Explorations in Australia
by John Forrest
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Mr. John Forrest, in a few complimentary words, proposed the health of the Chairman, which was well received and acknowledged.


A few days afterwards I was honoured by an invitation from Gawler to lay the first stone of a monument to commemorate the achievements of the late Mr. John McKinlay, the leader of the Burke Relief Expedition, and the explorer, under great difficulties, of the northern territory. Mr. McKinlay died at Gawler in December, 1874, and it was resolved to perpetuate his memory by the erection of an obelisk in the cemetery. The 14th of November was the day appointed for the ceremony, and after I had laid the stone with the customary forms, there was a luncheon, presided over by Mr. W.F. Wincey, the Mayor of Gawler. He delivered a really eloquent address, describing the character and heroic labours of the distinguished explorer, whose achievements we were celebrating. My own health and that of my brother was proposed, and in responding (my brother not being present) I once more took occasion to express the deep sense, on the part of all my associates, of the kindness with which we had been received.

After this my brother and I paid a flying visit to Melbourne, where we remained a few days, and received much attention from the Governor, Sir George Bowen, the Mayor of Melbourne, and others; and then, on the 5th of December, we bade farewell to our South Australian friends and started on our homeward voyage. On the 10th we reached King George's Sound, where we were heartily welcomed and presented with a congratulatory address. At Banbury and Fremantle we were received with kindness and enthusiastic demonstrations. At Banbury we met Mr. Weld. He was on his way to King George's Sound, en route for his new Government in Tasmania. He welcomed us very heartily, and expressed his regret that he was unable to receive us at Perth. The popular air, When Johnny comes marching home again, was selected as extremely appropriate to the occasion, and after a champagne breakfast at the residence of the Chairman of the Municipal Council, Mr. Marmion, at Fremantle, we left for Perth in a carriage and six, Tommy Windich and Tommy Pierre riding on gaily-decked horses immediately behind us.

On reaching Perth we were met by the Commandant, Colonel Harvest, the chairman and members of the Reception Committee, and representatives of the Friendly Societies. The streets were crowded, and on our way to the Town Hall we were enthusiastically cheered. Mr. Randell, the Chairman of the Perth Municipality, read an address of welcome. I need not repeat what I said in reply; my words were but the expression of what has been felt ever since our perilous journey was completed—thankfulness that I had been preserved and strengthened to do my duty, and that I had been so well supported by brave and faithful companions. But I will quote the characteristic speech of Tommy Pierre, who returned thanks on behalf of the party—Windich was called on, but could not summon courage to say a word. Tommy said, "Well, gentlemen, I am very thankful to come back to Swan River, and Banbury, Fremantle, and Perth. I thought we was never to get back. (Laughter.) Many a time I go into camp in the morning, going through desert place, and swear and curse and say, 'Master, where the deuce are you going to take us?' I say to him, 'I'll give you a pound to take us back.' (Cheers and laughter.) Master say, 'Hush! what are you talking about? I will take you all right through to Adelaide;' and I always obey him. Gentlemen, I am thankful to you that I am in the Town Hall. That's all I got to say." (Cheers.)

No doubt we all shared Tommy's thankfulness, and I am sure his homely language very fairly expressed the spirit in which all my associates had shown their confidence in me during our long journey.

A banquet and ball were given in the Town Hall. Mr. Randell presided at the former, supported by the Bishop of Perth; Sir Archibald P. Burt, the Chief Justice; the Honourable the Commandant; Mr. L.S. Leake, Speaker of the Legislative Council; the Honourable A. O'Grady Lefroy, Colonial Treasurer, and other gentlemen of high position. The newspapers published the following report of the principal speeches delivered:—

The Chairman gave His Excellency the Governor, whose unavoidable absence he, in common with every one present, deeply regretted, knowing full well the deep interest his Excellency had always evinced in connexion with exploration, and especially in connexion with the expedition so successfully carried through by their guests that evening.

The toast was drunk amid loud cheering.

The Chairman next gave The Army, Navy, and Volunteers, which was duly honoured.

The Honourable the Commandant, in responding for the Army and the Navy, heartily thanked the assembly for the loyal manner in which the toast had been received. The toast of the British Army and Navy, always appropriate at a banquet where Britons were assembled, was particularly appropriate on the present occasion, gathered together as they were to do honour to valour. (Cheers.) It was needless for him to state that—all knew it—British soldiers, well equipped, properly provided in every way, and properly led, would go anywhere, and face any mortal thing; and so, it appeared, would West Australians, true sons of Great Britain. The other day, at the presentation of the address given to Mr. Forrest by the citizens of Perth, he (the Commandant), alluding to the young explorer's gallant and truly heroic services in the field of exploration, had said that, were he a soldier, the distinguished feat he had accomplished would have entitled him to be decorated with the soldier's most honourable mark of distinction—the Victoria Cross. (Cheers.) Now he had no desire to accord Mr. Forrest the least particle of credit beyond what he honestly believed he was entitled to, but he meant to say this—that Mr. Forrest had displayed all the noblest characteristics of a British soldier under circumstances by no means as favourable for arousing a spirit of intrepidity, and for stimulating bravery, as was in operation on a battle-field, amidst the all-powerful excitement of an engagement with the enemy, urged on to deeds of valour by the examples of comrades. Who or what had Mr. Forrest and his little band of followers to cheer them on; to urge them forward on their perilous and dreary enterprise? What surrounding circumstances encouraged them to face unknown dangers? He should think that many a wearisome day and night in crossing the arid, trackless desert-path he was traversing, he would, on laying down his head to rest, say, "Would for bedtime in Perth, and all well!" Nothing daunted, however, by perils, privations, and difficulties, he carried his enterprise successfully through; and although there were no Victoria Crosses for distinguished services of that nature, there, nevertheless, was an order of merit for rewarding exploits such as Mr. Forrest had performed, and he most heartily and sincerely trusted that the decoration of honour conferred upon the gallant Warburton would be likewise conferred on Mr. Forrest. (Applause.)

Captain Birch briefly responded on behalf of the Volunteers.

The Chairman then said the pleasing duty devolved upon him to propose the toast which was in reality the toast of the evening, and to ask them to drink with him The Health and Prosperity of Mr. John Forrest and his Party. (Cheers.) Nine months ago, within a day, they had undertaken a perilous journey across an unknown country, to accomplish what was believed by many to be an impossible task on account of the terrible nature of that country. What dangers, what difficulties, what privations they had suffered in carrying out their daring enterprise, and what the result of their arduous labours had been, was already known to most if not all of those now present, a succinct chronicle of their journey having been published in the South Australian and in the local newspapers. To-night they were amongst them safe and sound, having been saved by Almighty Providence from dangers which they could not have contended with, and surmounted difficulties which but for such Divine help must have been insuperable. All honour to them; all honour to the brave men who had assisted to achieve such a victory, of which even Mr. Forrest and his companions might well be proud, and the advantages of which he felt that we could not yet fully appreciate. (Cheers.) The Honourable the Commandant had spoken so ably of their victory that little remained for him to add. He, however, ventured to differ from the gallant Commandant on one point, namely, that, when compassed on all sides by difficulties, far from aid, succour, or assistance of any kind, Mr. Forrest must have wished himself back in Perth, all well. He (Mr. Randell) did not believe that such a thought ever entered Mr. Forrest's head, fully determined as he was to cross the continent, or perish in the attempt. He was sure that not even the golden reward offered by Tommy Pierre, for turning back, exerted any influence on his gallant leader's mind; on the contrary, they found him quietly rebuking Tommy's failing courage with a "hush" and a promise to take him right through to Adelaide. Mr. Forrest's courage never failed him on the way, nor had they any reason to believe that the courage of any member of his party had really failed in the face of the terrible difficulties they had encountered, and, by God's help, surmounted. (Applause.) They all had read of the Olympic games of the ancient Greeks, and the kindred sports indulged in by the Romans of old. Their athletic contests being conducted in the presence of immense crowds of spectators naturally stimulated the athletes to distinguish themselves; the applause of their fellow-citizens urged them on to strive with might and main to win the crown of laurel or ivy leaves with which the brow of the victor was decked. He well remembered an incident recorded in Grecian history, where two brothers had been engaged in an athletic contest and been victorious. When they came forth to receive the crown which rewarded their victory, their aged father—who himself, in his younger days, had been an athlete—was present, and the sons placed their crown on his venerable head. He was sorry that the father of the young heroes whom they were then entertaining was not present to witness the reward freely bestowed upon his sons by their fellow-countrymen. (Cheers.) Our South Australian neighbours, in their magnificent reception of Mr. Forrest and his party, had given us a good example of how to appreciate and reward noble deeds, and it must be pleasing to every Western Australian to reflect on the cordiality of that reception. (Applause.) He thought the colony would be neglecting its duty if it did not, as one man, recognize the extreme kindness which had been shown our gallant explorers by the people and by the Government of our sister colony—South Australia. (Cheers.) It was a pleasing trait in Mr. Forrest's character that he had not been at all spoilt by the enthusiastic and really splendid ovation he and his party had received at the hands of our southern neighbours; nothing could be more admirable than his unaffected modesty and unassuming deportment in the face of such a reception. The life of a lion did not spoil their young hero, nor, as the Inquirer had said that morning, did he think it would suit him long; for however tempting it might be to some people to live upon laurels well earned, such men as Mr. Forrest had no difficulty in overcoming the temptation to ease and repose, however deserving and indisputable his claims thereto. (Cheers.) He believed with the Inquirer that it was Mr. Forrest's natural instinct to lead a hard life in the cause of exploration. He belonged—not by birth it was true, but through his parents—to a country that had produced such men as Mungo Park; Bruce, who explored the sources of the Nile; and Campbell, who, labouring in the same cause, traversed the wilds of Africa; and that greatest and noblest of all explorers, the dead but immortal Livingstone. (Cheers.) Mr. Forrest's achievements had entitled his name to stand side by side in the page of history with men of that stamp and others who had placed the human family under such great obligations by their undaunted and self-denying efforts in the cause of exploration. (Cheers.) It would not perhaps be right on his part to refer to the pecuniary reward which the Legislature had voted as an honorarium to Mr. Forrest and his party, but he would say this much—and he believed every one in the colony would be in accord with him—that the public would not have grumbled, on the contrary, would have been glad if the grant had been 1000 pounds and not 500 pounds. (Hear, hear.) He did not think for a moment that the Legislative Council thought that 500 pounds was the measure of the value of Mr. Forrest's services; they were rather influenced by the extent of the public revenue and the ability of the country to pay a larger amount; nevertheless, he would have been pleased, and the public would have been pleased, had the vote been more commensurate with the value of those services. (Cheers.) In asking the present assembly to join him in drinking the toast of Mr. Forrest's health and that of his party, he considered it was as if he moved a vote of thanks on behalf of the colony for the labours in which they had been associated, for the honour they had conferred on their country, and he would ask them to join him in heartily drinking the toast. (Cheers.)

