xiv, xv, xix, xxi, xl Isabel, Empress, xxiii, xxviii, 35, 56, 76-7 Isabel, Infanta, xii, xiii Isabel, d. of João III, xxix Isabella the Catholic, xv Iseu, xlv Italy, xi, xxix, xlvii, 82
Jews, xxxii, xxxiii, xlix João I, Master of Avis, x João II, x, xii, xiii, xiv, xxxiv João III, xiv, xxiii, xxiv, xxv, xxix, xxx, xxxii, xxxiii, 28 Juan Manuel, Infante, xlviii, l
La Fontaine (Jean de), l Lancaster, Philippa of. See Philippa Landeira, 26, 76 Lazarillo de Tormes, xliii Leite de Vasconcellos (José), vi, ix, xi Lianor, Queen Consort of João II, xii-xv, xvii-xxiii, xxv, l, 73, 74 Lianor, Queen Consort of Manuel I, xxii, xxiii, xxxviii Lisbon, x, xiii-xvi, xviii-xxiv, xxvi, xxvii, xxxviii-xl, xlviii Luis, Infante, xviii, xxiii, 23, 75 Lumiar, 26, 76 Luther (Martin), xxxiii, xxxvi
Machado (Simão), 80 Macias, xliv, 82 Malaca, xxi Manrique (Gomez), xxi, 75, 77 Manrique (Jorge), 73 Manteigas, 68, 83 Manuel I, xi, xiv, xv, xviii-xxiv, xxxii, xxxvii, xlvi, 73 Maria, Queen, xiv, xxii, xlvi Martial, 78 Mealhada, 26, 76 Medina, 48, 81 Menander, xxxi Menéndez y Pelayo (Marcelino), v, xvi, xxv, xliv Michaelis de Vasconcellos (Carolina), vi, ix, x Miguel, Infante, xliii Minho, x Monsarraz, 64 Morocco, 31
Newman (John Henry), Cardinal, xxx, li, 73, 74 Nun' Alvarez Pereira, x
Ortiz de Vilhegas (Diogo), 80 Osorio (Jeronimo), xxiii Oudivellas, xxx
Pacheco Pereira (Duarte), 90, 91 Pederneira, 39, 79 Penella, Conde de, xxxiv Philippa, Queen, x Pinto (Frei Heitor), xlix Plautus, xxxi, xliii Portugal, x, xx, xxiv, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxvii, xli, xlvii, 31, 77, 78, 81 Portugal (Dom Martinho de), xxviii Pradilla, El Bachiller de la, xxii Prestes (Antonio), l Prevaricación de Adán, 74 Primaleon, xxv Psalm LI, xxv