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First Book in Physiology and Hygiene
by J.H. Kellogg
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28. Effects of Alcohol on Animal Heat.—A large part of the food we eat is used in keeping our bodies warm. Most of the starch, sugar, and fat in our food serves the body as a sort of fuel. It is by this means that the body is kept always at about the same temperature, which is just a little less than one hundred degrees. This is why we need more food in very cold weather than in very warm weather.

29. When a person takes alcohol, it is found that instead of being made warmer by it, he is not so warm as before. He feels warmer, but if his temperature be ascertained by means of a thermometer placed in his mouth, it is found that he is really colder. The more alcohol a person takes the colder he becomes. If alcohol were good food would we expect this to be the case? It is probably true that the alcohol does make a little heat, but at the same time it causes us to lose much more heat than it makes. The outside of the body is not so warm as the inside. This is because the warm blood in the blood-vessels of the skin is cooled more rapidly than the blood in the interior of the body. The effect of alcohol is to cause the blood-vessels of the outside of the body to become much enlarged. This is why the face becomes flushed. A larger amount of warm blood is brought from the inside of the body to the outside, where it is cooled very rapidly; and thus the body loses heat, instead of gaining it, under the influence of alcohol. This is not true of any proper food substance.

30. Alcohol in the Polar Regions.—Experience teaches the same thing as science respecting the effect of alcohol. Captain Ross, Dr. Kane, Captain Parry, Captain Hall, Lieutenant Greely, and many other famous explorers who have spent long months amid the ice and snow and intense cold of the countries near the North Pole, all say that alcohol does not warm a man when he is cold, and does not keep him from getting cold. Indeed, alcohol is considered so dangerous in these cold regions that no Arctic explorer at the present time could be induced to use it. The Hudson Bay Company do not allow the men who work for them to use any kind of alcoholic liquors. Alcohol is a great deceiver, is it not? It makes a man think he is warmer, when he is really colder. Many men are frozen to death while drunk.

31. Alcohol in Hot Regions.—Bruce, Livingstone, and Stanley, and all great African travellers, condemn the use of alcohol in that hot country as well as elsewhere. The Yuma Indians, who live in Arizona and New Mexico, where the weather is sometimes much hotter than we ever know it here, have made a law of their own against the use of liquor. If one of the tribe becomes drunk, he is severely punished. This law they have made because of the evil effects of liquor which they noticed among the members of their tribe who used to become intoxicated. Do you not think that a very wise thing for Indians to do?

32. Sunstroke.—Do you know what sunstroke is? If you do not, your parents or teacher will tell yow that persons exposed to the heat of the sun on a hot summer day are sometimes overcome by it. They become weak, giddy, or insensible, and not infrequently die. Scores of people are sometimes stricken down in a single day in some of our large cities. It may occur to you that if alcohol cools the body, it would be a good thing for a person to take to prevent or relieve an attack of sunstroke. On the contrary, it is found that those who use alcoholic drinks are much more liable to sunstroke than others. This is on account of the poisonous effects of the alcohol upon the nerves. No doctor would think of giving alcohol in any form to a man suffering with sunstroke.

33. Effects of Alcohol upon the Tissues.—Here are two interesting experiments which your teacher or parents can make for you.

Experiment 1. Place a piece of tender beefsteak in a saucer and cover it with alcohol. Put it away over night. In the morning the beefsteak will be found to be shrunken, dried, and almost as tough as a piece of leather. This shows the effect of alcohol upon the tissues, which are essentially like those of lower animals.

Experiment 2. Break an egg into a half glassful of alcohol. Stir the egg and alcohol together for a few minutes. Soon you will see that the egg begins to harden and look just as though it had been boiled.

34. This is the effect of strong alcohol. The alcohol of alcoholic drinks has water and other things mixed with it, so that it does not act so quickly nor so severely as pure alcohol; but the effect is essentially the same in character. It is partly in this way that the brain, nerves, muscles, and other tissues of drinking men and women become diseased.

