Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology
by John. B. Smith
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Termen: the outer margin of a wing, between apex and hind or anal angle.

Terminal: situated at the tip or extremity; opposed to basal.

Terminal line: in Lepidoptera, runs along the outer margin of the wings.

Terminal space: the area between the s. t. line and terminal line in certain Lepidoptera.

Terminology: the technical nomenclature of any science.

Termitarium: a nest, natural or artificial, or a colony of Termites.

Terrestrial: living on or in the land; opposed to aquatic.

Tessellated: checkered; more or less like a chess-board. {Scanner's comment: More correctly, it means "tiled", covered with possibly regularly shaped areas or pieces. They may or may not be square or otherwise regular.}

Test: the secretionary covering of Coccidae, and especially such as are waxy, horny or glassy.

Testaceous: dull yellow brown; tile colored [pale cadmium yellow+burnt sienna].

Testes: the tubular structures in the male, in which the production of spermatogonia, and often also of later stages in the development of the sperm takes place.

Testicular follicles: in the larva, are those structures which in the adult form the tubes composing the testes; in the adult applied also to the tubes forming the testes.

Testudinate -us: resembling the shell of a tortoise.

Tetra-: four: a combining form.

Tetrachaetae: applied to those Diptera in which the mouth structures consist of four longitudinal blades or piercing structures.

Tetradactyle: with four fingers or finger-like processes.

Tetragonal: having four sides or angles: quadrangular.

Tetramera: applied to Coleoptera with four-jointed tarsi.

Tetramerous: having four-jointed tarsi.

Tetrapoda: applied to those butterflies in which the anterior legs are atrophied in whole or in part.

Tetraptera: a term proposed for all insects with four naked, membranous reticulated wings.

Thamnophilous: applied to species living in thickets or dense shrubbery.

Theca: a case or covering: specifically applied to the fleshy covering of the fly-mouth; to the cases of the Trichopterous larvae; to the lower piece of the male genitalia in Homoptera; and to the outer covering of the pupa.

Thelyotoky: parthenogenetic reproduction when the progeny are all females see Arrhenotoly and Deuterotoky.

Thigh: see femur.

Thigmotactic: contact-loving: applied to species that tend to live close together or in touch, one with the other.

Third longitudinal vein: in Diptera (Will.):= radius 5 (Comst.).

Third posterior cell: in Diptera, = 2d medial 2 (Comst.).

Third submarginal cross-nervure: in Hymenoptera (North.):= radius 4 (Comst.).

Thoracic: belonging or attached to the thorax.

Thoracic dorsal bristles: in Diptera, the specialized bristles on the dorsum of the thorax.

Thoracic feet: the jointed legs on the thoracic segments of larvae, as distinguished from abdominal or pro-legs.

Thoracico-abdominal: the first segment of the abdomen when united with the thorax so as to form part of it: =propodeum.

Thoracic pleural bristles: in Diptera, the specialized bristles situated on the pleural region of the thorax.

Thoracotheca: = cytotheca: q.v.

Thorax: the second or intermediate region of the insect body, bearing the true legs and wings: made up of three rings, named in order, pro-, meso-, and meta-thorax: when the pro-thorax is free as in Coleoptera, Orthoptera, and Hemiptera, the term thorax is commonly used in descriptive work for that segment only: in Odonata, where the prothorax is small and not fused with the larger and united meso- and meta-thorax, the term thorax is commonly used for these latter two united, excluding the prothorax.

Thread-plate: an epithelial plate of the embryo from which the terminal threads of the ovarian tubes originate.

Thyridial cell: in Trichoptera: the cell formed by the first fork of median vein; the cell behind Thyridium.

Thyridiate: applied to a wing vein that at one point seems broken so as to permit of a folding or bending; either to pack into a small compass or to enfold the body.

Thyridium -ii: small, whitish or almost transparent spots near the anastomosis of the disc of the wings in some Neuroptera, or in the recurrent veins in the cubital cellule in some Hymenoptera; also the apical margin of the gastrocoeli, often alone visible: in Trichoptera, specifically, a hyaline spot on second fork of median vein.

Thyrsus: a cluster.

Thysanoptera: fringe-winged: an ordinal term, applied to species with four narrow, similar wings, lengthily fringed; mouth parts fitted for puncturing and scraping; metamorphosis incomplete: the Thripids.

Thysanura: fringe-tails; wingless, mandibulate insects without metamorphosis; with anal appendages; body covered with scales; thoracic segments similar.

Tiarate -us: turban or tiara-like.