The toast was received with several rounds of cheering.

The Commandant rose in explanation, and said he never for a moment meant to infer that in the midst of his greatest difficulties Mr. Forrest ever thought of giving up his task. What he said was that he must have often, in lying down his head after a wearisome day's journey, wished himself at home in Perth all well, with his enterprise accomplished, but not otherwise (cheers). He did not believe that Mr. Forrest ever winced at danger, ever swerved from the path he had laid out for himself to traverse.

Mr. John Forrest, on rising, was received with applause, which rose to ringing cheers. Upon the subsiding of the applause, Mr. Forrest said, "Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I feel that I ought to say a great deal on this occasion, but I really hardly know what to say. I can, of course, say that I sincerely thank you for your kindness in inviting myself and companions to this great banquet, and when I say that, I trust you will give me credit for saying what I feel in my heart of hearts. But I feel I have much more than this to say this evening, knowing as I do that I would disappoint you if I did not address you at some length. I will endeavour to muster the words and the courage to do so; as you know, public speaking is not my forte, and if I fail in satisfying your expectations, you must accept the will for the deed (cheers). When I had the honour of being entertained at a public banquet at Adelaide, I had a good deal to say there of my career up to the present; but here I need not say a word about my antecedents, for most of you have known me from my childhood (cheers). For the last few years you all know I have had some little to do with exploration, and for me to tell you anything of my past experience would be simply waste of time and waste of words. You will, however, expect me to say something of our latest enterprise. I had been for some time animated by a desire to explore the untrodden interior of our island continent. I had, as you know, been twice before in the field; once in an eastward direction, and once along the south sea-board to Adelaide—the latter, I was told, being considered a very small undertaking, quite a coasting trip, and one on account of which we could not lay claim to much credit. I therefore was desirous of penetrating the mystery that shrouded the interior, and, with that object in view, I used my utmost endeavours to organize an expedition in that direction. Without the support and co-operation of one who I am sorry not to see here this evening, he having quitted the metropolis—his Excellency Governor Weld—my endeavours, I may safely say, would not have resulted in the organization of the expedition I had at heart, and I should not have been here to-night, occupying the proud position which I do. (Cheers.) My proposition to his Excellency, through the Commissioner of Crown Lands, was warmly received, and cordially espoused by the Executive. Any one can see it on application, together with his Excellency's minute, which was very complimentary to me. The proposition was carried through the Legislative Council, and a small sum of money was voted for the expedition, without which it could not probably have been organized and fitted out. I am happy to say that our trip is not likely to cost much more than the amount voted (400 pounds). Possibly the expense may reach 600 pounds or so; if it does, I have no doubt the Legislature will willingly vote the extra amount. (Hear, hear.) If it does not, of course we keep to the original proposition, and we shall only ask for the 400 pounds. I am quite prepared to abide by the original arrangement; but I think that every man in the colony is satisfied that the expedition was conducted at the least possible expense, and that we all tried to do our very best. (Cheers.) I scarcely think it is necessary for me to enter into any details of our journey; I have already given the most salient points in my published telegraphic despatch to the Government. We experienced some difficulties, no doubt, and some few privations, but I can assure you none of us ever thought of turning back. (Cheers.) On one occasion, I admit, the thought did enter my head that, possibly, we might have to turn back, but I did not tell any member of the party a word about it. The thought haunted me at night, and I could not sleep; and had we to carry it into execution we should have probably found ourselves coming out somewhere near Victoria Plains, and it struck me that I should be greeted with such expressions as "Well, old man, I am glad to see you back, but I am sorry you could not get through." I knew people would be glad to see us back, but their satisfaction at our safe return would be alloyed with regret at our failure to get right across; so I said to myself, "I never can face that; I must try again," and try again we did, and you know the result. (Cheers.) I candidly tell you that the thought struck me that if we were baffled in our efforts to penetrate through, it might be all the better for this colony, inasmuch as there would be a saving of expense thereby, although the credit due to me would be considerably diminished. But I did not care so much for that. When, however, I reached the settled portions of South Australia, I was very anxious to get right through to the telegraph line, just to show our neighbours that we could get across. From the date of our arrival at Peake Station, you know how cordially we were received throughout the rest of our journey, and with what kindness we were treated. Probably all of you have read of our enthusiastic reception at Adelaide. I never saw so many people in my life before, nor such a demonstration. They say there were 20,000 persons present. I thought there were 100,000 present. (Laughter.) As for my brother, he seemed enchanted with the sight, and especially with the ladies. He has said he thought they were all looking at him. On the contrary, gentlemen, I thought they were all looking at me. (Laughter.) Every one we came in contact with, both high and low, treated us most kindly. The same again in Melbourne. (Cheers.) Now, I must say a word or two about my first impressions on visiting Melbourne. The first object of interest that caught my attention was the splendid monument erected to the memory of the gallant explorers, Burke and Wills. Baron von Mueller kindly met me on the jetty when we landed, and I accompanied him in a cab to have an interview with the Governor. When we came in sight of this monument I asked the Baron to stop while I alighted to inspect it. He courteously did so. Gentlemen, a thrilling feeling came over me on looking on that memorial of two brave men who sacrificed their lives in the cause of exploration. The monument represents poor Burke standing over Wills, who is kneeling down. The first relief represents the party leaving Melbourne, and the popular demonstration accorded them; in the next place the return from Carpentaria is depicted, and the discovery of a depot where some provisions had been deposited. There is King in the act of holding a candle, Burke reading a letter, and Wills's head is peering over his shoulder. Further on there is a relief representing the death of the brave leader with his revolver grasped in his hand. On the other side there is Howitt and his party finding King, the sole survivor of Burke's party, among a number of black fellows, with whom he had been living for several weeks—the black fellows looking aghast at the relief party. Several times afterwards, during my stay in Melbourne, I went to look at this monument, and it always sent a thrill through my very soul. (Cheers.) Gentlemen, in conclusion, I must again express my gratitude for the kind manner in which you have received me and the members of my party back amongst you. My only consolation, in the face of the ovations I have received, is that we all tried to do our very best. (Cheers.) As to the vote of the Legislature, alluded to by your chairman, while I thank him heartily for his liberal spirit, I assure you I am very well satisfied indeed. (Applause.) When I started on the expedition I never expected one farthing of honorarium from the public funds; but though I am modest I am not altogether unselfish, and I did expect what I think every Briton expects from his countrymen when he does his best—but what he does not always get—the thanks of my fellow-colonists. (Cheers.) That I HAVE received most abundantly, and I am quite satisfied with it, and so I think are all the members of my party. We are also quite content with, and thankful for, the provision made for us by the Legislative Council. I don't know whether I shall again appear before you as an explorer, or whether I shall rest on my laurels, as the Inquirer said to-day. I can only say that if my services are required I shall be found ready and willing. (Cheers.) In the toast you have so enthusiastically drank my companions are very properly associated with myself, for I am much indebted to them for their hearty co-operation. They always endeavoured to do what I desired, and the most friendly feelings existed amongst us throughout the journey. (Cheers.) I never withheld from them any information as to our whereabouts or our movements; the maps, route, and the observations taken during the expedition were always open for their inspection, so that they could see our exact position from day to day. I had no secrets from them (hear, hear), and this confidence was reciprocated on their part. I never had occasion to check or to use an angry word to one of my party. They one and all always showed readiness and willingness to obey my instructions—in fact, I seldom had any occasion to instruct them; and I gladly avail myself of this opportunity to thank them publicly for their exemplary conduct. (Cheers.) On their behalf, as well as on my own behalf, I once more also thank you most sincerely for the honour you have done us and the kindness you have shown us. I hope that our future career will show that we are not altogether unworthy of that kindness." (Loud cheers.)

Tommy Pierre, one of the aboriginals attached to the expedition, then stepped forward, and, addressing the assembly, said: I only black fellow, you know; nothing at all but just a few words. I ought to give you good lecture. (Laughter.) Well, gentlemen, I am very thankful that I got into the city of Perth; that people give me welcome and everything. I am always thankful to any person that brought me into city of Perth. (Laughter.) When I speak so of city of Perth I don't speak wrong at all, what I speak is true and true. Well, gentlemen, I am very thankful to the people in Perth at the Town Hall; I am very thankful to every one that welcome me. I am always very glad to see white fellows around me. In Bunbury, Governor Weld spoke to me and say he left me a present in city of Perth, and I hope I will get it too. (Cheers and laughter.) Governor Weld is a splendid fellow; splendid governor. Well, gentlemen, I am all thankful; my last word is—I am thankful to you all. (Cheers.)

