Five Stages of Greek Religion
by Gilbert Murray
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And at first we ourselves, having fallen from heaven and living with the Nymph, are in despondency, and abstain from corn and all rich and unclean food, for both are hostile to the soul. Then comes the cutting of the tree and the fast, as though we also were cutting off the further process of generation. After that the feeding on milk, as though we were being born again; after which come rejoicings and garlands and, as it were, a return up to the Gods.

The season of the ritual is evidence to the truth of these explanations. The rites are performed about the Vernal Equinox, when the fruits of the earth are ceasing to be produced, and day is becoming longer than night, which applies well to Spirits rising higher. (At least, the other equinox is in mythology the time of the Rape of Kore, which is the descent of the souls.)

May these explanations of the myths find favour in the eyes of the Gods themselves and the souls of those who wrote the myths.

V. On the First Cause.

Next in order comes knowledge of the First Cause and the subsequent orders of the gods, then the nature of the world, the essence of intellect and of soul, then Providence, Fate, and Fortune, then to see Virtue and Vice and the various forms of social constitution good and bad that are formed from them, and from what possible source Evil came into the world.

Each of these subjects needs many long discussions; but there is perhaps no harm in stating them briefly, so that a disciple may not be completely ignorant about them.

It is proper to the First Cause to be One—for unity precedes multitude—and to surpass all things in power and goodness. Consequently all things must partake of it. For owing to its power nothing else can hinder it, and owing to its goodness it will not hold itself apart.

If the First Cause were Soul, all things would possess Soul. If it were Mind, all things would possess Mind. If it were Being, all things would partake of Being. And seeing this quality (i. e. Being) in all things, some men have thought that it was Being. Now if things simply were, without being good, this argument would be true, but if things that are are because of their goodness, and partake in the good, the First thing must needs be both beyond-Being and good. It is strong evidence of this that noble souls despise Being for the sake of the good, when they face death for their country or friends or for the sake of virtue.—After this inexpressible power come the orders of the Gods.

VI. On Gods Cosmic and Hypercosmic.

Of the Gods some are of the world, Cosmic, and some above the world, Hypercosmic. By the Cosmic I mean those who make the Cosmos. Of the Hypercosmic Gods some create Essence, some Mind, and some Soul. Thus they have three orders; all of which may be found in treatises on the subject.

Of the Cosmic Gods some make the World be, others animate it, others harmonize it, consisting as it does of different elements; the fourth class keep it when harmonized.

These are four actions, each of which has a beginning, middle, and end, consequently there must be twelve gods governing the world.

Those who make the world are Zeus, Poseidon, and Hephaistos; those who animate it are Demeter, Hera, and Artemis; those who harmonize it are Apollo, Aphrodite, and Hermes; those who watch over it are Hestia, Athena, and Ares.

One can see secret suggestions of this in their images. Apollo tunes a lyre; Athena is armed; Aphrodite is naked (because harmony creates beauty, and beauty in things seen is not covered).

While these twelve in the primary sense possess the world, we should consider that the other gods are contained in these. Dionysus in Zeus, for instance, Asklepios in Apollo, the Charites in Aphrodite.

We can also discern their various spheres: to Hestia belongs the Earth, to Poseidon water, to Hera air, to Hephaistos fire. And the six superior spheres to the gods to whom they are usually attributed. For Apollo and Artemis are to be taken for the Sun and Moon, the sphere of Kronos should be attributed to Demeter, the ether to Athena, while the heaven is common to all. Thus the orders, powers, and spheres of the Twelve Gods have been explained and celebrated in hymns.

VII. On the Nature of the World and its Eternity.

The Cosmos itself must of necessity be indestructible and uncreated. Indestructible because, suppose it destroyed: the only possibility is to make one better than this or worse or the same or a chaos. If worse, the power which out of the better makes the worse must be bad. If better, the maker who did not make the better at first must be imperfect in power. If the same, there will be no use in making it; if a chaos . . . it is impious even to hear such a thing suggested. These reasons would suffice to show that the World is also uncreated: for if not destroyed, neither is it created. Everything that is created is subject to destruction. And further, since the Cosmos exists by the goodness of God it follows that God must always be good and the world exist. Just as light coexists with the Sun and with fire, and shadow coexists with a body.

Of the bodies in the Cosmos, some imitate Mind and move in orbits; some imitate Soul and move in a straight line, fire and air upward, earth and water downward. Of those that move in orbits the fixed sphere goes from the east, the Seven from the west. (This is so for various causes, especially lest the creation should be imperfect owing to the rapid circuit of the spheres.[208:1])

The movement being different, the nature of the bodies must also be different; hence the celestial body does not burn or freeze what it touches, or do anything else that pertains to the four elements.[209:1]

And since the Cosmos is a sphere—the zodiac proves that—and in every sphere 'down' means 'towards the centre', for the centre is farthest distant from every point, and heavy things fall 'down' and fall to the earth <it follows that the Earth is in the centre of the Cosmos>.

All these things are made by the Gods, ordered by Mind, moved by Soul. About the Gods we have spoken already.

VIII. On Mind and Soul, and that the latter is immortal.

There is a certain force,[209:2] less primary than Being but more primary than the Soul, which draws its existence from Being and completes the Soul as the Sun completes the eyes. Of Souls some are rational and immortal, some irrational and mortal. The former are derived from the first Gods, the latter from the secondary.

First, we must consider what soul is. It is, then, that by which the animate differs from the inanimate. The difference lies in motion, sensation, imagination, intelligence. Soul, therefore, when irrational, is the life of sense and imagination; when rational, it is the life which controls sense and imagination and uses reason.

The irrational soul depends on the affections of the body; it feels desire and anger irrationally. The rational soul both, with the help of reason, despises the body, and, fighting against the irrational soul, produces either virtue or vice, according as it is victorious or defeated.

It must be immortal, both because it knows the gods (and nothing mortal knows[210:1] what is immortal), it looks down upon human affairs as though it stood outside them, and, like an unbodied thing, it is affected in the opposite way to the body. For while the body is young and fine, the soul blunders, but as the body grows old it attains its highest power. Again, every good soul uses mind; but no body can produce mind: for how should that which is without mind produce mind? Again, while Soul uses the body as an instrument, it is not in it; just as the engineer is not in his engines (although many engines move without being touched by any one). And if the Soul is often made to err by the body, that is not surprising. For the arts cannot perform their work when their instruments are spoilt.

