Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology
by John. B. Smith
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Isomorphous: having the same form, appearance or construction.

Isopalpi: that series of Trichoptera in which the palpi of both sexes have the same number of joints.

Isoptera: equal winged: an ordinal term for insects with four, similar, net-veined wings; mouth mandibulate; thoracic rings similar, loosely jointed metamorphosis incomplete: the Termitidae. {Scanner's note: In modern nomenclature the Isoptera constitute the order of all termites; the Termitidae are just one family within the Isoptera.}

Isotypical: a genus described from more than one species, all of which are congeneric.

-itus: = -atus; q.v.

-ius: suffix; having the power or ability to.


Jabot: the crop; q.v.

Janthine: violet colored.

Jaw-capsule: contains the mouth structures in those dipterous larvae in which the head is differentiated.

Johnston's organ: a complex nervous structure in the basal joint of dipterous antennae.

Joint: a segment or part between two incisures: an articulation.

Jubate -us: fringed with long pendent hairs.

Juga: the lateral anterior lobes of the head of a Heteropteron; each side of the tylo.

Jugatae: that series of Lepidoptera in which there is a jugum instead of a frenulum to unite the wings in flight.

Jugular: of or pertaining to the throat.

Jugular sclerite: small sclerite in the membrane connecting the head with the thorax: see cervical sclerite.

Jugulum: that sclerite just behind the sub-mentum; =gula: that cavity of the posterior part of the head to which the neck is annexed: the lateral and under parts of the prothorax.

Jugum: in certain Lepidoptera and Trichoptera, a lobe or process at the base of primaries, overlapping secondaries and holding the two together in flight.


Katabolic: the destructive change from animal tissue to waste product: see anabolic.

Keel: an elevated ridge or carina.

Kermesinus: dark red, with much blue [purple lake].

Key: a tabular or other arrangement of species, genera or other classification according to characters that serve to identify them.

Kidney-shaped: like a kidney in outline; convex on one long side, concave on the other, the ends evenly and somewhat obtusely rounded: bean-shaped.

Knee: the point of junction of femur and tibia.


Labellum -a: the sensitive ridged tip of the mouth structures of certain Diptera: a prolongation of the labium covering the base of rostrum in Coleoptera and Hemiptera.

Labial: referring, pertaining or belonging to the labium.

Labial segment: the 7th segment of head = second maxillary segment.

Labial suture: is between labium and mentum.

Labiate: lip-like or having lip-like sutures.

Labipalp: a labial palpus.

Labis: the slender abdominal forceps in some Lepidoptera.

Labium: the lower lip: a compound structure which forms the floor of the mouth in mandibulate insects, behind the first maxilla and opposed to the labium; formed by a fusion in embryonic life of separate right and left maxilla-like halves: in some of its developments referred to as the tongue.

Labral suture: is between labrum and clypeus.

Labro-frontal lobes: of brain, = trito-cerebrum; q.v.

Labrum: the upper lip; covers the base of the mandible and forms the roof of the mouth.

Labrum-epipharynx: in the mouth of piercing Diptera is the central unpaired lancet.

Lac: a mixture of resin, wax and other substances produced by certain scale insects as a protective covering.

Lacer: a lappet; applied to a margin with irregular, broad and deep emarginations, leaving lappet-like intervals.

Lacerated: ragged; torn in appearance; see lacer.

Lacinia: the inner lobe of first maxilla, articulated to the stipes, bearing brushes of hair or spines: a blade: in Diptera, forms a flat lancet-like piercing structure and is never jointed.

Lacinia exteriores and interiores: in Apidae, the palpiger and paraglossa often used for the gales and lacinia of maxilla.

Laciniated: jagged; cut into irregular fragments.

Lacte: milk-white.

Lacteal: relating to milk; milky in appearance.

Lactescent: secreting or yielding a milky fluid.

Lacteous -eus: white, with a slight bluish tinge, like skim-milk.

Lacunae: irregular impressions or cavities: specifically the non-walled cavities of the body.

Lacunose: pitted; the surface covered with small cavities.

Laemodipodiform: like a laemodipod; similar to the larva of a walking stick.

Laete: bright.

Laevis -igatus: smooth, shining and without elevations: said of a surface.

Lamella: a thin plate or leaf-like process.

Lamellate: antennae with the club formed of closely opposed leaf-like surfaces, the concealed surfaces set with sensory pits.

Lamellicornia: those beetles in which the antennae terminate in a lamellate or leaf-like club.

Lamelliform: made up of or resembling leaves, blades or lamellae.

Lamina -ae: a chitinous plate or plates.

Lamina externa: the paraglossa.

Lamina interna: the ligula.

Lamina subgenitalis: the sub-genital plate; q.v.: in roaches the 7th ventral plate of females and 9th ventral plate of males.

Lamina supra-analis: = supra-anal plate.

Laminate: formed of thin, flat layers or leaves.

Laminato-carinate: with an elevated ridge or keel, formed of thin plates.

Laminiform: layer-like: having the appearance or made up of lamina.

Lana: wool: the long hair on the abdomen of some Lepidoptera.

Lanate -atus: woolly: covered with dense, fine, long hairs, so distinct that they may be separated.

Lanceolate: lance- or spear-shaped: oblong and tapering to the end.

Lanceolate cell: in Hymenoptera (ort.); - 2d anal (Comst.).

Lancet: indiscriminately applied to any piercing mouth structure.

Lanuginose -us: with long, curled hair dispersed over the surface: see crinitus.

Lanugo: slender single hairs.

Laparostict: that series of lamellicorn beetles in which the abdominal spiracles are situated on the connecting membrane between the dorsal and ventral rings.

Lapidicolous: living under deeply imbedded stones.

Larva: the second stage of insect development; comes from the egg or ovum, grows, and according to its kind, changes to a pupa or chrysalis or to an imago; bears various names in the different orders: see nymph; caterpillar slug; maggot; grub.

Larvarium: a tube or case made by a larva as a shelter or retreat.

Larvatae: asked; applied to coarctate and obtect pupae.

Larvina: a maggot: a dipterous larva without distinct head or legs.

Larvule: applied to early stages of Ephemerid larvae when they appear to have no developed respiratory, circulatory or nervous systems.

Lashed: eyes that have a more or less complete fringe of stiff hairs or bristles at the orbits.

Lasureus: a very dark blue [French blue with some black].

Laterad: toward the side and away from the median line.

Lateral: relating, pertaining or attached to the side.

Lateral areas: in Hymenoptera; on the metanotum, the three spaces between the median and lateral long carinae; the upper is the external or first lateral basal area; the second is the external or central lateral area; the third is the middle, internal, apical or third lateral area.

Lateral bristles: in Diptera; situated at or near the lateral margins of the abdominal segments.

Lateral carinae: in Orthoptera; on the head, extend downward from the front margin of the eyes: on prothorax extend along each lateral margin of the dorsum.

Lateral foveolae: in Orthoptera: foveate depressions on the margins of the vertex near the front border of the eye.

Lateral line: in caterpillars is at the margin of the dorsum between sub-dorsal and supra-stigmatal line.

Lateral lobe: of the labium in Odonata, corresponds to the paraglossa with palpiger and palpus (Gerstaecker) or, more probably, to the palpus alone (Butler).

Lateral lobes: the deflexed portions of pronotum that cover the sides of pro-thorax in many Orthoptera: in certain Hymenoptera, lie on each side of the parapsidal furrows of mesoscutum and = scapulae.

Lateral longitudinal area: of Hymenoptera, extends between the median and pleural carinae of metanotum.

Lateral ridge: in slug caterpillars, extends longitudinally along the lateral series of abdominal tubercles.

Lateral scale: one of the lateral processes of the ovipositor in Cynipidae, lying within and below the anal scale.

Lateral space: in slug caterpillars is the area on each side of the body between the subdorsal and lateral ridges.

Lateral sutures: of the thorax in Odonata, are situated on the sides of thorax, the first separating the metepisternum from the mesepimeron; the second separating the metepisternum from the metepimeron; the first more or less obsolete in the Anisoptera.

Lateral tubercle: lateral on thoracic and abdominal segments of caterpillars: it is 3 of the abdomen, 2a of thorax: constant (Dyar).

Latericeous: = lateritius: q.v.

Lateritius: yellowish-red; yellowish brick color [pale clay yellow with a little red].

Laterodorsal: the point of junction of dorsum and pleurum.

Lateropharyngeal: applied to the 4th pair of salivary glands in bees; situated on each side of the pharynx.

Laterostigmatal: situated on the side, immediately above the spiracle.

Lateroventral: the point of junction of sternum and pleurum.

Latero-ventral metathoracic carina: in Odonata; forms the dividing line between the metepimera and the metasternum.

Latescent: becoming obscure or hidden.

Latreille's segment: the first abdominal segment of those Hymenoptera in which it is fused with the thorax:= median segment, propodeon, propodeum.

Latticed: = cancellate; q.v.

Latus: the side: broad.

Latuscula: the facets of the compound eye.

Leathery: having the appearance or texture of leather.

Lectotype: a co-type chosen, subsequently to the original description, to take the place which in other cases a holotype occupies.

Leg -s: the jointed appendages attached to the thoracic segments, used in walking: the organs of locomotion other than wings: unjointed organs of locomotion are pro-legs or false legs; q.v.

Legion: a group of genera, subequal to a tribe.

Legnum: the margin of a squama.

Lemniscate: ribbon-like: in the form of an 8.

Lenticular: round, doubly convex; like a lens or lentil.

Lepidoptera: scale-winged: an order of insects with spirally coiled haustellate mouth structures; head free; thorax agglutinate; transformations complete four scale-covered wings.

Lepidopteric acid: a green pigment obtained from the wing scales of Lepidoptera; a derivative of uric acid: see Lepidotic acid.

Lepidopteron: a butterfly or moth: one of the Lepidoptera.

Lepidotic: set with minute scales.

Lepidotic acid: a yellow pigment obtained from certain butterfly scales a derivative of uric acid: see Lepidopteric acid.

Lepis: a scale.

Leprous: with loose, irregular scales.

Leptiform: = compodeiform; q.v.

Leptos: small, fine.

Lethargic: torpid or inactive.

Leucine: a white crystalline compound, the product of animal decomposition, found in the malpighian tubes: as a color, cheesy white.

Leucocytes: pale, unicellular bodies, numerous in the insect blood.

Levator: a muscle that raises an organ or a part.

Levigate -us: with a smooth, somewhat shiny surface.

Liber: free.

Ligament: a band or sheet of tough, fibrous tissue between two parts or segments.

Ligneous -eus: wood brown [Vandyke brown].

Lignivorous: feeding upon wood or woody tissues.

Ligula: the central sclerite of the labium, borne upon the mentum, usually single, sometimes paired: often used as synonymous with "glossa" and "tongue": corresponds to the united laciniae of right and left maxillae: see also elytral ligula.

Ligulate: strap-shaped; linear, much longer than broad.

Lilacinous: lilac-colored [lilac].

Limaciform: having the form of a Limax or slug; said of larvae.

Limb: the circumference: the area surrounding the disc.

Limbate: when a disc is surrounded by a margin of different color.

Limbus: the area along the outer and posterior margin of wing beyond the closed cells; Homoptera, Cicada.

Limpid: clear and transparent: applied to wings and ornamentation.

Line: a narrow streak or stripe: as a term of measurement, one-twelfth of an inch; commonly used by English and early American authors.