Mr. Randell: In consequence of the absence of the Surveyor-General—from what cause I am unable to state—his lordship Bishop Hale has kindly consented to propose the next toast. (Cheers.)

His Lordship, on rising, was received most cordially. He said that the toast which had just been entrusted to him was one that would have been better proposed by the Surveyor-General. The sentiment was Australian Exploration. It so happened that ever since he had arrived in Australia he had been very much interested in exploration, and much mixed up with persons engaged in that work. He had known the veteran explorer Sturt, the discoverer of South Australia; and he had also been acquainted with his brave companion, John McDouall Stuart, who had marked out the route subsequently followed by the trans-continental telegraph line from Adelaide to Port Darwin, for, wonderful to say, no better route could afterwards be discovered; the map of Stuart's journey and the map of the telegraph line were almost identical. With regard to Mr. Forrest's exploratory labours, referred to with unaffected and characteristic modesty by the young explorer himself, his lordship believed that great and practical results would follow, and that, even as Stuart's track from south to north of the continent had become the line of communication between those two extreme points, so would the path traversed by Mr. Forrest become, some day or other, the line of communication through the central portion of the continent from West to South Australia. (Cheers.) With respect to the necessity for exploration, no doubt it was a very essential work to be carried out. Whenever he had gone to distant and sequestered parts of the colony in the exercise of his ecclesiastical functions, and was called upon to console people so situated as to be cut off from the blessings of regular ministration, he was in the habit of saying to them, "Although you are at present cut off, yet you may believe that God in His providence has designed that His world shall be inhabited, and ordained that pioneers shall go forth into desert places in order to accomplish that end." Explorers, therefore, like Mr. Forrest, might well feel that in devoting themselves to the work of exploration they were doing their duty to God and to their country in seeking to discover new fields, likely to be of practical use as new settlements for the ever-increasing human family. Their efforts in that direction, often purchased with much suffering and privation, entitled explorers to be classed in the front rank of benefactors to mankind. (Applause.) The population of the world was continuously increasing, and new settlements became a necessity. In London alone it was said there was a birth every five minutes. What, then, must be the population of the British empire if the increase in one city was at that rate? It was but due to Mr. Forrest and to all such explorers that they should receive the thanks of their fellow-men for devoting their lives to so desirable a work as the discovery of new country, fitted for the habitation of civilized men. (Applause.) He would not trespass any further on the patience of the assembly: he was present in order to join in that general feeling of admiration which Mr. Forrest's exploit had evoked. Cooler courage and greater heroism could not be displayed under any circumstances than were displayed by his young friend on his right, circumstanced as he had been on divers occasions during his journey, with his life and the lives of his brave companions frequently in imminent peril. (Cheers.) Mr. Forrest had just told them that he did not think it necessary to enter into the details of that journey, inasmuch as the most important particulars connected therewith had already appeared in his telegraphic despatch to the Government, published in the local newspapers. That telegram was certainly one of the most explicit and distinct records of the kind that his lordship had ever perused. He had paid but a moderate degree of attention to it, but had experienced no difficulty whatever in pricking out Mr. Forrest's track on a map, and in forming a distinct conception of his journey. (Cheers.) It only remained for his lordship to ask them to join him in drinking the sentiment of Australian Exploration, and at the same time to drink the health of Mr. Alexander Forrest, whose name was coupled with it. (Cheers.)

The toast was enthusiastically honoured, the band playing The Song of Australia.

Mr. A. Forrest, on rising, was received with applause. He was indistinctly heard at the reporter's table, owing to the distance which separated him from it, and the constant hum of conversation, which by this time was becoming general. He was understood to express the proud satisfaction he felt at being present that evening, and more especially as his name had been associated with the toast of Australian Exploration. The sentiment was a wide one, and they need not suppose that he was going to enter into the history of all Australian explorations that had taken place. He was sure that time would not admit of his making even cursory remarks upon these events. Mr. Forrest then alluded to the exploratory labours of Stuart—perhaps the greatest of Australian explorers—of McKinlay, of Burke and Wills, of Captain Roe, and the Gregorys, and of the veteran Warburton. The hospitality shown by this colony to the last-named gallant explorer had produced a lasting feeling of gratitude throughout South Australia. The manner in which our southern neighbours spoke of the kind treatment extended by the inhabitants of this colony to that aged explorer, from the day he reached our north-west settlements to the hour he embarked on board steamer for Adelaide, reflected honourably upon the hospitable nature of West Australian people. Mr. Elder, one of the enterprising gentlemen at whose expense the expedition was organized and equipped, had told him (Mr. Forrest) that he never heard of such kindness. The South Australians, however, were not long before an opportunity was afforded them of returning that hospitality, and they certainly had not neglected the opportunity. Than the treatment which the party to which he had the honour of belonging had received at the hands of the people of South Australia nothing could be kinder—nothing could possibly be more hospitable. Every house was thrown open to them; their horses were fed free of charge; it did not cost them a single penny in travelling; everywhere they were met with the most cordial reception. Their triumphal entry into Adelaide was a demonstration worthy of a prince. (Cheers.) Having thanked his fellow-colonists for the very hearty reception accorded them on their return, Mr. Forrest spoke in very complimentary terms of the other members of the expedition. The two natives were first-rate fellows, and, as for Sweeney and Kennedy, he would never wish to have better companions in the bush. They were always for going ahead; no thought of turning back ever entered their heads; in their greatest privations not a murmur escaped their lips. (Loud cheers.)

Mr. L.S. Leake said: "The toast I have to propose is South Australia and the Sister Colonies—a sentiment which I think might most appropriately have immediately followed on the speech of my noble friend, Mr. John Forrest, who by his remarks paved the way to the few words I have to say. Why South Australia should be placed before the other colonies on this occasion it is not difficult to conjecture. She has, above all others, gained our affection by her kind and hospitable treatment of our fellow-colonists, our respected guests this evening who were received in Adelaide with even greater honour than the son of our beloved Queen. (Cheers.) With reference to Mr. Forrest himself, Western Australia should be proud of having produced such a man; and I only wish I had arrived in the colony four years and a half earlier, so that I might lay claim to having been born here. Many of those around me are natives of Western Australia; and although I am proud of Old England, my native country, I should have been glad to boast of having been born in the same colony as John Forrest. All of his fellow-colonists should be proud that Mr. Forrest has accomplished a feat which the whole civilized world must admire. (Cheers.) I did think that the Surveyor-General would have considered it worthy of his coming here to-night to join us in doing honour to Mr. Forrest, and that he would have introduced you to a gentleman connected with the Government of Victoria, now in this colony—Mr. Wardell, the Inspector-General of Public Works, for whose services we are under deep obligation. I believe him to be an excellent engineer, and in examining our harbour at Fremantle he will be the right man in the right place. Had he, however, been in his right place to-night, he would have been here amongst us, introduced by the Surveyor-General, and we should thus have an opportunity of publicly thanking the Victorian Government for granting us the benefit of his services. (Hear, hear.) But, though Victoria is not represented at this festive gathering, South Australia is, and that by a gentleman whose name it affords me great pleasure to connect with the toast which has been entrusted to me. This colony was established in the year 1829, and in 1830 there arrived amongst us one of our pioneer settlers, a good, worthy, honest—I cannot say English, but Scotch—gentleman, Mr. Walter Boyd Andrews, than whom a more upright man never landed on our shores. He is represented here to night by his eldest son, with whom I spent the greater portion of my younger days, and who for the last ten years has been Registrar-General of the colony of South Australia. I have, therefore, much pleasure in associating his name with the toast which I now ask you to join me in drinking, Prosperity to South Australia and the Sister Colonies." (Cheers.)

The toast was drunk with loud cheering, the band playing Pull, pull together.

Mr. Andrews, in response, said: "Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I rise at once to return thanks, because I always fancy that words spoken on the spur of the moment come from the very heart. I will first of all dispose of myself, having been taken completely by surprise in finding my name associated with the sentiment proposed by my old friend, Mr. Leake. I thank you most heartily for the honour you have done me, and the kind manner in which you have responded to the toast. As regards South Australia and the Sister Colonies, you have done South Australia the proud honour of giving her precedence over her sisters of the group, thereby showing, as Mr. Leake has said, the warmth of your affection towards her, which kindly feeling, I sincerely believe, is reciprocated on her part. The cordial reception accorded to your gallant explorers is an earnest of that feeling, and I think I may venture to say that the colony which I have the honour to serve will at all times extend a hearty welcome to any West Australian colonist. There is, I assure you, a very affectionate feeling entertained by South Australians towards this colony—a feeling that has been in existence for a long time, and which is growing deeper and deeper every day. She is not only willing to extend the right hand of friendship to you, but, as you know, has expressed her readiness to meet you half way across the desert that separates you from each other by means of the telegraph. (Cheers.) She does not feel jealous that you should receive telegraphic intelligence from the outside world earlier than she does; on the contrary, she is anxious that you should be placed in the same advantageous position as regards telegraphic communication as your other sisters are. (Applause.) Gentlemen, on her behalf, and on my own behalf, I thank you most heartily for the kind manner in which this toast has been received."