Tibia -ae: the shank: that part of the leg articulated to the femur basally and which bears the tarsus at the distal end.

Tibial epiphysis: a movable process attached near the base of the inner side of the anterior tibia in many Lepidoptera.

Tibial membrane: in male Cicada, the drum-like vibratory membrane that produces the sound.

Tip: the extremity; the part furthest removed from the base.

Titillator: a small process just below the penis in some Orthoptera.

Tomentose: covered with fine hair, so matted together that particular hairs cannot be separated.

Tomentum: a form of pubescence composed of matted, woolly hair: in Diptera applied to a covering of short, flattened, more or less recumbent, scale-like hair which merges gradually into dust or pollen.

Tongue: an indefinite term, applied usually to the coiled mouth structure of Lepidoptera; the lapping organ of flies; the ligula of bees and wasps and, sometimes also to the hypopharynx of other insects.

Tooth: an acute angulation: a short pointed process from an appendage or margin.

Topomorph -ic: a geographic form, variety or subspecies of a widely distributed species: developed by local environment.

Topotype: is a specimen collected in the exact locality whence the original type was obtained.

Tornal: relating to or concerning the tornus.

Tornus: in Lepidoptera, the junction of the termen and dorsum of wing: = hind or anal angle; q.v.

Torose: swelling into knots or protuberances.

Torpid: lying motionless by reason of cold or other natural conditions that unfavorably affect the organism.

Torqueate: with a ring or collar.

Torquillus: = rotula.

Tortilis: twisted.

Tortulose-us: hump-backed; a surface with a few large elevations: beaded; moniliform.

Tortuose -us: irregularly curved and bent; snake-like.

Tortuous: = Tortuose.

Torulus: the basal socket joint of the antenna upon which the organ is articulated for movement in all directions.

Totidem: in all parts; entirely.

T.P. line: transverse posterior line; crossing the primaries of certain Lepidoptera, two-thirds or more from base: = post medial line.

Trabecula: rounded, lobular masses of the procerebrum, from which arise the stalks bearing the mushroom bodies: a paired movable appendage in front of the antennae in certain bird-lice.

Trachea -ae: the spirally ringed breathing tube or tubes of insects.

Tracheal gills: the flattened or hair-like processes in aquatic larvae through which oxygen is absorbed from the water.

Tracheary: relating to or composed of tracheae.

Tracheate: supplied with trachea: a general term applied to all articulates that breathe by means of spiracular openings into a system of tubular structures that extend to all parts of the body.

Tracheation: the arrangement or system of distribution of trachea.

Tracheoles: the capillary trachea of the adult as they develop in masses in the larva: very small, slender tracheae.

Transection: a cut across, at right angles to the body: transverse section.

Transition zone: is the transcontinental belt in which the austral and boreal elements overlap: it is divided into a humid or Alleghanian area; a western arid area; and a Pacific Coast humid area: all of which see.

Transitory: lasting for a short time only.

Translucent: semi-transparent; admitting the passage of light but not of vision.

Translucid: clear: transparent enough to be seen through.

Transparent: so clear as not to obstruct vision.

Transverse: when the longest diameter is across the body.

Transverse incision: = transverse sulci.

Transverse sulci: the transverse grooves of pronotum in many Orthoptera.

Transverse suture: in Diptera, a transverse groove extending inward from the root of wing and obsolete in the middle of dorsum.

Trapeziform: in the form or shape of a trapezium.

Trapezium: a four-sided figure in which no two sides are parallel. {Scanner's comment: sic This is presumably an error in editing the original text. A trapezium has two sides parallel. Compare next item.}

Trapezoid -al: a four-sided plane of which two sides are parallel and two are not.

Tri-: three; a combining form.

Triangle: in Odonata: a small, triangular cell at the junction of cubitus with cubitus 1: a similar cell adjoining it basally is the internal triangle discoidal triangle: cardinal cell; q.v.

Tri-articulate: composed of three joints or articles.

Tribe: a term of classification less than a sub-family: opinionative and ending in ini: but this is not universally adhered to.

Tri-carinate: with three keels or carinae.

Trichogen: a hair-forming hypodermal cell in caterpillars, etc.

Trichoptera: hairy-winged: insects with hairy primaries with many longitudinal veins and cells, covering the broader secondaries which are usually folded lengthwise; mouth mandibulate but rudimentary: head free; thorax agglutinate: metamorphosis complete.

Trichostical bristles: in Diptera, a fan-like row, situated on the meta-pleura: conspicuous in some families.

