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Fabre, Poet of Science
by Dr. G.V. (C.V.) Legros
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Moved to tears, by his memories and by the simple and pious homage at last rendered to his genius, he wept, and many, seeing him weep, wept with him.

Others spoke in the name of the great anonymous crowd of friends, of all those who had found a source of infinite enjoyment in his works. At the same time the greatest writers, the greatest poets sent on the same day, at the same hour, their salutation or eloquent messages to the "Virgil of the insects" (16/21.), to the "good magician who knew the language of the myriad little creatures of the fields." (16/22.)

Doubtless he would sooner or later have received full justice; but without this circumstance it is permissible to add that the end of his life would have passed amidst the completest oblivion, and that he would have taken leave of the world without attracting any particular attention. His death would have occurred unperceived, and when the little vault of Vaison stone, up in the small square enclosure of pebbles which serves as the village cemetery, where those he has loved await him, came to be opened for the last time, they would hardly have troubled to close it again.

Yet the honours paid him were far from being such as he merited.

Why, at this jubilee of the greatest of the entomologists, was not a single appointed representative of entomology present? (16/22.)

The fact is that the majority of those who "amid the living seek only for corpses," according to the expression of Bacon, unwilling to see in Fabre anything more than an imaginative writer, and being themselves incapable of understanding the beautiful and of distinguishing it in the true, reproached him, perhaps with more jealousy than conviction, with having introduced literature into the domains of science.

Other entomological specialists accuse him of presenting in the guise of science discoveries which have been made by others. But in the first place, as he has read very little, he certainly did not know all that had been done by others; and what matter if he had discovered nothing essential concerning this or that insect if the result of his study of it has been to impregnate it with something new, or to touch it with the breath of life?

Others, finally, who wished to see with their own eyes the proof of his statements, have reproached him with a few errors; but he observed so skilfully that these errors, if any have really slipped into his books, cannot be very serious.

He was one of the glories of the University, but it failed to add to the brilliance of this ceremony, and it is to be regretted that the Government could not amid its temporary preoccupations have done with all the spontaneity that might have been looked for the one thing which might on this memorable date have atoned for its unjust obliviousness. Since Duruy had created Fabre a chevalier of the Empire more than forty years had gone by, and in this long interval Fabre was absolutely ignored by the authorities. While the State daily raises so many commonplace men to the highest honours, it was afterwards needful to procure the intervention of influential persons, to justify his worth and to prove his deserts, in order to obtain his promotion through one degree of rank in that Legion of Honour which his eminent services had so long adorned.

This tardy reparation at least had the result of shedding a twilight of glory over the evening of his life, and from that day he suddenly appeared in his true place and took his rank as a man of the first order. Everybody began to read him, and presently no one was willing to seem ignorant of him, for more of his "Souvenirs entomologiques" were sold in a few months than had been disposed of in more than twenty years. (16/24.)

At last Fabre experienced not only glory and renown, but also popularity. This was only justice, for his is essentially a popular genius. Has he not striven all his life to place the marvels of science within reach of all? And has he not written above all for the children of the people?

So at last people have learned the way to the Harmas; they go thither now in crowds, to visit the enclosure and the modest laboratory, as to a veritable place of pilgrimage which attracts from afar many fervent admirers.

Some, it is true, go thither to see him simply as an object of curiosity; but even among these there are those who on returning thence, full of enthusiasm for what they have seen, find the flowers of the fields more sweet and fragile, and the wild fragrance of the woods and hedges more voluptuous, and the green of the trees more tender. They have learnt to look at the earth and to "kneel in the grass."

Scientists come to chat with the scientist. Others come to salute the primary schoolman, the lay instructor, the great pedagogue whose glory is reflected upon all the primary schools of France.

Those who cannot visit him write, telling him of all the pleasure which they owe him, thanking him for long and delightful hours passed in the reading of his books, expressing the hope that he may yet live many years, and still further increase the number of his "Souvenirs."

Some ask him a host of questions relating to entomology or philosophy; others ask him for impossible answers to some of the fascinating and mysterious problems which he has expounded; women confide in him their little private griefs or their intimate sorrows, a naive form of homage; but a thousand times more touching than any other, and one that shows how profound has been the beneficent influence of his books upon certain isolated minds, and what consolation can be derived from science when it finds a sufficiently eloquent voice to interpret it.