Since then, in the summer of 1875, I have visited Europe and received many proofs of the interest felt by Englishmen in Australian exploration. In the colonies, too, I find that the spirit of adventure which stimulates settlers to follow eagerly in the steps of the pioneer has been active. Already stations are being advanced on each side along the shores of the Great Bight, and a telegraph line is being constructed from King George's Sound to Adelaide, along my route of 1870, which will connect Western Australia with the telegraph systems of the world. Farther north, towards the head waters of the Murchison, advances have been made, and I and other explorers must feel a gratification, which gives ample reward for all our toil, in knowing that we have made some advance at least towards a more complete knowledge of the interior of vast and wonderful Australia.






CAMP 21. Latitude 25 degrees 57 minutes 32 seconds South; longitude 117 degrees 20 minutes East:— Cassia desolata. Trichodesma Zeilonicum. Stylobasium spatulatum. Psoralea Cucantha. Scaevola spiniscens. Sida petrophila. Codonocarpus cotinifolius. Adriana tomentosa. Salsola Kali.

CAMP 31. Latitude 26 degrees 8 minutes 31 seconds South; longitude 119 degrees 18 minutes East:— Acacia aneura. Oeschynomene Indica. Eremophila longifola. Cassia Sturtii. Plectronia latifolia.

CAMP 33. Latitude 26 degrees 13 minutes South; longitude 119 degrees 32 minutes East:— Santalum Preissianum. Plectronia latifolia.

CAMP 36. Latitude 26 degrees 17 minutes 12 seconds South; longitude 119 degrees 53 minutes East:— Brachychiton Gregorii. Dodonaea petiolaris. Cassia artemisioides. Eremophila latifolia. Hakea lorea. Acacia aneura. Eremophila longifolia.

CAMP 40. Latitude 25 degrees 38 minutes 44 seconds South; longitude 120 degrees 38 minutes East:— Cassia eremophila. Eremophila longifolia.

CAMP 46. Latitude 25 degrees 0 minutes 46 seconds South; longitude 121 degrees 22 minutes East:— Stemodia viscosa. Eremophila longifolia. Sida petrophila. Adriana tomentosa. Convolvulus erubescens. Cassia Sturtii. Hakea lorea.

Camp 48. Latitude 25 degrees 22 minutes 50 seconds South; longitude 121 degrees 57 minutes East:— Acacia aneura. Eremophila longifolia. Cassia eremophila. Cassia desolata. Eremophila Brownii. Loranthus Exocarpi.

CAMP 52. Latitude 25 degrees 41 minutes 23 seconds South; longitude 122 degrees 53 minutes East:— Pappophorum commune. Cassia eremophila. Acacia salicina. Santalum lanceolatum. Senecio lantus. Eremophila Duttoni. Ptilotus alopecuroides. Brunonia Australis. Hakea lorea. Cassia eremophila. Eremophila longifolia.

CAMP 59. Latitude 25 degrees 43 minutes 8 seconds South; longitude 124 degrees 10 minutes East:— Cassia notabilis. Cassia artemisioides.

CAMP 61. Latitude 25 degrees 53 minutes 23 seconds South; longitude 124 degrees 31 minutes East:— Eremophila Latrobei. Dodonaea petiolaris.

CAMP 62. Latitude 26 degrees 5 minutes 10 seconds South; longitude 124 degrees 46 minutes East:— Crotalaria Cunninghami. Indigofera brevidens. Sida petrophila. Acacia salicina. Dodonaea petriolaris. Condonocarpus cotinifolius. Cassia Sturtii. Cassia artemisioides. Kochia Brownii. Eremophila longifolia. Loranthus Exocarpi.

CAMP 70. Latitude 25 degrees 54 minutes 53 seconds South; longitude 126 degrees 48 minutes East:— Hakea lorea. Cassia desolata. Eremophila longifolia. Abutilon Fraseri. Acacia salicina. Cassia platypoda. Ficus platypoda (the native fig).

CAMP 71. Latitude 26 degrees 1 minute South; longitude 127 degrees 7 minutes East. Crotolaria Cunninghami. Indigofera brevidens. Cassia Eremophila. Trichodesma Zeilanicum. Cassia artemisioides.

CAMP 72. Latitude 26 degrees 2 minutes South; longitude 127 degrees 22 minutes East. Abutilon Fraseri. Trichodesma Zeilanicum. Acacia salicina.

CAMP 78. Latitude 26 degrees 15 minutes 10 seconds South; longitude 122 degrees 9 minutes East:— Gossypium Sturtii. Hibiscus Farragei. Pterocaulon Sphacelatus. Salsola Kali. Condonocarpus cotinifolius. Heliotropium undulatum. Scaevola spiniscens. Stylobasium spatulatum. Adriana tomentosa. Tecoma Australis. Ficus platypoda. Trichodesma Zeilanicum. Sida virgata. Dodonaea viscosa. Helichrysum apiculatum. Jasminum lineare. Adriana tomentosa. Indigofera Australis. Petalostylis labicheoides. Scaevola Aemula. Pterocaulon Sphacelatus. Santalum Preissianum. Festuca (Triodia) irritans.

The Santalum Preissianum, the so-called native peach, with edible fruit, is found generally on the whole route.

The Spinifex so often mentioned is the Festuca (Triodia) irritans, the Spinifex of the Desert Explorers, but not of Science.

Latitude 25 degrees 46 minutes South; longitude 118 degrees East:— Marsdenia Leichardti, the climber with edible pods and milky sap, the seeds with a downy top, called by the natives Carcular.

Latitude 26 degrees 4 minutes South; longitude 129 degrees 50 minutes East:— The Casuarina Decaisneana, the Shea-oak or Desert Oak peculiar to Central Australia.






Latitude 26 degrees South, Longitude 117 degrees 20 minutes East : Taken from Mount Hale on the Murchison River. This formation extends to longitude 120 degrees East, and is very magnetic, also very heavy. There must be a great deal of iron in it. The hills are very high, and the echo very remarkable. I have seen the same kinds of hills in latitude 29 degrees, longitude 120 degrees. Bare granite rocks sometimes in the vicinity, though not attached. (May 4th.) : Two small specimens of Micaceous Iron-ore with brown Haematite. Impossible to state the age. Similar ore occurs in Victoria, in Elvans in Porphyry, but it also occurs in Tertiary rocks.

Latitude 26 degrees 17 minutes South, Longitude 119 degrees 54 minutes East : The water shed of the Murchison, after crossing which we entered the Triodia desert. Found oozing out of rock in the water-shed of the Murchison. : Brown Haematite, decomposing to yellow. (Tertiary.) Bituminous material. Mr. Cosmo Newbery reports that it is probably the result of the decomposition of the excrement of bats. It contains fragments of the wing cases of insects, and gives reactions similar to the bituminous mineral or substance found in Victoria.

Latitude 25 degrees 14 minutes South, Longitude 121 degrees East : Peaks rising out of sandy Triodia desert. (May 29th.) : 5, Quartz; 6, Chalcedony; 7, Quartz; 8, Silky Shale (Silurian); 9, very Micaceous Schist (Silurian).

Latitude 25 degrees 40 minutes South, Longitude 120 degrees 35 minutes East : Found in the Frere Ranges. : 10, Ferruginous rock (Tertiary); 11, portion of a seam or joint of a rock; 12, very fine soft purple slightly micaceous rock (Silurian); 13, white micaceous slaty sandstone (Silurian).

Latitude 25 degrees 39 minutes South, Longitude 120 degrees 40 minutes East : This rock was broken off the face of the side of a bank of brook. It is rather soft, and would split; it is all in layers. I cut my initials in it with a chisel. : Purple brown slate (Silurian).

Latitude 25 degrees 40 minutes South, Longitude 122 degrees 20 minutes East, Mount Moore : Many ranges and some grassy country running from longitude 122 to longitude 124 degrees, generally composed of this description of rock. : 15, Rough quartzite (conglomeritic) Tertiary; 16, rough quartzite with white band, brown and purple (Tertiary).

Latitude 25 degrees 32 minutes South, Longitude 124 degrees 17 minutes East : Taken from rough range rising out of gently undulating desert. (July 5th.) : White flinty rock; consists in the main of Silica, with Magnesia and Alumina; it also contains water and traces of the Alkalies. It is probably derived from the decomposition of granite. The "rough ranges" are perhaps granitic.

Latitude 26 degrees 6 minutes South, Longitude 124 degrees 46 minutes East : From a low table hill (Alexander Spring). : Translucent greenish quartz. Impossible to state the probable age.

Latitude 26 degrees 2 minutes South, Longitude 125 degrees 27 minutes East : This sandstone is the usual rock found in all the country from longitude 122 degrees to 126 degrees 30 minutes. In it are receptacles for water, and all the rising ground is composed of it. Very often one side of the rise forms a cliff. Where this is taken from there is a long line of cliffs with many creeks running from them, and low cliff-hills all about. : Light red sandstone (desert sandstone, Tertiary).

Latitude 26 degrees South, Longitude 126 degrees 30 minutes East : From the farthest ranges westward from telegraph line; good grassy country in flats. The dark piece from a salt gully. (August 8th.) : 20, Silico felspathic rock impregnated with Micaceous iron (probably from a dyke); 21, 22, green schist (Silurian).

Latitude 26 degrees 12 minutes South, Longitude 128 degrees East : In the Cavanagh Ranges. Many ranges. (August 17th.) : Greenstone (Diabase ?).

Latitude 26 degrees 18 minutes South, Longitude 129 degrees 9 minutes East : Tomkinson Ranges. Many ranges running East and West, and grassy flats between them. (August 26th.) Mount Jane. : Aphanite.