Trichotomous: divided by threes.

Trichroism: the condition when any given part exhibits three different colors in different individuals of the same species: e.g. in Lepidoptera, the hind wings of certain Heliconids.

Tricuspidate: ending in three points: with three cusps or teeth.

Tridactyle -ous: having three toes or claws.

Trifid: cleft into three parts or ends.

Trigonal: triangular: an area bounded by a triangle.

Trigonate: three-cornered; approximately triangular.

Trigoneutism: where three broods occur in one season.

Trigonulum: in Odonata, = triangle.

Trimera: that series of Coleoptera, in which there are only three tarsal joints present.

Trimerous: species which have the tarsi three-jointed.

Trinomial: that method of nomenclature in which a varietal or subspecific name follows the specific term without an intervening mark or indications of its rank.

Tripectinate: when an antenna has three branches or processes to each joint.

Triquetral: = triquetrous.

Triquetrous: with three flat sides.

Tri-regional: divided into three distinct parts or regions.

Trito-cerebral segment: see second antennal segment.

Trito-cerebrum: the posterior portion of the brain, formed by the ganglion of the third primary segment; also termed labro-frontal lobe.

Tri-undulate: with three waves or undulations.

Triungulin: the first larval stage of a meloid beetle.

Trivial: applied to a name, means specific as opposed to generic, or popular as opposed to technical.

Trivittate: with three stripes or vitta.

Trochalopoda: Heteroptera in which the posterior coxae are nearly globose and the articulation is a ball and socket joint: see pagiopoda.

Trochanter: a sclerite, sometimes divided, between the coxa and femur sometimes fused with the femur.

Trochanterellus: see apophysis.

Trochantine: the basal part of the trochanter when it is two-jointed: in Coleoptera, a piece often present on the outer side of and sometimes movable on the coxa; also the small sclerite connecting the coxa with the sternum in Dytiscidae: in Neuroptera and Trichoptera the posterior separated part of the coxa: in Orthoptera, a narrow longitudinal sclerite between mandible and gena.

Trochiformis: cylindro-conic.

Trochlea: the thickened base of the hind wings in Cicada: in Trichoptera a small elliptical space at base of hind wing behind origin of median vein.

Trochlearis: pulley-shaped; like a cylinder contracted medially.

Trochus: that part of an articulated body inserted between the joints.

Trophi: the mouth parts collectively, including the labrum: see buccal appendages.

Trophobiosis: see Symbiosis.

Tropical: is that faunal region which covers the southern part of the peninsula of Florida, the greater part of Central America, the lowlands of southern Mexico south of the table land, and a narrow strip on each side of Mexico which follows the coast northward into the United States.

Tropico-politan: occurring in all tropical regions.

Trumpets: breathing tubes of mosquito pupae.

Truncate: cut off squarely at tip.

Truncature: the truncation or point squarely cut off.

Truncus: the trunk or thorax.

Trunk: the thorax as a whole: the body.

Tryptic: acting like tripsin, the proteolytic ferment of the pancreatic fluid.

Tube: a slender, hollow, cylindrical body: specifically applied to the anal siphon or respiratory tube of mosquito larvae.

Tubercle: a little solid pimple or small chitinous button: really a ring, which may or may not give rise to a seta.

Tubercles: on the thoracic and abdominal segments of caterpillars are anterior trapezoidal; posterior trapezoidal; lateral; posterior stigmatal; anterior stigmatal; sub-primary subventral; pedal and adventral: all of which see.

Tubercula: an elevated triangular process at the anterior angle of the thorax specifically in Hymenoptera.

Tuberculate -ose: formed like a tubercle: a surface covered with tubercles.

Tubercule -ulum: a small tubercle.

Tuberculiform: shaped like a pimple or tubercle.

Tuberculose -ous: covered or set with tubercles.

Tubulifera: Hymenoptera, in which the terminal segments of abdomen are retracted, but may be extended, tube-like: Thysanoptera in which there is no ovipositor and the terminal segments of abdomen are tubular.

Tubulous -ose: formed like a tube: fistulous.

Tubulus: the slender, flexible abdominal segments forming the ovipositor in Diptera.

Tubus: a term used to designate the corneous base of a ligula: the sheath of the tongue.

Tumescence: a swelling or tumid enlargement: a puffed up area.

Tumescent: a little swollen or puffed up.

Tumid: swollen; enlarged; puffed up.

Tunica intima: the inner layer of the silk glands: an inner lining or membrane.

