Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology
by John. B. Smith
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Costal fold: in the males of some Hesperidae, a membranous flap that may be opened to expose the androconia.

Costal margin: the anterior margin of a wing whether it is really costate or not.

Costal membrane: Hymenoptera; the surface of wing in front of costal vein.

Costal vein: Lepidoptera; runs close to and parallel with the costal margin, extending from base to the margin before the apex; always simple and often absent in the secondaries; is vein 12 of the numerical series on primaries; vein 8 on secondaries: = subcosta (Comst.).

Costate: ribbed; marked with elevated thickened lines.

Costula: Hymenoptera; a small ridge separating the externo-median meta-thoracic area into two parts.

Costulatus: less prominently ribbed than costate.

Cotyla: the articular pan; the cup or socket of a ball and socket joint.

Cotypes: are all the specimens before the describer when a species is named, no single one being selected as the type: the type in such case equals the sum of the cotypes: see paratype.

Coxa -ae: the basal segment of the leg, by means of which it is articulated to the body.

Coxal cavity: the opening or space in which the Coxa articulates; in Coleoptera the cavity is open when the epimera do not extend to the sternum; closed or entire when the epimera reach the sternum or join medially as in Rhynchophora; the cavities are separated when the prosternum extends between them, confluent when it does not: see acetabulum.

Coxal glands: eversible glandular structures at base of legs; well developed in some Thysanurans, modified variously in higher orders.

Coxal stylets: short, leg-like, jointed appendages on the underside of the abdominal segments in Thysanura.

Crag: the neck: = cervix.

Cranium: the head or skull except the neck; sometimes limited to the fixed parts above the clypeo-frontal suture.

Crassus: thick; tumid.

Crateriform: like a shallow funnel or deep bowl.

Creber: closely set.

Cremaster: a stout spine, process or hooked area at the hind end of pupae in Lepidoptera.

Crenate: scalloped, with rounded teeth.

Crenulate: with small scallops, evenly rounded and rather deeply curved.

Crepitation: a crackling sound or the production of such as by discharge of vapor or "bombarding": a cracking or creaking.

Crepuscular: active or flying at dusk.

Crescentiform: like a lunule or crescent.

Crescentric: lunulate.

Crest: a prominent, longitudinal carina on the upper surface of any part of the head or body.

Crested: see cristate.

Cretaceous: chalky white: the third, uppermost and latest of the three great divisions of the mesozoic or secondary rocks.

Cribrate: pierced with closely set, small holes.

Cribriform: with perforations like those of a sieve.

Crineous: dark-brown, with a slight admixture of yellow and gray.

Crinite -us: with tufts of long thin hair: see lanuginose.

Crispate -us: with a wrinkled or fluted margin.

Crista: a ridge or crest.

Cristate: with a prominent carina or crest on the upper surface::= crested.

Cristiform: in the form of a sharp ridge or crest.

Cristula: a small crest.

Cristulate: with little crescent-like ridges or crests.

Croceous: saffron yellow; yellow with an admixture of red [pale cadmium yellow].

Crocus: =croceous.

Crook: the hook or recurved tip of the antenna in Hesperidae.

Crop: the dilated portion of the alimentary canal behind the gullet which serves to receive and hold the food previous to its slower passage through the digestive tract: = ingluvies.

Crotchets: the curved spines or hooks on the prolegs of caterpillars and on the cremaster of pupae.

Crown: the top of head in Lepidoptera; also used as = coronet or corona.

Cruciate: shaped like a cross; applied to wings when the inner margins lie one over the other; or to incumbent wings that overlie only at the apex: in Diptera, applied to bristles when they cross in direction.

Cruciato-complicatus: folded crosswise: incumbent wings when the inner margins overlap; not well distinguished from cruciate.

Crura: the legs or, more specifically, the thighs.

Crura cerebri: two large cords that connect the supra- with the sub-oesophageal ganglion.

Crus: a leg or leg-like structure.

Crustaceous: hard, like the shell of a crab.

Crypto: hidden, concealed.

Cryptocerata: a division of Heteroptera with small antennae concealed in a groove under the bead: = adeloceratous: see gymnocerata.

Cryptogastra: with the venter or belly covered or concealed.

Cryptopentamera: feet 5-jointed, the 4th joint small and concealed.

Cryptotetramera: feet 4-jointed, one of them small and concealed.

Cryptothorax: a supposed thoracic ring between meso- and meta-thorax.

Crypts: minute secretory follicles or cavities: specifically, large gland-like structures between the epithelial cells in chylific ventricle.

Crystalline: transparent, like crystal.

Crystalline cone: a conical structure below the cornea, imbedded in pigment cells of the compound eye: also termed Crystalline lens.

Ctenidium: a comb-like structure occurring on any part of an insect.

Cubital: referring or belonging to the cubits.

Cubital cell: the wing area between the cubits and anal vein; in the plural, all the cells bounded anteriorly by the cubits or its branches (Comst.); in Diptera (Schiner), = radial 3 (Comst.), = 3d posterior cell (Loew); in Hymenoptera (Norton), = radial 3, 4 and 5 (Comst.).

Cubital forks: the branching or points of separation of the branches of the cubits.

Cubital nerve or vein: see cubits.

Cubitus: of Comstock, is the 5th in the series of longitudinal veins extending from base, and usually two branched before reaching outer margin: in Orthoptera; = the internomedian and ulnar: in Neuroptera, a main longitudinal vein next behind the medius and before the anal: the tibia of the anterior leg.

Cuckoo spit: liquid in the form of bubbles produced by members of the family Cercopidae and which often conceals the producer.

Cucullate: hooded; somewhat hood-shaped.

Cucullus: a hood: see capillitium.

Cuilleron: see alula.

Culicifuge: any preparation for driving away gnats or mosquitoes.

Culmen: the longitudinal carina of a caterpillar.

Cultellus: one of the blade-like lancets in piercing flies: = the mandibles of some authors.

Cultrate -iform: shaped like a pruning knife.

Cumulate: in groups or heaps.

Cumulus: a group or heap; as of cells in a developing ovum.

Cuneate, Cuneiform: wedge-shaped; elongate triangular.

Cuneus: Hymenoptera; the small triangular area at the end of the embolium of hemelytra: Odonata, the small triangle of the vertex between the compound eyes.

Cupreous: the metallic red of pure shining copper.

Cupules: the sucker-like processes covering the under surface of the tarsi in male Dytiscidce.

Cupuliform: cup-shaped: like a little cup: = cyathiform.

Cursoria: in Orthoptera, that series in which the legs are formed for running (roaches, etc.).

Cursorial: formed for running.

Curvate: curved.

Curvinervate: wings with the veins distinctly curved, like some Psocidae.