The publication of the preceding Journal affords an appropriate occasion for inviting attention to the remarkable progress of Western Australia within the last few years. Mr. John Forrest is proud to acknowledge himself as belonging to that colony—indeed native-born—and his fellow-colonists have invariably supported and encouraged his explorations. Belonging to the public service, he has recognized as his main object the discovery of new and good country with the view of extending colonization, while within his ideas of duty there has been a steadfast regard for those objects which promote the welfare of young settlements. It has long been observed that Western Australia requires to be thoroughly understood in its great capacities for carrying a large population. There are vast resources yet to be developed, and what has been accomplished in sheep and cattle stations, in copper and lead mining, in wine-growing, in pearl fisheries, besides other important operations, prove that the country has scarcely been tapped, and will be sure to reward those who have the enterprise and industry to become settlers. It is only necessary to substantiate these statements by official documents, and, in the hope that this volume will do good service to Western Australia, the following papers are reprinted.


Government House, Perth,

September 30, 1874.


It has appeared to me that your lordship may think it desirable that, before I leave, I should, so far as the limits of a despatch may enable me to do so, place before you the present state of this colony, review the progress it has made within the last five years, and indicate its future prospects.

2. When I was appointed to the Government of Western Australia I was aware that from various causes the colony had made but little progress; and on my arrival in September, 1869, I found chronic despondency and discontent, heightened by failure of the wheat crop, by the prospect of the gradual reduction of convict expenditure and labour on which the settlers had been accustomed to depend, by the refusal of the Home Government to continue to send out free immigrants, and by that vague dread of being thrown on their own resources so natural to men who have been accustomed to take no part in their own affairs, and who have consequently learned to rely entirely upon the Government, and not at all upon themselves. One healthy symptom there was, and that was a desire, not very strong perhaps, or even generally founded upon a just appreciation of the past, or political foresight of the future; but still a very wide-spread desire, and to many a reasonable and intelligent desire, for a form of representative institutions which might give the colonists some real voice in the management of their own affairs.

3. At the earliest possible moment I commenced work by travelling over as much as possible of the settled and partially settled districts of the colony; an old colonist bushman and explorer myself, travelling on horseback and camping out were but natural to me, and I wished to judge for myself of the capabilities of the colony; and before I had been six months in the country I had ridden considerably over two thousand miles, some part of the distance unfortunately, owing to an accident, with a fractured rib and other injuries. I had made acquaintance with settlers of all classes, and was able to form an opinion so accurate, both of the people and of the country I have since had to deal with, and of their capabilities, that I have never altered that opinion, nor have my many subsequent journeys done more than supplement the knowledge I then gained.

4. My first political aim was to promote local self-government in local affairs by establishing or giving real power to road boards and municipalities (a policy I afterwards carried into effect with school boards also); and, so soon as I had obtained the sanction of her Majesty's Government, I introduced that modified form of representative institutions provided by 13 and 14 Vic., chap. 59, and then passed the Municipal Acts I have mentioned above. This policy has fulfilled not only my expectations but my hopes, and should the Council that is about to meet wish to take the ultimate step of entering into complete self-government by adopting the responsible system, the preparation afforded by the last five years will admittedly be of the greatest value.

5. It fell to me to carry into effect the ecclesiastical policy indicated by Lord Granville in a despatch, Number 80, of July 10, 1869, held over for my arrival, in which his lordship suggested that grants (regard being had to the number in the community of each denomination) should be equal in substance and alike in form, and asked if there were any difficulties in applying to Western Australia "that principle of religious equality which had long been recognized in the Australian Colonies." Lord Kimberley, in an enclosure to his despatch, Number 78, of December 19, 1870, expressed similar views. To this on March 1, 1871, in my despatch, Number 37, I was enabled to reply that I had already carried the policy recommended into practice, that the grants had been equalized by "levelling up," that the vote for the Church of England was "now handed over to the Bishop of Perth, the Government reserving the right to satisfy itself that it is applied to those purposes of religious ministration and instruction for which it is voted, and that all vested interests are maintained intact and claims on the Government respected." Since then I have supported such measures as were thought desirable to promote self-organization, and I have moreover made liberal grants of land for glebes, churches, schools, and institutions to the various religious bodies in proportion to their numbers. I have reason to know that on all sides satisfaction is felt at the position in which I shall leave ecclesiastical affairs so far as the action of Government may effect them.

6. The elementary educational question, on my arrival, was a source of much contention and ill-feeling, which came prominently into play, when in the second session of 1871 I caused a Bill, drafted by myself, and the general provisions of which I was subsequently informed were "entirely approved of" by your lordship's predecessor, to be introduced into the Legislature, and carried it—not, however, quite in its original form. Though the alterations are unquestionably defects, and may somewhat mar its success, it has hitherto worked very well, and has proved itself not only effective but economical: it has received praise from its former opponents and from the most opposite quarters, and old bitternesses are now (I hope for ever) things of the past.

7. I have not failed to give the utmost support in my power—a support unfortunately much needed in a colony like this—to the Chief Justice, and it has been a great gratification to me that, on my recommendation, the long and valuable services of Sir Archibald Paull Burt have been recognized by her Majesty, and that he has received the honour of knighthood—a rank which none of her Majesty's servants will more fitly adorn. I have suggested to the Legislature that a small increase of salary should be given to uphold the dignity of the Supreme Court; and the question, to which I have already drawn the attention of the Legislature, of the appointment of two Puisne Judges and constitution of a Court of Appeal ought to be taken into consideration at no distant period. One new resident magistracy has been established in a district where it was very much needed, and two Local Courts have been constituted. There is some difficulty in finding a sufficiency of fit persons for the commission of the peace who are willing to exert themselves, and the pay of the resident magistrates is in too many cases insufficient to enable them properly to support their position as representatives of the Government in their districts.

8. In the Military Department I have enabled successive commandments to make reductions in the enrolled Pensioner Force. By withdrawing the guard from Rottnest Island, and by concurring in the reductions at out-stations, a very considerable saving has thus been effected. I have given all the encouragement in my power to the Volunteer movement, and I may confidently state that the Volunteer Force was never before in so good a state, either so far as regards numbers or efficiency. To this result the efforts of successive commandants and liberality of the Legislature have mainly contributed.

9. It has been for me to preside over the latter stages of the existence of the Imperial convict establishment in Western Australia, as a large and important department; henceforth it will be confined in narrow limits, and I may state with confidence that the great reductions and concentrations that it has been my duty to effect have not been attended with those disastrous effects to the colony that were so confidently predicted, and also that although the residue of convicts are, many of them, men of the doubly reconvicted class and long-sentence men, discipline is well kept, serious prison offences are rare, the health of the men is excellent, whilst severe punishments are seldom needful. I here beg leave to make favourable mention of Mr. W.R. Fauntleroy, Acting Comptroller-General of Convicts, who has proved himself to be my most valuable officer.

10. Much remains to be done in the Survey and Lands Department. When Mr. Fraser in December, 1870, took charge of the department, the greatest economy was needed to make the revenue of the colony meet the expenditure, and consequently it was necessary to reduce and lay upon our oars; Mr. Fraser reorganized his department, putting it on a new system, letting out work by contract instead of keeping up a large permanent staff, and thereby effected a considerable annual saving; at the same time he has been steadily working, as time and means have permitted, towards certain definite objects, namely, in the direction of a trigonometrical survey, by fixing points, by making sketch and reconnaissance surveys of new and important districts, and by accurately fixing by survey main lines of road: this will give a connexion to the records in the Survey Office which has been hitherto wanting, and will contribute to enable him to construct that great desideratum—a large and accurate map of Western Australia, so far as it is settled or partially settled. I concur with Mr. Fraser in thinking that, so soon as means will admit, a considerably increased annual expenditure should be devoted to surveys.

11. The joint survey of the coast will also aid in this work. The Admiralty, in assenting to my proposal to undertake a joint coast survey, which has been placed under a highly meritorious officer, Navigating Lieutenant Archdeacon, R.N., have conferred a great benefit on this colony, and promoted the interests of British commerce and navigation, much valuable work having already been done.

12. In close connexion with the Survey and Lands Department is the topic of exploration. So soon as possible after my first arrival, I took upon myself to send Mr. John Forrest overland to Adelaide, along the shores of the Great Bight, nearly on the line of Mr. Eyre's route in 1841. I did this before the introduction of representative government, and it is right to say that I knew that I could not have got a vote for it. I felt that this was the last act of an expiring autocratic regime, and I believe it was one of the least popular of my acts; but certainly no small sum of public money has been expended with greater results—for, as I hoped, Mr. Forrest's expedition has bridged the gap that separated West Australia from the other colonies, has led to settlement on the shores of the Great Bight, and to the connexion of this colony with the rest of the world by electric telegraph. I never doubted of the future of West Australia from the day when the news of Mr. Forrest's success reached Perth. Since then more interest has been taken in exploration. A second expedition was sent out to the eastward under Mr. Alexander Forrest in 1871, with the support of the Legislature and some of the settlers, and at present under the same auspices Mr. John Forrest is again exploring to the northward and eastward. His route will be guided by circumstances, but it is not improbable that he may aim for the Central Australian telegraph line, and I am already anxiously expecting tidings of him.

13. In 1870, with a vote I obtained from the Council, I engaged Mr. Henry Y. Brown as Government Geologist. His geological sketch map and his researches, which he pushed in one instance far into the interior, have been of the greatest value; and it was with much regret that in 1872, owing to the disinclination evinced in the Legislature in the then straitened circumstances of the colony to expend money on a scientific department, that I was obliged to forego my desire of making it a permanent part of the establishment.