Linea: a line or narrow stripe.

Linear: straight; in the form of a right line.

Lineate: marked with lines or streaks: lined.

Lineolet: a delicate fine line.

Lingua: the tongue; applied in Hymenoptera, to the ligula: in Lepidoptera and Diptera, to maxillary structures: has also been used for the hypopharynx, and that use might be adopted: a median organ of the hypopharynx in Apterygota.

Lingua spiralis: the spiral tongue of Lepidoptera: see glossa.

Linguiform: tongue-shaped: linear, with the extremities obtusely rounded.

Lingula: in Aleurodidae, a more or less slender tongue or strap-shaped organ, attached cephalad within the vasiform orifice: a term proposed by Leuckart for the ligula of the bees.

Lipochromus: without color.

Lipoptera: = Mallophaga; q.v.

Literate: ornamented with characters like letters.

Littoral: living along the sea-coast or in the shore debris: strictly, between tide marks.

Littoralia: Heteroptera that live in marshes.

Litura: an indistinct spot, paler at its margin.

Livid: yellowish gray with a violet tinge: greenish gray.

Lobate -us: divided by deep, undulating and successive incisions.

Lobe: any prominent rounded process or excrescence on a margin: specifically, the rounded, tooth-like processes on the margin of the pygidium of the Diaspinae: also applied to lateral expansions of the abdominal segments.

Lobes: of the maxilla; see galea (outer) and lacinia (inner): of the mentum in Coleoptera, are the lateral expansions shielding the base of the central organs.

Lobes of pronotum: in Orthoptera; the spaces or areas formed by three transverse impressions on the pronotum: that which borders the head is the anterior lobe, the hindmost is the posterior lobe, those intervening are the middle lobes.

Lobiform: shaped like a lobe or rounded process.

Lobulate: divided into, or with many small lobes or lobules.

Lobule: in Coccidae, one of the two distinct parts of which a lobe is sometimes composed.

Lobulus: the partly separated portion of the wings of some flies and of secondaries in some Hymenoptera: also used as = alula; q.v.

Lobus: of maxilla = galea; q.v.

Locomotion: organs of, are legs and wings.

Longicorn -ia: having the antennae as long or longer than the body; specifically the Cerambycid beetles.

Longitudinal: in the direction of the long axis.

Longitudinal veins: are those that extend lengthwise through the wing either directly from base or as branches of one that does start there: they are named or numbered, and differently in the different orders.

Loop: applied to that structure at base of innerside of primaries into which the frenulum of male moths is fitted: see retinaculum.

Looper: applied to geometrid and other caterpillars in which some or all the middle abdominal legs are wanting and which move by bringing tail to thorax and forming a loop of the intervening segments.

Lora: the chitinous bands connecting the submentum with the cardo of maxilla (Comst.): the submentum: small cords upon which the base of the proboscis is seated (Say): the anterior part of the genae at the edge of the mouth: the corneous processes to which the muscles flexing the mouth in certain Diptera are attached, and in that sense the palpifer of the maxilla: in Homoptera, the small sclerite at side of clypeus and front, extending laterally to the genae.

Lorum: in bees: the angular piece upon which the sub-mentum rests.

Lower austral zone: occupies southern part of United States from Chesapeake Bay to the great interior valley of California. Is interrupted by the continental divide in eastern Arizona and west New Mexico and divided according to conditions of humidity into an eastern or Austroriparian and western or lower Sonoran area.

Lower field: in termini; see costal field.

Lower fronto-orbital bristles: in Diptera: are on the lower part of front, above the antennae, along the orbit.

Lower margin: of tegmina (Thomas), is the costal or anterior margin of other authors.

Lower radial vein: in Lepidoptera (Holland) media 2 (Comst.).

Lower sector of triangle: in Odonata - = cubitus 2 (Comst.).

Lower Sonoran faunal area: comprises the most arid deserts of North America, beginning west of lat. 98 degrees in Texas: sends narrow arms into southern New Mexico, is interrupted by the Continental Divide; covers a large part of w. and s. Ariz., s. w. Nev., s. w. Calif., a portion of central Calif., and most of Lower Calif. These areas are irregular and incapable of brief definition.

Lubricate -ous: covered with a slippery mucus.

Lucid: shining; applied to luminous insects.

Luciferase: a substance in the nature of an enzyme, existing in the luminous organs of light-giving beetles.

Luciferine: a substance in the blood of luminous beetles which, when brought into contact with luciferase, produces light.

Luciferous: light giving.

Lucifugous: fleeing the light: applied to nocturnal forms or those that live in concealment.

Lumen: the cavity of an organ: the inner surface of a tube: the hollow portion of a gland or vesicular structure.

Luminescence: applied to the light of fire-flies, as a substitute for phosphorescence.

Lumper: one who, in describing species or genera recognizes only prominent or obvious characters to the exclusion of minor color or variable characters of maculation or structure: see splitter.

Lunaris or Lunate: crescent-shaped: formed like a new moon.

Lunula: a small lunule or crescent.

Lunulae: in Hymenoptera, crescent-shaped marks near the orbits.

Lunulate: a line, when made up of a series of small lunules.

Lunule: a lunate mark or crescent.

Lurid -us: dirty brown with a bluish tinge [pale brown + a little French blue]: also used to indicate an obscuring of bright colors.

Luteo -testaceous: dark clay yellow.

Luteous -eus: clay yellow [pale clay yellow].

Lutescent: becoming or appearing to be clay yellow.

Lutose -us: apparently or really covered with dirt.

Lymphatic: producing, carrying or relating to the lymph.

Lyrate: lyre-shaped: cut into several transverse segments, and gradually enlarging towards the extremity.

Lyre: the upper wall or border of the spinning tube of caterpillars.


Macrochaetae: the long bristles occurring singly on the body of Diptera.

Macropterous: long or large winged.

Macrosomites: the primitive regions of primitive hand of the insect embryo.

Macula: a colored mark larger than a spot; of indeterminate figure.

Maculate -ed: spotted or marked with figures of any shape, of a color different from the ground.

Maculation: the ornamentation or pattern of marking.

Maculose: spotted; with many marks or spots.

Maerianum: "that segment of the post-pectus situate one on each side behind the acetabulum and parapleurum"; it supports the posterior feet: see meriaeum.

Magenta: pinkish red; an aniline product.

Magis: more.

Maggot: applied to the footless larvae of Diptera.

Mala: a lobe: a ridged or grinding surface.

Mala mandibularis: the grinding surface or area of a mandible.

Mala maxillae: the globes of maxilla; outer or galea, inner or lacinia; where only one is present, the term refers to that one.

Malaxation: a kneading or softening; applied to the chewing and squeezing by fossorial wasps of insects captured as food for their larva.

Male: that sex having organs for the production of spermatozoa: designated by "?", the astronomical sign for Mars. {Scanner's comment: The sign for Mars being an diagonal arrow rising from a circle, and pointing upwards towards the right.}

Mallophaga: wool-eaters: an ordinal term applied to biting lice: wingless: mandibulate; thoracic segments similar; no metamorphosis: =Lipoptera.

Malpighian tubules: long, slender tubules, varying in number, serving as excretory organs, entering the alimentary canal at the point of junction of chylific ventricle and ileum: said to be analogous with kidneys: = biliary vessels.

Mammilate: with nipple-like protuberances or processes.

Mandible: the lateral upper jaws of a biting insect.

Mandibular strobe: a broad deep groove on outer side of mandible in some Coleoptera.

Mandibular segment: the fourth or mandible bearing segment of head.

Mandibulata: that series of insects in which the adults have functional mandibles used for biting.

Mandibulate: with jaws or mandibles.

Manicate -us: fur-like: surface clothed with irregular depressed hair.

Manitrunk: that part of trunk that bears the anterior legs: =prothorax.

Manometabola: with a slight or gradual metamorphosis and without a resting stage; e.g. the Orthoptera.

Manubrium: in Coleoptera: that part of the mesosternum in Elateridae which forms the process for fitting into the cavity of the prothorax: in Collembola the basal part of the furculum.

Manus: the hand: formerly applied to the anterior tarsus.

Marbled: irregularly mottled, gray and white, like marble; = marmoratus.

Marcescent: shrivelling.

Margaritaceous: shining, like mother of pearl = nacreous; q.v.

Margin: that portion of a surface within the edge, bounded on the inner side by the sub-margin and consisting of a more or less dilated imaginary line.

Marginal: of, belonging to, or near the margin.

Marginal area: in Orthoptera; see mediastinal area.

Marginal bristles: in Diptera; are inserted on the posterior margin of the abdominal segment.

Marginal cell: in Diptera (Williston):= subcostal (Shiner):= radial (Comst.): in Hymenoptera:= radial and 2 (Comst.): in general that cell beyond the stigma.

Marginal field: in tegmina = costal field: q.v.

Marginal nervure or vein: in Orthoptera, = costa (Comst.): in Hymenoptera (Norton) = radius 3 (Comst.): in general, the vein forming the marginal cell.

Margined -ated: bounded by an elevated or attenuated margin: when the margin is edged by a flat border.

Marmorate -us: spots and lines irregularly disposed, as in marble: marbled. Mask: in the nymphs of Odonata, the modified labium which, when at rest, conceals the other mouth parts.

Masticate: to chew.

Masticatory: formed for chewing or grinding; applied to the mouth parts and to the grinding structures in the gizzard.

Mastigium -ia: telescopic anal organs in certain caterpillars, serving to repel attacks of parasites.

Matrix: the formative substance from which cells and other structures are derived.

Maxilla: without any qualifying adjective, the second pair of jaws in a mandibulate insect; the most persistent when the mouth is modified, and represented by some functional part in all insects in which the mouth structures are useful: second maxillae, = the labium, or third pair of jaws in a mandibulate insect.

Maxillary: attached or belonging to the maxilla; e.g. palpi.

Maxillary palpi: the first pair of palpi, borne on the maxilla.

Maxillary pleurites: the lateral pieces, epimera and episterna of the maxillary segment.

Maxillary segment: the sixth segment of the head, bearing the maxillae.

Maxillary tendons: two slender rods in basal third of the muscid proboscis the remnant of the palpifer, to which muscles for flexing the proboscis are attached: see lora.

Maxillary tentacle: in female Pronuba: a specialized process of palpifer.

Maxillulae: a pair of appendages in Thysanurids, between mandibles and first maxillae.

Maxime: very much or very large.

Mealy: with a flour-like dusting: = farinose.

Mecaptera: = Mecoptera, q.v.

Meconium: the substance excreted by certain metabolic insects soon after their emergence from the chrysalis or pupa.

Mecoptera: long-winged: neuropterous insects with similar, large, unfolded wings; mouth mandibulate, prolonged into a beak: head free; thorax agglutinated; transformations complete: the scorpion flies or Panorpidae. Medi-: prefix, = middle.

Media: the fourth of the longitudinal veins extending from base through approximately the middle of the wing, not more than four branched, the branches numbered on margin from nearest apex, to 4 nearest anal angle: in Orthoptera; it is the median or externomedian: in Lepidoptera (Pack.), is cubitus (Comst.).

Mediad: toward the median plane or middle.

Mediafurca: a process extending internally from the meso-sternum, to which the muscles are attached.

Medial: referring to, or at the middle.

Medial cells: (Comst.), are anteriorly bounded by the media or its branches: in Hymenoptera (Mort.), includes median and cubital (Comst.)