As he can work no longer, these visits now fill his life, formally so occupied; and in the midst of all the sympathy extended to him he is sensible, not of the twilight, but of a sunrise; he feels that his work has been good, that an infinity of minds are learning through him to regard plants and animals with greater affection; and that the consideration of men, finally directed upon his work, will not readily exhaust it, for it is one of the Bibles of Nature.



NOTES.

NOTES TO INTRODUCTION.

Introduction/1. Letters to his brother, 1898-1900.

Introduction/2. I have made some valuable "finds" here; among other pieces cited the fragment on "Playthings," the curious description of the "Eclipse," and the poem on "Number" are here published for the first time.

Introduction/3. This negligence in the matter of correspondence is not least among the causes which have mitigated against his popularity.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 1.

1/1. "It is a country that has very little charm." To his brother, 18th August, 1846.

1/2. "Practicien, homme d'affaires ou de chicane": roughly, "practitioner, man of business or law": so his father is described in his birth certificate.

1/3. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 2nd series, chapter 4, and 7th series, chapter 19.

1/4. Id., 8th series, chapter 8.

1/5. To his brother, 15th August, 1896.

1/6. Id. "As brothers, we are one only; but in virtue of our different tastes we are two, and I am amused and interested where you might well be bored."

1/7. Frdric Fabre, like his brother, an ex-scholar of the normal primary school of Vaucluse, was first of all teacher at Lapalud (Vaucluse), then professor in the communal college of Orange. He was director of the primary school attached to the normal school of Avignon, where he voluntarily retired from teaching in 1859. He then became, successively, secretary to the Chamber of Commerce of Avignon, director of the Vaucluse Docks, and finally director of the Crillon Canal, which position he still occupies (December, 1912).

1/8. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10th series, chapter 9.

1/9. Among his innumerable manuscripts I have found a vast number of little poems, which date from this period.

1/10. It was then that he gave up his position to his brother Frdric, who had continually followed closely in his steps, and who in turn had just obtained the qualification of pupil-teacher and bursar (August, 1842).

1/11. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10 series, chapter 21.

1/12. To his brother, 2nd and 9th of June, 1851.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 2.

2/1. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 1st series, chapter 20, and 9th series, chapter 13.

2/2. Id., 6th series, chapter 21.

2/3. To his brother, from Ajaccio, 10th June, 1850.

2/4. Id., id.

2/5. Id., from Carpentras, 15th August, 1846.

2/6. Id., from Ajaccio, 10th June, 1850.

2/7. Id., from Carpentras, 15th August, 1846.

2/8. Id., id.

2/9. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 1st series, chapter 14.

2/10. To his brother, from Carpentras, 3rd September, 1848.

2/11. Id., 8th September, 1848.

2/12. Id., id.

2/13. Id., 3rd September, 1848.

2/14. Id., id.

2/15. Letter to the Rector of the Nmes Academy, 29th September, 1848.

2/16. To his brother, 29th September, 1848.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 3.

3/1. To his father, from Ajaccio, 14th April, 1850.

3/2. To his brother, from Ajaccio, 1851.

3/3. To his brother, from Ajaccio, 9th June, 1851. "I have set to work upon a conchology of Corsica, which I hope soon to publish."

3/4. The Helix Raspaillii.

3/5. To his brother, from Ajaccio, 10th June, 1850.

3/6. Id., id.

3/7. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 9th series, chapter 14.

3/8. Number, (Le Nombre—ARITHMOS), poem, Ajaccio, September, 1852.

3/9. To his brother, from Ajaccio, 2nd June, 1851.

3/10. Id., 10th October, 1852, and "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10th series, chapter 21.

3/11. Fr. Mistral, "Mmoires." Moquin-Tandon, born at Montpellier, was professor of Natural History at Marseilles, at Toulouse, and in Paris.

3/12. To his brother, from Ajaccio, 10th October, 1852.

3/13. Id.

3/14. To his brother, from Carpentras, 3rd December, 1851. "Our crossing was atrocious. Never have I seen so terrible a sea, and that the packet-boat was not broken up by the force of the waves must have been due to the fact that our time had not yet come. On two or three occasions I thought my last moment was at hand; I leave you to imagine what a terrible experience I had. In ordinary weather the packet by which we travelled makes the voyage from Ajaccio to Marseilles in about eighteen hours; it is said to be the fastest steamer on the Mediterranean. On this occasion it took three days and two nights."