Cusp -is: a pointed process; sometimes at the margin of a wing.

Cuspidate: prickly pointed; ending in a sharp point; with an acuminated point ending in a bristle.

Custodite -us: guarded: a body in an envelope.

Cuticle: the outer skin or skin layer.

Cuticula: = cuticle: specifically applied to the outer or chitinized layer: see epidermis and hypodermis.

Cyaneous: pure dark blue: indigo blue [French blue].

Cyanescent: with a deep bluish tinge or shading.

Cyanogenic: applied to repugnatorial glands in myriapods and sometimes in insects.

Cyathiform: obconical and concave; cup-shaped: = cupuliform.

Cyatotheca: the cover of the thorax in the pupa.

Cycle: a round or circle, e.g. of development; a life cycle.

Cyclorrhapha: that section of Diptera in which the adult escapes from the hardened pupal case by pushing off a lid or covering: see orthorrhapha. Cyclorrhaphous: circular seamed.

Cydariform: globose, but truncated at two opposite sides.

Cylindrical: in the form of a cylinder or tube; round, elongate, of equal diameter throughout.

Cymbiform: boat-shaped: a concave disc with elevated margin; navicular.

Cytoplasm: the protoplasm of a cell exclusive of nucleus; the cell body.


Dactylus: a finger or toe: = digitus: a tarsal joint after the first one, when that is enlarged as in bees.

Dagger mark: a marking in the form of a Greek Psi _.

Dart: a sting, or its central part.

Dash: a short disconnected streak or mark.

Dasygastres: bees with pollen-carrying structures on the abdomen.

Deaurate: of the color of gold; golden.

Deciduous: that which may be cast off or shed.

Declinate -us: a part somewhat bent, the apex downward.

Decumbent -ous: sloping gradually downward.

Decrepitans: crackling.

Decumbent: bending down at tip from an upright base.

Decurrent: closely attached to and running down another body.

Decurved: bowed downward.

Decussate: crossing at an angle: X-like: in cross pairs; or, when bristles alternately cross each other, as in some Diptera.

Deflected: bent downward: the wings, when the inner margins lap and the outer edges decline toward the sides.

Deflexed: abruptly bent downward.

Deformed: twisted or set in an unusual form: specifically, in Coleoptera applied to knotted or twisted antennae as in male Meloids.

Dehiscence: the splitting of the pupal integument in the emergence of the adult in Lepidoptera.

Dehiscent: open or standing open: separating toward the tip.

Dejectamenta: the excrement or excretion.

Delamination: the splitting or division into layers.

Deltoid: elongate triangular: resembling a Greek _ with apex extended.

Demarcation: the bounding, laying out or limiting.

Dendritic: applied to the branched nerve cells in the mushroom bodies of the pro-cerebrum.

Dendroid: tree or shrub-like: branching like a tree or shrub.

Dendrophagus: feeding on woody tissues.

Dendrophilous: species that live in woody tissue, or on trees.

Dens: a tooth or tooth-like process.

Dense: thickly crowded together.

Dentate: toothed: with acute teeth, the sides of which are equal and the tip is above the middle of base.

Dentate-serrate: toothed, with the dentations themselves serrated on their edges.

Dentate-sinuate: toothed and indented.

Dentes: the teeth or pointed processes on the inner side of the mandible: the second or middle part of the furcula in Collembola, consisting of two parallel pieces from the distal end of the manubrium and bearing at their apices the crones.

Dentes caninae: see canine teeth.

Denticle: a small tooth.

Denticulated: set with little teeth or notches.

Dentiform: formed or appearing like a tooth.

Denudate: without covering; destitute of scales or hair.

Denude: to free from covering; to rub so as to remove the surface covering of scales, hair or other vestiture.

Deorsum: downward.

Dependent: hanging down.

Deplanate -us: see complanate.

Depressed: flattened down vertically; opposed to compressed.

Depressor: applied to a muscle that has for its function the depression of an organ or a part.

Deratoptera: = Orthoptera.

Dermal: relating to the skin or outer covering.

Dermal glands: hypodermal unicellular glands which secrete wax, setae, spines, etc.

Dermaptera: see Dermatoptera.

Dermatoptera: skin-winged: an ordinal term applied to insects with elytriform, abbreviated primaries beneath which the secondaries are folded transversely and fan-like: mouth mandibulate, prothorax free; abdomen forcipate; metamorphosis incomplete: the Forficulidae or earwigs.

Desectus: = truncatus.

Desideratum -ata: some thing or things needed or desired.

Destitutus: wanting; being without.

Determinate: with well-defined outlines or distinct limits: fixed: marked out.

Detonans: exploding: a sudden noise or a puff like an explosion.

Detritus: rubbed off; a surface partly denuded.

Deuterotoky: parthenogenetic reproduction when the progeny are male and female: see arrhenotoky and thelyotoky.

Deutocerebral segment: =antennal segment; q.v.

Deutocerebrum: the middle portion of the brain, formed by the ganglion of the 2d primary segment; also termed antennal or olfactory lobes from the parts it innervates.

Deutoplasm: the yolk or food plasm of an ovum.

Deutotergite: the secondary dorsal segment of the abdomen.

Dextrad: extending or directed toward the right.

Dextral: to the right of the median line.

Dextro-caudad: extends obliquely between dextrad and caudad.

Dextro-cephalad: extends obliquely between dextrad and cephalad.

Di: as a prefix, = two.

Diaphanous: semi-transparent; clear.

Diaphragm: any thin dividing membrane; that thin membrane separating the cavity containing the heart from the rest of the body.

Diarthrosis: any articulation that permits of motion.

Diastole: that regular expansion of the heart that draws the blood inward: see systole.

Dichaetae: a group of brachycerous Diptera with a proboscis consisting of two parts: Muscids, etc.

Dichoptic: Diptera; eyes separated by front: not contiguous: see holoptic.

Dichotomous: forked: dividing by pairs.

Dichromatism: the possession of two color varieties.

Dictyoptera: an ordinal term applied to the roaches: also more generally, to the Orthoptera. {Scanner's comment: Roaches are now classed as Dictyoptera, and Orthoptera are now classed as distinct from Dictyoptera}

Didactyle -us: two-toed: with two tarsi of equal length.

Didymus: double: geminate.

Difformis: irregular in form or outline: not comparable; anomalous. Diffracted: bending in different directions.

Diffuse: spreading out; without distinct edge or margin.

Digestive tract: the alimentary canal as a whole: more specifically that portion behind the crop, in which assimilation takes place.

Digitate: finger-like, or divided into finger-like processes.

Digitiform: formed, shaped like or having the function of a finger.

Digitules: appendages on the feet of Coccidae; in Lecanium, four knobbed hairs.