IX. On Providence, Fate, and Fortune.

This is enough to show the Providence of the Gods. For whence comes the ordering of the world, if there is no ordering power? And whence comes the fact that all things are for a purpose: e. g. irrational soul that there may be sensation, and rational that the earth may be set in order?

But one can deduce the same result from the evidences of Providence in nature: e. g. the eyes have been made transparent with a view to seeing; the nostrils are above the mouth to distinguish bad-smelling foods; the front teeth are sharp to cut food, the back teeth broad to grind it. And we find every part of every object arranged on a similar principle. It is impossible that there should be so much providence in the last details, and none in the first principles. Then the arts of prophecy and of healing, which are part of the Cosmos, come of the good providence of the Gods.

All this care for the world, we must believe, is taken by the Gods without any act of will or labour. As bodies which possess some power produce their effects by merely existing: e. g. the sun gives light and heat by merely existing; so, and far more so, the Providence of the Gods acts without effort to itself and for the good of the objects of its forethought. This solves the problems of the Epicureans, who argue that what is Divine neither has trouble itself nor gives trouble to others.

The incorporeal providence of the Gods, both for bodies and for souls, is of this sort; but that which is of bodies and in bodies is different from this, and is called Fate, Heimarmene, because the chain of causes (Heirmos) is more visible in the case of bodies; and it is for dealing with this Fate that the science of 'Mathematic' has been discovered.[211:1]

Therefore, to believe that human things, especially their material constitution, are ordered not only by celestial beings but by the Celestial Bodies, is a reasonable and true belief. Reason shows that health and sickness, good fortune and bad fortune, arise according to our deserts from that source. But to attribute men's acts of injustice and lust to Fate, is to make ourselves good and the Gods bad. Unless by chance a man meant by such a statement that in general all things are for the good of the world and for those who are in a natural state, but that bad education or weakness of nature changes the goods of Fate for the worse. Just as it happens that the Sun, which is good for all, may be injurious to persons with ophthalmia or fever. Else why do the Massagetae eat their fathers, the Hebrews practise circumcision, and the Persians preserve rules of rank?[212:1] Why do astrologers, while calling Saturn and Mars 'malignant', proceed to make them good, attributing to them philosophy and royalty, generalships and treasures? And if they are going to talk of triangles and squares, it is absurd that gods should change their natures according to their position in space, while human virtue remains the same everywhere. Also the fact that the stars predict high or low rank for the father of the person whose horoscope is taken, teaches that they do not always make things happen but sometimes only indicate things. For how could things which preceded the birth depend upon the birth?

Further, as there is Providence and Fate concerned with nations and cities, and also concerned with each individual, so there is also Fortune, which should next be treated. That power of the gods which orders for the good things which are not uniform, and which happen contrary to expectation, is commonly called Fortune, and it is for this reason that the goddess is especially worshipped in public by cities; for every city consists of elements which are not uniform. Fortune has power beneath the moon, since above the moon no single thing can happen by fortune.

If Fortune makes a wicked man prosperous and a good man poor, there is no need to wonder. For the wicked regard wealth as everything, the good as nothing. And the good fortune of the bad cannot take away their badness, while virtue alone will be enough for the good.

X. Concerning Virtue and Vice.

The doctrine of Virtue and Vice depends on that of the Soul. When the irrational soul enters into the body and immediately produces Fight and Desire, the rational soul, put in authority over all these, makes the soul tripartite, composed of Reason, Fight, and Desire. Virtue in the region of Reason is Wisdom, in the region of Fight is Courage, in the region of Desire it is Temperance: the virtue of the whole Soul is Righteousness. It is for Reason to judge what is right, for Fight in obedience to Reason to despise things that appear terrible, for Desire to pursue not the apparently desirable, but, that which is with Reason desirable. When these things are so, we have a righteous life; for righteousness in matters of property is but a small part of virtue. And thus we shall find all four virtues in properly trained men, but among the untrained one may be brave and unjust, another temperate and stupid, another prudent and unprincipled. Indeed these qualities should not be called Virtues when they are devoid of Reason and imperfect and found in irrational beings. Vice should be regarded as consisting of the opposite elements. In Reason it is Folly, in Fight, Cowardice, in Desire, Intemperance, in the whole soul, Unrighteousness.

The virtues are produced by the right social organization and by good rearing and education, the vices by the opposite.

XI. Concerning right and wrong Social Organization.[214:1]

Constitutions also depend on the tripartite nature of the Soul. The rulers are analogous to Reason, the soldiers to Fight, the common folk to Desires.

Where all things are done according to Reason and the best man in the nation rules, it is a Kingdom; where more than one rule according to Reason and Fight, it is an Aristocracy; where the government is according to Desire and offices depend on money, that constitution is called a Timocracy. The contraries are: to Kingdom tyranny, for Kingdom does all things with the guidance of reason and tyranny nothing; to Aristocracy oligarchy, when not the best people but a few of the worst are rulers; to Timocracy democracy, when not the rich but the common folk possess the whole power.

XII. The origin of evil things; and that there is no positive evil.

The Gods being good and making all things, how do evils exist in the world? Or perhaps it is better first to state the fact that, the Gods being good and making all things, there is no positive evil, it only comes by absence of good; just as darkness itself does not exist, but only comes about by absence of light.

If Evil exists it must exist either in Gods or minds or souls or bodies. It does not exist in any god, for all god is good. If any one speaks of a 'bad mind' he means a mind without mind. If of a bad soul, he will make soul inferior to body, for no body in itself is evil. If he says that Evil is made up of soul and body together, it is absurd that separately they should not be evil, but joined should create evil.

Suppose it is said that there are evil spirits:—if they have their power from the gods, they cannot be evil; if from elsewhere, the gods do not make all things. If they do not make all things, then either they wish to and cannot, or they can and do not wish; neither of which is consistent with the idea of God. We may see, therefore, from these arguments, that there is no positive evil in the world.