3/15. January, 1853.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 4.

4/1. To his brother, from Avignon, 1st August, 1854. "I have arrived at Toulouse, where I have passed the best examination one could possibly wish. I have been accepted as licentiate with the most flattering compliments, and the expenses of the examination should be returned to me. The examination was of a higher level than I had expected."

4/2. To M. — (of the Institute), from Avignon, 1854. (Letter communicated to M. Belleudy, prefect of Vaucluse, by M. Vollon, painter.)

4/3. Id.

4/4. To his brother, from Ajaccio, 10th October, 1852.

4/5. Observations concerning the habits of the Cerceris and the cause of the long preservation of the coleoptera with which it provisions its larvae.—"Annales de Sc. natur.," 4th series, 1855.

4/6. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10th series, chapter 22.

4/7. "I had only one idea: to free myself, to leave the lyce, where, not being a fellow, I was treated as a subordinate. An inspector-general told me frankly one day, 'You will never amount to anything if you are not a fellow' (agrg). 'These distinctions disgust me,' I replied." (Conversations.)

4/8. To his brother, from Ajaccio, 14th January, 1850.

4/9. Inquiries respecting the tubercles of Himantoglossum hircinum. Thesis in Botany, 1855.

4/10. Inquiries respecting the anatomy of the reproductive organs, and the developments of the Myriapoda. Thesis in Zoology, 1855.

4/11. Prize for experimental physiology, 1856.

4/12. Letter to Lon Dufour, 1st February, 1857.

4/13. "The Origin of Species," 1857 (?), translated by Barbier, page 15.

4/14. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 1st series, chapter 1, and 5th series, chapter 1.

4/15. Id., 1st series, chapter 16.

4/16. Id., 1st series, chapter one.

4/17. Henry Devillario, magistrate at Carpentras, where he performed his duties as juge d'instruction until his death. A notable collector and distinguished publicist. Dr. Bordone, to-day at Frontignan. Vayssires, professor of Zoology in the faculty of sciences at Marseilles.

4/18. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 1st series, chapter 13.

4/19. He was subject in his youth to violent headaches, "which sometimes developed into a cerebral fever," as well as strange nervous troubles: "A few days ago I was attacked, at night, with a sudden nervous illness, of a terrifying nature, which I have not as yet been able to identify." To his brother, 3rd September, 1848. Severe disappointment or annoyance always had a great effect upon him; on the occasion of his first marriage he fell into a sort of cataleptic condition as a result of the opposition of his parents and relations, who sought to oppose it. (Conversations with his brother.)

4/20. "Souvenirs entomologiques" 9th series, chapter 23.

4/21. Id., 10th series, chapter 22.

4/22. Letter to Lon Dufour, 1st February, 1857. "Steps have been taken to obtain for me the post of drawing-master (matre des travaux graphiques). If they succeed, thanks to the little talent I have for drawing, my salary will reach a reasonable figure, 120 pounds sterling, and I can then, by giving up these abominable private lessons, cultivate rather more seriously the studies into which you have initiated me." Communicated by M. Achard.

4/23. "Souvenirs entomologiques" 10th series, chapter 22.

4/24. Oubreto Prouvenalo. La Cigale et la Fourmi.

4/25. Lavisse. A minister. Victor Duruy.

4/26. Letter to the municipal councillors of Avignon.

4/27. J. Stuart Mill, "Autobiography," chapter 6.

4/28. I have visited this house; nothing, at all events outside, has changed in the least.

4/29. Mill collaborated in his "Flore du Vaucluse": "A virtuous man whose recent loss we shall all deplore joined his efforts to mine in this undertaking." Letter to the Mayor of Avignon, 1st December, 1833, communicated by M. Flix Achard.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 5.

5/1. "Chimie agricole."

5/2. "Le Ciel." Lectures et Leons pour tous.

5/3. "La Terre." Lectures et Leons pour tous.

5/4. "La Chimie de l'oncle Paul." Lectures courantes pour toutes les coles.

5/5. "Histoire de la bche."