Medial cross-vein: (Comst.), is between media 2 and 3.

Median 1: in Lepidoptera (Pack.), = media 2 (Comst.).

Median 2: in Lepidoptera (Pack.), = media 3 (Comst.).

Median 4: in Lepidoptera ( Pack.), = cubitus 2 (Comst.).

Median area: of wings in Orthoptera, lies between the radial and ulnar veins, radius and media (Comst.): of meta-thorax of Hymenoptera, is the middle of the dorsum, divided into three spaces or cells; 1st or basal area, 2d or Lipper median or areola; 3d or apical or petiolar area.

Median carina: Orthoptera; of head, is usually applied to a median dorsal carina, but has been also used for that which extends down the middle of front from the fastigium, and then = frontal costa: of prothorax, extends along the middle of pronotum.

Median cell: in Lepidoptera, is the closed area formed by a line extending from the end of subcostal to the end of the median veins, = radial (Comst.): in Hymenoptera, 1st median (Pack.), = medial (Comst.); 2d median (Pack.), - medial 4 (Comst.); 3d median (Pack.), = medial 2 (Comst.); 4th median (Pack.), = medial 1 (Comst.).

Median cross-veins: in Odonata; are those which cross median space.

Median foveola: in Orthoptera; the foveate depression of the vertex between the eyes: = central foveola.

Median forks: in Orthoptera, refers to the forks of the median vein.

Median furrow: lies between radius and media: in some Heteroptera, separates the embolium from the remainder of the corium.

Median lines: on the primaries of many moths: the first or t.a. crosses about one-third from base; the second or t.p. crosses beyond the outer third and is usually sinuate.

Median lobe: of labium in Odonata, is the partly divided glossa or ligula; probably corresponds to united glossa and paraglossae (Butler).

Median longitudinal carinae: on the metanotum of Hymenoptera, extend one on each side of the middle.

Median nervules: in Lepidoptera (Holland)1st = cubitus 2 (Comst.): 2d cubitus 1 (Comst.); 3d = media 3 (Comst.).

Median notch: in Coccidae, a notch in the edge of the pygidium, at the posterior extremity of the body.

Median plate: in Hymenoptera := sessiliventres, is the dorsal plate connecting the thorax and abdomen.

Median sector: in Odonata, = media 3 (Comst.).

Median segment: applied to the basal segment of the abdomen when it forms part of the metathorax: see propodeum.

Median shade or line: in Lepidoptera, crosses at or about middle of wings.

Median space: in Lepidoptera, is the area between the median lines: in Odonata, the cubital cell (Comst.); the space at base between submedian (radius) and postcosta (st anal); by Selys in 1896 and later used in the sense of medial cell of Comst.

Median vein: in Odonata and Lepidoptera, = radius (Comst.): in Lepidoptera, it runs from base to about middle, nearly through centre, and is four or five branched: in Hymenoptera, it is the 3d from costal margin.

Mediastinal: relating to the longitudinal median line or area.

Mediastinal area: in Orthoptera, the area between median or mediastinal vein and the costal or front margin: = marginal area.

Mediastinal vein: in Orthoptera and Diptera, = suhcosta (Comst.): also, in Diptera, = auxiliary vein (Meigen).

Medio-eubital cross-vein: between media 4 and cubitus, connecting the two series (Comst.).

Medio-ventral line: in caterpillars, extends along middle of under side.

Medipectus: the under side of meta-thorax: the mesosternum.

Mediproboscis: the middle third of the flexed proboscis of muscid flies.

Medi-thorax: =mesothorax; q.v.

Medius: middle.

Mega- Megalo-: large.

Melanic: with a blackish suffusion.

Melanism: an abnormal or unusual darkening: a suffusion with blackish.

Mellifera: honey-makers: applied to bees as a whole.

Melliferous: honey-producing, or producers of honey.

Mellisugous: honey-sucking: a feeder on honey.

Member: any one of the external appendages.

Membranaceous: thin, skin-like, semi-transparent, like parchment: of a thin, pliable texture.

Membrana retinens: the stretched part of the membrane around the rectum of butterfly larvae, used in the change to the chrysalis.

Membrane -ana: any thin, transparent, flexible body tissue: specifically the wing tissue between the veins: in Heteroptera, the thin membranous tip of the hemelytra.

Membranous or eous: composed of membrane or skin-like tissue.

Membranule: the small opaque expansion at base of wings in Odonata.

Meniscoidal: with one side concave the other convex, like a round segment from a hollow sphere.

Menognatha: insects in which both young and adults feed by mandibles; e.g. the Orthoptera: see menorhyncha and metagnatha.

Menorhyncha: forms in which both young and adult take food by suction e.g. Hemiptera: see metognatha and metagnatha.

Mental suture: in Coleoptera, the line between mentum and gula.

Mentigerous: bearing or having a mentum.

Mentum: a labial sclerite bearing the movable parts; attached to and sometimes fused with the sub-mentum; corresponds to the (united) stipes of maxillae: in Coleoptera, what is usually called mentum is really submentum: in Diptera, the term is applied to the posterior oral margin: in Hymenoptera, is part of "tongue," the second joint bearing the labial palpi, paraglossae and ligula.

Merdivorous: feeding upon dung or excrement: see scatophagous.

Meriaeum: the posterior inflected part of the metasternum in Coleoptera.

Meroistic: ovaries that secrete yolk or vitellaginous cells as well as ova.

Mesad: extending or directed toward the median plane.

Mesal: pertaining to, situated on or in the median plane of the body.

Mesenchym: that portion of the mesoderm that produces the connective tissues of the body.

Mesenteron: the mid-gut, stomach or chylific ventricle: the middle portion of the primitive intestinal canal, lined with entoderm.

Mesepimeron: in Odonata: the sclerite between humeral and first lateral suture.

Mesepisterna: in Odonata,- the oblique lateral pieces of mesothorax, meeting dorsally in a ridge.

Mesially: at or to the middle.

Mesinfraepisternum: a sclerite formed between propleuron, mesepisternum, mesepimeron and second coxa.

Meso: middle: as prefix, drops the o when stem begins with a vowel.

Mesoblast: the middles germ layer of the embryos: = mesoderm.

Mesoderm:= mesoblast: gives rise to muscular and circulatory systems.

Mesodont::= amphiodont: q.v.

Mesomeros: the 2d to 5th abdominal segments in Lepidoptera.

Meson: the middle plane of the body.

Mesonotum: the primitively upper surface of the 2d or middle thoracic ring.

Mesophragma: an internal prolongation of the metapraescutum, affording attachment to some of the wing muscles.

Mesopleura: in Diptera, the space before the root of the wing between the dorso- and sternopleural sutures: in Hymenoptera, the piece below the insertion of the wings.

Mesopleural bristles: in Diptera, are inserted in the angle formed by the dorso-pleural and meso-pleural sutures.

Mesopleural suture: in Diptera, runs from the root of the wings downward and separates the meso-pleura from the pteropleura.

Mesopleuron: the lateral surface of the meta-thorax.

Mesosternal cavity: in Elateridae, the opening into which the prosternal spine or mucro is fitted.

Mesosternal epimera: in Coleoptera; the narrow pieces separating the meta-sternal from the meta-sternal episterna.

Mesosternal episterna: Coleoptera; on each side of mesosternum between anterior border and epimera; generally separated by a distinct suture.

Mesosternal lobes: in Orthoptera; = mesosternellum, q.v.

Mesosternellum: in Orthoptera, two median lobes of the mesosternum, one on each side of the deep median notch: in general, the sternellum of the mesothorax.

Mesosternum: the underside or breast of the meta-thorax.

Mesostethidium: = meso-thorax: q.v.

Mesostethium: the middle piece of the underside of meta-thorax, between the middle and hind legs.

Mesostigma: in Odonata, the spiracles of second thoracic segment.

Mesosulcus: a central longitudinal furrow of mesosternum in Hymenoptera.

Mesotarsus: the tarsus of the middle leg.

Mesothoracotheca: the pupal covering of the meso-thorax.

Mesothorax: the second or middle thoracic ring; bears the middle legs and the anterior wings.

Mesotergum: = mesonotum; q.v.

Meta-: posterior: used as a prefix to designate the third thoracic ring and its parts.

Metablastic: relating to the ecto- or meta-blast or ectoderm.

Metabola: insects with a complete metamorphosis in which the larva does not resemble the adult, and the pupa is quiescent.

Metabolism: is transformation: the whole process or series of changes of food into tissue and cell-substance and of these latter into waste products the first of these changes being anabolic, the second katabolic.

Metabolous: undergoing metamorphosis or transformation.

Metacoxal plate: in Coccinellidae, that portion of the first ventral segment included above the ventral lines visible on that segment.

Metagnatha: insects which feed with jaws when young and by suction, with tubular mouths when mature; e.g. the Lepidoptera: see menognatha and menorhyncha.

Metagonia: the hind or anal angle of a wing.

Metallic: having the appearance of metal: applied to a surface or color.

Metaloma: the sutural or inner margin of primaries.

Metamere: a segment, somite or athromere.

Metameric: made up of segments or metameres.

Metamerism: the arrangement in metameres.

Metameros: in Lepidoptera. the 6th to 8th abdominal segments.

Metamorphosis: is that series of changes through which an insect passes in its growth from egg through larva and pupa to adult: it is complete when the pupa is inactive and does not feed; incomplete when there is no pupa or when the pupa is active and feeds.

Metamorphosis dimidio: an incomplete transformation.

Metamorphosis perfecta: a complete transformation.

Metanotum: the primitively upper surface of the third or posterior thoracic ring: in Diptera, the oval arched portion behind, beneath the scutellum best developed in flies with long, slender abdomen: e.g. Tipulidae.

Metaphragma: the hindmost internal thoracic septum.

Metapleura: in Diptera, a swollen space at the outside of the metanotum, between it, the pteropleura and the hypopleura; in Hymenoptera, the piece behind and below the insertion of the hind wings.

Metapleural bristles: in Diptera, are inserted in the metapleura.

Metapneustic: larva, chiefly dipterous, in which the spiracles are confined to the posterior segment.

Metapnystega: that circular area of metanotum behind the postscutellum.

Metapodeon: the abdomen behind the podeon or petiole in Hymenoptera.

Metasternal: relating or attached to the metasternum.

Metasternal epimera: small sclerite separating the metasternal episterna from the ventral segments.

Metasternal episterna: sclerite situated on each side of the Metasternum, immediately behind the mesosternum epimera.

Metasternellum: the sternellum of the metathorax.

Metasternum: the underside or breast of the metathorax.

Meta-stethidium: = meta-thorax; q.v.

Metastigma: in Odonata, the spiracles of third thoracic segment.

Metastoma: in Orthoptera:= hypopharynx: q.v.

Metatarsus: applied to basal joint of tarsus, where that differs greatly in length or otherwise from the other joints: see sarothrum.

Metatergum: = metanotum; q.v.

Metathoracotheca: the pupal covering of the meta-thorax.

Metathorax: the third thoracic ring or segment; bears the hind legs and second pair of wings; variably distinct; sometimes closely united with the mesothorax and sometimes appearing as a portion of the abdomen.

Metatype: is a specimen named by the author after comparison with the type; according to some, it should be also a topotype.

Metazona: in Orthoptera, the dorsal surface of the prothorax behind the principal sulcus.

Metepimeron: in Odonata, lies behind the second lateral suture and extends ventrally to the sternum.