14. As Colonel Warburton's journey from the Central South Australian telegraph line to our north-west coast was set on foot and its expenses defrayed by private colonists of South Australia, I only allude to it to acknowledge the obligation that this colony lies under to those public-spirited gentlemen and to the gallant leader and his followers. Parties headed by Mr. Gosse, by Mr. Giles, and by Mr. Ross have all within the last two years penetrated from the eastern colonies to within the boundary of our unexplored territory, but, beyond a certain extension of geographical knowledge, without effecting any material results.

15. Under the head of Survey and Lands Department, it will be proper to glance at the alterations in the Land and Mineral Regulations, which have offered increased inducements and facilities for cultivation and occupation, and which have considerably promoted mining enterprise. Gold Mining Regulations have been also prepared and are ready for issue, should occasion, as is likely, render them requisite. I willingly acknowledge the assistance I have received from Mr. M. Fraser, the Surveyor-General and Commissioner of Crown Lands, who has had much experience in New Zealand, for the services he has rendered in all these matters.

16. The mineral riches of this colony are very great. I have never doubted but that they would ultimately become a main source of its advancement. All the different kinds of auriferous quartz known in other colonies are found abundantly in various parts of this—the question of payable gold is, as I have long since reported, simply a question of time. After many efforts, I at last, in 1873, obtained a vote for prospecting, and the results are most promising, the fact of the existence of rich auriferous quartz being now established. We shall immediately be in a position to crush specimen consignments of quartz by a Government steam-crusher, and I doubt not but that, if followed up, the results will be most important. But gold is not the only nor perhaps the most important of the minerals possessed by West Australia. The colony is extraordinarily rich in lead, silver, copper, iron, plumbago, and many other minerals are found in various localities, and indications of coal and petroleum are not wanting—what IS wanting, is energy and enterprise to develop these riches, and that energy and enterprise is being attracted chiefly from Victoria, first by means of concessions that I was enabled to make, and now by the reports of the new comers to their friends. I made a small concession to a smelting company: and another, and also an iron mining company, is in the field.

17. When on my arrival I turned around me to see what was to be looked for to supply the place of Imperial expenditure, only second to our minerals, our forests attracted my attention. They could not fail to do so, because just before I came there was an outcry for the development of this industry by Government aid. With Lord Granville's assent I made liberal concessions, and thereby induced a pioneer company, shortly followed by others from Victoria, to embark capital in the enterprise. The public ardour here had, however, cooled, and an ignorant cry was raised against foreigners, and the prospects of the trade were systematically decried. Several causes besides this militated against it, but it is surmounting them, and at the present moment not only are the companies largely employing labour and expending money, but their own success is becoming an established fact, and the export is enormously increasing, and with good management must continue to increase indefinitely. Whilst on this subject I may allude to the question of the preservation of our forests, but as I am treating it more fully in a separate despatch I will only say that this and the kindred question of planting ought, at no distant period, to occupy the attention of our Legislature.

18. The pearl shell and pearl fishery may be said to have sprung into existence within the last few years. It employs a fleet of cutters and schooners, chiefly of small size, on the north-west coast, Port Cossack being the head-quarters. At Sharks Bay also there are a number of smaller boats. A licence fee on boats and a tax on shells has been imposed by the Legislature; laws for the protection of aboriginal divers and Malays have been enacted. I shall immediately have a Government cutter on the north-west coast for police and customs purposes, which will also be useful in cases of shipwreck amongst the islands and inlets, and in searching for and reporting the position of reefs, of anchorages, and of new banks of pearl oysters. It will probably hereafter become advisable to let areas for pearling under certain regulations as in Ceylon, but this could not well be done with our present means and knowledge.

19. To turn now to the more settled industries, first in importance is that of agriculture. It is chiefly in the hands of men of little capital, and is carried on in a very slovenly way by the greater part of them. Bad seasons, an over-great reliance on cereals, which have for several successive years been seriously affected by the red rust, and a neglect of other products suitable to the soil and climate, added in too many cases to careless and intemperate habits, have until lately rendered the position of many of the small farmers a very precarious one. Last year, however, was more favourable, and they to a great extent recovered themselves. The lesson of the past has not been altogether lost; they have also been much assisted by the new Land Regulations, and a few prosperous seasons will, I sincerely trust, put this class, which ought to be a mainstay of the colony, into a really prosperous condition.

20. The cultivation of the vine is a profitable pursuit, and the quantity of land fitted for that purpose is very great; both soil and climate are eminently favourable to the growth of the grape. Recent legislation has given some encouragement to wine-growers by facilitating the sale of home-grown pure wine. The quantity of land laid down in vineyards is slightly increased, but the class of settlers that are most numerous in Western Australia do not readily take to industries that are new to them, however profitable they may be, nor can they afford to wait for returns, nor have many of them the knowledge necessary to make good wine: still this industry will become one of the most important in the colony.

21. The pastoral interest is the pioneer interest of a new colony. Western Australia has been somewhat less favoured than some other parts of Australia in its pastoral lands, but it has, nevertheless, a good deal of very good pastoral country, and under the extremely liberal concessions lately offered to those who will devote capital to the eradication of poison plants much more may be made available, whilst fresh country is being largely occupied inland.

The progress, however, of the pastoral interest, considering the age of the colony, though latterly great, is not SO great as might have been expected; the comparatively good prices obtainable and anticipated for meat have kept down the increase of stock, and consequently the yield of wool; and as yet very little or nothing has been done to supplement natural resources by growing artificial grasses and fodder plants. No country presents greater capabilities for horse breeding, and cattle do exceeding well and are very profitable.

22. The sandal-wood trade is in a flourishing condition, and has brought money into the colony, and enabled many of the poorer classes to obtain a livelihood by cutting that aromatic wood for export. It is, however, doubted by some whether the labour employed in this trade does not withdraw many from more steady and permanently useful labour on their farms and small holdings.

23. In the matter of minor industries, sericulture holds a first rank. I look to it in the future as a source of employment for paupers on the hands of the Government, and also for women and children. I have taken much interest in this pursuit, and have caused a mulberry plantation to be made and plants distributed, and have published much information on the subject. The Report of the Chamber of Commerce of Como (Italy), alluded to in my despatch, Number 61, of 20th May, 1873, conclusively shows that this colony is remarkably well adapted for the cultivation of silk. The cultivation of the olive and the castor-oil plant are industries for which this soil and climate are extraordinarily well adapted. Tobacco, hops, and dried and preserved fruits might largely add to the riches of the colony. In great part at my own expense, I have introduced and distributed hop plants and various kinds of fruits of great utility, and have, in fact, in the absence of any botanic garden (in which I have vainly endeavoured to get the settlers to take an active interest), made my own garden a kind of nursery for acclimatization and distribution of useful and ornamental plants, and I have also given a small concession for the cultivation of the cocoa-nut on the north-west coast, where, in the absence of vegetables, it would be invaluable. And, thanks to the Government of the Mauritius, I have been able to introduce various kinds of sugar-cane, for which part of this territory is well adapted. The growth of coffee has been also attempted on a Government plantation, but without success. Cotton had already been proved to thrive admirably, and to be excellent in quality, but is not considered likely to pay without cheap labour. I may here note that, with an eye to the future, I have made reserves for the purposes of public parks and recreation grounds in several places.

Deer, Angora goats, hares, and trout have been also introduced.

24. I will now proceed to another branch of my subject—public works and undertakings; and first in the category of public works and undertakings I put those which relate to communications, and under that subdivision immeasurably the most important are such means of communication as, by terminating the isolation which has been the great bar to the advancement of this colony, may make it a living part of the system of life and progress which has been growing and prospering around it.

On this end was my mind set when I was appointed to the Governorship, to this end have I worked steadily ever since, and this end is partially accomplished, and its complete fulfilment is not distant.

The vote for the construction of the telegraph line via Eucla to South Australia, passed last session, and the proposal of Messrs. Siemens Brothers regarding a submarine cable to Madras, fitly close an administration which found Western Australia within twelve miles, and has already placed her in possession of a complete telegraphic system, consisting of about nine hundred miles of wire, worked at a remarkably small cost, in efficient order, already remunerative, and affording the greatest advantages both to the public service and to private business. It is noteworthy that four or five years ago there was a strong feeling that the construction of telegraph lines was a waste of public money, and only a few months ago a prominent member of the Legislature publicly objected to the line which is to connect this colony with the rest of the world, that it would only benefit a few individuals! Such ideas, however, are rapidly becoming obsolete even in Western Australia.

I will here note that, under a power given me by law to fix and alter rates, I, in January, 1873, reduced the charges to a uniform rate of one shilling per ten words, and one penny for each additional word (press messages at quarter price), and was the first to do so in the Australian colonies.

25. After much and persistent opposition, the Legislature was at length induced to vote a subsidy for steam on the coast, connecting our western ports and all this part of the colony with Albany, King George's Sound, the port of call of the Royal mail steamers from Europe and the eastern colonies. This has done much to throw open this colony, rendering access to it no longer difficult and uncertain, and greatly facilitating intercommunication. A very Chinese objection to steam communication has been publicly made by the same gentleman to whose opinion on telegraphic communication I have already alluded; namely, that it enabled people to LEAVE the colony. I am, on the contrary, of opinion that it is certainly conducing to progress and the promotion of commerce.

The steamer we have at present is, however, insufficient, but I doubt not but that a second and more powerful boat will shortly be procured, as it is already required: I understand, however, that no West Australian capital is as yet forthcoming for the purpose, nor for steam communication with India, than which nothing could be more important, as it would render available the magnificent geographical position of the colony, and open a market close at hand for its products. I have long ago and frequently stated my willingness to give all possible Government support to such an undertaking.