5/6. "Les jouets. Le Toton" (manuscript). The primitive fountain, the "antique appliance" transmitted by inheritance, "the invention perhaps of some little unemployed herd-boy," consisted originally of three apertures and three straws; two similar apertures on one side, with two short straws, which dipped into the water, and a single orifice on the other side for the longer straw which delivered the water. Happening one day to use only two straws, one on each side, the little Fabre perceived that the device worked just as well, and "so, quite unconsciously, without thinking of it, I discovered the syphon, the true syphon of the physicist." Loco cit.

5/7. "The chemistry course is a great success at home." To his brother, from Orange, 1875.

5/8. To his son mile, 4th November, 1879. "The household; discussions as to domestic economy for use in girls' schools."

5/9. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 2nd series, chapter 1.

5/10. To the Mayor of Avignon, 1st December, 1873. Communicated by M. Flix Achard.

5/11. Letter to his brother, 1875.

5/12. Id.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 6.

6/1. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 2nd series, chapter 1. "L'Harmas."

6/2. Id., 6th series, chapter 5.

6/3. The Lumbricus phosporeus of Dugs. Fabre had already clearly perceived that this curious phenomenon of phosphorescence appears at birth, and he saw in it a process of oxidation, a species of respiration, especially active in certain tissues. Letter to Lon Dufour, 1st February, 1857. Communicated by M. Flix Achard.

6/4. To his brother, from Carpentras, 15th August, 1846.

6/5. He died at the age of 96.

6/6. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 1st series, chapter 21.

6/7. To his son mile, 4th November, 1879.

6/8. To Henry Devillario, 30th March, 1883.

6/9. Id., 17th December, 1888.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 7.

7/1. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 8th series, chapter 12.

7/2. Id., 7th series, chapter 16.

7/3. Id., 1st series, chapter 4.

7/4. Id., 2nd series, chapter 3.

7/5. Id., 6th series, chapter 21.

7/6. Id., 1st series, chapter 19, and 2nd series, chapter 7.

7/7. Id., 7th series, chapter 23.

7/8. Maeterlinck, "The Bee."

7/9. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 7th series, chapter 2.

7/10. Id., 8th series, chapter 22.

7/11. Id., 6th series, chapter 6.

7/12. Id., 9th series, chapter 10.

7/13. Bergson, "l'Evolution cratrice."

7/14. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10th series, chapter 6.

7/15. "Les Serviteurs" and "Les Auxiliaires."

7/16. Franois Raspail, born at Carpentras in 1794, was also a professor at the college of Carpentras.

7/17. To his brother, 3rd September, 1848. The improvement did not last long; the child died finally a short time afterwards.

7/18. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10th series, chapter 21.

7/19. Ed. Perrier. Private letter, 27th October, 1909. "He is the finest of all our observers, and all scientists should bow to the facts which he excels in discovering."

7/20. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 6th series, chapter 25.

7/21. Id., 10th series, chapter 16.

7/22. Id., 10th series, chapter 20.

7/23. Manuscripts, unpublished observations.

7/24. A common spectacle in Provence, but one which Fabre never wearied of seeing.

7/25. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 6th series, chapter 17.

7/26. We know that the great naturalist was far from being charmed by the song of the nightingale.

7/27. Manuscripts, unpublished observation. These remarks deal with the solar eclipse of 28th May, 1900.

7/28. Among the insects which he has observed there are many which are not always sufficiently characterized. "Insectes coloptres observes aux environs d'Avignon." Avignon, pub. Seguin, 1870.

7/29. Coleoptera observed in the neighbourhood of Avignon. A catalogue now very scarce, a copy of which I owe to the kindness of Dr. Chobaut, of Avignon.

7/30. Nomina si nescis, perit et cognitio rerum.

7/31. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 4th series, chapter 11.

7/32. Id., 9th series, chapter 19.

7/33. Id., 1st series, chapter 9.

7/34. "Jenner's Legend of the isolation of the young Cuckoo in the nest," by Xavier Raspail, "Bull. de la Soc. Zool. de France," 1903.

7/35. "Souvenirs entomologiques" 1st series, passim.

7/36. Id., 4th series, chapter 14.

7/37. Id., 1st series, chapter 7.

7/38. Id., 2nd series, chapter 2.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 8.

8/1. "Souvenirs entomologiques" 1st series, chapter 2.

8/2. Bergson, "l'Evolution cratrice."