Metepisternum: in Odonata, is the sclerite between the first and second lateral thoracic sutures.

Meter: the standard of length in the metric system = 39.37 inches: see centimeter and millimeter.

Meticulose -us: is a maculation in the form of a series of colored flames.

Metinfraepisternum: in Odonata; the sclerite just above base of 3d coxa; below metepisternum and before metepimeron.

Metochy: the relation borne to ants by the tolerated guests in ant-hills; demanding nothing from and giving nothing to the ants; see symphily and synecthry.

Metopidium: the anterior declivous surface of prothorax in Membracidae.

Micans: shining: also a surface of which only parts are shining.

Microchaetae: small bristles, as opposed to macrochaetae, in Diptera.

Microergates: the dwarf workers among ants.

Micron: the unit of microscopic measurement = 001 mm.: represented by the symbol mu: the symbol mu mu represents .001 of a micron. {Scanner's note: the mu mu notation would no longer be valid.}

Micropterous: small winged.

Micropterism: the tendency to produce small wings; applied to a line of variation.

Micropyles: minute openings in the egg, through which spermatozoa enter.

Microsomites: small secondary rings or somites of the macrosomites in the embryo, which afterward become the body segments.

Microthorax: a supposed thoracic ring between the head and prothorax.

Middle apical area: = internal area; q.v.

Middle field: = discoidal field; q.v.

Middle lobes: of pronotum in Orthoptera; see lobes.

Middle pleural area: in Hymenoptera; the median of the three areas between lateral and pleural carinae: = 2d pleural area.

Mid-dorsal thoracic Carina: a ridge or elevated line at the meeting of the mesepisterna in Odonata.

Mid-gut: the chylific ventricle with the caecal glands, tubes or pouches.

Mid-intestine: = mid-gut.

Migrants: applied to that brood of plant lice which flies from one to an alternate food plant: any forms that fly from the place where they were born for food or other purposes.

MM.: = Millimeter: .001 meter = .039 of an inch: roughly 25 mm. are counted to an inch in measuring insects. {Scanner's comment: modern usage is lower case. So: mm.}

Mimetic: when a species mimics or resembles another or some other object in appearance; but not in structure and other characters.

Mimicry: strictly, the resemblance of one animal to another not closely related animal, living in the same locality; often loosely used to denote also resemblance to plants and inanimate objects: Batesian mimicry is where one of two similar species is distasteful (so-called model), the other not distasteful (so-called mimic);

Muellerian mimicry is where both species are distasteful.

Mines: applied to galleries or burrows between upper and under surface of leaf tissue, when made by larvae: they are linear, when they are narrow and only a little winding; serpentine, when they are curved or coiled, becoming gradually larger to a head-like end: trumpet-mines, when they start small and enlarge rapidly at tip; blotch mines, when they are irregular blotches tentiform, when the blotch mines throw the leaf into a fold on one side.

Miniate -us: of the color of red lead [vermilion with a slight admixture of dragon's blood].

Mirror: in Cicada; see specular membrane.

Mitosoma: the middle piece of a developing spermatozoon.

Mobile: movable: having the power of motion.

Model: see mimicry.

Modioliform: globular, truncated at both ends; like the hub of a wheel.

Mola or Molar: the ridged or roughened grinding surface of the mandible: when the mandible is compound, the molar corresponds to the subgalea of maxilla.

Monarsenous: that kind of union where one male suffices for many females.

Moniliform: beaded like a necklace.

Monochromatic: of one color throughout.

Monodactyle: with a single movable claw which closes on the tip of the other leg structures as in some parasitica.

Monodomous: ants in which each colony has one nest only.

Monoecious: when both sexual elements or glands exist in one individual.

Monogamous: a union where a female is fertilized by one male only.

Monomeri: insects with one-jointed tarsi.

Monomorphic: species of which only one sex (female) is known to exist.

Monophagous: insects feeding upon only one species or genus of plants.

Monothelious: a union where one female is fecundated by many males.

Monotrocha -ous: Hymenoptera in which the trochanters are single: having legs in which the trochanter is one-jointed.

Monotypical: a genus described from a single species, no other being known; or described from a single specified species with which are associated others believed to be identical in structure: see isotypical and heterotypical.

Moult: a period in the transformation when the larva changes from one instar to another: the cast skin of a larva that has moulted.

Mouth: the anterior opening into the alimentary canal, where the feeding structures are situated and in which the food is prepared for ingestion.

Mouth-parts: a collective name including labrum, mandibles, maxillae, labium and appendages = trophi.

Mucoreus: mouldy: a surface covered with small, fringe-like processes.

Mucro: a long, straight or curved process terminating in a point: the pro-sternal process in Elateridae: the terminal spine or process of an obtect pupa: "the median posterior point of the epigastrium when differentiated by elevation."

Mucronate: terminated in a sharp point.

Mucrones: in Collembola the two small end pieces of the furcula, proceeding from the dentes.

Mullerian association: a group of species belonging to different genera, often different families or even orders, having similar colors, possessing more or less distasteful qualities and living in the same locality.

Muller's thread: the common terminal thread of all the ovarian tubes.

Multangulate: with many angles.

Multi-: many; used as a prefix, often without the i.

Multiarticulate: with many joints or segments.

Multilocular: with many large cells, spaces or cavities.

Multipartite: divided into many parts.

Multiplicate: with many longitudinal folds or lines of plication.

Multispinose: with many spines.

Mumia: the pupa.

Munite -us: armed; provided with an armature.

Muricate -us: armed with sharp, rigid points.

Murinus: mouse colored [gray with some yellow].

Mushroom bodies: two stalked, mushroom-like bodies arising from procerebral lobes; supposed to be the seat of insect intelligence.

Muscle: the fleshy fibres of the insect body that serve to move the appendages and other body organs.

Mute: silent: without power to produce audible sound.

Mutic -us: unarmed: lacking processes where such usually occur.

Mutici: Acridiids without a posternal spines.

Mutilate -us: cut off: mutilated: abbreviated: not complete.

Mycetophagous: feeding upon fungi.

Myiasis: disease or injury caused by the attack of dipterous larvae.

Myoblast: a cell that produces muscular tissue.

Myrmecology: that branch of entomology that deals with ants.

Myrmecophilous: ant-loving: applied to insects that live in ant nests.

Mystacine -us: bcarded: with a hairy fringe above mouth or on clypeus.

Mystax: in Diptera; a patch of hair or bristles above the mouth, on the lower part of the hypostoma above the vibrissae.

Mytiliform: shell-like; as the middle feet in some aquatic Hemiptera.


Nacreous: pearly: resembling mother of pearl := margaritaceous.

Nail: a tarsal claw: specifically the stout pointed claws in predatory Heteroptera = unguis.

Naked: not clothed: lacking vestiture: a pupa when not inclosed in a cocoon or other covering.

Nasal suture: =clypeal suture; q.v.

Nasus: anterior termination of the face in certain Hymenoptera: the clypeus or a modification of it: in Odonata, the upper portion of the clypeus = supra-clypeus = postclypeus.

Nasuti: that type of termite soldiers that have the head prolonged into a point.

Natatorial -ions: formed for swimming.

Navicular: boat-shaped = cymbiform.

Neanic: referring to the pupal stage.

Nearctic: temperate and arctic North America, including Greenland.

Nebula: a cloud: a vague, indefined, dusky shading.

Nebulous -ose: cloudy: without definite form or outline.

Neck: the slender connecting structure between head and thorax of such insects as have the head free: any contraction of the head at its juncture with the thorax.

Necrophagous: living in or on carrion.

Nectaries: honey-tubes, cornicles, siphuncles; q.v.

Nematid: thread-like.

Nematocera: = nemocera; q. A.

Nematocerous: with long, thread-like antenna.

Nemocera: Diptera with long, at least six-jointed antennae.

Nemoglossata: bees with a thread-like tongue.

Nemoricolous: living in open, sunny woods.

Neogeic: belonging to the Western Hemisphere or New World: see gerontogeic.

Neolepidoptera: all haustellate Lepidoptera, except the generalized Micropterygidae; mandibles not functionally present; pupa incomplete or obtect: see paleolepidoptera and protolepidoptera.

Neoteinic: applied to complemental females in Termites because, though reproductive, they retain some juvenile characters.

Neotropical: that part of the earth's surface embraced in the greater part of Mexico, West Indies and South America.

Neotype: a specimen identified with a species already described, and selected as a standard of reference where the original type or co-types are lost or destroyed.

Nephridia: tubular structures functioning as kidneys in Annelids, Mollusks, etc. and incorrectly used as = malpighian tubules; q.v.

Nepionic: that stage of development immediately succeeding the embryonic; proposed as a substitute for larval.

Nerinaeum: a ventral thoracic sclerite between the metasternum and posterior coxa in some Coleoptera.

Nerve: a thread-like structure, composed of delicate filaments whose function it is to transmit sensations or stimuli to or from a ganglion or from or to any part of the body or its appendages.

Nerves: sometimes used to = veins, in wing structures.

Nervi: belonging or referring to the nerves.

Nervulation: arrangement of the nerves: specifically applied to the arrangement of the chitinous framework of wings and thus= venation; q.v. Nervules or Nervures: the rod or vein-like structures supporting the membranes of wings and = veins and veinlets; q.v.

Nervuration: = nervulation and venation: q.v.

Neural canal: an incomplete tunnel on the floor of meso- and metathorax, formed by fusion of apodemes, serving for the reception and protection of the ventral nerve cord and for the attachment of muscles.

Neural groove: is that furrow in the primitive layer of the embryo in which the nerve cord is formed.

Neuration: = venation; q.v.

Neurilemma: the external sheath of a nerve fibre.

Neuroblast: the large cell in the early embryo, from which the nervous system develops.

Neuromere: that part of a body segment pertaining to the nervous system.

Neuroptera: nerve-winged: an ordinal term applied to insects with four net-veined wings; mouth mandibulate: head free: thorax loosely agglutinated; metamorphosis complete: in its older use, the term applied to all net-veined insects irrespective of metamorphosis or thoracic structure.

Neuropteroidea: like the Neuroptera in the wide sense; applied to those living insects included by Linnaeus in his Neuroptera; also to those extinct forms which have a general resemblance to them.

Neurospongium: a granular matrix in the periopticon of the insect eye.

Neuter: the term applied to workers or undeveloped females in some Hymenoptera: indicated by * or *, an imperfect form of Venus sign.{Scanner's comment: I have no characters to represent the symbols. One is like the normal female (Venus) sign, but with no cross stroke on the downward stroke. The other is the symbol for Mercury or of Hermaphroditus, like a Venus sign crowned with crescent horns.}

Nidificate: to nest: applied when eggs are placed in a prepared receptaculum.

Niger: black.

Nigricans: black, tinged with gray.

Nits: the eggs of sucking lice; specifically when attached to a hair: in general, though rarely, applied in the singular to an egg.

Nitidus: shining: applied to a highly polished, smooth surface.

Niveous -eus: snowy white.

Nocturnal: species that fly or are active at night.

Nodal furrow: in Odonata; a transverse suture, beginning at a point in costal margin corresponding to the nodus, and extending toward inner margin.

Nodal sector: in Odonata; = media 2 (Comst.): arises from upper sector of arculus near nodus and extends to outer margin.

Node: a knot or knob: in the plural refers to the small segment or segment between thorax and main portion of abdomen in ants.

Nodiform: in the form of a knot or knob.