It is in the activities of men that the evils appear, and that not of all men nor always. And as to these, if men sinned for the sake of evil, Nature itself would be evil. But if the adulterer thinks his adultery bad but his pleasure good, and the murderer thinks the murder bad but the money he gets by it good, and the man who does evil to an enemy thinks that to do evil is bad but to punish his enemy good, and if the soul commits all its sins in that way, then the evils are done for the sake of goodness. (In the same way, because in a given place light does not exist, there comes darkness, which has no positive existence.) The soul sins therefore because, while aiming at good, it makes mistakes about the good, because it is not Primary Essence. And we see many things done by the Gods to prevent it from making mistakes and to heal it when it has made them. Arts and sciences, curses and prayers, sacrifices and initiations, laws and constitutions, judgements and punishments, all came into existence for the sake of preventing souls from sinning; and when they are gone forth from the body gods and spirits of purification cleanse them of their sins.

XIII. How things eternal are said to 'be made' (gignesthai).

Concerning the Gods and the World and human things this account will suffice for those who are not able to go through the whole course of philosophy but yet have not souls beyond help.

It remains to explain how these objects were never made and are never separated one from another, since we ourselves have said above that the secondary substances were 'made' by the first.

Everything made is made either by art or by a physical process or according to some power.[216:1] Now in art or nature the maker must needs be prior to the made: but the maker, according to power, constitutes the made absolutely together with itself, since its power is inseparable from it; as the sun makes light, fire makes heat, snow makes cold.

Now if the Gods make the world by art, they do not make it be, they make it be such as it is. For all art makes the form of the object. What therefore makes it to be?

If by a physical process, how in that case can the maker help giving part of himself to the made? As the Gods are incorporeal, the World ought to be incorporeal too. If it were argued that the Gods were bodies, then where would the power of incorporeal things come from? And if we were to admit it, it would follow that when the world decays, its maker must be decaying too, if he is a maker by physical process.

If the Gods make the world neither by art nor by physical process, it only remains that they make it by power. Everything so made subsists together with that which possesses the power. Neither can things so made be destroyed, except the power of the maker be taken away: so that those who believe in the destruction of the world, either deny the existence of the gods, or, while admitting it, deny God's power.

Therefore he who makes all things by his own power makes all things subsist together with himself. And since his power is the greatest power he must needs be the maker not only of men and animals, but of Gods, men, and spirits.[217:1] And the further removed the First God is from our nature, the more powers there must be between us and him. For all things that are very far apart have many intermediate points between them.

XIV. In what sense, though the Gods never change, they are said to be made angry and appeased.

If any one thinks the doctrine of the unchangeableness of the Gods is reasonable and true, and then wonders how it is that they rejoice in the good and reject the bad, are angry with sinners and become propitious when appeased, the answer is as follows: God does not rejoice—for that which rejoices also grieves; nor is he angered—for to be angered is a passion; nor is he appeased by gifts—if he were, he would be conquered by pleasure.

It is impious to suppose that the Divine is affected for good or ill by human things. The Gods are always good and always do good and never harm, being always in the same state and like themselves. The truth simply is that, when we are good, we are joined to the Gods by our likeness to them; when bad, we are separated from them by our unlikeness. And when we live according to virtue we cling to the gods, and when we become evil we make the gods our enemies—not because they are angered against us, but because our sins prevent the light of the gods from shining upon us, and put us in communion with spirits of punishment. And if by prayers and sacrifices we find forgiveness of sins, we do not appease or change the gods, but by what we do and by our turning towards the Divine we heal our own badness and so enjoy again the goodness of the gods. To say that God turns away from the evil is like saying that the sun hides himself from the blind.

XV. Why we give worship to the Gods when they need nothing.

This solves the question about sacrifices and other rites performed to the Gods. The Divine itself is without needs, and the worship is paid for our own benefit. The providence of the Gods reaches everywhere and needs only some congruity[218:1] for its reception. All congruity comes about by representation and likeness; for which reason the temples are made in representation of heaven, the altar of earth, the images of life (that is why they are made like living things), the prayers of the element of thought, the mystic letters[219:1] of the unspeakable celestial forces, the herbs and stones of matter, and the sacrificial animals of the irrational life in us.

From all these things the Gods gain nothing; what gain could there be to God? It is we who gain some communion with them.

XVI. Concerning sacrifices and other worships, that we benefit man by them, but not the gods.

I think it well to add some remarks about sacrifices. In the first place, since we have received everything from the gods, and it is right to pay the giver some tithe of his gifts, we pay such a tithe of possessions in votive offerings, of bodies in gifts of adornment, and of life in sacrifices. Then secondly, prayers without sacrifices are only words, with sacrifices they are live words; the word gives meaning to the life, while the life animates the word. Thirdly, the happiness of every object is its own perfection; and perfection for each is communion with its own cause. For this reason we pray for communion with the Gods. Since, therefore, the first life is the life of the gods, but human life is also life of a kind, and human life wishes for communion with divine life, a mean term is needed. For things very far apart cannot have communion without a mean term, and the mean term must be like the things joined; therefore the mean term between life and life must be life. That is why men sacrifice animals; only the rich do so now, but in old days everybody did, and that not indiscriminately, but giving the suitable offerings to each god together with a great deal of other worship. Enough of this subject.

XVII. That the World is by nature Eternal.

We have shown above that the gods will not destroy the world. It remains to show that its nature is indestructible.

Everything that is destroyed is either destroyed by itself or by something else. If the world is destroyed by itself, fire must needs burn itself and water dry itself. If by something else, it must be either by a body or by something incorporeal. By something incorporeal is impossible; for incorporeal things preserve bodies—nature, for instance, and soul—and nothing is destroyed by a cause whose nature is to preserve it. If it is destroyed by some body, it must be either by those which exist or by others.

If by those which exist: then either those moving in a straight line must be destroyed by those that revolve, or vice versa. But those that revolve have no destructive nature; else, why do we never see anything destroyed from that cause? Nor yet can those which are moving straight touch the others; else, why have they never been able to do so yet?

But neither can those moving straight be destroyed by one another: for the destruction of one is the creation of another; and that is not to be destroyed but to change.

But if the World is to be destroyed by other bodies than these it is impossible to say where such bodies are or whence they are to arise.