Eminent physicians tell us that a large share of the unfortunate persons who are shut up in insane asylums are brought there by alcohol. Is it not a dreadful thing that one's mind should be thus ruined by a useless and harmful practice?

SUMMARY.

1. Alcohol is produced by fermentation, and obtained by distillation. It will burn like kerosene oil and other burning fluids.

2. The vapor of alcohol will burn and will sometimes explode.

3. Alcohol may be separated from beer and other fermented liquids by boiling.

4. Brandy is distilled from fermented fruit juice, whiskey and gin from beer or fermented grains, rum from fermented molasses.

5. Alcohol is the result of a sort of decay, and much good food is destroyed in producing it.

6. Besides ordinary alcohol, there are several other kinds. Naphtha and fusel-oil are alcohols.

7. All the members of the alcohol family are poisons; all will burn, and all will intoxicate. The alcohol family have several bad relations, among which are carbolic acid, ether, and chloroform.

8. Cider, beer, and wine are harmful and dangerous as well as strong liquors. "Bitters" often contain as much alcohol as the strongest liquors, and sometimes more.

9. Alcoholic liquors are sometimes adulterated, but they usually contain no poison worse than alcohol. Pure alcohol is scarcely less dangerous than that which is adulterated.

10. Death sometimes occurs almost instantly from taking strong liquors.

11. Alcohol will kill grass and other plants, if poured upon them or about their roots.

12. Mr. Darwin proved that the vapor of alcohol will kill plants; also that plants become intoxicated by breathing the vapor of alcohol.

13. Alcohol, even in small quantities, hinders digestion.

14. Alcohol causes the body to lose heat so rapidly that it becomes cooler instead of warmer.

15. The danger of freezing to death when exposed to extreme cold is greatly increased by taking alcohol.

16. Stanley, and other African explorers, say that it is dangerous to use alcoholic drinks in hot climates.

17. In very hot weather, persons who use alcoholic drinks are more subject to sunstroke than those who do not.

18. Beefsteak soaked in alcohol becomes tough like leather. An egg placed in alcohol is hardened as though it had been boiled.

19. The effect of alcohol upon the brain, nerves, and other tissues of the body is much the same as upon the beefsteak and the egg.



QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW.

CHAPTER I. THE HOUSE WE LIVE IN.—What is the body like? Does the body resemble anything else besides a house? How is it like a machine? Name the different parts of the body. What is anatomy? physiology? hygiene?

CHAPTER II. A GENERAL VIEW OF THE BODY.—What are the main parts of the body? Name the different parts of the head; of the trunk; of each arm; of each leg. What covers the body?

CHAPTER III. THE INSIDE OF THE BODY.—What is the name of the framework of the body? What is the skull? How is the back-bone formed? Name the two cavities of the trunk. What does the chest contain? the abdomen?

CHAPTER IV. OUR FOODS.—Of what are our bodies made? What are foods? Where do we get our foods? Name some animal foods; some vegetable foods. What are poisons?

CHAPTER V. UNHEALTHFUL FOODS.—Is the flesh of diseased animals good for food? What can you say about unripe, stale, or mouldy foods? What is adulteration of foods? What foods are most likely to be adulterated? Are pepper, mustard, and other condiments proper foods? What about tobacco? What is the effect of tobacco upon boys?

CHAPTER VI. OUR DRINKS.—What is the only thing that will satisfy thirst? Why do we need water? How does water sometimes become impure? What is the effect of using impure water? What are the properties of good water? Are tea and coffee good drinks? How is alcohol made? Give familiar examples of fermentation. How are pure alcohol and strong liquors made? Is alcohol a food? Why do you think it is a poison? Do you think moderate drinking is healthful?