Nodicorn: with antennae that have the apex of each joint swollen.

Nodose -us: knotted or with knots; a body with one or more knotted parts a sculpture with almost isolated knots.

Nodule: a little knot, lump or node.

Nodulose -us -ate: with small nodes or nodules: a surface sculpture of knots or links, connected by an undulating line.

Nodus: in Odonata; a stout, oblique, short vein at the place where the anterior margin of the wings is sometimes drawn in.

Nopalry: a plantation of cacti for raising cochineal insects.

Normal: of the usual form or type: not out of the ordinary.

Notate: marked by spots: with a series of depressed marks as a sculpture.

Notched: indented, cut or nicked; usually a margin.

Notocephalon: in some aquatic Hemiptera, that part of the head which is apparent from a dorsal aspect.

Notodont: with toothed backs: applied to a series of moths whose larvae are more or less conspicuously humped on dorsal surface.

Notopleural suture: = dorso-pleural suture; q.v.

Nototheca: that part of the pupa covering upper surface of abdomen.

Notum: the dorsal or upper part of a segment: = tergum.

Nucha: the upper surface of the neck connecting head and thorax.

Nucleate: with, or having a nucleus.

Nucleolus: the small portion of matter in the nucleus most readily affected by staining fluids.

Nucleus: a well-defined, differentiated, round or oval body imbedded in the cell contents.

Nude -us: naked: a surface devoid of hair, scales or other vestiture.

Nuditas: = nudity.

Nudity: the state of being naked or bare of vestiture.

Nurses: worker ants or worker bees which care for the eggs, larvae and pupae, but do not forage, the latter function being taken up later, when nursing is given up.

Nutant: nodding; the tip bent toward the horizon.

Nutritive chamber: an enlarged section of ovarian tube, filled with granular nutritive material used in developing the egg cells.

Nymph: the larval stage of insects with incomplete metamorphosis: applies also to their pupal stage, and sometimes used as = pupa.

Nympha inclusa: = coarctate pupa; q.v.

Nymphipara: applied to insects that bear living young in an advanced stage of development: see also pupipara.


Ob-: as a prefix, means inversely.

Obconic: conic, with the apex pointing downward.

Obcordate: inversely heart-shaped, with the point applied to the base of another object or part.

Obese -us: unnaturally distended: usually applied to the abdomen.

Oblate: flattened; applied to a spheroid of which the diameter is shortened at two opposite ends.

Oblique: any direction between perpendicular and horizontal.

Oblique vein: in Odonata; an apparent cross-vein situated between M2 and Rs, distal to the level of the nodus and inclined obliquely, from its front end, backward and outward; in reality the basal part of Rs.

Obliterate: nearly washed out; indistinct.

Oblong: longer than broad.

Obovate: inversely egg-shaped; the narrow end downward.

Obpyriform: inversely pearshaped.

Obscure: not readily seen: not well defined.

Obsite-us: a surface covered with equal scales or other bodies.

Obsolete: nearly or entirely lost: inconspicuous.

Obtect: wrapped in a hard covering.

Obtected: applied to pupae when they are covered with a chitinous case which confines and conceals all appendages, though their outlines may be marked on the surface: see free, and coarctate.

Obtuse: not pointed: an angle greater than a right angle: opposed to acute. Obtuse-angulate: two markings or margins meeting so as to form an obtuse angle.

Obtusilingues: short-tongued bees with the tip obtuse or bifid: see acutilingues.

Occipital foramen: the opening in the occiput, opposed to a similar opening in the prothorax: = foramen magnum.

Occipital margin: in Mallophaga, the posterior margin of the head.

Occipito-orbital bristles: in Diptera; situated on posterior orbit of eye.

Occiput: that part of the head behind the vertex: in Diptera, the whole posterior surface of the head: in bees, the space between the vertex and the neck.

Occlusor: applied to muscles which close an opening; e.g. spiracles.

Occult -us: hidden; concealed from superficial view.

Ocellar bristles: in Diptera, are situated close to the ocelli, usually directed forward: often absent.

Ocellar ribband: a crescent-shaped, smooth thin belt across the eye region in butterfly chrysalids.

Ocellar triangle: a triangle, indicated by grooves or depressions, on which the ocelli are situated; Diptera.

Ocellate: eye-like in appearance: in Lepidoptera, spots on the wings, bordered by a colored iris or ring, and usually with a pupil.

Ocelli: plural of ocellus; q.v.; = stemmata.

Ocelligerous: supplied with, or bearing ocelli.

Ocellus: a simple eye, consisting of a single convex or bead-like lens, which conveys an image to a retina.

Ocelli occur in larvae and, singly or in small groups, in adults: the compound eyes are made up of numerous ocelli.

Ochraceous: yellow with a slight tinge of brown [pale cadmium yellow and brown ochre].

Ochraeus -eus: = ochraceous.

Ochro-leucus: dilute ochraceous.

Ocular emargination: in Mallophaga, a lateral emargination of the head in which the eye is received posteriorly.

Ocular fleck: in Mallophaga, a small, intensely black spot of pigment in the eyes.

Ocular fringe: in Mallophaga, closely set small hair on posterior half of ocular emargination, sometimes extending on temporal margin.

Ocular lobes: of brain = procerebrum; q.v.

Ocular sclerite: the first or protocerebral segment of the head.

Ocular tubercles: in Aphids, are a group of prominent facets on the hinder part of each eye.

Oculi -us: the eyes: an eye: refers to the compound eyes.

Oculocephalic: applied to that pair of imaginal buds destined to produce the cephalic region in Hymenoptera.

Odona: toothed: applied to Odonata by Fabricius because of the long teeth on the maxilla and labium.

Odonata: net-veined insects with mandibulate mouth; head free; thorax agglutinate; wings similar, elongate, flat; metamorphosis incomplete; copulatory organs of male near base of abdomen, separate from the testes. {Scanner's comment: Dragon flies and damselflies}

Odonate: bearing toothed mouth parts, like those of dragon flies.

Odoriferous: diffusing an odor; applied to glands or secreting organs.

OEcology: see ecology.

OEdagus: the penis.

OEnocytes: large yellow cells arranged segmentally in clusters, in each side of body cavity: associated with blood and fat bodies.

OEsophageal bone: a plate below anterior part of oesophagus in Psocidae.

OEsophageal bulb: = sub-clypeal pump; q.v.

OEsophageal diverticula: = food reservoirs (q.v.); but more generally applied also to any sac-like structure connected with the gullet.

OEsophageal lobes: form posterior portion of brain or tritocerebrum.

Oesophageal valve: a funnel-like folding of the oesophagus, extending into the chylific ventricle in some insects, and forming a valve that controls the entrance of food into that organ: = cardiac valvule.

Oesophagus: the gullet: that part of the alimentary canal between the mouth and the crop.

Olfactory: pertaining to the sense of smell: those lobes of the deutocerebrum from which the nerves supplying the antennae arise.

Oligonephria: applied to insects with few urinary (Malpighian) tubes.

Oligoneura: having few wing veins: specifically applied in Diptera to Cecidomyids.

Olivaceous: with a tinge of olive-green, usually as a shading [olive green].

Omaloptera: the pupiparous flies.

Omia: the shoulders: the lateral anterior angles of an agglutinated thorax, when they are distinct:= see umbone: in Coleoptera; a corneous sclerite to which the muscles of the anterior coxa are attached; also the lateral margin of the prothorax; also the lateral margin of the scutellum in Carabids and Dytiscids.

Ommateum: the compound eye.

Ommatidium -ia: one of the elements of which the compound eye is composed.

Omnivorous: a general feeder upon animal or vegetable food, or both.

Oncus -i: a welt: applied to welt-like ridges on caterpillars.

Onisciform: shaped like a wood-louse, Oniscus sp.; applied to certain Lycaenid and other caterpillars.

Ontogenetic: relating to the development of the individual.

Ontogeny: the development of the individual as distinguished from that of the species: see phylogeny.

Onyches: claws of tarsi.

Onychium -ia: small processes between the tarsal claws in many Diptera; see empodium: a more or less retractile process on the feet of some beetles: in Hymenoptera, the apical tarsal joint bearing the claws: see also arolium and pulvillus.

Ooeblast: the primitive germinal nucleus of an egg.

Ooegenesis: the process of egg-formation.

Ooelemma: the cell wall of an egg: see vitelline membrane.

Ooetheca: the covering or case over an egg mass, as in certain Orthoptera: see egg case.

Opacus: opaque; a surface without any lustre.

Opalescent: with a bluish white lustre, as in opals.

Opalinus: = opalescent; q.v.

Opaque: without lustre: not transparent.

Operaria: the workers in Hymenoptera.

Operative: in working order or actually working.

Opercula: two plates covering the vocal structure of Cicada, beneath.

Operculum: a lid or covering: in Diptera, the chitinous envelope covering the lower part of the muscid mouth; the labrum-epipharynx of Dimmock: the scutes covering the meso-thoracic stigmata: in Aleurodidae, the lid-like structure closing the vasiform orifice; q.v.

Ophthalmic: relating to the eye.

Ophthalmotheca: that part of the pupa that covers the eyes.

Opisthogoneate: having the organs of generation at hind end of body.

Opisthogonia: the anal angle of the secondaries.

Opposite: placed over against, or opposed to.

Optic: relating to the organs of vision.

Optic ganglia: are at the sides of the procerebrum and innervate the compound eyes.

Optic lobes: the laterals lobes of the procerebrum in which are centered the nerves supplying the organs of vision.

Opticon: the first of a series of three ganglionic swellings in the optic nerve: see epiopticon and periopticon.

Optic segment: =procerebral segment; q.

Optic tract: is the perceptive portion of the compound eye.

Ora: a border: specifically in some Coleoptera, the lateral margin of prothorax.

Ora coleopterorum: the margin of the elytra.

Orad: toward the mouth.

Oral: pertaining to the mouth.

Oral cavity: the mouth; = buccal cavity.

Oral fossa: in Mallophaga, a furrow lying in front of the mandibles.

Oral segment: that ring or segment which bears the mouth.

Orbicular: round and flat, the diameters of the plane equal: in sonic moths, a round or oval macula in the median cell.

Orbit: an imaginary border around the eye: in Diptera the orbits are divided into vertical or superior; frontal and facial or anterior; of the cheek or inferior; occipital or posterior.

Orbital sclerite: a narrow sclerite encircling some eyes.

Order: one of the primary divisions of the Class Insecta, based largely on wing structure and then usually ending in -ptera.

Ordure: excrement; usually applied to such as is foul or offensive.

Orichalceous: = aurichalceous; q.v.

Oriental: in geographical zoology as used by Wallace, that part of the earth's surface including Asia east of the Indus River, south of the Himalayas and the Yangtse-kiang watershed, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java and the Philippines.

Orificium: the anal or genital opening.

Original type: is the actual specimen from which a published description is prepared.

Orismologia -y: the defining of scientific or technical terms.

Orthoptera: straight winged: an ordinal term applied to insects in which the primaries are not used in flight, but cover the longitudinally folded secondaries; mouth mandibulate; head set into prothorax, the latter free; metamorphosis incomplete.

Orthorrhapha: that section of Diptera in which the pupa escapes from larval skin through a T-shaped opening on back: see cyclorrhapha.

Orthorrhaphous: straight-seamed.

Os: the mouth of insects, in general.

Oscillation: a vibrating or swinging from side to side.