Tunica propria: a layer of epithelial cells and connective tissue lining the interior of the hind gut: the outer layer of the silk glands: a covering or investing membrane.

Tunicate: composed of concentric layers, enveloping one another: said of antennae when each successive joint is buried in the preceding funnel-shaped one.

Turbinate: top-shaped; nearly conical: differs from pyriform in being shorter and more suddenly attenuated at base: applied to an eye = pillared eye; q.v.

Turgid: swollen.

Turritus: towering: a surface rising cone-like.

Tylo: = tylus; q.v.

Tylus: the anterior central lobe of the head in Hemiptera.

Tympana: the ears in Orthoptera.

Tympanal: applied to organs covered with a tympanum or stretched membrane supposed to function as ears.

Tympanic spiracle: in Diptera, the thoracic spiracle at base of wing.

Tympanules: small openings covered by a membrane, having otoliths and serving as ears.

Tympanum: any membrane stretched like the head of a drum: specifically applied to the membrane covering the auditory organs in Orthoptera.

Type: a unique or single specimen selected from a series and labelled by the describer to represent his name and description: if male or female be added to the label, the specimen typifies that sex, and in case of an erroneous association the male type stands for the species unless the author has specifically designated the other example as representing the name: see also co-type; homotype; meta-type; paratype; topotype.

Typical: the normal or usual form of a species; agreeing with the type form.


Uliginous: muddy, or pertaining to mud.

Ulnar: in Homoptera, a wing vein between the radial vein and claval suture; = cubitus: in Orthoptera, = cubitus; q.v.

Ulnar area: in Orthoptera, = median area; q.v.

Ulona: the thick, fleshy mouth parts of Orthoptera.

Ulonata: a Fabrician. term for Orthoptera, based on the character of the mouth structures.

Ultimate: last or final: that larval stage just before pupation.

Ultramarine: an intense deep blue [cobalt blue].

Ultra-nodal sector: in Odonata, runs parallel with and between media 1 and 2, or principal and nodal sectors: = postnodal sector.

Umbilicate: navel-shaped, or resembling a navel.

Umbilicus: a navel, or navel-like depression.

Umbonate: bossed; with an elevated knob in the centre.

Umbone: an embossed, elevated knob situated on humeral angle of elytra.

Umbones: two movable spines on the sides of prothorax in some Coleoptera.

Umbrosa: shaded or clouded: a cloud or shade.

Unarmed: without spurs, spines or armature of any kind.

Unarticulate: not jointed nor segmented.

Unci: thick, hooked processes, forming the borders of the anal opening.

Uncinnate: hooked at the end.

Uncus: in Lepidoptera, Diptera, and elsewhere, the curved book directed downward from a triangular dorsal plate in the male and shielding the penis: the genital hamule.

Undate: wavy or waved.

Undulated: obtusely waved in segments of circles.

Unequal: unlike in size, form, development or other characters.

Ungues: the tarsal claws.

Unguiculate: armed with a hook, nail or claw.

Unguiculus: a small terminal claw or nail-like process.

Unguis: one of the claws at the end of the tarsus: also applied to a short process on the 6th antennal joint in some Aphids.

Ungula: a hoof, claw or talon.

Ungulate: shaped like a hoof.

Uni-: one, a combining form.

Unicolorous: of one color throughout.

Unidentate: with one tooth only.

Uniplicate: with a single fold or line of folding.

Unique: one only: unlike any other.

Unisexual: of one sex only: applied to Aphids and Cynipids where only parthenogenic females are known.

Upper austral zone: is divided into an eastern humid or Carolinian area, and a western arid or upper Sonoran area, which pass insensibly into each other near the 100th meridian: see Carolinian and upper Sonoran.

Upper field: in tegmina, = anal field; q.v.

Upper margin: of tegmina (Thomas), corresponds to the posterior or anal margin of most authors.

Upper median area: see areola.

Upper radial: in Lepidoptera, = media 1 (Comst.), and is vein 5, or the independent, of the numerical series.

Upper sector of triangle: in Odonata, = cubitus 1 (Comst.).

Upper Sonoran faunal area: that arid part of upper austral west of 100th meridian; covers most of plains in eastern Montana and Wyoming, s. w. South Dakota, west. Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas, and east. Colorado and New Mexico; covers plains of Columbia, Malheur and Harney in Oregon and Washington. In California encircles Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and forms a narrow belt around Colorado and Mohave deserts. In Utah covers Salt Lake and Sevier deserts. In Idaho the Snake plains. In Nevada and Arizona irregular areas of suitable elevation.