Again, everything destroyed is destroyed either in form or matter. (Form is the shape of a thing, matter the body.) Now if the form is destroyed and the matter remains, we see other things come into being. If matter is destroyed, how is it that the supply has not failed in all these years?

If when matter is destroyed other matter takes its place, the new matter must come either from something that is or from something that is not. If from that-which-is, as long as that-which-is always remains, matter always remains. But if that-which-is is destroyed, such a theory means that not the World only but everything in the universe is destroyed.

If again matter comes from that-which-is-not: in the first place, it is impossible for anything to come from that which is not; but suppose it to happen, and that matter did arise from that which is not; then, as long as there are things which are not, matter will exist. For I presume there can never be an end of things which are not.

If they say that matter formless: in the first place, why does this happen to the world as a whole when it does not happen to any part? Secondly, by this hypothesis they do not destroy the being of bodies, but only their beauty.

Further, everything destroyed is either resolved into the elements from which it came, or else vanishes into not-being. If things are resolved into the elements from which they came, then there will be others: else how did they come into being at all? If that-which-is is to depart into not-being, what prevents that happening to God himself? (Which is absurd.) Or if God's power prevents that, it is not a mark of power to be able to save nothing but oneself. And it is equally impossible for that-which-is to come out of nothing and to depart into nothing.

Again, if the World is destroyed, it must needs either be destroyed according to Nature or against Nature. Against Nature is impossible, for that which is against nature is not stronger than Nature.[222:1] If according to Nature, there must be another Nature which changes the Nature of the World: which does not appear.

Again, anything that is naturally destructible we can ourselves destroy. But no one has ever destroyed or altered the round body of the World. And the elements, though they can be changed, cannot be destroyed. Again, everything destructible is changed by time and grows old. But the world through all these years has remained utterly unchanged.

Having said so much for the help of those who feel the need of very strong demonstrations, I pray the World himself to be gracious to me.

XVIII. Why there are rejections of God, and that God is not injured.

Nor need the fact that rejections of God have taken place in certain parts of the earth and will often take place hereafter, disturb the mind of the wise: both because these things do not affect the gods, just as we saw that worship did not benefit them; and because the soul, being of middle essence, cannot be always right; and because the whole world cannot enjoy the providence of the gods equally, but some parts may partake of it eternally, some at certain times, some in the primal manner, some in the secondary. Just as the head enjoys all the senses, but the rest of the body only one.

For this reason, it seems, those who ordained Festivals ordained also Forbidden Days, in which some temples lay idle, some were shut, some had their adornment removed, in expiation of the weakness of our nature.

It is not unlikely, too, that the rejection of God is a kind of punishment: we may well believe that those who knew the gods and neglected them in one life may in another life be deprived of the knowledge of them altogether. Also those who have worshipped their own kings as gods have deserved as their punishment to lose all knowledge of God.

XIX. Why sinners are not punished at once.

There is no need to be surprised if neither these sins nor yet others bring immediate punishment upon sinners. For it is not only Spirits[223:1] who punish the soul, the Soul brings itself to judgement: and also it is not right for those who endure for ever to attain everything in a short time: and also, there is need of human virtue. If punishment followed instantly upon sin, men would act justly from fear and have no virtue.

Souls are punished when they have gone forth from the body, some wandering among us, some going to hot or cold places of the earth, some harassed by Spirits. Under all circumstances they suffer with the irrational part of their nature, with which they also sinned. For its sake[224:1] there subsist that shadowy body which is seen about graves, especially the graves of evil livers.

XX. On Transmigration of Souls, and how Souls are said to migrate into brute beasts.

If the transmigration of a soul takes place into a rational being, it simply becomes the soul of that body. But if the soul migrates into a brute beast, it follows the body outside, as a guardian spirit follows a man. For there could never be a rational soul in an irrational being.

The transmigration of souls can be proved from the congenital afflictions of persons. For why are some born blind, others paralytic, others with some sickness in the soul itself? Again, it is the natural duty of Souls to do their work in the body; are we to suppose that when once they leave the body they spend all eternity in idleness?

Again, if the souls did not again enter into bodies, they must either be infinite in number or God must constantly be making new ones. But there is nothing infinite in the world; for in a finite whole there cannot be an infinite part. Neither can others be made; for everything in which something new goes on being created, must be imperfect. And the World, being made by a perfect author, ought naturally to be perfect.

XXI. That the Good are happy, both living and dead.

Souls that have lived in virtue are in general happy,[224:2] and when separated from the irrational part of their nature, and made clean from all matter, have communion with the gods and join them in the governing of the whole world. Yet even if none of this happiness fell to their lot, virtue itself, and the joy and glory of virtue, and the life that is subject to no grief and no master are enough to make happy those who have set themselves to live according to virtue and have achieved it.


[200:1] I translate kosmos generally as 'World', sometimes as 'Cosmos'. It always has the connotation of 'divine order'; psyche always 'Soul', to keep it distinct from zoe, 'physical life', though often 'Life' would be a more natural English equivalent; empsychoun 'to animate'; ousia sometimes 'essence', sometimes 'being' (never 'substance' or 'nature'); physis 'nature'; soma sometimes 'body', sometimes 'matter'.

[203:1] e. g. when we say 'The sun is coming in through the window', or in Greek exaiphnes hekon ek tou heliou, Plat. Rep. 516 E. This appears to mean that you can loosely apply the term 'Osiris' both to (i) the real Osiris and (ii) the corn which comes from him, as you can apply the name 'Sun' both to (i) the real orb and (ii) the ray that comes from the orb. However, Julian, Or. v, on the Sun suggests a different view—that both the orb and the ray are mere effects and symbols of the true spiritual Sun, as corn is of Osiris.

[204:1] archesthai Mr. L. W. Hunter, erchesthai MS. Above the Milky Way there is no such body, only soma apathes. Cf. Macrob. in Somn. Scip. i. 12.

[208:1] i. e. if the Firmament or Fixed Sphere moved in the same direction as the seven Planets, the speed would become too great. On the circular movement cf. Plot. Eun. ii. 2.

[209:1] The fire of which the heavenly bodies are made is the pempton soma, matter, but different from earthly matter. See p. 137.