8/3. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 2nd series, chapter 4.

8/4. Id., 5th series, chapter 8.

8/5. Id., 9th series, chapter 3.

8/6. Id., 1st series, chapter 22.

8/7. Id., 4th series, chapter 3.

8/8. Id., 4th series, chapter 3.

8/9. Id., 4th and 1st series, chapter 19.

8/10. Id., 9th series, chapter 24.

8/11. Id., 10th series, chapter 5.

8/12. Id., 4th series, chapter 6.

8/13. Id., 9th series, chapter 16.

8/14. Id., 2nd series, chapter 5.

8/15. Id., 5th series, chapter 7.

8/16. Id., 6th series, chapter 8.

8/17. Id., 3rd series, chapters 17, 18, 19 and 20.

8/18. Id., 2nd series, chapter 15.

8/19. Id., 3rd series, chapter 11.

8/20. Emerson.

8/21. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 4th series, chapter 9.

8/22. Unpublished observations.

8/23. "Mireille," 3rd canto.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 9.

9/1. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 8th series, chapter 21.

9/2. "Les Ravageurs," chapter 34, agriculture.

9/3. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10th series, chapter 12.

9/4. Id., 1st series, chapter 2, and 10th series, chapter 13.

9/5. Id., 2nd series, chapter 17.

9/6. Id., 7th series, chapter 20.

9/7. Id., 2nd series, chapter 4.

9/8. At novitas mundi nec frigora dura ciebat, Nec nimios aestus. Lucretius, "De Natura rerum."

9/9. In this connection see the excellent introduction written by M. Edmond Perrier to serve as preface to the work of M. de Romanes: "l'Intelligence des animaux."

9/10. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 8th series, chapter 20.

9/11. To Henry Devillario, 30th March, 1883.

9/12. To Henry Devillario, 12th May, 1883.

9/13. To his brother, 1900.

9/14. Letters to his brother. "I am not sulking; far from it...I have no lack of ink and paper; I am too careful of them to lack them; but I do lack time...So you still think I am sulking because I do not reply! But imagine, my dear and petulant brother, that for several weeks I have been pursuing, with unequalled persistence, some abominable conic problems proposed at the fellowship examination, and once I have mounted my hobby-horse, good-bye to letters, good-bye to replies, goodbye to everything." (Carpentras, 27th November, 1848.) "You are right, seven times right to storm at me, to grumble at my silence, and I admit, in all contrition, that I am the worst correspondent you could find. To force myself to write a letter is to place myself on the rack, as well you know...But why do you get it into your head, why do you tell me, that I disdain you, that I forget you, that I ignore you, you, my best friend?...For my silence blame only the multiplicity of tasks, which often surpasses, not my courage, but my strength and my time." (Ajaccio, 1st June, 1851.)

9/15. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10th series, chapter 8.

9/16. Id., 9th series, chapter 2.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 10.

10/1. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 1st series, chapter 21.

10/2. Id., 9th series, chapter 2.

10/3. Id., 10th series, chapter 4.

10/4. Montaigne's Essays.

10/5. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 8th series, chapter 17.

10/6. "Les Ravageurs."

10/7. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10th series, chapter 18, and "Merveilles de l'instinct: la Chenille du chou."

10/8. Id., 8th series, chapter 17.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 11.

11/1. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 3rd series, chapter 8.

11/2. Id., 2nd series, chapter 14 et seq.

11/3. Id., 6th series, chapter 9.

11/4. Id., 5th series, chapter 19.

11/5. Tolstoy: "All that the human heart contains of evil should disappear at the contact of nature, that most immediate expression of the beautiful and the good." ("The Invaders.")

11/6. The "Livre d'histoires" and "Chimie agricole."

11/7. "Oubreto Provenalo. La Bise."

11/8. Id., "Le Semeur."

11/9. Id., "Le Crapaud."

NOTES TO CHAPTER 12.

12/1. "Oubreto Provenalo. Le Marchal."

12/2. "Oubreto Provenalo."

12/3. In this connection see the admirable passage in Sainte-Beuve's "Port- Royal," Book 2, chapter 14.

12/4. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 4th series, chapter 1.

12/5. Id., 1st series, chapter 17.

12/6. Id., 7th series, chapter 8.

12/7. Id., 7th series, chapter 10.

12/8. Id., 8th series, chapter 8.