Digitus: the terminal joint of the tarsus, bearing the claws: a small appendage attached to the lacinia of the maxilla; rarely present and probably tactile.

Digoneutism: the power to produce two broods in one season.

Dilatatus: Coleoptera a margin, when the sharp marginal edge extends beyond its usual limit: the base when the transverse diameter is much longer at one part.

Dilated: widened, expanded.

Dilation: an expansion or widening.

Dilute: thinned out: applied to color means weak or pale.

Dilution: much thinned out or diluted.

Dimera: forms with two-jointed tarsi: specifically applied to some groups of Homoptera.

Dimerous: having only two tarsal joints.

Dimidiate -us: halved; extending half way around; applied to elytra when they cover only half the abdomen.

Dimidius: of half length.

Dimorphic: occurring in two well-marked forms.

Dimorphism: a difference in form, color, etc, between individuals of the same species, characterizing two distinct types: may be seasonal, sexual or geographic.

Dioecious: with distinct sexes.

Dioptrate: an ocellate spot with the pupil divided by a transverse line.

Dioptric: with a transversely divided ocellus.

Diploglossata: an ordinal term proposed for Hemimeridae, because of the supposed presence of a second labial segment.

Diplogangliata: applied to the Arthropods.

Diploptera: = diplopteryga; q.v.

Diplopteryga: Hymenoptera; wasps in which the wings are longitudinally folded when at rest.

Dipneumones: having two lungs (certain spiders).

Diptera: an ordinal term applied to insects having only one pair of wings (anterior): thorax agglutinate; mouth haustellate; transformations complete.

Dipterocecidium: a gall formed by a dipterous insect.

Dipterous: belonging to or having the characters of Diptera.

Direct: applied to metamorphosis = incomplete.

Directive coloration: directive marks or colors which tend to divert the attention of an enemy from more vital parts.

Disc: see disk.

Discal: on or relating to the disc of any surface or structure.

Discal area: of a wing applies especially to the more central portion, or that area covered by the discal cell.

Discal bristles: Diptera; are inserted on the middle of the abdominal segments before the hind margin.

Discal cell: Lepidoptera; the large or median cell extending from the base of the wing toward the center: = radial cell (Comst.): in Diptera (Will.) = 1st medial 2 (Comst.): Odonata; = discoidal areolets, q.v.: Trichoptera, the cell between the forks of the radial sector, and separated from the 2d apical cell by a cross-vein.

Discal patch: in some male Hesperidae the oblique streak of specialized black scales on the disc of the primaries.

Discal vein: Lepidoptera; the cross-vein closing the discal or median cell extends from radius 5 to media 1.

Disciform: formed or shaped like a disc.

Discocellular nervure or vein: Lepidoptera; = discal vein, q.v.

Discoidal: relating to the disc, or middle = discal.

Discoidal area: the middle area or field: Trichoptera; that area of the tegmina between the posterior or anal and the anterior or costal areas = d. field.

Discoidal areolets: Odonata; a varying number of rows of cells on the outer side of the triangle between the short sector (M 4 of Comst.) and the upper sector of the triangle (Cu 1 of Comst.) = post-triangular cells := discal cells.

Discoidal cell: Hymenoptera (Norton) 1st medial 2, medial 3 and medial 4 (Comst.).

Discoidal field: see discoidal area.

Discoidal nervule: Lepidoptera; = media 1 (Comst.).

Discoidal triangle: Odonata - see triangle.

Discoidal vein: Diptera (Schiner), = media 2 (Comst.) anterior intercalary vein (Loew); Hymenopteran (Norton), = media 2 (Comst.), beyond the junction with the medial cross-vein: Trichoptera; the first and largest branch of the humeral vein.

Discoideous: =discoidal.

Discolored -orous: a different color from the surrounding, more or less contrasting; not concolorous.

Discota: insects in which development of the adults is from imaginal discs: see adiscota.

Discrete: distinctly separated.

Discs: the abdominal motor processes of coleopterous larve.

Discus: a disc; a somewhat flat circular part or area.

Disjoined or Disjointed: see disjunctus.

Disjunct: with head, thorax and abdomen separated by constrictions.

Disjunctus: separated; standing apart.

Disk: the central upper surface of any part; all the area within a margin; the central area of a wing: in Trichoptera, the obliquely ridged outer surface of hind femur in saltatoria.

Dislocated: a stria, band or line interrupted in continuity, when the tips of the interrupted parts are not in a right line with each other.

Disperses: with scattered markings, punctures or other small sculptures.

Disposed: arranged or laid out.

Dissepiment: a partition wall: applied to the forming septa separating the coelom-sacs in the embryo; also the thin envelope about the members in obtect pupae.

Dissilient: bursting open elastically.

Distad: toward the distal end.

Distal: that part of a joint farthest from the body.

Distant: remote from: standing considerably apart.

Distichous: applied to antennae when lateral processes originate at the apices of the joints and bend forward at acute angles to them.

Distiproboscis: the outer third of the proboscis in Muscid flies, bearing the labella.

Distychus: bipartite: separated into two parts.

Ditrocha: Hymenoptera; that series having the trochanter two-jointed.

Diurnae: day fliers: applied to butterflies.

Diurnal: such insects as are active or habitually fly by day only.

Divaricable: able to spread apart or divaricate.

Divaricate: straddling or spreading apart: when the wings are lapped at base and diverge behind: tarsal claws when arising at opposite sides of the joint and separating widely.

Divergent: spreading out from a common base; in Coleoptera, tarsal claws are divergent when they spread out only a little; divaricate when they separate widely.

Diverse: unequal: differing in size or shape: of various kinds.

Diverticulum -la: an oft-shoot from a vessel or from the alimentary canal usually blind or sac-like: applied to the caecal tubes or pouches: any extensions or evaginations of the hypodermic.

Dividens (vena): Trichoptera; 1st anal (Comst.).

Dog-ear marks: in bees: small, subtriangular marks of light color, just below the antennae (Cockerell).

Dolabriform: hatchet-shaped: compressed, with a prominent dilated keel and cylindrical base.

Dolioloides: applied to obtect or coarctate pupae.

Dominant: a character more constant and conspicuous than any other: a type or series occurring in large numbers both as to genera, species and individuals and in which differentiation is yet active.

Dorsad: extending or directed toward the upper side.

Dorsal: of or belonging to the upper surface: in Diptera, that face of the laterally extended legs visible from above.

Dorsal bristles: see dorso-central.

Dorsal diaphragm: the wings of the heart, or the very thin membrane upon which these muscles rest: = pericardial diaphragm, q.v.

Dorsal gland orifices: in Diaspinae, oval orifices arranged in more or less distinct rows on the surface of the pygidium, through which is discharged the material of which the dorsal scale is formed.

Dorsal glands: see last preceding title.