[209:2] Proclus, Elem. Theol. xx, calls it he noera physis, Natura Intellectualis. There are four degrees of existence: lowest of all, Bodies; above that, Soul; above all Souls, this 'Intellectual Nature'; above that, The One.

[210:1] i. e. in the full sense of Gnosis.

[211:1] i. e. Astrology, dealing with the 'Celestial Bodies'.

[212:1] Cf. Hdt. i. 134.

[214:1] [This section is a meagre reminiscence of Plato's discussion in Repub. viii. The interest in politics and government had died out with the loss of political freedom.]

[216:1] kata dynamin, secundum potentiam quandam; i. e. in accordance with some indwelling 'virtue' or quality.

[217:1] The repetition of anthropous in this sentence seems to be a mistake.

[218:1] epitedeiotes.

[219:1] On the mystic letters see above, p. 142.

[222:1] The text here is imperfect: I have followed Mullach's correction.

[223:1] daimones.

[224:1] i. e. that it may continue to exist and satisfy justice.

[224:2] eudaimonousi.


Achaioi, 45, 49

Acropolis, 71, 72

Aeschylus, [12:4], 43

Affection, 104, 109

Agesilaus, 86

Agriculture, Religion in, 5 f.

Alexander the Great, 92, 93, 94, 115, 159

Allegory, in Hellenistic philosophy, 165 ff.; in Olympian religion, 74

allelophagia, [98:1]

Alpha and Omega, God as, 148

Anaximander, [33:1]

Angel = Megethos, 142; star, 144

Animal sacrifice, 188 f.

Anthesteria, 16-18, 34

Anthister, [18:2]

Anthropomorphism, 10 ff., 140

Antigonus Gonatas, [152:1]

Antiochus I, 144

Anti-semitism, 162

Antisthenes, 87, 89 f., 96

Apathy, [103:1], 109

Apellon = Apollon, 51

Aphiktor, 28

Aphrodite, 57

Apollo, 50, 72

Apotheosis of Hellenistic kings, [152:1]

Apparitions, primitive belief in, 27

Apuleius, 148

Aquinas, 3

Archontes, 164

Ares, 57

Arete, 89, 96, 99, 104 f.

Aristarchus of Samos, 141

Aristophanes, [20:3], [22:1], [62:1]

Aristotle, 3, 114 f., 117, 120, 127, 136, 153, [154:3]

Ark of Israel, 68

Arnim, von, [129:1], 172

Arnold, Professor E. V., [100:1]

Asceticism in antiquity, 196

Astrology, 143 f., [211:1]

Astronomy, 97

Athana (Athene), [53:1]

Atheism, 181 f., 190

Athena, [53:1], 71, 72, 74; = Athenaia Kore, 52; Pallas, 52

Athens, effect of defeat of, 79 f.

Atomic Theory of Democritus, 101; of Ionia, 105

Attis, 185

'Attributes', animals as, 20

Augustine, St., 175, 177

Aurelius, Marcus, religion of, 175 f.

Bacchos, 161

Bacon, Professor, 172

'Barbaroi' as opposed to Hellenes, 39; barbarophonoi, [42:2]

Bardesanes, [164:1]

Barnabas, St., 161

Beast-mask, 23-5

Bendis, 151

Bethe, E., [150:1]

Bevan, E., xvi, [39:1], [100:1], [154:2], 172

Birth-rate, its effect on early Christian sects, 194

Blessedness, Epicurus on, 106

Body, Fifth, 137

boopis, 24

Bousset, W., xv, 126, [150:3], 162, 172

Buddhism, 10

Bull, blood of, 20; in pre-Hellenic ritual, 19-21

Bury, Professor J. B., xv

Carpenter, Dr. E., 172

Cauer, P., [49:1]

Centaurs, 60

Chadwick, H. M., xv, 46 n., [57:3], 59

Chaldaeans, 144, 151

Chance, 131, 147

Charles, Dr., 172

chran, 37

chreia, 90

Christianity, 88, 90, 96, 109, 115, 119, 123-5, 173, 181 f., 192-5

Christmas, Father, 15

Christos, 163

Chrysippus, 115, [145:1], [145:3], [145:4], 146, 166

Chthonioi, as oracles, 37

Cicero, [27:2]

Circular movement, [208:1]

Circumcelliones, 36 n.

City of gods and men, world as, 76; of Refuge, in the Laws, 83; of Righteousness, in the Republic, 83: see Polis

Cleanthes, 135, 141, 165

Clemen, Carl, 172

Coinage, deface of, 90

'Collective Desire', God defined as the, 26, 29

Colotes, [111:1]

Comitatus, 46

Commagene, 144

Conceptions, Common, 200

Constantine, 194

Constantius, 179

Convention, 91

Conybeare, F. C., 172

Cook, A. B., [16:1], 23, [24:1], 49 f., [56:3], 66 n.

Copernicus, 97

Corinna, 43

Cornford, F. M., [33:1]

Cornutus, 166

Cosmopolites, 92

Cosmos, 97-100, 208

Crates, [95:1], 166

Creeds, 173 f., 178, 183

Crucifixion, [163:1]

Cumont, F., [35:1], 126, 172

Cynics, 3, 90-2, 93-5, 104; women among, [95:1]

Cyropaedeia, 85

Cyrus, 85

Daemon = Stoicheion, 142

Dance, religious, 27 f.

Davenport, F. M., [26:1]

Davy, G., 7 n.

Dead, worship of, 62

Deification, E. Bevan on, [154:2]

Deliverer, the, 108

Delos, 51

Delusio, 169

Demeter, 72

Democritus, Atomic Theory of, 101

Demos, 82

Demosthenes, 82

Destiny, Hymn to, 135: see Fate

Dharma, 10

Diadochi, 155

Diasia, 14-15

diatribe, 90

Dicaearchus, 121 f.

Didascaliae, 121

Diels, [33:1], [129:1], 172

Dieterich, A., [17:1], [23:1], [29:2], 126, 146, [150:3], 172

Dio Cassius, 142

Diocletian, 194 f.

Diodorus, 144 f.