Uranidin: a yellow coloring matter in some Coleoptera and Lepidoptera.

Urceolate: pitcher-shaped; swelling in the middle.

Ureter: the stalk connecting the malpighian tubules, when they form large tufts, with the intestine.

Uric acid: the characteristic nitrogenous excretion of the malpighian or urinary tubules: composition, C5H4N4O3 (von Furth).

Urinary vessels: = malpighian tubules; q.v.: has also been applied by older authors, to anal glands.

Urite: an abdominal segment and, specifically, its ventral portion.

Uromere: any of the abdominal segments of an arthropod.

Uropoda: any of the abdominal feet of arthropods.

Uropygium: the ovipositor when it is a mere extension of the abdominal segments.

Urosome: the abdomen.

Urosternite: the sternal or under piece of the uromeres.

Urticating: nettling; applied to specialized hairs or processes on the bodies of certain caterpillars, which cause a stinging or burning sensation on the skin.

Ustulatus: scorched: applied to a maculation that has the appearance of having been burned in.

Uterus: the vaginal portion of oviduct: the sometimes enlarged portion of the vagina at junction of the oviducts: = calyx, q.v.

Uterus masculinus: a pouch or sac into which the ductus ejaculatorius opens in the Symphyla.

Utriculi breviores: small vesicular sacs connected with the seminal vesicles in crickets and some other insects.

Utriculi majores: large vesicular sacs or tubular structures connected with the seminal vesicles in crickets and some other insects.

Utriculus: a little bag or hollow vesicle.


Vacuolate: with vacuoles or small cavities, empty or filled with a watery fluid.

Vagina: the tubular structure formed by the union of the oviducts in the female, opening externally to admit the passage of the egg to the ovipositor: receives the penis of the male in copulation and is sometimes called oviduct: "every part, the office of which is to cover, protect or defend the tongue": "the bivalve coriaceous sheath or cover of the spicula": generally, a sheath.

Vaginata: sheathed: an obsolete ordinal term for Coleoptera.

Vaginate: inclosed in a bivalved sheath.

Vagus: sympathetic nervous system; q.v.

Valgate: enlarged at bottom: club-footed.

Valve or Valvulae: the expanded plate-like galea of the maxilla in many Hymenoptera.

Valve: a small, transverse or triangular piece behind the last full ventral segment, at base of plates in male Jassidae and allies.

Valves: in Orthoptera, the corneous pieces of the ovipositor:= corniculi in Lepidoptera, sometimes used to = harpes; q.v.

Valvula = vagina in its application to Dipterous mouth parts.

Valvulae: in Hymenoptera, branches of the genital forceps of male.

Valvular: when two parts join so as to form a valve between them.

Valvular process: in Odonata, a slender, unjointed process at the apex of each genital valve.

Valvule: any small, valve-like process.

Variation: a departure in color or form, from the normal: the sum of the departures from a mean type of any species: it is continuous when there is no break between the extremes; discontinuous when there are gaps without intermediate forms.

Variety: any departure from the normal type of a species which, while retaining the specific characters, is yet recognizably different because of climatic, seasonal or other influences; may occur with the type form or as a geographical race.

Variola: a deep, rounded impression with defined edges.

Variolate -ose: with large, rounded impressions like pock-marks.

Vas deferens: = vasa deferentia, q.v.

Vasa deferentia: tubes from the seminal vesicles or testes of each side, which usually unite into a single ductus ejaculatorius; q.v.

Vasa varicosa: the malpighian tubules.

Vascular: relating to the blood-vessels or circulatory system.

Vasiform orifice: in Aleurodidae, an ovate, triangular or semicircular opening on the dorsum of the last abdominal segment.

Veinlets: in Orthoptera, are the minute transverse ribs or ridges between the longitudinal veins.

Veins: the chitinous, rod-like structures supporting the wings, and especially those extending longitudinally from base to the outer margin nerves nervures; nervules.

Velum: a membranous appendage of the spurs at the apex of anterior tibia in bees a broad process at inner end of fore tibia.

Velum penis: the thin membranous covering of the male intromittent organ also applied to ether covering or shield-like structures of the penis.

Velutinous: velvety: clothed with dense, soft, short hair, like velvet.

Vena: a vein.

Vena dividens: that longitudinal vein of secondaries that marks the beginning of the anal area: = anal 1 (Comst.).

Vena plicata: on the wings of Dermaptera, the vein around which the folding occurs.

Vena spuria: = spurious vein: q.v.