12/9. Id., 8th series, chapter 20.

12/10. Id., 6th series, chapter 14.

12/11. Id., 8th series, chapter 18.

12/12. Id., 10th series, chapter 8.

12/13. Id., 10th series, chapter 6.

12/14. Id., 5th series, chapter 22.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 13.

13/1. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 10th series, chapter 17.

13/2. Id., 9th series, chapter 4, "l'Exode des arignes" (the Exodus of the Spiders), and chapter 5, "l'Araigne crabe" (the Crab Spider).

13/3. Id., 5th series, chapter 17.

13/4. Id., 3rd series, chapter 8.

13/5. Id., 6th series, chapter 14. "Oubreto. Le Grillon," and unpublished verses.

13/6. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 2nd series, chapter 16.

13/7. Id., 9th series, chapter 21.

13/8. "Les Merveilles de l'instinct: le Ver luisant" (Marvels of Instinct: the Glow-worm).

13/9. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 2nd series, chapter 12.

13/10. Id., 8th series, chapter 22, and 9th series, chapter 11.

13/11. Id., 5th series, chapter 18.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 14.

14/1. Grandjean de Fouchy: eulogy of Raumur, in "Recueils de l'Acad.des sciences," volume 157 H, page 201, and Preface to the "Lettres indites de Raumur," by G. Musset.

14/2. "Mmoires," passim, and volume 2, 1st mmoire.

14/3. Id., volume 3, 3rd mmoire.

14/4. Id., volume 2, 1st mmoire. Ch. Tellier, "Le Frigorifique" (Refrigeration), story of a modern invention, chapter 23; cold applied to the animal kingdom.

14/5. Lon Dufour: "Journal de sa vie." Souvenirs and impressions of travel in the Pyrenees to Gavarnie, Has, the "Montagnes maudites," etc. Entomological excursions on the dunes of Biscarosse and Arcachon.

14/6. Id., direction of entomological studies.

14/7. "Souvenirs entomologiques" 2nd series, chapter 1: "L'Harmas."

14/8. Id., 5th series, chapter 11.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 15.

15/1. Louis Charrasse, private letter, 20th February, 1912, and "Le Bassin du Rhne," March, 1911.

15/2. "Oubreto. Le Crapaud."

15/3. It was only in the afternoon that he devoted himself, when needful, to microscopic researches, on account of the better inclination of the light.

15/4. He lost it at the end of last spring.

15/5. "Les Serviteurs. Le Canard."

15/6. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 1st series, chapter 13: an ascent of Mont Ventoux.

15/7. The name given to Christmas in Provence.

15/8. Louis Charrasse, private letters.

15/9. Id.

15/10. 1888-1892.

15/11. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 2nd series, chapter 2.

15/12. Louis Charrasse, private letter.

15/13. Letter to his nephew, Antonin Fabre, 4th January, 1885.

15/14. "Souvenirs entomologiques," 6th series, chapter 19.

15/15. Id., 6th series, chapter 2.

15/16. Id., 6th series, chapter 11.

15/17. Conversations.

NOTES TO CHAPTER 16.

16/1. Letter to his brother, 4th February, 1900.

16/2. To his brother, 18th July, 1908. At this time the eighth volume of his "Souvenirs" had just appeared, and the ninth was in hand.

16/3. Id.

16/4. "Chimie agricole."

16/5. To his brother, 10th October, 1898.

16/6. Private letter, 30th March, 1908.

16/7. Id.

16/8. Id.

16/9. Unpublished experiments.

16/10. To Charles Delagrave, 27th January, 1899.

16/11. To his brother, 4th February, 1900.

16/12. This prize was awarded to Fabre in 1899. The amount of the prize is 400 pounds sterling. It is one of the chief prizes of the Institute.

16/13. Edmond Rostand. Private letter, 7th April, 1910: "His books have been my delight during a very long convalescence."

16/14. This magnificent atlas, the gem of Fabre's collections, comprises nearly 700 plates, and a large body of explanatory and descriptive matter.

16/15. To Charles Delagrave, undated.