CHAPTER VII. HOW WE DIGEST.—What is digestion? What is the digestive tube? Name the different digestive organs. How many sets of teeth has a person in his lifetime? How many teeth in each set? How many pairs of salivary glands? What do they form? What is the gullet? Describe the stomach. What is the gastric juice? How long is the intestinal canal? What fluid is formed in the intestines? Where is the liver found, and how large is it? What does the liver produce? What is the gall-bladder, and what is its use? What does the liver do besides producing bile? What and where is the pancreas? What does the pancreas do? Where is the spleen? How many important organs of digestion are there? How many digestive fluids?

CHAPTER VIII. DIGESTION OF A MOUTHFUL OF BREAD.—Name the different processes of digestion [mastication, action of saliva, swallowing, action of stomach and gastric juice, action of bile, action of pancreatic juice, action of intestines and intestinal juice, absorption, liver digestion]. Describe the digestion of a mouthful of bread. Where is the food taken after it has been absorbed? What are the lacteals? What is the thoracic duct?

CHAPTER IX. BAD HABITS IN EATING.—What is indigestion? Mention some of the causes of indigestion. How does eating too fast cause indigestion? Eating too much? too frequently? Irregularly? when tired? How do tea and coffee impair digestion? Why is it harmful to use iced foods and drinks? Why should we not eat pepper and other hot and irritating things? How should the teeth be cared for? How does tobacco-using affect the stomach? What dreadful disease is sometimes caused by tobacco? How does alcohol affect the gastric juice? the stomach? the liver?

CHAPTER X. A DROP OF BLOOD.—What does the blood contain? How many kinds of blood corpuscles are there? What work is done for the body by each kind of corpuscles?

CHAPTER XI. WHY THE HEART BEATS.—Where is the heart? Why does the heart beat? How many chambers has the heart? What are the blood-vessels? How many kinds of blood-vessels are there? Name them. What is the difference between venous blood and arterial blood? What change occurs in the blood in the lungs? What is the pulse? How much work does the heart do every twenty-four hours? What are the lymphatics? What do they contain, and what is their purpose? What are lymphatic glands?

CHAPTER XII. HOW TO KEEP THE HEART AND BLOOD HEALTHY.—Name some things likely to injure the heart or the blood. What is the effect of violent exercise? of bad air? of bad food? of loss of sleep? of violent anger? What can you say about clothing? What is the effect of alcohol upon the blood? the heart? the bodily heat? What is the effect of tobacco upon the heart? the pulse? the blood? What is the effect of tea and coffee upon the heart? What is a cold? In a case of bleeding from a wound, how can you tell whether a vein or an artery is cut? How would you stop the bleeding from an artery? from a vein? How would you stop nose-bleed?

CHAPTER XIII. WHY AND HOW WE BREATHE.—What happens to a lighted candle if shut up in a small, close place? to a mouse? Why is air so necessary for a burning candle and for animals? How is the heat of our bodies produced? Name the principal organs of breathing. Describe each. How do we use the lungs in breathing? How much air will a man's lungs hold? How much air do we use with each breath? What poisonous substance does the air which we breathe out contain? Will a candle burn in air which has been breathed? What happens to animals placed in such air? What change takes place in the blood as it passes through the lungs? How do plants purify the air?

CHAPTER XIV. HOW TO KEEP THE LUNGS HEALTHY.—What is the thing most necessary to preserve life? Name some of the ways in which the blood becomes impure. Why is bad-smelling air dangerous to health? What are germs? Why are some diseases "catching"? Name some such diseases. What should be done with a person who has a "catching" disease? What is the effect of the breath upon the air? How much air is poisoned and made unfit to breathe by each breath? How much air do we spoil every minute? every hour? How much pure air does each person need every minute? every hour? How do we get fresh air into our houses? Why are windows and doors not good means of ventilating in cold weather? How should a room be ventilated? How should we use the lungs in breathing? What about the clothing in reference to the lungs? Why is it injurious to breathe habitually through the mouth? What is the effect of alcohol upon the lungs? What is the effect of tobacco-using upon the throat and nose?

CHAPTER XV. THE SKIN AND WHAT IT DOES.—How many layers in the skin? What is each called? To what is the color of the skin due? What glands are found in the true skin? What are the nails and what is their purpose? How does the hair grow? Name the different uses of the skin?