Osculant: intermediate in character between two groups or series.

Osmaterium -ia: fleshy, tubular, eversible processes producing a penetrating odor, capable of being projected through a slit in the prothoracic segment of certain Papilionid caterpillars, and from openings elsewhere in the bodies of other forms. {Scanner's comment: currently the only spelling I can find is "osmeterium". This given spelling is almost certainly an error on someone's part. Not only do the earliest books that I can find spell it "osmeterium", but the Greek root is "osme".}

Osmosis: the tendency of liquids to pass or diffuse through a membrane or septum.

Osselet: = ossicle; q.v.

Ossicle: a small nodule of chitin resembling a bone.

Ossicula: small corneous pieces that serve in the articulation of the wings to the thorax.

Ostia: the slit-like openings of the heart.

Ostiolar canal: a marginal furrow leading from the ostiole.

Ostiole: in Heteroptera, the openings at the sides of meso- and metathorax, through which an odoriferous fluid is excreted.

Ostium: singular of Ostia; q.v.

-osus; an affix, signifying saturation, or the possession of the quality expressed in the stem word.

Otocyst: an auditory or ear-like vesicle.

Otolith: a little ear-bone: granules or concretions found in an otocyst.

Outer lobe: of maxilla = galea; q.v.

Outer margin: the outer edge of wing, between apex and hind angle.

Ovo, Ovum: the eggs; an egg.

Ova glebata: eggs laid or concealed in lumps of dung.

Ova imposita: eggs laid in the substance that is to serve as food for the larva.

Oval: egg-shaped, with both ends similar.

Ova pilosa: eggs that are covered with hair: usually from the abdomen of the female.

Ovarian tube: a tubular structure in which are developed the cells forming the future ova: a single one of the mass which, taken together, form the ovaries.

Ovaries: a mass of ovarian tubes, lying one on each side of the body cavity of the female, in each of which tubes eggs or ova are developed: the individual tubes of an ovary all converge to one oviduct.

Ovariole: an ovarian tube: q.v.

Ovary: singular of ovaries; q.v.

Ovate: in outline, egg-shaped or oval.

Oviduct: the tube through which the egg passes from ovarian tubes into vagina: sometimes used in the sense of ovipositor: q.v.

Oviform: egg-shaped.

Oviparous: where reproduction is through eggs laid by the female.

Oviposition: the act of depositing the eggs.

Ovipositor: the tubular or valved structure by means of which the eggs are placed; usually concealed; but sometimes extended far beyond the end of the body.

Oviscapt: = ovipositor; q.v.

Ovivalvule: in Ephemeroptera; is an appendage of the female reproductive organs.

Ovoviviparous: when living young are born from eggs which are hatched in the body of the parent.


Pacific coast humid area: is that faunal area of the transition zone comprising the western parts of Washington and Oregon between the Coast Mountains and Cascade range: parts of northern California and most of the coast region from near Cape Mendocino south to the Santa Barbara Mountains. To the south and east it passes into the arid transition and in places into the upper Sonoran.

Pad: the pulvillus, or that part of it which is capable of extension and retraction in some Coleoptera.

Paddle: the flattened joints of posterior tarsi in aquatic Hemiptera.

Paedogenesis: reproduction in the sexually immature or larval stage.

Paedogenetic: reproducing in the sexually immature or larval stage.

Pagina: the surface of a wing: P. superior, is the upper surface; P. inferior, the lower surface: in Orthoptera, the external flattened surface of the caudal femora.

Pagiopoda: Heteroptera, in which the posterior coxae are not globose and the articulation is a hinge joint: see trochalopoda.

Pagiopodous: those Heteroptera which have the coxae of the hind legs hinged and the femora grooved.

Pala: the shovel-shaped tarsal joints in many aquatic Heteroptera.

Palate: = hypopharynx; q.v.

Paleace: chaff or chaffy: = paleaceous.

Paleaceous: chaffy in appearance.

Palearctic: relating to that part of the earth's surface including Europe, Africa north of Sahara, and Asia as far south as the southern edge of the Yang-tse-Kiang watershed and the Himalayas, and west to the Indus River.

Paleodictyoptera: an ordinal name suggested by Scudder for Paleozoic insects which cannot be assigned to existing orders.

Paleolepidoptera: haustellate Lepidoptera in which the mandibles are distinct and the pupa is free: includes the Micropterygidae only: see protolepidoptera and neolepidoptera.

Pallescent: becoming pale or light in color or tint.

Pallette: the disc-like structure composed of three tarsal joints, on the anterior feet of male Dytiscidae.

Pallid: pale or very pale.

Pallide-flavens: pale or whitish yellow.

Pallidus: of a pale, cadaverous hue [a very dilute brown pink].

Pallium: an erectile membrane partially closing the open cavity formed by the walls of the sub-genital plate in Melanopli.

Palma: the basal segment of the anterior tarsus when it is broadened or specifically modified.

Palmate: like the palm of the hand, with finger-like processes.

Palmula: = pulvillus; q.v.

Palp: a mouth feeler or palpus.

Palpal: belonging, relating or attached to the palpi.

Palparium: in some Coleoptera, and other insects, the membranous support to which the labial palpi are attached, and which permits an amount of extension not possible when they are fixed.

Palpi: plural of palpus; q.v.

Palpicorne: with long, slender, antenna-like palpi.

Palpifer: any palpus-bearing part: specifically, a small sclerite hearing the maxillary palpus and itself articulated to the stipes.

Palpiferous or -gerous: bearing a palpus.

Palpiger: that sclerite of the labium to which the labial palpus is attached corresponds to the palpifer of the maxilla and has been used in the same general sense.

Palpigerous stipes: in Coleopterous larvae, = palpifer; q.v.

Palpuli: the maxillary palpi in Lepidoptera, when visibly developed.

Palpus: a mouth feeler: tactile, usually jointed structures borne by the maxillae (maxillary palpi) and labium (labial palpi).

Panduriform: violin shaped: oblong, with rounded ends, medially constricted.

Panorpatae: = Mecoptera; q.v.

Pantherine: in color, almost like cervinus; q.v.: in maculation, like those of a panther.

Papilioform: formed like a butterfly wing.

Papilionaceous: butterfly-like.

Papilla: a minute, soft projection: specifically the modified ligula in silk spinning caterpillars.

Papillary: with nipple-like processes that have the tips rounded.

Papillate -us: a surface with small elevations which are porous at tip.

Papilliform: like a wart or pimple.

Papillose -us: pimply; a surface covered with raised dots or pimples.

Pappose: downy: made up or clothed with pappus.

Pappas: a fine down.

Para-: next to; near by; at the side of.

Parabiosis: see symbiosis.

Parabolic: elongately rounded.

Paraclypeal piece: in lepidopterous pupa, occurs in some of the generalized families on each side of the maxillary palpi.

Paraclypeus: in caterpillars, a narrow sclerite bordering clypeus at sides.

Paraderm: the limiting membrane enclosing the pronymph of Muscidae.

Paraglossa: a paired, labial structure, lying at each side of the ligula; often connected with it; sometimes free and two-jointed: corresponds to the galea of maxilla.

Parallel: along the same line and nearly equidistant.

Paranal: at the side of or next to the anus or anal structures.

Paranal forks: two lateral, bristle-like structures in some caterpillars, used to throw frass pellets to a distance.

Paranal lobes: = podical plates; q.v.

Paraphysis: the chitinized thickenings or lateral ingrowths, usually situated at the base of the lobes in certain Diaspid genera.

Parapleura: the sternal side pieces in beetles.

Parapodia: the pro- or false legs: more specifically applied to the jointed abdominal processes of the Symphyla.

Parapsidae: the small sclerites on each side of the scutellum in Chalcids, marked by the parapsidal grooves.

Parapsidal furrows: longitudinal grooves on each side of the mesoscutum of Proctytrypidae separating the parapsides from the middle lobe.

Parapsidal grooves: the grooves or furrows on each side of the Chalcid scutellum, defining the parapsidae.

Parapsides: lateral pieces of the meso-scutum, separated from the mesal portion by the parapsidal furrows.

Parapteron -era: small sclerites, articulated to the dorsal extremity of the episternum, just below the wings; absent on prothorax = the tegulae of Hymenoptera, and patagia of Lepidoptera: have been homologized with the elytra of Coleoptera.

Parasita: = parasitica: q.v.

Parasite: a species that lives in or on another animal or insect, and depends upon the tissue of the host for its food supply.

Parasitic: living on or in some other animal or insect in such a way as to derive all nourishment from the tissues of the host.

Parasitica: the sucking lice: wingless; without metamorphosis; mouth with piercing lancets; thoracic segments similar; habits epizooetic.

Parasitism: a form of symbiosis in which one party lives upon or at the expense of the other, makes no return and destroys its host: see symbiosis; commensalism.

Parastigma: = pterostigma; q.v.

Parastigmatic glands: small, circular glands, which secrete a waxy powder, sometimes present around the spiracles of Coccidae.

Paratype: is every specimen of the series from which the type was selected see type and cotype.

Parse: sparse or sparsely.

Parcidentate: with few teeth.

Parenchymatous: composed of soft cellular and connective tissue.

Parietes: walls: the perpendicular sides of elevated bodies.

Paronychium-ia: one or more bristle-like appendages of onychia; q.v.

Parthenogenetic: see asexual.

Parthenogenesis: reproduction by direct growth of germs from egg-cells without fertilization by the male element: as in plant lice, gall wasps, etc.

Particolored: partly of one, partly of another color: divided into two or more color fields.

Partite -us: divided; e.g. the eyes of Gyrinidae.

Parum: not much.

Patagium -ia: in Lepidoptera, those sclerites that cover the base of primaries: often used as synonymous with tegula and squamula, q.v.: assigned by some writers to the pro-, by others to the meso-thorax: homologized with the paraptera of meso-thorax.

Patella -ae: the modified joints of anterior tarsi in Dytiscidae; plate-like, horny or spongy structures on the undersides of the tarsal joints: the first coxal joint.

Patellar: pertaining to the knee-joint or cap.

Patellariae: in Dytiscids, the unequal, cup-like impressions on the underside of the patella.

Patens, Patentes: open; diverging; spreading apart.

Patric: home or country of origin.

Patulous-ose: open, spreading.

Paunch: a crop-like accessory pouch in some Mallophaga: any pouch-like appendage of the alimentary canal.

Paurometabolous: metamorphosis in which the changes of form are gradual and inconspicuous: e.g. Orthoptera and most Rhynchota.

Pavillions: the sheds or cells sometimes built by ants as a shelter for groups of plant lice.

Paxilla: a small stake or peg: a bundle of spicular processes.

Pearlaceous: having the appearance of pearl.

Pecten: a comb: in Hymenoptera, rigid, incurred setae on the basal parts of maxilla and labium: the rows of spines on the feet of pollen-gathering bees: any series of bristles arranged like a comb: in mosquito larvae the comb-like teeth on the breathing tube.

Pectinate: comb-shaped: with even branches like the teeth of a comb.

Pectinato-fimbriate: having pectinations that are fringed with hair.

Pectoralis: relating to the breast.

Pectoral plate: in Coleoptera, the sternum.

Pectunculate: with a row of minute appendages like the teeth of a comb: e.g. some maxillary structures.

Pectus: the ventral portion of thorax: variably applied in Coleoptera, for the entire meso- and meta-thorax: also the pro- and meso-sternum: in Diptera, is the inferior surface of the thorax between the legs.