26. I am immediately about, by invitation, to proceed to Champion Bay, and to cut the first sod of the first West Australian railway, on the Geraldton and Northampton line. I have already fully indicated the advantage that there is good reason to anticipate will result from the opening of that line, which will, I do not hesitate to say, be the parent of future and greater undertakings.

When the colony arrives at a position safely to borrow a million or a million and a quarter, a railway from Fremantle and Perth, probably up the Helena valley, into the York district, and thence down the country eastward of the present Sound road, to the fine harbour of King George's Sound, would do more than anything else to give an outlet to the resources of the country and supply its wants; such a line would ultimately be extended through the eastern districts and Victoria plains northward to the Irwin, Greenough, and Geraldton.

But I will recall myself from these and other speculations of the yet more distant future, and look back upon the modest past. Two tramways with locomotives now bring timber to the coast from the Jarrah forests, and there are also two other tramways for the same purpose, of less extent, but still of some importance. I have made concessions to the companies constructing them.

27. With regard to ordinary roads, I can very confidently say that, considering the extent of the country and its scattered population, no colony that I have ever seen is in a better position regarding roads. Occasionally, owing to the loss of convict labour, the scarcity of free labour, the disinclination of the people to tax themselves locally, and the great extent of the roads themselves, parts of the roads already made fall out of repair whilst other parts are being formed; but on the whole, having perhaps traversed more of Western Australia than any one man in the colony, I very confidently assert that, taking all in all throughout the country, the roads are in a better condition than they have ever been before. Large bridges have been constructed over the Upper Swan, Moore River, Blackwood, Capel, and Preston, besides twelve smaller bridges, and a large one completed at the Upper Canning.

28. Bushing the Geraldton sand-hills has been a very useful and successful work; the experiment was first tried by Lieutenant-Colonel Bruce. Part of the work has been done by convict labour, and part by farmers and settlers in payment for a loan advanced to them for seed-wheat before my arrival. It is not too much to say that this work has saved the town of Geraldton and its harbour from destruction by sand.

29. A little has been done in the way of improving the Swan River navigation by means of a dredge imported by Governor Hampton, and worked by prison labour and by an appropriation in the Loan Act of 1872. A work has also been constructed, from funds provided out of the same loan, at Mandurah, by which the entrance to the Murray River has been improved.

30. Harbour improvements have occupied much of the attention of Government. A fine and substantial open-piled jetty at Fremantle, seven hundred and fifty feet long, has been constructed, and answers all the purposes for which it was designed; but the larger and extremely difficult question of the construction of a really safe harbour at or near Fremantle is yet undecided. Various plans have been proposed, and great pressure has been put on the Government to commence works hastily and without engineering advice. At one time one scheme has found favour, and another at another, and the merits of the rival schemes of our amateurs have been popularly judged upon the principle of opposing most strongly anything that was supposed to find favour with the Government. Last session a strong wish to do SOMETHING caused the Legislature to advocate a scheme which many persons think would cause the mouth of the River Swan to silt up, and expose the town of Fremantle to danger, lest the river in flood should burst out (as no doubt it did formerly) into the South Bay over the town site. The question, however, is referred to the Victorian Government engineer, and the Melbourne Government have been asked to allow him to visit this colony, but I fear that the people will not accept his decision; and unless the members of the new Legislature will agree to do so, or, in the event of his not coming, do what I have long since recommended, namely, ask your Lordship to refer the whole question to the decision of Sir John Coode, or some other great authority, and undertake beforehand to abide by it, I see no chance of anything being carried into effect until the warmth and personal feeling which, strangely enough, is always evoked by this question, shall be succeeded by a more reasonable and business-like mood. One of my first acts on reaching this colony was, in accordance with the previously expressed wish of the Council and colonists, to send for an engineer of high repute to report. His report only raised a tempest of objurgations, and I must frankly confess failure in my efforts to leave Fremantle with a harbour; and, indeed, I am far from being convinced that anything under an enormous outlay will avail to give an anchorage and approaches, safe in all weathers, for large ships, though I, with the Melbourne engineers, think that the plan of cutting a ship channel into Freshwater Bay, in the Swan River, advocated by the Reverend Charles Grenfel Nicholay, is worthy of consideration. Jetties at Albany, King George's Sound, the Vasse, Bunbury, and Geraldton, have been lengthened, one at Dongarra constructed, and money has been voted for the construction of one at Port Cossack. Moorings have been procured from England, and are being laid down at Fremantle and other ports.

31. With respect to public buildings, the Perth Town Hall—a very large and conspicuous building, commenced by Governor Hampton—was completed not long after my arrival, and handed over by me to the City Council and Municipality on June 1, 1870; attached to it I caused the Legislative Chamber to be built, and so arranged that at no great cost this colony possesses a council-room more convenient and in better taste than many I have seen of far greater pretensions. It is, however, proposed hereafter to build legislative chambers in the new block of Government buildings, of which the Registration Offices now about to be commenced will form a wing, for which the contract is 2,502 pounds. The public offices at Albany were finished shortly after my arrival. I may mention, among a number of less important buildings, the harbour-master's house, Albany; school-houses there and in various other places; large addition to Government Boys' School, Fremantle; court-house and police-station, and post and telegraphic offices at Greenough and at Dongarra; police-station, Gingin; addition to court-house, York; post and telegraphic offices at Guildford, York; and Northam Bonded Store, Government offices, and police-station, Roebourne. Considerable additions have been made, which add to the convenience and capabilities of the Fremantle Lunatic Asylum, and alterations and adaptations and additions have been made to several other buildings; for instance, at Albany a resident magistrate's house and also a convenient prison have been formed at no great outlay. At Perth a building has been erected to which I call attention, the Government printing-house; this new department has been of immense service during the four years in which it has been in existence—in fact, it would have been impossible to have gone on without it; and the Government printing work is most creditably done at a very reasonable cost. A handsome stone sea-wall has been commenced by convict labour at the new jetty at Fremantle, which will reclaim much valuable land, and greatly improve the appearance of the place. Harbour lights have been erected at several places. A large lighthouse is in the course of erection at Point Moore, at Geraldton, which will be of much importance; and it is proposed, with the co-operation of other colonies, to erect one near Cape Leeuwin, as recommended at an intercolonial conference on that subject.

32. Postal facilities have been increased, several new offices opened, and postages (under powers vested in me by law) considerably reduced, on both letters to the colonies and newspapers, from the tariff I found in force. In this a step in advance of some of our neighbours was taken.

33. I have reduced several police-stations on the recommendation of Captain Smith, the superintendent, which appeared to be no longer necessary; but, on the other hand, I have extended police protection into outlying districts, both for the benefit of European settlers and of the aboriginal inhabitants. These latter have gained little and lost much by the occupation of their country by settlement. I have fought their battle against cruel wrong and oppression, holding, I trust, the hand of justice with an even balance, and I rejoice to say not without effect and benefit to both races. Their services as stockmen, shepherds, and pearlers are invaluable; and when they die out, as shortly no doubt they will, their disappearance will be universally acknowledged as a great loss to the colonists.

34. The Legislature, I am happy to say, have latterly seconded my efforts by encouraging industrial institutions for their benefit. Similarly they have in the last session turned their attention to the condition of the destitute and criminal children of our own race; and, in my own sphere, I have done what was possible for the encouragement of the (denominational) orphanages which have been long established and are in full working order. This colony is, for its size and means, well supplied with hospitals, asylums, and establishments for paupers, in which I have taken great personal interest.

35. In legislation I have endeavoured to avoid over-legislation and premature legislation. I have considered that free-trade principles are especially in place in a colony situated as this is. The ad valorem duty, and that on wines, spirits, and a few other articles, has been raised for revenue purposes; some others have been put on the free list. I successfully resisted the imposition of a duty on flour; I should have simplified the tariff still further than I have done, and admitted free many more articles—some of food, others used in our industries—had the Legislature not objected; the tariff as it stands is inconsistent. The English bankruptcy system has been introduced, and an Act passed regarding fraudulent debtors; distillation has been permitted under proper safeguards; Sunday closing of public-houses has been rendered compulsory with good effect; a Lunacy Bill on the English model has become law; the Torrens Land Registration system has been adopted, and will shortly be put into force. Many equally important measures are alluded to in their places in the pages of this despatch, and I will not inflict upon your lordship a list of many minor Acts, some not unimportant, which have proved beneficial in their degree.

36. Among lesser but not unimportant matters, I may mention that I have extended the system of taking security from Government officers in receipt of public moneys.

The commencement of a law and parliamentary library has been made.

37. Immigration from England has, on a small scale, been set on foot lately, and families are now expected from neighbouring colonies, but our population from obvious causes has increased but slightly during the last five years; on my arrival it was said to be actually decreasing, and there were many reasons why such an opinion was not unreasonable—reduction of the convict establishment threw some out of employment, expirees also desired to quit a country which to them had been a land of bondage, and the prospects of the country were gloomy; now there is a great want of labour, any that comes is at once absorbed, and every effort should be made to attract a constant stream of immigrants.

38. It will be observed that when the whole authorized loan is raised, the colony will be only in debt to the extent of a little over one year's income, or 5 pounds 16 shillings 5 1/4 pence a head, whilst Victoria is indebted 15 pounds 14 shillings 10 3/4 pence, New South Wales 19 pounds 7 shillings, South Australia 10 pounds 19 shillings 5 pence, Queensland 32 pounds 12 shillings 7 3/4 pence, Tasmania 14 pounds 3 shillings 6 3/4 pence, New Zealand 40 pounds 5 shillings 11 pence. I beg also to call your lordship's attention to the fact that Western Australia has only yet spent the 35,000 pound loan, and has now only begun to spend that of 100,000 pounds. I also would point out that the last annual increase of revenue has about equalled the whole capital amount which has been expended out of loans.