Dorsal line: in caterpillars, extends longitudinally on the middle of the back or dorsal.

Dorsal scale: that part of the covering scale of the Diaspinae that lies above the insect, as opposed to the ventral scale, which lies below.

Dorsal space: in slug-caterpillars is the area between the sub-dorsal ridges.

Dorsal vessel: the heart; q.v.

Dorsi-meson: the middle of the upper surface.

Dorso-alar region: Diptera; between the transverse suture and the scutellum on one side and the root of the wing and the dorso-central region on the other.

Dorso-central bristles: Diptera; two or four longitudinal rows on the inner part of the dorsal.

Dorso-central region: Diptera; bounded by two imaginary lines drawn from the scutellar bridges forward, and coinciding with a space free from bristles that exists on the outer side of the dorsal rows and is often occupied by a dorsal thoracic stripe.

Dorso-humeral region: Diptera; bounded by the anterior end of thorax and transverse suture on two sides and by the dorsopleural suture and dorsocentral region on the two others.

Dorsolum: the mesoscutum.

Dorsopleural suture: Diptera; the lateral suture between dorsal and pleurum from the humeri through the base of the wing: separates the mesonotum from the pleura.

Dorso-ventral: in a line from the upper to the lower surface.

Dorsulum: the mesonotum before the scutellum, with the wing sockets: also, specifically, the meso-scutellum.

Dorsum: the upper surface: in Coleoptera; often confined to meso- and meta-thorax: Odonata; includes mesepisterna and meso- and meta-thoracic terga: Diptera; upper surface of thorax, limited by the dorsopleural sutures laterally, the scutellum posteriorly and the neck anteriorly: Lepidoptera; the lower or inner margin of the wing.

Draw-thread: the silk-producing gland.

Drone: in Hymenoptera; the male bee.

Duct: a channel, tube or canal for carrying a secretion from a gland to the point of discharge.

Ductus ejaculatorius: the single duct or tube formed by the union of the vasa deferentia from each side, through which the seminal fluid is ejected into the vagina.

Dufour's gland: that gland, in Hymenoptera, that secretes the alkaline portion of the poison carried by the sting.

Duodenum: the chylific ventricle; also applied to the first section of the digestive tract just behind entrance of malpighian tubules.

Dupion: a cocoon spun by two silk-worms together; also the coarse silk from such a cocoon.

Duplicate -us: double.

Duplicate-pectinate: having the branches of a bipectinated antenna alternately long and short.

Duple: double, or twice.

Durus: hard.

Dusky: somewhat darkened; pale fuscous.


E: as prefix, is privative and means without.

Ears: organs of hearing, as on the first tibiae or on the first abdominal segment of some Trichoptera.

Ebenine: black like ebony.

Eburneous: ivory white.

Ecalcaratus: without a spur.

Ecaudate: without tails or tail-like processes: usually applied to wings : = excaudate.

Ecdysis: the process of casting the skin; moulting.

Echinate: set with prickles.

Ecology: the science of the relation of organisms to each other and to their surroundings: = ethology. {Scanner's comment: Ethology nowadays refers to studies in animal behaviour, not directly to ecology.}

Ectad: extending outwardly from within.

Ectal: belonging or relating to the outer surface.

Ectoblast: the outer wall of a cell; the ectoderm or epiblast.

Ectoderm: the outer layer of skin: the outer layer of the blastoderm, giving rise to the nervous system and to epithelial structures of the body surface.

Ectognathus: see ectotrophous.

Ectoskeletal: referring to the outside or exoskeleton.

Ectotrachea: the outer surface or layer of the trachea.

Ectotrophous: with mouth parts free; not buried in the head: see entrotrophus.

Edematus: dull translucent white.

Edentate -ulous: without teeth.

Edentula: those having no teeth.

Efferent: carrying outward or away from the centre.

Effluvium: a foul or unpleasant smell or emanation.

Effected: somewhat angularly bent outward.

Egg: a simple cell, capable of fertilization, containing the germ, the food-yolk necessary for its nutriment, and a covering membrane: a single ovum or cell from an ovary: the first stage of the insect.

Egg-burster: a projecting point on the head or other part of an embryo, used in breaking the shell when hatching.

Egg-calyx: the enlarged portion of the oviduct at the opening of the ovarian tubes, into which the egg is received before its entrance into the vagina.

Egg-case: the case or covering prepared or secreted by an insect to contain or hold together the egg-mass as a whole: see ooetheca.

Egg-guide: Orthoptera; two small pointed prolongations of the ventral portion of the 8th abdominal segment, between upper and lower valves, used in oviposition.

Egg-pouch: see ooetheca.

Egg-pod: applied to the egg-mass of grasshoppers.

Egg-tube: see ovarian tube.

Ejaculatory duct: see ductus ejaculatorius.

Elastic: a part which has a degree of flexibility throughout.

Elate -us: see elevatus.

Elater: the spring or forked tail of Podurids.

Eleutherata: all forms with free, separated maxillae; later, and more specifically, the Coleoptera.

Elevate -us: a part higher than its surroundings.

Elinguata: without a tongue: forms in which the maxillae are connate with the labium: see synista.

Ellipsoidal: see elliptical.

Elliptical: oblong-oval, the ends equally rounded, together forming an even ellipsoid.

Elongata -ate: drawn out; lengthened; much longer than wide.

Elutus: with scarcely distinct markings.

Elytra: the anterior leathery or chitinous wings of beetles, serving as coverings to the secondaries, commonly meeting in a straight line down the middle of dorsum in repose: also applied to the tegmina in Orthoptera.

Elytral ligula: a tongue-like process on the inner face of the side margin of elytra, to perfect the union with the ventral segments: e.g. in Dytiscidae.

Elytriform: shaped or appearing like an elytron.

Elytrin: = chitin, q.v.

Elytron: singular of elytra; q.v.

Elytroptera: see Coleoptera.

Emandibulata: that series of insects in which there are no functional mandibles in any stage.

Emandibulate: lacking functional mandibles; e.g. butterflies and moths, and applied in any stage.

Emarginate: notched: with an obtuse, rounded or quadrate section cut from a margin.

Embolium: Heteroptera; the narrow sclerite extending along the anterior margin of the hemelytra, from base to cuneus or membrane: the lobes on each side of the prothorax: the special enlargement at the base of the primaries which fits into a cavity in which the wing is moved.

Embossed: ornamented with raised figures.

Embryo: the young animal before leaving the body of the parent or before emerging from the egg.

Embryonic: found in, or relating to the embryo; in an undeveloped state or condition.

Emmet: an ant.

Empodium: Diptera; the small process between the pulvilli: in Coleoptera; the bifid pseudotarsi between the claws: used also as = pulvillus; and see arolium, onychium, palmula, paronychium, plantula, pseudonychium and pulvillus.