Pedal line: in caterpillars: extends along the base of the feet.

Pedal tubercle: on the thoracic and abdominal rings of caterpillars: on the anterior side of leg-base and, correspondingly, on apodal segments: is VII of the abdomen where it consists of three setae: VI of the thorax where the setae are not numbered: constant (Dyar).

Pedamina: the aborted fore-legs of Nymphalid butterflies.

Pedate: foot-bearing, or having feet.

Peddler: applied to the larvae of such Cassid beetles as carry their excrement and cast skins on an anal fork.

Pedes: the feet, or really, legs.

Pedicellus or Pedicle: the third joint in a geniculate antenna: forming the pivot between scape and funicle: in general, a stalk or stem.

Pediculosis: a state of lousiness, or the abnormal condition caused by the multiplication of lice on the body: sec phthiriasis.

Pediculous: lousy: infested with lice.

Pedigerous: feet bearing.

Peduncle: a stalk or petiole: the basal joint of the antenna in Homoptera: the smaller of the two stalks supporting the mushroom body; q.v.

Pedunculated: set on a stalk or peduncle: attached by a slender stalk or neck.

Pelagic: inhabiting the sea, far from land.

Pellicles: the exuviae or cast larval skins of many insects: in Coccidae more especially applied to the hardened larval skin attached to the puparia of Diaspinae.

Pellit: covered with long, drooping hairs, irregularly placed.

Pellucid: colored, but transparent: sometimes applied when there is no color.

Pelotons: the balls of fine tracheae in larvae, developed to supply the adult organism.

Pelottae: =arolia: q.v.

Peltate: shield- or target-shaped.

Penal claspers: in Proctytripidae. lateral fringed processes of the male genitalia.

Penal sheath: the horny outer covering of the penis.

Pencil: a little, elongated brush of hair: in Diptera, applied to a group of sensory hairs on the flagellum of the antenna.

Pendent: hanging down.

Pendulous: drooping: hanging free, attached to one end only.

Penes: open, slit-like structures of the seminal vesicles to the outer surface in Euplectoptera.

Penicillate: with a long, flexible brush or pencil of hair: often at the end of a thin stalk.

Penicilli: a pair of small style or cerci-like pieces on the tip of the 8th dorsal segment of abdomen of various male Hymenoptera.

Penicilliform: pencil-like or shaped.

Penicillum: a pencil or brush of long hair attached at the end of a stalk as long as the brush, and folded in a lateral groove in some male moths.

Penis: the flexible, membranous, intromittent organ of the male.

Pennaceous: = pennate.

Fermate: feathered or bearing feather-like processes.

Penniform: feather-like in form.

Pentagon -um: a five-sided figure with five equal or unequal angles.

Pentamera: Coleoptera with 5-jointed tarsi.

Pentamerous: species having five-jointed tarsi.

Penultimate: next to the last.

Peptone: a soluble proteid compound produced by the digestion of albummenoid food substances.

Per-: as a prefix, means very: extremely: through.

Percipient: with the power of perceiving.

Percurrent: running through the entire length.

Pereion: the prothorax.

Pereipoda: the second and third pair of thoracic legs of larvae, and the 2d pair in adults.

Perfoliate: divided into leaf-like plates: applied to antennae with disc-like expansions connected by a stalk passing nearly through their centres: also to any part possessing a well-developed leaf-like or plate-like expansion.

Pergamenous: thin, partly transparent: resembling parchment.

Peri-: round about.

Periopticon: a complex nerve structure back of the basilar membrane of the eye.

Pericardial: around, or belonging to the heart.

Pericardial cavity: the space between the diaphragm and dorsal body wall, which contains the heart.

Pericardial cells: specialized cells, which lie along both sides of the heart, and whose function it is to purify the blood.

Pericardial chamber: is the open space around the heart or dorsal vessel.

Pericardial diaphragm: a delicate membranous tissue attached to the ventral surface of the heart and laterally to the body wall := dorsal diaphragm wings of the heart.

Peri-intestinal: that part of the body cavity around the alimentary canal.

Peri-neural: situated around a nerve: the body cavity immediately surrounding the nervous system.

Periodical: recurring at regular intervals.

Periopticon: third ganglionic swelling of optic tract: see opticon.

Peripheral: referring to the outer margin.

Peripheria: the entire outline of the body.

Periphery: the circumference or outer margin.

Peripneustic: larvae which have the spiracles absent on middle and posterior thoracic rings, and present on all other body segments.

Peripodal cavities: pouches in the embryo in which the rudiments of the future legs and wings are developed.

Peripodal membrane: the cell layer surrounding the peripodal cavities. Peristaltic: that periodic motion of the alimentary canal by means of which the food is forced toward the anal extremity.

Peristethium: the meso-sternum.

Peristoma -ium: the border of the mouth or oral margin in Diptera; sometimes used as := epistoma: q.v.

Peristome: a membranous tissue surrounding the mouth parts at base, and forming the true ventral wall of the head.

Peritoneal: applied to the membrane surrounding the viscera, trachea, and other internal structures.

Peritracheal: surrounding the trachea.

Peritreme: the corneous selerite surrounding a spiracle.

Peritrophic membrane: a funnel-like extension of the fore-gut, extending back tube-like, through the chylific ventricle in some insects.

Perivisceral: the cavity containing the alimentary canal and its appendages.

Perlate: beaded: bearing relieved, rounded points in series.

Perpendicular: upright: at right angles to horizontal.

Persicinus: the red of peach blossoms.

Persistent: remaining constantly; always present.

Personate: gaping wide open; masked; disguised.

Pes, Pedes: a foot feet.

Petiolar area or Petiolarea: on the metanotum of some Hymenoptera, the apical or hindmost of the three median cells 3d median area; apical area.

Petiolate: that series of Hymenoptera in which there is a slender stalk between the thorax and abdomen: = apocrita.

Petiolate: supported or placed on a stem or stalk; usually applied in describing venation and the method of attachment of abdomen to thorax.

Petiole: a stem or stalk: specifically the slender segment between the thorax and abdomen in many Hymenoptera, and some Diptera.

Phaeism: applied to a duskiness of butterflies occurring in a limited region.

Phagocyte: a corpuscle or cell that devours or absorbs noxious organisms and also absorbs the organs of the larval stage in the developments to the adult condition.

Phagocytosis: the destruction or devouring of bacteria or other microorganisms by phagocytes.

Phalaenae: a Linnean term embracing most of the heterocerous Lepidoptera: more specifically applied to the Geometridae.

Phalanx -ges: a joint or joints of the tarsus: a division of classification of uncertain value: similar to tribe.

Phalerated: beaded.

Phallus: =penis: q.v.

Pharyngeal pump: = sucking pump; q.v.

Pharynx: the back part of the mouth and upper part of the throat: a slight enlargement at the beginning of the oesophagus: in Diptera is sometimes restricted to the space between the hypopharynx and sub-clypeal pump, and is then = sub-clypeal tube.

Phauloptera: an ordinal term for the scale insects (Laporte 1835).

Phleboptera: = Hymenoptera; q.v.

Phonetic: sound producing; applied to stridulating structures.

Phosphorescent: shining or glowing in the dark, like phosphorus.

Photogenic: a light producing structure; producing a Phosphorescent glow.

Phragma: a partition or dividing membrane: longitudinal, thin partitions passing down from the dorsum of meso- and meta-thorax: the partition formed by the inflexed hinder edge of prothorax.

Phragmocyttares: social wasps in which the combs of the nest are wholly or partly supported by the covering envelope: see stelocyttares: poecilocyttares.

Phthiriasis: a diseased condition of the skin caused by sucking lice.

Phyllophagous: feeding upon leaf tissue.

Phylogenetic: relating to tribal or stem development.

Phylogeny: the development of a genus, family, tribe or class: see ontogeny.

Phyloptera: the super-ordinal term proposed to include all the net-veined orders, the Orthoptera and Dermatoptera.

Phylum: a stem or tribe: used in classification to indicate a series of related organisms.

Physopoda: bladder-footed: = Thysanoptera; q.v.

Phytophaga: plant-eaters: beetles in which the 4th and 5th tarsal joints are anchylosed and the 3d is lobed.

Phytophagus: feeding upon plants.

Phytophilous: plant loving: species that live on plants.

Phytophthira: plant lice: some authors include also scale insects.

Phytoscopic: characters of light or conditions of illumination that affect colors of caterpillars. {Scanner's comment: This is a puzzling term. I suspect it is a misspelling of "Photoscopic"}

Piceous -eus: pitchy black.

Picine: black, with a bluish oily lustre.

Pick: a chitinous maxillary structure in Psocidae.

Pieza: the combined biting and sucking mouth of the Hymenoptera.

Piezata: the Fabrician term for Hymenoptera.

Pigment: any coloring matter or material that gives a color appearance. {Scanner's comment: sic}

Pile: a hairy or fur-like covering: in Diptera, applied to thick, fine, short, erect hair, giving a surface appearance like velvet.

Pilifer or Piliger: a small sclerite at each side of the clypeus in Lepidoptera, resembling a rudimentary mandible.

Piliferous: with a covering of fine hair or pile.

Pillared eye: in Ephemerids, that type which is placed on a cylindrical stalk or process: = turbinate eye.

Pilous or Pilose: clothed with down, or dense pile: with long, sparse hair.

Pilosity: a covering of fine, long hair.

Pincers: the anal forceps.

Pinna: a narrow wing; a feather.

Pinnae: of posterior femur in jumping Orthoptera, are the oblique ridges running to the median line and somewhat resembling a feather.

Pinnate: feather-like; cleft, like the wings of Alucita: with markings resembling a feather: with stiff hairs or thorny processes occupying opposite sides of a thin shank.

Pinnatifid: divided into feathers, as when wings are cleft nearly to the base.

Pistazinus: yellowish green, with a slight brownish tinge [pale green with a little burnt sienna].

Plaga: a spot, stripe or streak of color; a longitudinal spot of irregular form.

Plaited: longitudinally folded or laid in pleats.

Planate: with a flattened surface.

Plane: level, flat; applied to a surface.

Planipennia: applied to Neuroptera in which the wings are large and laid flat on the body wnen at rest; Sialidae, Myrmeleonidae, etc.

Planta -ae: the basal joint of the posterior tarsus in pollen gathering Hymenoptera: the soles of the posterior tarsal joints: the anal clasping legs of caterpillars.

Plantigrade: species that walk on the entire foot, not on the claws alone.

Plantula: a lobe of the divided tarsal pulvillus; one of the soles or climbing cushions of the foot: see arolium; pulviglus.

Plaques: the small leathery hemelytra in some Naucorids.

Plasma: the liquid portion of animal fluids and cells.

Plasticity: the capacity for being formed, moulded or developed.

Plate: any broad flattened piece or sclerite: = squame, in Coccidae.

Platelet: a little plate or sclerite of chitin in a membrane.

Plates: in Coccidae, the squames; q.v.: in male Homoptera, a pair of pieces following the last full ventral segment; usually preceded by a short piece, - the valve.

Platyptera: flat and broad-winged: an ordinal term applied to insects with four net-veined wings, secondaries longitudinally folded beneath primaries; mouth mandibulate; prothorax free; transformations complete: Psocidae, Termitidae, Perlidae and Mallophaga. {Scanner's comment: These four groups are now placed in totally separate orders, and not families as these names imply}

Plecoptera or Plectoptera: plaited winged: an ordinal term applied to net-veined insects in which the secondaries are longitudinally folded beneath primaries; mouth mandibulate; body loosely jointed; prothorax free; metamorphosis incomplete: the term Plecoptera was used by Brauer for Perlidae; Plectoptera by Packard for the Ephemerida: there has been some confusion since, and both have been used in the Brauer sense.