CHAPTER XVI. HOW TO TAKE CARE OF THE SKIN.—What happened to the little boy who was covered with gold leaf? Why did he die? What is the effect of neglecting to keep the skin clean? What is the effect of wearing too much clothing and living in rooms which are too warm? How should the hair be cared for? the nails? What is the effect of alcohol, tobacco, and other narcotics upon the skin?

CHAPTER XVII. THE KIDNEYS AND THEIR WORK.—What is the work of the kidneys? How may we keep these organs healthy? What is the effect of alcohol upon the kidneys?

CHAPTER XVIII. OUR BONES AND THEIR USES.—How many bones in the body? What are the bones called when taken all together? Name the principal parts of the skeleton. Name the bones of the trunk, of the arms, of the legs. What are the uses of the bones? What is a joint? What is cartilage? By what are the bones held together? Of what are the bones largely composed?

CHAPTER XIX. HOW TO KEEP THE BONES HEALTHY.—What sort of bread is best for the bones? Why? If a child tries to walk too early why are its legs likely to become crooked? What are the effects of sitting or lying in bad positions? Of wearing tight or poorly-fitting clothing? Of tight or high-heeled shoes? What injuries are likely to happen to the bones and joints by accident or rough play?

CHAPTER XX. THE MUSCLES AND HOW WE USE THEM.—How many muscles in the body? Of what are the muscles composed? How are many of the muscles connected to the bones? To what are all bodily movements due? How do the muscles act? What causes the muscles to act? Do all muscles act only when we will to have them act?

CHAPTER XXI. HOW TO KEEP THE MUSCLES HEALTHY.—What makes the right arm of the blacksmith stronger than the left one? How should exercise be taken? Mention some things in relation to the use of the muscles which we ought not to do, and state the reasons why. What is the effect of alcohol upon the muscles? of tobacco? of tea and coffee?

CHAPTER XXII. HOW WE FEEL AND THINK.—With what part of the body do we think? How many brains does a man have? How is each brain divided? Of what is the brain largely composed? Where do the nerves begin? What is the spinal cord? Why does it cause pain to prick the finger? How many kinds of nerves are there? (Ans. Two; nerves of feeling and nerves of work.) Name some of the different kinds of nerves of feeling? Name some of the different kinds of work controlled by the nerves of work. Of what use to the body are the brain and nerves? How does the brain use the nerves? Of what use is the large brain? What does the little brain do? Of what use is the spinal cord?

CHAPTER XXIII. HOW TO KEEP THE BRAIN AND NERVES HEALTHY.—Mention some things which we need to do to keep the brain and nerves healthy. Mention some things which we ought not to do.

CHAPTER XXIV. BAD EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL UPON THE BRAIN AND NERVES.—What is the effect of alcohol upon the brain and nerves? Does alcohol produce real strength? Does it produce real warmth? Does alcohol make people better or worse? What is the effect of tobacco upon the brain and nerves? Does the use of tobacco lead to other evil habits? What about the effect of opium and other narcotics?

CHAPTER XXV. HOW WE HEAR, SEE, SMELL, TASTE, AND FEEL.—How many senses have we? What is the ear? Name the three parts of the ear. How do we hear? How should we treat the ear?

Name the principal parts of the eye? What are found in the eyeball? How is the eyeball moved in the socket? How is the eye moistened? Of what use is the lens of the eye? Of what use is the pupil of the eye? How may we preserve the eyesight?

Where are the nerves of smell located? Of what use is the sense of smell?

Where are the nerves of taste found? How is the sense of taste sometimes injured or lost? What do we detect with the sense of taste? Of what use to us is the sense of taste?

With what sense do we feel objects? In what parts of the body is this sense most delicate? Upon what do all the special senses depend? Does anything that injures the brain and nerves also injure the special senses? What is the effect of alcohol and tobacco upon the sense of sight? How is the hearing affected by tobacco-using? The sense of smell? The sense of taste?