Enarthrosis: an articulation like a ball and socket joint.

Encephalon -um: the brain, or that part of the head containing it.

Encircled: ringed; margined round about.

Endemic: occurring normally where found: native, not introduced.

Endocardium: the inner lining membrane of the heart.

Endochorium: the layer of the allantois that lines the chorium; the inner layer of the chorium.

Endocranium: the inner surface of the cranium.

Endoderm: the inner layer of the blastoderm in the embryo, giving origin to the mid-intestine and other visceral organs: see entoderm.

Endolabium: the inner or mouth surface of the labium: the hypopharynx when that is well developed.

Endomesoderm: the inner layer formed by an invagination of the middle portion of the primitive band of the embryo, and from which the endoderm and mesoderm are subsequently differentiated.

Endophytic: living within plant or tree tissue, as borers or miners.

Endoskeletal: relating or referring to the endoskeleton.

Endoskeleton: applied to those chitinous processes extending inward into the body cavity from the body wall and serving as attachments for muscles.

Endosternite: that part of the apodeme arising from the intersternal membrane.

Endothorax: the internal framework or processes of the thorax.

Endotoky: is applied to that form of reproduction where the eggs are developed within the body of the mother; see exotoky.

Endotrachea: the inner surface or lining of the trachea: see intima.

Enervis: applied to wings without veins of any kind.

Engraved: see exsculptus.

Ensiform: sword-shaped: two-edged, large at base and tapering to the point: see anceps.

Entad: extending inwardly from without.

Ental: referring to the centre of the body cavity.

Enteric: relating to the digestive canal or enteron.

Enteron: the digestive canal as a whole; a general term.

Entire: with an even unbroken margin: said of wings when they are not divided or cut into.

Entoderm: the innermost germ layer of the embryo, from which are derived the epithelium of the alimentary canal and accessory structures: = endoderm and hypoblast.

Entognathous: see entotrophous.

Entoloma: the inner margin of the wings.

Entomogenous: growing in or on an insect: e.g. fungi.

Entomography: the description of an insect or of its life history.

Entomolin: = chitin, q.v.

Entomologist: one who collects and studies insects.

Entomology: that branch of Zoology that deals with insects and, specifically, the Hexapods.

Entomophagous: feeding upon insects: specifically applied to those wasps that feed their young with larvae, etc.

Entomophilous: insect-loving: applied to plants especially adapted for pollination by insects.

Entomophytous: referring to plants produced in or on an insect: see Entomogenous.

Entomosis: a disease caused by a parasitic insect.

Entomotaxy: the preservation and preparation of insects for study.

Entomotomy: that science which deals with internal structure of insects.

Entomotomist: a student of insect structure.

Entosternum: the internal processes from the sternum.

Entothorax: applied to the apodemes or processes extending inwardly from the sternal sclerites: see apophysis.

Entotrophous: with the mouth parts buried in the head:= entognathous: see ectotrophous.

Entozoa: those animals that live within the body of others.

Environment: the sum of the influences surrounding or acting upon an organism.

Enzyme: a ferment secreted by a cell or a gland.

Epalpate: having no palpi.

Ephebic: referring to the winged, adult stage.

Ephemerida: May-flies: an ordinal term used for insects with net-veined wings, held vertically when at rest, not folded; mouth mandibulate, not functionally developed: thorax loosely agglutinated; abdomen with anal filaments: metamorphosis incomplete.

Ephemeroptera: briefly winged: = ephemerida; q.v.

Epiblast: the outer germ layer of the embryo.

Epicranial: relating or pertaining to the epicranium.

Epicranial lobe: in caterpillars, the lateral, superior convex lobe of the head.

Epicranial plate: in some larvae a plate-like structure forming the epicranium.

Epicranial suture: the line of junction of the two procephalic lobes.

Epicranium: the upper part of the head from the front to the neck: often used to include front, vertex and genae:= calva.

Epideme: see articulatory epideme.

Epiderma -is: the cellular layer of the skin, underlying and secreting the cuticula: incorrectly applied to the outer skin or cuticle.

Epidermata: abnormal excrescences or outgrowths from the skin.

Epididymis: the convoluted efferent ducts, massed at the posterior part of the testes.

Epigastrium: the first entire ventral sclerite of the abdomen.

Epigenesis: the doctrine of growth from an undifferentiated germ, as opposed to preformation, which implies development from already existing rudiments.

Epigenetic: the period after the union of the male and female elements, during which organs are forming.

Epiglossa: = epipharynx; q.v.

Epiglottis: = epipharynx; q.v.

Epilabrum: a sclerite at each side of the labrum: specifically applied in myriapods.

Epilobe: of mentum in Carabidae, really corresponds to a partially divided ligula: a lateral appendage of a bilobed mentum.

Epimera -eron: the posterior lateral thoracic sclerites; usually small, narrow or triangular.

Epiopticon: the second ganglionic swelling of the optic tract: see opticon.

Epipharyngeal: belonging or relating to the epipharynx.

Epipharyngeal sclerites: in bees; a pair of strap-like pieces extending backward from the two sides of the base of epipharynx: see hypopharyngeal sclerites.

Epipharynx: an organ, probably of taste, attached to the inner surface of the labium and supposed to correspond to the palate of higher animals Epiglossa or epiglottis.

Epiphysis: a lappet-like process covering an excavation on the fore tibia of many Lepidoptera.

Epipleural: the deflexed or inflexed portions of the elytra, immediately beneath the edge: the inflexed portions of the pronotum are sometimes called prothoracic epipleura: as generally used, the term is incorrectly applied to the entire bent under margin of the elytra.

Epipleural fold: the raised lower edge of the epipleura: see hypomera.

Epiplooen: see caul.

Epipygium: the dorsal arch of the last abdominal segment.

Episternites: the upper pair of corneous appendages forming the ovipositor in grasshoppers.

Episternum: the anterior and larger lateral thoracic sclerite between the sternum and notum.

Epistoma -is: the lower face between the mouth and eyes: that sclerite immediately behind or above the labrum, whether it be clypeus or an intermediate piece: in Diptera, that part of the face between the front and the labrum; the oral margin and an indefinite space immediately contiguous thereto and so = peristoma: in Odonata; = clypeus: = hypostoma.

Epithelium: the layer of cells which covers a surface or lines a cavity.

Epizoa: insects that infest the body surface of animals.

Epizooetic: living or parasitic on animals from the outside or on the surface.

Epomiae: the elevated margin of an oblique furrow in the propleurae for the reception of the front femora; Hymenoptera.

Epupillate: an ocellate spot included by a colored ring, but destitute of a pupil or central spot.

Equal: of the same length, size or shape: the superfices when they are without inequalities.