Pleon: = abdomen; q.v.

Pleopoda: abdominal legs of larva: posterior legs of an adult.

Plesiobiosis: see symbiosis.

Plesiotype: any specimen identified with a described or named species by a person other than the describer.

Pleura: plural of pleuron or pleurum: the lateral sclerites between the dorsal and sternal portion of the thorax: in general, the sides of the body between the dorsum and sternum.

Pleural areas: on the metanotum of some Hymenoptera, the three spaces between the lateral and pleural carinae; the 1st or anterior = spiracular area; the 2d or central = middle pleural; the 3d or posterior = angular area.

Pleural carinae: in Hymenoptera, extend along the exterior margin of the metanotum.

Pleural pieces: the lateral sclerites of the thorax; see pleura.

Pleurites: the sclerites into which the pleurum is divided.

Pleuron: the side of the thorax.

Pleuropodia: embryonic or temporary bands formed by the modified first pair of abdominal legs in many insects.

Pleurostict: lamellicorn beetles in which the abdominal spiracles are situated on the dorsal portion of the ventral sclerites.

Pleurum: = pleuron; plural, pleura; q.v.

Plexus: a knot: applied to a knot-like mass of nerves, or tracheae.

Plica: a fold or wrinkle: a longitudinal plait of a wing.

Plicate: plaited; folded like a fan.

Plications: folding,; applied to the folds on the hind wings of Orthoptera.

Plicipenna: = Trichoptera; proposed by Latreille.

Plumate: like a feather.

Plumbeus: leaden or bluish gray [neutral].

Plumose: feathered; like a plume: antennae that have long ciliated processes on each side of each joint: see cirrate.

Plump: with full, rounded outlines; not obese.

Plumules: specialized scales of the androconia of male Lepidoptera.

Pluri: as a prefix, means many.

Pluri-dentate: with many teeth.

Pluri-setose: bearing several seta; as the head in some Carabids.

Pluri-valve: with several valves or valve-like appendages.

Pneumogastric: the ganglion supplying nerves for the tracheal and digestive system: also used as = vagus: q.v.

Pneustocera: breathing horns: the prolongations of the metathoracic spiracles in Berytidae, etc.

Pnystega: in Odonata, applied by Charpentier to a portion of mesonotum.

Pobrachial: a longitudinal vein of the Ephemerid wing just behind praebrachial; usually simple: number 7 of some systems.

Podeon: in Hymenoptera, the petiole: the true second abdominal segment.

Podex: the upper plate of the anal opening; = supra-anal or sur-anal plate in caterpillars.

Podical plates: the latero-ventral plates attached to the loth abdominal segment of Orthoptera; the two pieces on each side of the vent, thought by Huxley to be rudiments of an 11th abdominal ring; united they form the tergite of a rudimentary ring: = anal valves: paranal lobes.

Pododunera: apterous insects with biting mouth structures.

Podotheca: that part of pupa that covers the legs of future adult.

Poecilocyttares: social wasps that build their combs around the branch or other support covered by the envelope: see stelocyttares and phragmocyttares.

Poisers: = halteres and balancers; q.v.

Poison glands: sometimes applied to the salivary glands of bugs and biting flies; more usually to an abdominal gland connected with the sting of female Hymenoptera.

Policate: a tibia produced inwardly into a short, bent spine or thumb.

Politus: smooth, shiny, polished.

Pollen: a dusty or pruinose surface covering which is easily rubbed off; used mostly in Diptera.

Pollen-plate: a polished area margined by hair, on the outer face of the tibia in bees.

Pollex: a thumb: the stout fixed spur at inside of tip of tibia.

Pollicatus: = policate; q.v.

Polliniferous: formed for collecting pollen: pollen bearing.

Pollinigerous: = polliniferous: q.v.

Pollinose: covered with a yellow, pollen-like dust.

Poly-: many, much.

Polyandry: where a female mates with more than one male.

Polychromatic: many colored.

Polydomous: applied to ants when one colony has several nests.

Polyembryony: the production of several embryos from a single egg, as in some Chalcids.

Polygamy: where a male mates with more than one female.

Polygonal: with many angles.

Polygoneutism: the power to preduce several broods in one season.

Polymorpha: the claviform and serricorn Coleoptera, as a whole.

Polymorphic-ous: occurring in several forms; differing in sex, In season, in locality or without apparent reason: undergoing Several changes, and in this sense applied to insects with a complete metamorphosis.

Polynephria: applied to insects with many urinary (Malpighian) tubes.

Polyphagous: eating many kinds of food.

Polyphyletic: derived or descended from several stems or sources.

Polypodous: having many feet, and thus, specifically applied to the Myriapoda, and to the larvae of Lepidoptera and saw-flies, in contradistinction to footless and hexapodous larvae.

Ponderable: that which may be weighed.

Pone: behind (the middle).

Ponticulus: = frenulum; q.v.

Porcate: marked with raised longitudinal lines.

Pore: any small, round opening on the surface.

Poriferous: closely set with deep pittings or punctures.

Porose -us: with little round openings on the surface.

Porrect: stretched out forward: straightly prominent.

Post-: behind or after.

Post-alar callosities: rounded processes at the posterior lateral margin of the dorsum, in Diptera.

Post-alar callus: in Diptera, a rounded swelling between the root of the wing and the scutellum.

Post-alar membrane: the strip of membrane connecting the squamae with the scutellum.

Postal vein: in Hymenoptera, = costa (Comst.).

Post-annellus: in Hymenoptera, the 4th joint of antenna and 2d of flagellum.

Post antennal organs: in Collembola, oblong or ellipsoidal organs situated just caudad of the bases of the antenna.

Post-brachial: = pobrachial; q.v.

Post-cerebral: applied to that pair of salivary glands in bees, situated close to the posterior wall of the head.

Post-clypeus: in Odonata, the upper of the two parts into which the clypeus is divided: in Psocidae, a peculiar inflated structure behind the clypeus: in general, the posterior or upper part of clypeus when any line of demarcation exists: = supra-clypeus; nasus: afternose; paraclypeus: first clypeus; clypeus posterior.

Post-costa: = sub-costa (Comst.): in Odonata, = 1st anal vein (Comst.): in Trichoptera = anal.

Post-costal space: Odonata; the cell or cells lying posterior to the post-costa = anal cell (Comst.).

Post-cubitals: = post-nodal spaces; q.v.

Post-dorsulum: the middle piece of the meta-notum, between the mesophragma and post-scutellum.

Post-embryonic -otic: the stage after the insect has come out of the egg.

Post-epistoma: that part of the head behind the clypeus in Hymenoptera: see also post-clypeus.

Posterior: hinder or hindmost: opposed to anterior: in Diptera; applied to that face of the legs which is not visible when viewed from the front, the legs being laterally extended.

Posterior angle: of thorax, in Coleoptera, is the lateral angle near base of elytra: of the wings = hind angle; anal angle; q.v.

Posterior cells: in Diptera (Will.): 1st radial 5 (Comst.): 2d = medial 1 (Comst.): 3d = 2d medial 2 (Comst.) 4th = medial 3 (Comst.): 5th cubitus 1 (Comst.).

Posterior cephalic foramen: in Odonata, the opening of head posteriorly through which the cavities of head and thorax communicate.

Posterior field: of tegmina, = anal field; q.v.

Posterior intercalary: in Diptera, is one of the anal veins (Comst.).

Posterior lateral margins: in Orthoptera, extend from base of pronotum downward to the posterior angle of sides.

Posterior lobe: of the pronotum in Orthoptera, see lobe: in Diptera, that part of wing between axillary incision and base: = alar appendage (Loew). Posterior margin: = inner margin; q.v.

Posterior pereion: the meta-notum.

Posterior pleon: the terminal segments of the abdomen.

Posterior pleopoda: the anal clasping legs of caterpillars: see planta.

Posterior stigmatal tubercle: on thoracic and abdominal segments of caterpillars; varies in position from substigmatal to stigmatal posterior; sometimes united to V: it is IV of the abdomen, II of the thorax (Dyar).

Posterior trapezoidal tubercle: on the thoracic and abdominal segments of caterpillars; subdorsal, posterior, always present, rarely united with I: it is II of the abdomen, lb of the thorax (Dyar).

Posterior veins: those separating the posterior cells.

Posterior wings: = secondaries: q.v.

Postero-dorsal: Diptera; applied to leg bristles at the meeting of the dorsal and posterior face.

Postero-ventral: Diptera; applied to leg bristles at the meeting of the ventral and posterior face.

Postfurca: an internal process of metasternum to which the muscles of hind legs are attached.

Post-gena: the sclerite below occiput and behind gena in some Orthoptera.

Post-gula: is situated at the extreme base of the underside of the head in Dermaptera.

Post-humeral bristles: in Diptera, are usually two, inserted above the dorso-pleural suture between the humeral callus and root of wing, on the bottom of the presutural depression.

Postical vein: in Diptera, = 5th longitudinal (Meig.); = media 3 (Comst.).

Posticus: hinder.

Post-media: Ephemerida; an apparently distinct vein between media and Cubitus (Comst.).

Post-medial line: in Lepidoptera, = t.p. line: q.v.

Post-median: Diptera; those leg bristles situated above or behind the middle. Post-nodal cross-veins: in Odonata, the transverse veins between costa and radius 1, and radius 1 and media 1, from nodus to stigma, separating the post-nodal cells or spaces: = post-cubital cross-veins.

Post-nodal costal spaces: in Odonata, the cells below costal margin from nodus to stigma.

Post-nodal radial spaces: in Odonata, the cells between radius 1 and media 1, from nodus to outer margin.

Post-nodal sector: in Odonata, a longitudinal vein lying between media 1 and media 2 (Comst.): = ultra-nodal sector.

Post-oral: behind the mouth; those segments bearing mouth structures.

Post-pectus: the under surface of the meta-thorax.

Post-petiole: in Hymenoptera, that part of abdomen behind petiole.

Post-retinal: the fibres arising from the facets of the compound eye and extending into the ganglionic plate.

Post-scutellum: the fourth and posterior sclerite of the dorsum of the thoracic rings.

Post-sutural: in Trichoptera, the little plate behind the scutellum of mesothorax: = post-scutellum.

Poststigmatal: that portion of the marginal cell beyond the stigma in bees: = 2d radial 1 (Comst.).

Post-stigmatal primary tubercle: on thoracic segment of caterpillars; sub-primary, stigmatal, posterior; it is III of the thorax and not present on abdomen (Dyar).

Post-subterminal: following the s. t. line in Lepidoptera.

Post-sutural bristles: in Diptera, dorsal bristles behind transverse suture.

Post-terga: applied to the posterior scutes of the segments of Coleopterous larvae.

Post-triangular cells: = discoidal areolets; q.v.

Post-vertical cephalic bristles: in Diptera, are in the middle of upper part or Occiput.

Pouch: in Trichoptera, a depressed, usually longitudinal area in a wing.

Prae- or Pre-: anterior to; before.

Praebrachial: a longitudinal vein in middle of an Ephemerid wing; usually forked: no. 6 of some systems.

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