Venation: the system of chitinous frame-work supporting the wings: in Lepidoptera, the veins are usually referred to by numbers which are as follows: on primaries: 1 = anal; 2 = cubitus 2; 3 = cubitus 1: 4 = media 3; 5 = media 2; 6 = media 1; 7 = radius 5; 8 = radius 4; 9 = radius 3; 10 = radius 2; 11 = radius 1; 12 = subcosta: on secondaries: 1, 1a, 1b = anal; 2 = Cubitus; 3 = cubitus 1; 4 = media 3: 5 = media 2; 6 = media 1; 7 = radius 1; 8 = sub-costa. See plate III for typical venations of all orders.

Venter: the belly: under surface of abdomen as a whole and of each ring.

Ventose: inflated; puffed out.

Ventrad: extending or directed toward the under side.

Ventral: pertaining to the under surface of abdomen: in Diptera, that face of the leg which is inferior when laterally extended.

Ventral chain: refers to the series of ganglia of the nervous system.

Ventral comb: in Trichoptera, a transverse row of fine teeth on venter.

Ventral diaphragm: is a fine membrane covering the central nerve cords and ganglia: also called ventral heart.

Ventral heart: = ventral diaphragm, q.v.

Ventral plate: a thickening of the blastoderm of an egg from which the embryo, but not the amnion or serosa is formed.

Ventral scale: in Diaspinae, the under part of the puparium, interposed between the insect and the plant.

Ventral tube: in Collembola, a tube or tubercle proceeding from the ventral side of the first abdominal segment.

Ventricose: with a big belly: distended; inflated.

Ventriculus: the true stomach, = chylific ventricle; q.v.

Ventri-meson: the middle line of the ventral surface of the body.

Ventro-cephalad: toward the lower side and anteriorly.

Ventro-dorsad: extending from belly to back.

Venules: the branches of the main veins.

Vermian: worm-like.

Vermicular: worm-like, tortuous: resembling the tracks of a worm.

Vermiculate: worm-like in form: a marking with wormlike tracings.

Vermiform: worm-shaped.

Vernal: appearing in spring.

Vernantia: the molting or shedding of the skin.

Verriculate: with thick-set tufts of parallel hairs.

Verricule: a dense tuft of upright hairs.

Verrucose: having little hard lumps or wart-like elevations.

Versatile: moving freely in every direction.

Versicolored: with several colors, indeterminately restricted.

Vertex: the top of the head between the eyes, front and occiput: in bees, that part of the head adjacent to and occupied by the ocelli: in Notonectids, "the imaginary anterior margin of the notocephalon."

Vertexal: occurring on or near the vertex, or directed toward it.

Vertical cephalic bristles: in Diptera, are two pairs, inner and outer, inserted more or less behind the upper and inner corner of the eye; erect, or the inner pair convergent, the outer pair divergent.

Vertical margin: in Diptera, the limit between front and occiput.

Vertical triangle: in male Diptera, the small triangle upon which the ocelli are situated; limited behind by vertex, in front by eyes.

Verticil: one of the whorls of long fine sensitive hair arranged symmetrically on the joints of the antennae in certain Diptera.

Verticillate: placed in whorls: antennae in which the joints have a circle of long, fine hair as in Cecidomyiids.

Vesicant: blistering: able to produce a blister.

Vesicle of penis: in Odonata, a sac with chitinous walls, attached to the sternum behind the penis.

Vesicles: little sacs, bladders or cysts: applied to extensible organs producing odors or secretions, as in some beetles and caterpillars.

Vesicular: bladder-like; beset with spherical prominences.

Vesicula seminalis: see seminal vesicles.

Vestibule: the space around the ovipositor formed by the projecting margins of the surrounding segments: the space between the occluding structure of the spiracle and the valve opening into the trachea itself.

Vestigial: small or degenerate: only a trace or remnant of a previously functional organ.

Vestiture: the surface clothing, whether of a hairy or scaly character.

Vexhillum: in Hymenoptera, an expansion on the tip of tarsi of certain fossorial groups.

Vibrant: having a rapid motion to and fro.

Vibratile: formed for vibratory motion: used to express the almost continual movement of the antennae of some Hymenoptera, and the wings of some Diptera.

Vibrissae: curved bristles or hairs in some Diptera, situated between the mystax and the antenna: whiskers.

Villi: soft hairs or papillate processes: plural of villus, q.v.

Villose -ous: soft-haired or clothed with soft, short hair.

Villus: a short, hair-like or papillate process on the surface of certain absorbent and sensory organs.

Vinous: wine-color: a deep, transparent red-brown, like claret [purple madder].