Equitant: laminated: folding one upon the other.

Erect: standing upright; not necessarily perpendicular.

Erectile: capable of being erected; applied to an appendage, a hair or other process, or to any tissue which may be distended and made rigid.

Erecto-patent: the wings of Hesperids when at rest; primaries erect, secondaries horizontal.

Eremochaetus: Diptera in which there is a general absence of bristles.

Ergatandrous: applied to ants with worker-like males.

Ergatogynous: applied to ants with worker-like females.

Ergatoid: sexually capable, wingless ants, resembling workers.

Ericeticolous: living in poor, sandy or gravelly places.

Eroded -sus: gnawed; a margin with irregular teeth and emarginations.

Eruca: broadly a larva: more specifically a caterpillar.

Eruciform: like a caterpillar in form or appearance.

Erucina: the caterpillar-like larvae of sawflies and the like.

Erucivorous: a feeder on caterpillars; said of parasites.

Erythrinus: red; nearly arterial blood-red: carmine, a little diluted.

Erythrinus: deep brick-red, tending to blood-red [vermilion with a little Indian red].

Escutcheon: the scutellum in Coleoptera.

Essential character: see specific character.

Ethology: see ecology.

Eucephalous: with a well-developed head, bearing the normal appendages: applied to certain dipterous larvae.

Eucone: a compound eye in which the individual ocelli have crystalline cones see acone.

Euorthoptera: the Orthoptera excluding the Dermaptera.

Euplexoptera: with beautifully folded wings: an ordinal term applied to the ear-wigs.

Eous or -eus: as a suffix, indicates the possession of the quality of the stem word: e.g. membraneous, like a membrane in texture.

Eutracheata: applied to articulates which, like the insects, have a well-developed tracheal system.

Evaginate: extruded by eversion; turned inside out when extruded.

Evagination: an extrusion formed by eversion or turning inside out.

Evanescent: disappearing; becoming gradually less.

Eversible: capable of being turned inside out.

Evident: easily seen or recognized.

Ex: prefix = A and E as privatives: also means from or out of.

Exarate -us: sulcated: sculptured.

Exarticulate: without distinct joints.

Exasperate -us: rough with irregular elevations.

Excalcarate: without spurs.

Excaudate: see ecaudate.

Excavate: with a depression that is not the segment of a circle.

Excentric: not in the centre; revolving or arranged about a point that is not central.

Excision: with a deep cut: a notch or other cut-out part.

Excrementaceous -titious: made up of or resembling excrement.

Excrescence: an outgrowth or elevation; usually abnormal.

Excretion: the act of getting rid of waste products: any material or substance produced by any secretory glands or structures and which is voided or otherwise sent out from them.

Excretory: those structures concerned in ridding the body of waste products.

Excurrent: attenuate, narrowly prolonged.

Excurved: curved outwards.

Ex larva: from or out of the larva: usually applied to specimens that have been bred from collected larvae.

Exochorion: that part of the chorion derived from the ectoderm: the outer layer of the chorion.

Exochorium: Heteroptera; a narrow marginal part of the hemelytra.

Exoderm: the outer skin or crust.

Exoloma: the apical margin of the wings.

Exophytic: relating to the outside of plant tissue.

Exoskeleton: the entire body wall, to the inner side of which muscles are attached.

Exotic: not a natives of the place where found: an introduced species: also any species occurring in any country outside of the limits of the country whose fauna is under consideration.

Exotoky: is applied to that form of reproduction where the eggs are developed outside of the body of the insect and without care by the mother see endotoky.

Ex ova: from or out of the egg: applied to specimens that have been bred from the egg stage.

Expanded: spread or flattened out: applied to Lepidoptera when set for the cabinet.

Expanse: the distance between the apices or other widest point of the wings when fully spread.

Expansio alarum: the wing stretch; see expanse.

Expiratory: relating to the act of expiration, when the abdomen is contracted and the air contained in the abdominal tracheae is presumably forced out of them.

Explanate: spread out and flattened; applied to a margin.

Explicate: unfolded; open; without folds or plica.

Exsculptate -tus: a surface with irregular, more or less longitudinal depressions, as if carved.

Exscutellate: having no scutel.

Exserted: protruded; projecting beyond the body or over a given point.

Exsertion: a protrusion: an extension of a line or other ornamentation beyond its ordinary course.

Extended: spread out: not lying one upon the other.

Extense: extended: expanded.

Extension plate: a structure at the base of the pulvillus whose function it is to extend it.

Extension sole: the pad-like pulvillus which may be extended by the extension plate through the pressure plate.

Extensor: that which extends or straightens out; applied to muscles.

Extenuate: to make or to become weak, thin or slender.

Exterior: the outside.

Exterior margin: the outer margin; sometimes used for costal margin.

External: belonging to or on the outside.

External area: Hymenoptera; the upper of the three cells or areas of the metanotum, between the median and lateral longitudinal carina, first lateral basal area.

External median area: Hymenoptera; the median of the three cells or areas between the median and lateral longitudinal carinae: = second lateral area.

Externomedial vein: in Hymenoptera (Norton) = radius (Comst.); in Orthoptera, = media (Comst.).

Externo-median nerve: the humeral and discoidal veins together.

Extra-ocular: remote from or beyond the eyes.

Extremity: the point most remote from base.

Extrorse -um: toward the outside.

Extrude: to turn or force out.

Exude: to ooze or flow slowly through minute openings.

Exuvia -iae -ium: the cast skin of a larval insect: in Diaspinae the larval skin when cast and incorporated in the scale.

Exuviate: to cast the skin: to moult.

Exuviation: the act of molting: the cast-off skin or exuvium.

Eyes: the organs of sight, composed of numerous facets, situated, one on each side of the head: the term is properly applied to compound eyes only but is sometimes used to designate also the simple eyes or ocelli.


Face or Facies: the upper or outer surface of any part or appendage: the front of the head between the compound eyes above the mouth to the vertex; usually applied to insects in which the head is -vertical: in bees extends between the eyes to the base of the antennae; in the Hymenoptera generally the area between antenne and clypeus: in flies the area between base of antennae, the oral margin, eyes and cheeks.

Facet: a small face or surface: one of the parts, areas or lens-like divisions of the compound eye.

Facial angle: the angle formed by the junction of the face and vertex.

Facial bristles: Diptera; a series on either side of the middle portion of the face, above the vibrissae, along the facialia.

Facial carinae: applied to both the carinae of the frontal costa and the accessory (lateral) carinae of the face; but usually restricted to the accessory carinae in Orthoptera.

Facial depression: = antennal fovea, q.v.

Facialium -ia: Diptera; that portion of the face between the lower part of the frontal fissure and the antennal fovea.