Diogenes, 90-3, 95; his 'tub,' 92

Diogenes of Oenoanda, [101:1], 114, 169 f.

Dione, 56

Dionysius, 17, 20, 72, 84, 159

dioptra, 122

Disciples, qualifications and conduct of, 200

Discouragement due to collapse of the Polis, 81

Dittenberger. W., [16:1], [156:1]

Divine Mother, 164; 'Divine Wisdom', personified, 165

Dodds, E. R., [181:1]

Doutte, E., 26 f.

Dramaturge, 97

Dromenon, spring, 32 f.

Duemmler, [87:1]

Durkheim, Professor Emile, [6:1]

Earth, divinity of, 137; Earth-mother, 29

hedone, 106

Education, [113:3]

Ekstasis, 150

Elements, Apuleius on, 148; divinity of, 137; in the Kosmos, 142

empsychoun, [200:1]

Enthousiasmos, 150

Eos, 53

Epictetus, morals of, 176

Epicureans, 3, 110 f., 113, 119, 130, 145 f., 181

Epicurus, 101-11, 113, 129 f., 135, 140 f., 170, [192:1]

Epiphanes, 155

Epiphanius, 172

heroes, 37

Euergetes, 156

Euhemerus, 160

Euripides, [12:4], [54:3], passim, 143, 152

Eusebius, [27:4], 197

Evans, Sir A., 20, 66 n.

Evil, existence of, 215; origin of, 186, 214-16

Expurgation of mythology, 75 f.; Olympian, 61 f., 67 f.

Eye of Bel, 143

Failure, Great, 82

Farnell, Dr. L. R., [18:1], [20:1], 44

Fate, 132, 134, 145, 146 f., 211 f.

Federations, 80

Ferguson, W. S., [152:1]

First Cause, 185, 205 f.

Fortune, 91, 131 f., 212 f.

Fourth Century, Movements of, 3, 79-122

Frazer, Sir J. G., [16:1], [18:1], [35:1], [154:1]

Gaertringen, Hiller von, [18:2]

Galaxy, 204

Games, Roman gladiatorial, 94

Garden, 107 f., 114

Gardner. P., [57:2], [149:1]

Gennep, A. Van., [31:1]

geron, 31

Gerontes, 36

Ghosts, 221

Giants, 60

gignesthai, forms of, 216 f.

glaukopis, 24

Gnostics, 3, 123, 128, 137 f., 148, 162

God, as the 'collective desire', 26, 29; conception of, in savage tribes, 9; does not rejoice, nor is angered, 218; essence of, 158; home of, 148; of the Jews, 163; rejections of, 222 f.; unchangeable, 187; Union with, 147

God-Man, as King, 152 f.

Gods, communion with, 188; Cosmic and Hypercosmic, 206 f.; men as, 136; nature of, 200 f.; Twelve, 207; unchangeable, 217; why worshipped, 218

Good, the, 88 f., 110, 185 f., 206; happiness of, 224 f.; Idea of, as Sun of the spiritual universe, 94

graus, 31

Gruppe, Dr., [18:1], [50:3], [52:1], [56:3], 172

Hagia Triada, sarcophagus of, 20

Halliday, W. R., [32:2]

Happiness, Natural, 104

Harnack, A., 193

Harrison, Miss J. E., xiv, 13-30, passim, [148:1]

Hartland, E. S., 9

Haverfield, Professor F. J., 127

Heath, Sir T., [141:1]

Heaven, Third, 149

Hebrews, 125

Hecataeus, 143

Heimarmene, 134, 145, 211

Helen, Kore as, 138

Hellenes, conquered tribes took name of, 42; no tribe of, existing in ancient times, 41; same as Achaioi, 40

Hellenism, as standard of culture, 41

Hellenistic Age, 3 f., 114, 117, 125, 131, 144, 161, 167; culture, 125; philosophy, 165; revival, 40 f.; spirit, 152

Hera, 56

Heraclitus of Ephesus, 167

Herakles, 56, 89

Hermes, 55, 151

Hermetica, 148, 151

Hermetic communities, 146

Hermias, [116:1]

Herodotus, [27:3], 39, 41, [42:1], 44; religion of, 175

Heroes, philosophers as, 153

Heroic Age, 48 f., 57

Heroism, religious, of antiquity, 192

Hesiod, 44, 64 f.

Hipparchia, [95:1]

Hippolytus, 172

Hoffmann, Dr. O., [43:1], [52:1]

Hogarth, D. G., [24:1]

Holocaust, 14

Homer, 9, 44 f., 48 f., [54:3], passim, 64 f.

Hosioter, bull as, 20 f.

Hubert and Mauss, MM., [189:1]

Idealists, 82

Idols, defence of, [77:1]

Illusion, 112, 119

Impalement, [163:1]

Infanticide, 177

Initiations, Hellenistic, 148-52

Instinct, 100

Interpreters, Planets as, 144

Ionia, 59 f.

Ionian tradition, 101, 104

Ionians, 51

Iphigenia, [61:1]

Iranes, 32

Irenaeus, 172

Iris, 55

Isis, 151, 166

Isocrates, 81

Jacoby, [160:1]

Jaldabaoth = Saturn, 147

Javan, sons of, 42

Jews, 125, 151, 188; God of, 163

Judaism, 193

Julian, xvi, 4, 179 ff., 184 f., 197

Justin, [64:1]

Kaibel, [61:1]

Kant, 136

Keraunos, 155

Keres, 34

Kern, O., [21:2]

King, I., [29:1]

Kings, as gods, 191; divine, titles of, 155 ff.; predictions concerning, by Planets, 144; worship of, 156

Koios, 166

Kore, 63 f.; as fallen Virgin, 138; Earth, 30; Earth Maiden and Mother, 137

Kosmokratores, 146, 148, 164

Kosmos, 147, [200:1]; Moon as origin of, 169; planets as Elements in, 142

Koure, Zeus, 150

Kouretes, 150; Spring-song of, 30

Kouroi, 30; dance of, 28

Kouros, 63 f., 71; Megistos, 28; Sun as, 30; Year-Daemon, 32

Kourotrophos, Earth, 30

kratos and bia, 25, [157:1]

Kronos, 45

ktisanta, 23

ktisin, 23

Kynosarges, 89

Lampsacus, 107

Lang, Andrew, xiii, [16:2], [23:2]

Lathe biosas, 110

Leaf, W., [40:1], [49:1]

Leagues, 80

Leontion, 108

Life, inward, 119 f.