Violaceous: violet colored: a mixture of blue and red [violet carmine].

Virescent or Viridescent: greenish or becoming green.

Viridis: green, like verdigris [French blue + chrome yellow + white].

Viscera: the internal organs of the body.

Visceral: relating or attached to the viscera.

Viscid: sticky: covered with a shiny, resinous or greasy matter.

Viscous: thick, sticky or semi-fluid.

Vis formatrix: the creative or formative force.

Vitelligenous: producing the vitellus or yolk: said of certain cells in the ovaries, believed to have that function.

Vitelline -us: yellow, with a slight tinge of red, like yolk of an egg.

Vitelline membrane: the delicate tissue surrounding the yolk of an egg.

Vitreous: glassy; transparent.

Vitta: a longitudinal, colored line.

Vitta frontalis: = frontal stripe: q.v.

Vittate: striped.

Viviparous: applied to insects which bear living young.

Vocal cords: specialized organs on the thoracic spiracles of Diptera, by means of which they produce a humming or singing sound.

Volant: flying or capable of flight.

Vulgar: common; not conspicuous: obscure in appearance and abundant in number.

Vultus: face: that part of head below front and between the eyes.

Vulva: the orifice of the vagina in the female.

Vulvar lamina: in Odonata, the posterior margin of sternum of segment 8.

Vulvar scale: = v. lamina.


Wart: a spongy excrescence, more or less cylindric, with a nearly truncated tip: the enlarged, common base of a group of seta: in Trichoptera, a pitted elevation.

Wax: a ductile substance excreted by bees and other insects from glandular structures in various parts of the body, used in building cells or in forming a protective covering.

Wax-cutter: the pincer-like structure formed by the hind tibia and metatarsus in social bees.

Wax-glands: any glands in any part of the body which secrete a waxy product in either a scale, string or powder: in Coccidae, the circumgenital and parastigmatic glands; q.v.

Wax-pincer: = wax cutter.

Wax-scale: one of the scales secreted in the wax pocket or gland of a worker bee.

Whitlows: = paronychia; q.v.

Whorl: a ring of long hair arranged around a centre, like the spokes around the hub of a wheel.

Wing, Wings: membranous reticulated organs of flight; one pair, the primaries, attached to the meso-thorax; the other, the secondaries, attached to the meta-thorax.

Wing covers: those parts of the chitinous cuticle of larvae, nymphs or pupae which cover the rudiments of the wings of the imago: the forewings of an imago when they are thicker than the hind wings and cover them when at rest: see elytra; tegmina.

Wings of the heart: the series of diagonal and other muscular fibres above the diaphragm in the pericardial cavity: see pericardial diaphragm.

Wing cells: areas inclosed by veins: reference should be had to the figures illustrating venation and to the special terms applied to the cells.

Winglets: small, concavo-convex scales, generally fringed at tip, under the base of the elytra in Dytiscidae.

Wing-pads: undeveloped wings of pupa or nymph.

Wing-scale: in Hymenoptera, = tegula; q.v.

Workers: the undeveloped females in the social Hymenoptera; also those sexually undeveloped Termites that are not soldiers.


Xanthophyll: the yellow of autumn leaves; one of the substances found in the blood of insects.

Xenobiosis: see symbiosis.

Xerophilous: applied to species living in dry places.

Xylophaga: wood-eaters: applied in several orders.

Xylophagous: feeding in or upon woody tissue.

Xyphus: a spinous or triangular process of the meso-sternum in many Hemiptera, and some other insects.


Yellow: used without modification is sulphur or lemon yellow.

Yolk: the nutritive matter of an egg as distinguished from the living, formative material; = deutoplasm.


Zona: a belt or zone; as of distribution.

Zonite: = arthromere or somite; q.v.

Zooenite or Zooenule: = zonite.

Zygoptera: those Odonata, having the fore and hind wings subequal in width, venation comprising a quadrilateral, not a triangle; nymphs with caudal tracheal gills.


Calacobiosis: see symbiosis.

Cleptobiosis: see symbiosis.

Dulosis: see symbiosis.

Coxal file: in some aquatic Coleoptera a series of striations just above the hind coxa of male and, perhaps, a stridulating organ.

Coxal plates: plate-like expansions or dilations of the coxa: specifically in aquatic Coleoptera on the posterior pair.

Ecto-parasite: one that is attached to the external surface of the host.

Ento-parasite: one that feeds within the body of the host.

Embioptera: an ordinal term proposed for the Neuropterous family Embidae.