Facial quadrangle: in bees; the quadrangle bounded laterally by the eyes, above by a line between their summits and below by a similar line between their lowest points.

Facial ridges: Diptera; the elevated lateral borders of antennal grooves.

Facial tubercle: Diptera; a median convexity below middle of face.

Facies: the face: the general appearance or impression.

Falcate: sickle-shaped; convexly curved: a wing when deeply excavated below the apex so as to leave the latter acute and a little curved.

Falciform: curved like a sickle.

False legs: = spurious legs; = prolegs; q.v.

Family: a division of classification including a number of genera agreeing in one or a set of characters and so closely related that they are apparently descended from one stem: opinionative and indicated by the termination idae.

Farctus: fully filled.

Farinaceous: mealy: applied to powdery looking wings and surfaces.

Farinose: dotted with many single, flour-like spots: mealy.

Fascia: a transverse band or broad line; it is common when it crosses both wings or wing covers.

Fasciate: banded transversely.

Fascicle -ulus: a bundle of hair, threads or fibres.

Fasciculate: bundled; clustered as in a bundle; tufted: a surface when covered with bundles of long hair.

Fastigiate: flat-topped and of equal height: also applied to elytra that extend a little beyond the abdomen.

Fastigium: Orthoptera; the extreme point or front of vertex.

Fat-body: is the mass of oil or fat cells found, especially in larvae, surrounding the alimentary canal and some other internal organs.

Fatiscent: with cracks, crevices or openings.

Fauna: the assemblage of animals inhabiting a region or country.

Favose: with large deep holes, like the cells of a honeycomb.

Favus: a cell like that of a honeycomb.

Fecula: the excrement of insects.

Fecundation: the making fertile; as an egg by a spermatozooen.

Feeler: commonly applied to antennae; q.v.

Feelers: tactile organs: the term is usually applied to the antennae, but sometimes to the palpi, as mouth-feelers.

Feet: the legs or organs of locomotion; one pair attached to each thoracic segment; composed of coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus only; plural of foot; q.v.

Female: designated by "O+" the astronomical sign for Venus: that sex in which the ova are developed. {Scanner's comment: The sign for Venus being an orthogonal cross or plus sign hanging vertically below a circle.}

Femina: the female, or belonging to that sex.

Femorate -us: with abnormal or unusually developed femora or thighs.

Femoro-tibial: pertaining to both femur and tibia or to the articulation between them.

Femur -ora: the thigh: usually the stoutest segment of the leg, articulated to the body through trochanter and coxa and bearing the tibia at its distal end: in Coccidae and quite commonly, the femur and trochanter are considered as one, for measuring purposes.

Fenestra: a window; a transparent glassy spot or mark; a pellucid mark in a vein: a small, pale, membranous area at the base of the antenna in roaches.

Fenestrate: with transparent or window-like naked spots as in the wings of some Lepidoptera.

Fenestrate membrane: of the compound eye is at the base of the ommatidia, at their junction with the optic nerve; see retina.

Ferreous -eus: the metallic gray of polished iron.

Ferrugineous -ous, -eus, -osus: rusty red-brown [Dragon's blood, but brighter].

Ferrugino-testaeeous: a rusty yellow brown: a mixture of rusty red with dull yellow brown.

Fertilization: takes place when a spermatozooen enters through the micropyle of an ovum and unites with the cell nucleus: loosely applied like copulation or to its completion.

Festivus: variegated with bright colors.

Festooned: arranged in loops as if hung from nails.

Fibre: a thread-like structure of any tissue.

Fibrilla: rod or sliver-like nerve elements, often grouped like a bundle of short threads.

Fibrin: a proteid compound making up a large part of the muscular tissue: also found in blood and other body liquids.

Fibrinogen: a proteid substance of the blood and other body fluids, concerned in the production of fibrin.

Fibroin: a chemical compound found in silk, cobwebs and the like.

Fifth longitudinal vein: Diptera (Will.); = media 3 (Comst.).

Filament: a thread: a long slender process of equal diameter throughout: an elongated appendage.

Filariasis: a disease caused by the presence of minute worms or Filaria, transmitted by mosquitoes. {Scanner's comment: Nowadays it is known that many kinds of filariasis are transmitted by other species of flies, in particular Simuliidae and Tabanidae}

Filate: Diptera; antennae that are simple, without lateral hair or dilation: thread-like.

Filator: the silk spinning structure of caterpillars.

File: the diagonal ridged vein near the base of the tegmina in crickets, used in stridulating: in general any structure wherever situated that serves the same purpose.

Filicornia: insects with thread-like antennae; e.g. in Coleopteran, the Carabidae.

Filiform: thread-like: slender and of equal diameter.

Filippi's glands: a pair of secondary glands, opening into the silk glands of caterpillars near their anterior end.

Fillet: a transverse, raised structure between the antennae in Lepidoptera.

Filose: ending in a thread-like process.

Fimbria: thick, ciliated hair at the termination of any part: fringes.

Fimbriate: a margin or process when set with a fringe of hair closely placed.

Finger: of maxilla, is the digitus, q.v.

First clypeus: see post clypeus.

First inner apical nervure: in Hymenoptera (Nort.); is cubitus 1, from media 4, to first anal (Comst.).

First lateral suture: Odonata; starts from beneath base of front wing behind humeral suture and meets it behind second coxa.

First longitudinal vein: in Diptera; - radius 1 (Comst.).

First submarginal cross-nervure: Hymenoptera; part of the media and the radio-medial cross vein (Comst.).

Fissate: divided or split: with fissures or cracks.

Fissile -is: cleft or divided; as the wings in plume-moths: also used for lamellate.

Fissiparous: applied to that form of asexual generation in which the parent divides; each part becoming a new individual.

Fissure: a crevice: a narrow longitudinal opening: a slit.

Fissus: cleft: longitudinally divided nearly to base.

Fistula: a slender tube: specifically applied to the channel formed by the union of the two parts of proboscis in Lepidoptera.

Fistular: like a slender, cylindrical tube.

Flabellate: with long flat processes folding like a fan.

Flabelliform: fan-shaped.

Flabellum: a fan: a leafed structure: the transparent lobe at the end of the glossa in bees: also used as = flagellum; q.v.

Flabs: the lobes at the tip of the dipterous mouth:= labella; q.v.

Flaccid: feeble: limber: lax.

Flagelliform: whip-like; applied to a process.

Flagellum: that part of the antenna beyond the pedicel: a whip or whip-like process: the tail-like process of a spermatozooen.

Flammate -eus: flaming or fiery red [vermilion intensified].

Flange: a projecting rim or edge.

Flank: the sides of the thorax: the pleura.

Flaring: widening out like the mouth of a trumpet.

Flavescent: somewhat yellow.