Logos, 135

Lucian, Icaro-Menippos, [15:1]

Lucretius, 38, 105, [106:1], 114

Lysander, 155

Lysias, 81

McDougall, W., 125 n.

Macedon, 81, 127

Macedonians, 93, 116, 122

Mackail, Professor J. W., 42

Man, First, 164; Righteous, of Plato, 163; Second, 163 f.; Son of Man, 163

Man-God, worship of, 156 ff.

Mana, 19, 21, 24, 34, [157:1]

Marett, R. R., [124:1]

Margoliouth, Professor, [167:1]

Markos the Gnostic, 150

Marriage, Sacred, 17 f.

Maximus of Tyre, [77:1]

Mayer, M., 46 n.

Meade, G. R. S., 172

Mediator between God and worshipper, 189; Mithras as, 151; Saviour as, 162

Medicine-king, as theos, 25, 152; powers of, 25

Megethos, 142

Meilichios, in the Diasia, 14-15, 19

Meister, R., [53:1]

Meyer, Ed., [154:3]

Mind, nature of, 209

Mithraic communities, 146

Mithraism, 148

Mithras, 123, 139, 152; as Mediator, 151; Liturgy, 146, 148; religion of, 21

Mommsen, August, [14:1], [17:1], [18:1]

Monotheism, 69 f.

Moon, as Kourotrophos, 30; as origin of Kosmos, 169; divinity of, 136 ff.

Morals, minor, 177; of antiquity, 177 f.; of Christians, 178

Moret, [23:2]

Mother, Divine, 164; Great, 185

Muelder, D., [53:1], [57:1]

Mullach, 172

Mueller, H. D., [57:1]

Music of the Spheres, 142

Myres, J. L., 40

Mysteries, 93

Mystic letters, 219

Mysticism, 169

Mythology, Olympian, 75

Myths, Sallustius' treatment of, 221 f.; why divine, 201; five species, 202; explanation of examples, 203-5

Naassenes, 146, 162

Nature, the return to, as salvation for man, 91

Nausiphanes, 101

Neo-Platonism, 181

Nerve, failure of, chap. iv.

Nikator, 155

Nilsson, M. P., [18:2], [21:2], [31:1], [32:1]

Nilus, St., 21

Norden, [159:1]

Octavius, 164, 182, [190:1]

Odin, 59

Ogdoas, 147

Oimoge, 79, 116

Olympian expurgation, 61 f., 67 ff.; family, 11; reformation, 58, 61 ff.; stage, 2; theology, 4

Olympian Gods, brought by Northern invaders, 45; character of, 46-58; coming of, 43; why so called, 44 f.

Olympian religion, achievements of, 72 ff.; beauty of, 73; conception of, 131; failure of, 67-72

Olympians, origin of, 39 ff.

Olympus, Mount, 46

Optimism, 193

Oracles, 37-8

Oreibasius, 27

Oreibates, 27

Organization, social, 214

Origins, Religious, 1

Orphic Hymns, [30:1]; literature, [64:1]

Orphism, 148

Orthia, 32

Osiris, 166

Othin, [50:1]

ousia, [200:1]

Ovid, [52:2]

Ozymandia, 144

Pagan prayer, a, 197 f.; reaction, 173 f.

Paganism, final development of, 192 f.; struggle with Christianity, 195 f.

Palimpsest, manuscript of man's creed as, 199

Palladion, 52

Pallas, Athena as, 52, 71

Panaetius, 145

Paribeni, R., [20:2]

Parker, Mrs. Langloh, 12

Parmenides, 12, [113:2]

patria, ta, 37

Paul. St., 2 f., 7, 23, 33, 60, 124, 137, 149, 158 n., 161, 164

Pauly-Wissowa, [14:1]

Pausanias, [27:3], [54:2], passim

Payne, E. J., [29:1], [30:1]

Pelasgians, 42, 44

pempton soma, 137

Periclean Age, 87, 89

Peripatetic School, 114 f., 116; spirit, 122

Peripatos, 114

Persecution of the Christians, 181

Persephone, 74 f.

pharmakos, 34

Pheidias, 50

philanthropia, 156, 158

philia, 104, 109

Philo, 172, 177

Phusis, 99, 134, [200:1]

Pindar, [31:3], 43, [52:2]

Pisistratus, 43, 53

pistis, 7

Planets, seven, history and worship of, 140 ff.

Plato, 3, 13 n., 82-4, 109, 126, 129, 163

Pleasure, pursuit of, 110

Plotinus, 2, 4, [10:2], 135; his union with God, 149

Plutarch, [27:3] 32{1}, [34:2], [54:2], passim

Poimandres, 162

Polias, he, or Polieus, ho, 71

Poliouchoi, 67

Polis, collapse of, 80, 127 f.; projection of, 71; religion of, 71, 75 f.; replaces Tribe, 66 f.

Polybius, 80

Porch, 114

Porphyry, [149:2], [188:2]

Poseidon, 54

Posidonius, 146, 159

Predestination, 145

Preuss, Dr., 2

Proclus, [209:2]

Proletariates, 194

Pronoia or Providence, Stoic belief in, 90, 135

Providence, 210 f.

psyche, [200:1]

Ptah, 151

Ptolemaios Epiphanes, 156 f.

Punishment, eternal, 9; why not immediate, 223

Purpose of Dramaturge, 97-100

Pythagoras, 167

Pythias, 116

Rack, martyrs happy on the, 192

Reason, as combatant of passion, 91

Redeemer, of the Gnostics, 162 f.; Son of the Kore, 138

Redemption, mystery of, 163

Reformation, Olympian, 61 ff.

Refuge, City of, in the Laws, 83

Refugees, sufferings of, 102

Reinach, A. J., [25:1]

Reinach, S., [25:1], [68:1], 172

Reisch, E., [11:1]

Reitzenstein, xv, 126, [150:3], 172

Religion, description of, 5-9; eternal punishment for error in, 9; falseness of, 7 ff.; Greek, extensive study of, xiii; traditional, 127; significance of, 1

Religious Origins, 1

Republic, 94

Retribution, 33

Reuterskiold, [21:3]

Revelations, divine, 171; series of, to worshippers, 151

Revival, Hellenistic, 40 ff.