Hamabiosis: see symbiosis.

Heliophobic: loving darkness: applied to species that shun the light, like, e.g. Termites.

Heliotactic: light loving: applied to species that live in the open and in daylight.

Lestobiosis: see symbiosis.

Meron: in Neuroptera, a sclerite posterior to the coxa and below the epimeron: corresponds to the trochantine in Lepidoptera.

Metasternal wing: in some aquatic Coleoptera a leaf-like expansion above the coxal plates.

Myrmecophily: is the relation existing between ants and those guests that seek their company primarily for their own individual advantage.

Phylacobiosis: see symbiosis.

Prosternal process: in aquatic Coleoptera a modification of the prosternum used in the differentiation of species.

Sub-clypeal pump: in some Diptera, the enlarged, more or less bulb- like structure at the anterior entrance of the oesophagus.

Sub-clypeal tube: in Diptera: see pharynx.


PLATE 1. Structures of the External Body Wall.

1. Harpalus caliginosas showing the underside, and the head from above, to show the regions and the position of the sclerites.

2. Thorax of a Dipteron to show location of bristles.

3. Lateral view of a denuded Lepidopteron to show arrangement of sclerites.

4. Abdominal segment of a caterpillar to show the position of the tubercles.

5. Lateral view of a dragon fly to show the body sclerites.

All the abbreviations used in this plate are readily understood.

PLATE II. Structures of Head, Mouth, Thorax & Genitalia

1. Head of wasp from front.

2. Head of honey bee with mouth parts extended.

3. Head of Locustid from front, to show regions.

4. Head of a Lepidopteron from front.

5. Head of a cricket from front.

6. Labium of a cricket showing all usual parts.

7. Maxilla of Harpalus caliginosus, with all sclerites marked.

8. Mandible of Copris carolina with all sclerites defined.

9. Thorax of a Hymenopteron from above.

10. Genitalia of a male mosquito with all parts named.

11. Genitalia of a male Noctuid from below: the parts separated out.

PLATE III. Venation According to the Comstock System.

1. Wing venation of a Noctuid.

2. Wing venation of a Hepialid.

3. Wing venation of a Locustid.

4. Wing venation of a Hymenopteron.

5. Wing venation of a Dipteron.

6. Wing venation of an Odonat.

7. Wing venation of a Cicada.

Abbreviations are as follows:

C. Costa, except in figure 1, where on the outer margin C occurs instead of Cu. In the cells it means Costal.

Sc. Subcosta, when it refers to a vein and subcostal in a cell.

R. Radius, when it refers to a vein and radial when in a cell.

M. Media, when it refers to a vein and median in a cell.

Cu. Cubitus, when it refers to a vein and cubital in a cell.

A. Anal veins or cells.

c-v. cross-vein.

m-cu. medio-cubital cross-vein.

r-m. radio-medial cross-vein.

m. median cross-vein.

h. humeral cross-vein.

st. stigma.

ar. arculus.

br. bridge.

n. nodus.

o. oblique vein.

t. triangle.

i. internal triangle.

al. anal loop.

Antn-c-sp. Antenodal costal spaces.

Ptn-c-sp. Postnodal costal spaces.

Ptn-r-sp. Postnodal radial spaces.

All cells are named after the vein that bounds them anteriorly and are numbered, if more than one, from base outwardly, as 2M3 = second median 3, etc.

In figure 1, M, in the outer margin between C1 and M2, should be M3: the 3 was accidentally cut out by the engraver.

Plate 1

Plate 2

Plate 3


Nomenclature of Windsor and Newton's Water Colors. 1. Vermilion. 2. Carmine. 3. Crimson lake. 4. Alizar crimson. 5. Salmon. 6. Rose. 7. Purple madder. 8. Mauve. 9. French blue. 10. Purple lake. 11. Violet carmine. 12. Lilac. 13. Cobalt blue. 14. Lavender. 15. Blue gray. 16. Greenish gray. 17. Chrome lemon. 18. Gamboge. 19. Chrome orange. 20. Pale cadmium yellow. 21. Brown pink. 22. Pale clay yellow. 23. Hooker's green. 24. Prussian green. 25. Olive green. 26. Apple green. 27. Nile green. 28. Pale green. 20. Blue green. 30. Neutral. 31. Gray. 32. Ultra ash gray. 33. Indian red. 34. Dragon's blood. 35. Burnt sienna. 36. Brown ochre. 37. Cologne earth. 38. Roman sepia. 39. Van Dyke brown. 40. Pale brown.


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