16/16. Maeterlinck. Private letter, 17th November, 1909. "Les 4 Chemins, "Grasse (Alpes-Maritimes). "You overwhelm me with pleasure and do me the greatest honour in allowing my name to be inscribed among those of the committee which proposes to celebrate the jubilee of Henri Fabre...Henri Fabre is, indeed, one of the chiefest and purest glories that the civilized world at present possesses; one of the most learned naturalists and the most wonderful of poets in the modern and truly legitimate sense of the word. I cannot tell you how delighted I am by the chance you offer me of expressing in this way one of the profoundest admirations of my life."

16/17. J. Belleudy, prefect of Vaucluse. Private letter, 29th September, 1909. "It pains me to see so great a mind, so eminent a scientist, such a master of French literature, so little known. Two years ago, when the Gegner prize was awarded to him, I felt that I must speak of him to certain of those about me; and they had hardly heard his name!"

16/18. Letter to Frdric Mistral, 4th July, 1908.

16/19. Council General of Vaucluse, session of August, 1908. The words of the recorder, M. Lacour, mayor of Orange, to-day deputy for Vaucluse, a personal friend and ardent admirer of the old master.

16/20. Edmond Rostand. Private letter, 20th November, 1909. "I am, sir, not only greatly touched, but also and above all delighted that you have thought of including me among the friends who wish to fete Henri Fabre. Thanks for having considered that my name would assist your undertaking. The "Souvenirs entomologiques" have long ago made me intimate with his charming, profound, and moving genius. I owe them an infinity of delightful hours. Perhaps also I ought to thank them for having encouraged one of my sons to pursue the vocation which he entered. If, in order to honour Henri Fabre, you run the pious risk of disturbing, for a moment, the studious retreat in which, for so many years, he has pursued his life and his work, it is an act of justice toward this great scientist, who thinks as a philosopher, sees as an artist, and feels and expresses himself as a poet." Romain Rolland. Private letter, 7th January, 1910. "You cannot imagine what pleasure you have given me by requesting me to associate myself in the glorification of J.H. Fabre. He is one of the Frenchmen whom I most admire. The impassioned patience of his ingenious observations delights me as much as the masterpieces of art. For years I have read and loved his books. During my last holidays, of three volumes that I travelled with two were volumes of his "Souvenirs entomologiques." You will honour me and delight me by counting me as one of you."

16/21. Edmond Rostand. Telegram.

16/22. Romain Rolland.

INDEX.

Achard, M.

Agaricus, luminosity of.

"Agricultural Chemistry."

Ajaccio, Fabre at.

Ammophila.

Anthidium.

Anthophora.

Anthrax.

Arachne clotho.

Arachnoids, cannibalism of.

Audubon.

Avignon, Fabre at. suggested agronomic station at.

Balaninus.

Balzac.

Bees.

Belleudy, M.

Bembex.

Bergson.

Bernard, Claude.

Blanchard.

Blue fly.

Bombyx.

Bordone.

Bossuet.

Bourdon.

Buffon.

Buprestis.

Calendal.

Calendar-beetle.

Calosoma sycophanta.

Candolle, de.

Cannibalism.

Cantharides.

Cantharis, courtship of.

Capricornis.

Carabidae.

Carpentras. fauna of.

Caterpillars, poisonous.

Centipedes.

Cerceris.

Chalcidia.

Chalicodoma.

Charrasse, Louis.

Chermes.

Cicada (Cigale).

Cicadelina.

Cicindela.

Cione.

Clathrix.

Clythris.

Clytus.

Cleona opthalmica.

Coincidence in life of parasites.

Coleoptera of Avignon.

Conchology, Fabre studies.

Copris.

Corsica.

Courrier.

Crickets, courtship of.

Crioceris.

Cuckoo.

Curves, properties of.

Darwin, Charles, Fabre an opponent of. praises Fabre. corresponds with Fabre.

Darwin, Erasmus.

Decticus.

Delagrave, Charles.

Dermestes.

Devillario, Henry.

Dorthesia.

Dufour, Lon.

Dumas.

Dung-beetles.

Duruy, Victor. sends for Fabre to attend Court. fall of.

Dyticus.

"Earth, The."

Eclipse of sun.

Education in France.

Ephippigera.

Epera.

Emerson.

Empusa.

Ergatus.

Eucera.

Eumenes.

Evil.

Evolution.

Fabre, Agla.

Fabre, Antoine.

Fabre, Antonia.

Fabre, Antonin.

Fabre, mile.

Fabre, Frdric.