Ridgeway, Professor, [40:1], [54:1]

Righteousness, City of, in the Republic, 83

Rivers, Dr., [31:2]

Robertson Smith, Dr., 21 f.

Rome, a Polis, 127

Ruah, 138

Sacraments, 148

Sacrifice, human, 35, [61:1]; condemned by Theophrastus, [188:2]; Porphyry on, [188:2]; reason for, 219 f.

Sallustius, xvi, 165, 179-81, 183-5, 193

Saturn, 147

Saviour, as Son of God and Mediator, 161 f.; dying, 35 f.; Third One, 33

Sceptics, jeux d'esprit of, 87

Schultz, W., 172

Schurtz, Ed., [31:1]

Schwartz, [159:1]

Scott, W., 172

Seeck, O., [53:1], 172

Sky, phenomena of, as origin of man's idea, 136

Snake, supernatural, 19

Social structure of worshippers, 151

Solon, 43

soma, [200:1]

Sophocles, 123

Sophrosyne, 73, 83, 114, 152, 197

Sors: see Fortune.

Soter, 155

Soul, divinity of, 153-65; human, as origin of man's idea, 136; immortal, 186; nature of, 209 f.; salvation of, 164

Sparta, Athens defeated by, 80; constitution of, 87; power of, 81

Spirit, Holy, 137; personified, 165

Stars, divinity of, 136 ff., [153:1]

Steiner, von H., Mutaziliten, [10:2]

Stoicism, 117, 146

Stoics, 3, 76, 95-7, 104, 109 f., 119, 128, 130, 145, 160, 165

Sympatheia ton holon, 145

Sun, 187; as Kouros, 30; = both orb and ray, [203:1]; divinity of, 137 ff.; worship of, 139

Sunoikismos, 63

Superstition, 130

Sweetness, Epicurus on, 106

Swine, sacred, 19

Tabu, 34 ff.

Tarn, W. W., [80:1], [152:2]

Teletai, 32

Thales, 2

tharrein, 95, 103 f.

Themis, 36, 37

Theodoret, 181

Theoi Adelphoi, 154

Theophrastus, 143, [188:2]

theos = thesos, 24; use of the word by poets, 12

Thera, [18:2]

thesmoi, derivation of, [16:1]

Thesmophoria, 16

Thespis, 43

Third One or Saviour, 33

Thomson, J. A. K., 46 n.

Thoth, 151

Thought, subjective, 128

Thracians, 150 f.

Thucydides, 41; religion of, 175

Thumb, A., [43:1], [45:2]

Transmigration of souls, 224

Trigonometry, 122

Trinity, 164

Tritos Soter, 163

Tyche: see Fortune

'Tyrants, Thirty', 84

Uncharted region of experience, 5 ff., 171, 198

Urdummheit, 2, 44, 72

Usener, [101:1], [113:2], [129:1], 172

Uzzah, 68

Vandal, [40:2]

Vegetarianism, [8:1]

Vegetation-spirit, 32

Verrall, A. W., [16:1]

Vice, definition of, 213 f.

Virgin, fallen, Kore as, 138

Virtue, definition of, 213 f.

Vision, 104

Warde Fowler, W., [17:1]

Webster, H., [31:1]

Week of seven days, established, 142 f.

Wendland, P., xvi, 126, 156, 172

Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, U. von, [43:1], 59

Wisdom, Divine, personified, 165; Wisdom-Teachers, 2

Woodward, A. M., [32:1]

Word, the, personified, 165

World, ancient and modern, 120; blessedness of, 168; end of, by fire, Christian belief in, 190; eternal and indestructible, 186 f., 189, 208-9, 220-2

Xenophanes, 12

Xenophon, 79, 85, 86

Xynesis, 73

Year-Daemon, 32 f.

Zeller, E., 128

Zeno, 96 f., 98, 109, 128

Zeus, Aphiktor, 28; in Magnesia bull-ritual, 21; Koures, 150; Meilichios, 14-15; origin and character of, 49 f.; watchdog of, 93

Zodiac, 144

Transcriber's Notes

The following corrections have been made to the text.

Page 99: if[original has is] he a governor, it is his function

Page 139: some more full-blooded and less critical element[original has critica lelement]

Page 166: ('holy' and '[opening quote missing in original]sacred', or perhaps more exactly 'lawful' and 'tabu')

Page 184: proceeds straight to the traditional[original has traditiona]

Page 227: Antigonus Gonatas[original has Gonatus], [152:1]

Page 228: Chaldaeans[original has Chaldeans], 144, 151

Page 230: Kronos, 45[original has [43:2]]

Page 231: Mommsen, August, [14:1], [17:1],[comma missing in original] [18:1]

Page 232: Pausanias, [27:3], [54:2], passim[original has extraneous period]

Page 233: Plutarch, [27:3], [32:1], [34:2], [54:2], passim[original has extraneous period]

Page 234: Urdummheit,[comma missing in original] 2, 44, 72

Footnote [16:2] A. B. Cook, J. H. S. xiv,[comma missing in original] pp. 153-4

Footnote [28:1] Hiktaios[smooth breathing mark missing in original] are common

Footnote [33:2] Rom. vi.[period missing in original] generally, 3-11

Footnote [53:1] Athenaia[original has Hathenaia] is of course simply 'Athenian'

Footnote [53:1] ha w[original has capital digamma—source document has small digamma]anassa;—ha thios ha Golgia

Footnote [90:1] see Life in Diog.[original has Diorg.] Laert.

Footnote [95:1] Diog.[original has Diorg.] Laert. vi. 96 ff.

Footnote [113:3] pheuge to akation[original has kaation]

Footnote [152:2] Ferguson's Hellenistic Athens, e. g.[period missing in original] p. 108 f.

Footnote [164:3] Gal. iv.[period missing in original] 9

Footnote [197:1] Mullach, Fragmenta Philosophorum, iii.[period missing in original] 7


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