CHAPTER XXVI. ALCOHOL.—How is alcohol produced? In what respect is alcohol like kerosene oil? Is alcohol a dangerous thing even if we do not drink it? How can you prove that there is alcohol in wine, beer, cider, and other fermented drinks? Can you tell by the odor of his breath when a person has been drinking? Why? Does the breath ever take fire? May alcohol be a cause? From what is brandy made? How are whiskey, gin, and rum made? Is alcohol a result of growth, like fruits and grains, or of decay? Is there more than one kind of alcohol? Mention some of the members of the alcohol family. In what ways are the members of this family alike? Name some of the bad relations. Are cider and beer, as well as whiskey, dangerous? Why? Mention some other things, besides drinks, which contain alcohol. Are alcoholic drinks adulterated? Is pure alcohol safe? Is instant death ever produced by alcohol? Will alcohol kill plants? Describe Mr. Darwin's experiment which proved this. Can plants be made drunk by alcohol? Describe the experiment which proves this. What has Dr. Roberts proven concerning the influence of alcohol upon digestion? How are our bodies kept warm? Explain how alcohol makes the body cooler? Do Arctic explorers use alcohol? Why not? Does the use of alcohol prevent sunstroke? What do Stanley and Livingstone say about the use of alcohol in Africa? What is the effect of using alcohol upon meat and eggs? What is the effect of alcohol upon the brain and other tissues of the body? Does alcohol cause insanity and other diseases of the brain and nerves?

FOOTNOTES:

[A] More properly Carbonic dioxid.

[B] For the sake of brevity and clearness the author has included under the term "little brain" the medulla oblongata as well as the cerebellum.

THE END.



Aids to Field and Laboratory Work in Botany

Apgars' Plant Analysis. By E.A. and A.C. APGAR.

Cloth, small 4to, 124 pages 55 cents

A book of blank schedules, adapted to Gray's Botanies, for pupils' use in writing and preserving brief systematic descriptions of the plants analyzed by them in field or class work. Space is allowed for descriptions of about one hundred and twenty-four plants with an alphabetical index.

An analytical arrangement of botanical terms is provided, in which the words defined are illustrated by small wood cuts, which show at a glance the characteristics named in the definition.

By using the Plant Analysis, pupils will become familiar with the meaning of botanical terms, and will learn how to apply these terms in botanical descriptions.

Apgar's Trees of the Northern United States

Their Study, Description, and Determination. For the use of Schools and Private Students. By AUSTIN C. APGAR.

Cloth, 12mo, 224 pages. Copiously Illustrated $1.00

This work has been prepared as an accessory to the study of Botany, and to assist and encourage teachers in introducing into their classes instruction in Nature Study. The trees of our forests, lawns, yards, orchards, streets, borders and parks afford a most favorable and fruitful field for the purposes of such study. They are real objects of nature, easily accessible, and of such a character as to admit of being studied at all seasons and in all localities. Besides, the subject is one of general and increasing interest, and one that can be taught successfully by those who have had no regular scientific training.

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STORER AND LINDSAY'S

Elementary Manual of Chemistry

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Cloth, 12mo, 453 pages. Illustrated. Price, $1.20

This work is the lineal descendant of the "Manual of Inorganic Chemistry" of Eliot and Storer, and the "Elementary Manual of Chemistry" of Eliot, Storer and Nichols. It is in fact the last named book thoroughly revised, rewritten and enlarged to represent the present condition of chemical knowledge and to meet the demands of American teachers for a class book on Chemistry, at once scientific in statement and clear in method.

The purpose of the book is to facilitate the study and teaching of Chemistry by the experimental and inductive method. It presents the leading facts and theories of the science in such simple and concise manner that they can be readily understood and applied by the student. The book is equally valuable in the class-room and the laboratory. The instructor will find in it the essentials of chemical science developed in easy and appropriate sequence, its facts and generalizations expressed accurately and scientifically as well as clearly, forcibly and elegantly.