39. I have caused the following statistics to be furnished me from the Treasury and Customs Departments for six years, ending on the 30th September of each year. The first year given, that ending on the 30th September, 1869, is the year immediately preceding my arrival, I having been sworn in on that very day.


COLUMN 1: CATEGORY. COLUMN 2: 1869. COLUMN 3: 1870. COLUMN 4: 1871. COLUMN 5: 1872. COLUMN 6: 1873. COLUMN 7: 1874.

*Imports : 232,830/0/11 : 232,590/18/8 : 201,070/3/4 : 224,396/10/0 : 253,680/16/2 : 367,417/15/0.

**Exports : 178,860/15/2 : 204,447/2/2 : 194,934/9/3 : 228,807/12/9 : 278,502/16/0 : 398,900/8/6.

***Customs duties : 48,157/8/9 : 45,270/14/6 : 43,464/2/3 : 53,556/4/5 : 60,022/1/1 : 82,016/12/0.

****Revenue : 108,600/1/0 : 109,978/6/3 : 102,128/3/4 : 107,828/5/10 : 120,937/14/8 : 161,443/8/10.

****Expenditure : 107,213/1/10 : 119,478/8/4 : 112,285/10/7 : 103,205/16/0 : 120,259/11/9 : 131,334/18/5.


*Ships now expected will greatly swell the items of Imports and Customs.

**This is exclusive of RE-exported articles, and the valuations are very moderate. In round numbers, the Exports may be said to be over 400,000 pounds.

***Part of the increase of Customs duties is owing to increase of duties on spirits, wines, and some other items; and ad valorem, on the other hand, credit should be given for some articles which have been admitted free. Taking the balance as the amount accruing from increase of duties, it may be put at 12,000 pounds on the last year.

****It will be observed that for some time, until better seasons returned and measures bore fruit, I had to a slight extent to rely on the surplus found in the chest to make Revenue and Expenditure meet. To have starved the Expenditure at that time would have been to have damaged the future progress of the colony, and the Legislative Council opposed several reductions that I thought might have been effected.

On the 30th September, 1874, there was a sum of 36,616 pounds 3 shillings 5 pence in the chest, and something like this sum will be at the disposal of the Legislature at their meeting, beyond current revenue.

40. I need hardly say that the commercial state of the colony is admittedly sound, and I am informed in a more prosperous condition than at any previous period of its existence. Landed property, especially about Perth, has lately risen immensely in value, and the rise is, I hope, spreading and will reach the outlying districts. Perth has lost its dilapidated appearance, and neat cottages and houses are springing up in all directions, and the same progress to some extent is noticeable in Fremantle and elsewhere.

41. I will not conclude this Report without recalling the success which attended the efforts made by the Government, to which my private secretary Mr. Henry Weld Blundell largely contributed, to represent the products of Western Australia at the Sydney Exhibition of 1873. Much of this success was attributable to the exertions of Mr. F.P. Barlee, Colonial Secretary, then representing at Sydney this colony in the intercolonial conference.

In that conference, the first to which a representative of this colony was admitted, and which therefore marked an epoch in its political existence, Mr. F.P. Barlee took a prominent part, ably upheld the trust I placed in him, and received a most marked and cordial reception from our colonists on his return.

41. I have further to express my obligations to that officer for the assistance he has ever given me; were it not for his fearless and loyal support, for the confidence which is placed in him by the very great majority of the colonists, and for his fidelity in following my instructions and carrying out my policy, it would have been impossible for me, under a form of government most difficult to work, to have carried to a successful issue the trust that has been imposed upon me, and to have left this colony prosperous and self-reliant.

42. Should your lordship, considering the position in which I found Western Australia—the reduction of imperial expenditure it has been my duty to effect, the failure of the wheat crop for four successive seasons and consequent depression, the inexperience of a new Legislature, the absence of any propositions for the benefit of the colony from the opposition, the obstacles thrown at first in the way of all measures which have eventuated in good—should you, considering these things and the present state of the colony, be of opinion that the administration of its affairs during the last five years has not been unsatisfactory or unfruitful, I beg that you will award a due share of credit to the Colonial Secretary, who, as my mouthpiece in the Legislature, has carried on single-handed all parliamentary business, and also to those gentlemen who are now, or have at various times been, members of my executive, and who have ever united to support me; to the nominated members of the Legislature who have steadily voted for all the measures which have led to the present progress of the colony, and whose merits the constituencies have fully recognized by electing them as representatives on vacancies in every case where they have stood; to the elected members, who every session have given me increased support, and who, forming two-thirds of the Legislature, had it in their power entirely to have reversed my policy; and lastly, to the people of Western Australia, who on each election have increased my strength, on whose ultimate good sense, I—knowing colonists, myself an old colonist—put my reliance, a reliance which has not been disappointed.

I have, etc.,

(Signed) FRED. A. WELD,


The Earl of Carnarvon,

etc. etc. etc.




1861 : 147,912 : 95,789. 1862 : 172,991 : 119,313. 1863 : 157,136 : 143,105. 1864 : 169,856 : 132,738. 1865 : 168,413 : 178,487. 1866 : 251,907 : 150,066. 1867 : 204,613 : 174,080. 1868 : 225,614 : 192,636. 1869 : 127,977 : 101,359. 1870 : 213,258 : 200,984. 1871 : 198,011 : 199,288. 1872 : 226,656 : 209,107. 1873 : 297,328 : 265,217.



United Kingdom : 188,243/10/8 : 268,726/4/0.

British Colonies: Victoria : 75,588/7/0 : 8,038/1/0. South Australia : 44,021/9/2 : 41,004/11/0. New South Wales : 1,236/4/9. New Zealand : 2,065/1/6 : 12,768/6/0. Mauritius : 23,247/7/4 : 3,435/1/0. Singapore : 11,346/19/2 : 53,648/16/0. Ceylon : 1,135/2/0 : 437/0/0. British India : 20/10/0 : 1,345/0/0. All other British Possessions : 20/10/0 : 130/3/7.

Foreign Countries China : 11,461/18/0 : 36,133/17/0. Java : 5,646/2/6 : 2,934/19/6. Timor : 246/14/4. U.S. of America : 3/15/0 : 101/0/0. Macassar : - : 118/0/0. Whaling Ground : - : 16/0/0.

Total : 364,262/15/0 : 428,836/19/1.


1861 : 67,261 : 81,087. 1862 : 69,406 : 72,267. 1863 : 71,708 : 71,073. 1864 : 71,910 : 70,714. 1865 : 77,942 : 74,985. 1866 : 89,382 : 84,652. 1867 : 90,430 : 89,501. 1868 : 99,496 : 89,726. 1869 : 103,661 : 103,124. 1870 : 98,131 : 113,046. 1871 : 97,606 : 107,146. 1872 : 105,301 : 98,248. 1873 : 134,832 : 114,270.


REVENUE. Customs : 82,275/7/3. Land Sales : 7,679/2/4. Land Revenue : 19,806/0/5. Money Orders : 5,888/12/0. Telegrams : 1,784/17/8. Fines, Forfeitures, and Fees of Court : 2,022/13/3. Reimbursements in aid of expenses incurred : 1,482/12/3. Special Revenue (North District) : 2,133/12/0. Miscellaneous Revenues : 11,152/18/11.

Total Revenue : 134,225/16/1.

EXPENDITURE. Civil Establishment : 58,745/9/9. Miscellaneous Disbursements : 53,111/8/6. Parliamentary Salaries : 3,910/15/8. Judicial Establishment : 6,098/18/10. Customs Establishment : 2,045/1/3. Police Establishment : 12,923/16/2. Medical Establishment : 2,377/3/4. Postal and Telegraph Department : 4,053/13/3.

Total Expenditure : 143,266/6/8.

PUBLIC DEBT : 100,000 pounds.


1850 : 5,886. 1853 : 9,334. 1856 : 13,391. 1859 : 14,837. 1862 : 17,246. 1865 : 20,260. 1868 : 22,733. 1871 : 25,724. 1874 : 26,209.


NAME AND TITLE. APPOINTMENT. RETIREMENT. Captain James Stirling, Lieutenant-Governor. June, 1829. September 1832. Captain Irwin, Acting Lieutenant-Governor. September 1832. September 1833. Captain Daniell, Acting Lieutenant-Governor. September 1833. May 11, 1834. Captain Beete, Acting Lieutenant-Governor. May 11, 1834. May 24, 1834. Sir James Stirling (formerly Captain Stirling), Governor. August 1834. December 1838. John Hutt, Esquire, Governor. January 1839. December 1845. Lieutenant-Colonel Clarke, Governor. February 1846. February 1847. Lieutenant-Colonel Irwin (formerly Captain Irwin), Governor. February 1847. July 1848. Captain Charles Fitzgerald, Governor. August 1848. June 1855. A.E. Kennedy, Esquire, Governor. June, 1855. February 1862. Lieutenant-Colonel John Bruce, Acting Governor. February 17, 1862. February 27, 1862. J.S. Hampton, Esquire, Governor. February 27, 1862. November 1868. Lieutenant-Colonel John Bruce, Acting Governor. November 1868. September 1869. F.A. Weld, Esquire, Governor. September 1869. September 1874. W.C.F. Robinson, Esquire, C.M.G. September 1874.



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