Fabre, Henri. birthplace. childhood. boyhood. school days. a primary teacher. marriage and loss of first child. professor of physics at Ajaccio. professor at Avignon. takes up entomology. salary. poverty. as teacher. character. his pupils. goes to Court and is decorated. writes textbooks for schools. portraits of. meets J.S. Mill. denounced for subversive teaching. evicted. settles at Orange, money difficulties solved by Mill. breaks with the University. continues his series of textbooks. repays Mill money lent. dismissed from Requien Museum. researches concerning madder. leaves Orange. work at Srignan. second marriage. his workshop. methods of work. attitude toward evolution. corresponds with Darwin. ideas as to origin of species. methods of work. compared with Raumur. life at Srignan. love of music. old age. poverty. jubilee celebrated.

Fabre, Henri, of Avignon.

Fabre, Jules.

Fabre, Paul.

Fabre, Mme (mother of Henri).

Fabre, Mme (1st wife).

Fabre, Mme (2nd wife).

Fabre, Mme Antoine.

Favier.

Female education.

Frog, bellringer.

Gadfly.

Gegner prize.

Geometry, Fabre's love of.

Geotrupes.

Glow-worm.

Goat caterpillar.

Goethe.

Grasshopper.

Halictus.

Harmas, the.

Heat, takes place of food.

Helix raspaillii.

Hemerobius, curious garment of.

Horace.

Horn-beetle.

Horus Apollo.

Huber.

Hugo, Victor.

Hyper-metamorphism.

Instinct.

Intelligence, function of.

Janin, Jules.

Jullian.

Jussieu, de.

La Fontaine.

Lamarck.

Lapalud.

Latreille.

Larra.

Leibnitz.

Leucopsis.

Libellula.

Linnaeus.

Locust.

"Log, Story of the."

Lycosa.

Madder, Fabre's researches concerning.

Magendie.

Malaval.

Mantis.

Maquis, the Corsican.

Marius.

Mason-bee.

Medicine, Fabre's inclination toward.

Megachile.

Melo.

Michelet.

Mill, J.S. helps Fabre in difficulties. death of.

Mill, Mrs.

Millipedes.

Mimicry.

Mind, of animals.

Minotaurus.

Mistral. corresponds with Fabre.

Mitscherlich.

Montyon prize.

Moquin-Tandon.

Mushrooms, recipe for cooking.

Napoleon III.

Necrophorus.

Number, properties of. poem.

Odynerus.

Oniticella.

Onthophagus.

Orange, Fabre at.

Orchids, Fabre on.

"Origin of Species."

Orthoptera, primitive.

Osmia, control of sex. courtship of.

Pasteur.

Peacock moth.

Pelopaeus.

Perrier, Ed.

Philanthus.

Phryganea.

Pieris.

"Plant, The."

Pliny.

Poems, Fabre's.

Polygons, properties of.

Pompilus.

Potato.

Processional caterpillar.

Psyche.

Rabelais.

Raspail.

Racine.

Raumur. compared with Fabre.

Requien of Avignon.

Requien Museum.

Rhynchites.

Ricard, Pierre, schoolmaster.

Rose-beetle.

Roumanille.

Saint-Lons.

Saprinidae.

Sarcophagus.

Scarabaeus sacer.

Scolia.

Scolopendra.

Scorpion.

Srignan. Fabre settles at. evenings at.

Sicard's portraits of Fabre.

Silkworm moth.

Sisyphus.

Sitaris.

"Sky, The."

"Souvenirs entomologiques."

Spaeriaceae.

Sphex.

Spiders, aeronautic.

Sport, Fabre's love of.

Staphylinus.

Tachina.

Tachinarius.

Tachytes.

Tarantula.

Taylor, Harriett (Mrs. J.S. Mill).

Taylor, Miss.

Terebinth louse.

Theophrastus.

Thomisus.

Tolstoy.

Toussenel.

Trox.

Vanessa.

"Vaucluse, Flora of the."

Vaucluse, General Council of, grants Fabre a pension.

Vayssires, M.

Ventoux Alp. banquet on the.

Vezins.

Villard, Marie (Mme Henri Fabre).

Virgil.

Volucella.

Wasps' nest in winter.

Weevils, sloe. poplar. acorn and poplar.

Woodland bug.

Xylocopa.

THE END

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