"It is safe to say that no text-book has exerted so wide an influence on the study of chemistry in this country as this work, originally written by Eliot and Storer. Its distinguished authors were leaders in teaching Chemistry as a means of mental training in general education, and in organizing and perfecting a system of instructing students in large classes by the experimental method. As revised and improved by Professor Nichols, it continued to give the highest satisfaction in our best schools and colleges. After the death of Professor Nichols, when it became necessary to revise the work again, Professor Lindsay, of Dickinson College, was selected to assist Dr. Storer in the work. The present edition has been entirely rewritten by them, following throughout the same plan and arrangement of the previous editions, which have been so highly approved by a generation of scholars and teachers.

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Chemistry

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Burnet's Zooelogy

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MARGARETTA BURNET Teacher of Zooelogy, Woodward High School, Cincinnati, O.

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Text-Books in Geology

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A new edition of this popular work for beginners in the study and for the general reader. The book has been entirely rewritten, and improved by the addition of many new illustrations and interesting descriptions of the latest phases and discoveries of the science. In contents and dress it is an attractive volume either for the reader or student.

Dana's Revised Text-Book of Geology

Edited by WILLIAM NORTH RICE, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of Geology, Wesleyan University. Cloth, 12mo, 482 pages. $1.40

This is the standard text-book for high school and elementary college work. The book has been thoroughly revised, enlarged, and improved, while the general and distinctive features of the former work have been preserved. As now published, it combines the results of the life experience and observation of its distinguished author with the latest discoveries and researches in the science.

Dana's Manual of Geology

By JAMES D. DANA.

Cloth, 8vo, 1087 pages. 1575 illustrations $5.00

This great work was thoroughly revised and entirely rewritten under the direct supervision of its author, just before his death. It is recognized as a standard authority, and is used as a manual of instruction in all higher institutions of learning.

Le Conte's Compend of Geology

By JOSEPH LE CONTE, LL.D. Cloth, 12mo, 399 pages $1.20

Designed for high schools, academies, and all secondary schools.

Steele's Fourteen Weeks in Geology

By J. DORMAN STEELE, Ph.D. Cloth, 12mo, 280 pages $1.00

A popular book for elementary classes and the general reader.

Andrews's Elementary Geology

By E.B. ANDREWS, LL.D. Cloth, 12mo, 283 pages $1.00

Adapted for elementary classes. Contains a special treatment of the geology of the Mississippi Valley.

Copies of any of the above books will be sent, prepaid, to any address on receipt of the price by the Publishers:

American Book Company

NEW YORK . CINCINNATI . CHICAGO

* * * * *

A New Astronomy

BY

DAVID P. TODD, M.A., Ph.D.

Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory, Amherst College.

Cloth, 12mo, 480 pages. Illustrated Price, $1.30

This book is designed for classes pursuing the study in High Schools, Academies, and Colleges. The author's long experience as a director in astronomical observatories and in teaching the subject has given him unusual qualifications and advantages for preparing an ideal text-book.

The noteworthy feature which distinguishes this from other text-books on Astronomy is the practical way in which the subjects treated are enforced by laboratory experiments and methods. In this the author follows the principle that Astronomy is preeminently a science of observation and should be so taught.

By placing more importance on the physical than on the mathematical facts of Astronomy the author has made every page of the book deeply interesting to the student and the general reader. The treatment of the planets and other heavenly bodies and of the law of universal gravitation is unusually full, clear, and illuminative. The marvelous discoveries of Astronomy in recent years, and the latest advances in methods of teaching the science, are all represented.

The illustrations are an important feature of the book. Many of them are so ingeniously devised that they explain at a glance what pages of mere description could not make clear.

Copies of Todd's New Astronomy will be sent, prepaid, to any address on receipt of the price by the Publishers:

American Book Company

NEW YORK . CINCINNATI . CHICAGO

* * * * *

A Laboratory Manual in Practical Botany

For use in Secondary Schools and for Elementary Work in Colleges

By CHARLES H. CLARK, A.M., D.Sc.,

Principal of Windsor Hall School, Waban, Mass.

Cloth, 12mo, 272 pages. Illustrated 96 cents

The course of botanical study outlined in this book is intended to give the student a general view of the subject, and at the same time to lay a foundation upon which more advanced studies may be built. The book is primarily a laboratory manual and follows the method recommended by the Committee of Ten and employed by the best teachers. So pursued, the study of botany provides the means of developing habits of close and accurate observation and of cultivating the reasoning powers that can scarcely be claimed for any other subject taught in the schools.

It provides a systematic outline of classification to serve as a guide in laboratory work and in the practical study of the life histories of plants, their modes of reproduction, manner of life, etc. The treatment is suggestive and general to adapt it to the courses of study in different schools, and to allow the teacher to follow his own ideas in selecting the work of his class.

Clark's Laboratory Manual in Practical Botany will be sent, prepaid, to any address on receipt of the price by the Publishers:

American Book Company

NEW YORK . CINCINNATI . CHICAGO

* * * * *

Important New Books

Crockett's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry

By C.W. CROCKETT, C.E., Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. With Tables. Cloth, 8vo. 310 pages $1.25

The Same. Without Tables 1.00

Logarithmic and Trigonometric Tables (separate) 1.00

A clear analytic treatment of the elements of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry and their practical applications to Surveying, Geodesy, and Astronomy, with convenient and accurate "five place" tables for the use of the student, engineer, and surveyor. Designed for High Schools, Colleges, and Technical Institutions.

Raymond's Plane Surveying

By W.G. RAYMOND, C.E., Member American Society of Civil Engineers, Professor of Geodesy, Road Engineering, and Topographical Drawing in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Cloth, 8vo. 485 pages. With Tables and Illustrations $3.00

A modern text-book for the study and practice of Land, Topographical, Hydrographical, and Mine Surveying. Special attention is given to such practical subjects as system in office work, to labor-saving devices, to cooerdinate methods, and to the explanation of difficulties encountered by young surveyors. The appendix contains a large number of original problems, and a full set of tables for class and field work.

Todd's New Astronomy

By DAVID P. TODD, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory, Amherst College.

Cloth, 12mo. 500 pages. Illustrated $1.30

A new Astronomy designed for classes pursuing the study in High Schools, Academies, and other Preparatory Schools. The treatment throughout is simple, clear, scientific, and deeply interesting. The illustrations include sketches from the author's laboratory and expeditions, and numerous reproductions from astronomical photographs.

Copies of the above books will be sent, prepaid, to any address on receipt of the price by the Publishers:

American Book Company

NEW YORK . CINCINNATI . CHICAGO

* * * * *

Birds of the United States

A Manual for the Identification of Species East of the Rocky Mountains

By AUSTIN C. APGAR

Author of "Trees of the Northern United States," etc.

Cloth, 12mo, 415 pages, with numerous illustrations. Price, $2.00

The object of this book is to encourage the study of Birds by making it a pleasant and easy task. The treatment, while thoroughly scientific and accurate, is interesting and popular in form and attractive to the reader or student. It covers the following divisions and subjects:

PART I. A general description of Birds and an explanation of the technical terms used by ornithologists.

PART II. Classification and description of each species with Key.

PART III. The study of Birds in the field, with Key for their identification.

PART IV. Preparation of Bird specimens.

The descriptions of the several species have been prepared with great care and present several advantages over those in other books. They are short and so expressed that they may be recalled readily while looking at the bird. They are thus especially adapted for field use. The illustrations were drawn especially for this work. Their number, scientific accuracy, and careful execution add much to the value and interest of the book. The general Key to Land and Water Birds and a very full index make the book convenient and serviceable both for the study and for field work.

Apgar's Birds of the United States will be sent, prepaid, to any address on receipt of the price by the Publishers:

American Book Company

NEW YORK . CINCINNATI . CHICAGO

THE END

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