Flavid: yellowed: sulphur yellow.

Flavo-testaceous: light yellow-brown: almost luteous.

Flavous -us: sulphur yellow [gamboge].

Flavo-vixens: green verging upon yellow [apple green + chrome yellow].

Flex: to bend: to curve back.

Flexible: pliable; with elastic properties.

Flexile -is: capable of being bent at an angle without breaking: flexible.

Flexuous -ose: almost zig-zag, without acute angles but more acute at angles than undulating: differs from sinuate in being alternately bent and nearly straight.

Flexor: that which bends; applied to muscles.

Flocculus -i: a hairy or bristly appendage on the posterior coxa of some Hymenoptera.

Floccus: a tuft of wool or wool-like hair.

Flosculiferous: species that bear a flosculus.

Flosculus: a small, tubular lunulate anal organ with a central style, in certain Fulgorids.

Fluviatile: inhabiting the margins of running streams.

Fly-blows: eggs or young maggots of flesh flies: meat is fly-blown when such eggs or larvae have been deposited on it.

Flying-hairs: very long slender surface hairs set in punctures.

Foetid glands: glandular structures from which a foul smelling liquid may be ejected.

Foliaceous: leaf-like, or resembling a leaf.

Folioles: leaf-like processes from a margin or protuberance.

Follicle: = cocoon, q.v.: a cellular sac or tube, as of a gland or ovary.

Folliculate: enclosed in a case, cocoon or follicle.

Food reservoir: Lepidoptera, a blind sac or diverticulum from the bind part of oesophagus lying in abdomen dorsal to the stomach.

Foot: the tarsus, q.v.; improperly used to = leg; but in the plural form refers to legs rather than tarsi: see feet.

Foot-shield: in caterpillars, the chitinous plate on outer side of abdominal feet.

Foot-stalk: of the maxilla, is the stipes.

Foramen: an opening in the body wall for the passage of a vessel or nerve: any opening at an apex: the opening of a cocoon.

Foramen magnum; the opening on the posterior surface of the head to give passage to those structures that extend from head to thorax occipital foramen.

Foramina: small openings in the body wall: in Orthoptera, the auditory organs on the anterior tibiae.

Forceps: hook or pincer-like processes terminating the abdomen, like specialized appendages of ear-wigs: similar processes in the male, used as clasping organs in copulation.

Forcipate: bearing forceps or similar structures.

Forcipiform: having the form of forceps or pincers.

Fore: anterior.

Foregut: extends from the mouth to the end of gizzard; its epithelium being formed from the ectodermal invagination known as the stomodaeum.

Forehead: in Mallophaga, the head in front of the mandibles and antennae.

Fore-intestine: =foregut, q.v.

Forficate: = forcipate, q.v.

Forks: Trichoptera; forks of veins in apical part of wing, numbered 1, 2, 3, etc.

Form: applied to representatives of a species which differ from the normal or type, in some uniform character; it is seasonal if it occurs at a period different from the type; dimorphic if there is an alternation of generations or two color patterns occur; or sexual if the members of one sex differ uniformly from those of the other.

Formic: of, pertaining to or derived from ants.

Formicary: an ant's nest or ant-hill.

Fornicate: arched or vaulted: concave within, convex without.

Fossa -ae: = fossula; q.v.

Fossoria: burrowers: in Orthoptera, the mole crickets and allies; in Hymenoptera, the digging wasps.

Fossorial: formed for or with the habit of digging or burrowing.

Fossula -ae: a deep groove or sinus with sharp edges: specifically applied to grooves on the head or sides of prothorax in which the antennae are concealed.

Fossulate: a surface with oblong impressions.

Fossulet: an elongated, shallow groove.

Fourth longitudinal vein: Diptera (Will.), = media 2 (Comst.).

Fovea, Foveola -ae: a shallow depression with well-marked sides: a pit.

Foveate: with foveae or pit-like depressions.

Foveolate: with shallow cavities like a honey-comb.

Fractus: broken: also applied to a geniculate antenna.

Fragile: easily breakable: thin and brittle.

Frass: the excrement; usually the excreted pellets of caterpillars.

Free: unrestricted in movement: not firmly joined with or united to any other part: said of pupae when all the parts and appendages are separately encased as in Coleopteran.

Frenatae: that series of Lepidoptera in which a more or less well-marked frenulum occurs.

Frenate: having a frenulum.

Frenulum: the spine, simple in males, compound in females, arising from the base of secondaries in many Lepidoptera, whose function it is to unite the wings in flight: in Cicada the triangular lateral piece on the mesonotum which connects with the trochlea: the anal area of secondaries and thus = tendo, q.v.

Frenulum hook: in the males of frenate Lepidoptera, a hook or fold into which the frenulum is fitted.

Frenum: that which holds things together: a lunate or triangular portion at the inner and hinder base of the wing in Odonata and Trichoptera; see tendo.

Fringe -es: an edging of hair, scales or other processes extending well beyond the margin and usually of even length: in Lepidoptera, fringes occur on the outer margins of all wings and consist of scales or hair projecting beyond the wing membrane.

Frog: the articular pan, - q.v.

Frons: = front; q.v.

Front: the anterior portion of head between base of antennae and below ocelli: in Homoptera, the vertical median area of face.

Frontal: referring to the front of head or anterior aspect of any part.

Frontal costa: Orthoptera, a prominent vertical ridge of bead which may be median or lateral: see median carina and lateral carina.

Frontal fastigium: in Orthoptera, that process of the face extending dorsad between the antennae and meeting or nearly meeting the fastigium of the vertex in Tettigidae.

Frontal fissure: Diptera; the impressed line extending from the frontal lunule to the border of the mouth.

Frontal lobes: in Psyllidae, two lobes or swellings more or less completely divided by a suture in which an ocellus is situated.

Frontal lunule: Diptera; an oval or crescentic space above the base of antennae in Cyclorrhapha, bounded by the frontal suture.

Frontal processes: Diptera; = antennal process, q.v.

Frontal ridge: in Coleopteran; a sharp ridge on the dorsal margin of the eye, extending forward.

Frontal stripe: Diptera; the middle of the front when membranous or discolored: = vitta frontalis.

Frontal suture: Diptera; separates the frontal lunule from that part of the head above it: in Coleopteran; = clypeal suture.

Frontal tubercles: in certain Aphids, are raised structures upon which the antennae are placed.

Frontal triangle: Diptera; the triangular space in males, between the eyes below, limited by a line drawn through base of antennae.

Frontal vesicle: in Odonata; that elevated area on the vertex upon which the ocelli are situated.

Fronto-orbital bristles: in Diptera; are placed on each side of the front, just below the vertical bristles.

Fugitive: soon disappearing; not permanent.

Fulcrant: the trochanter when continued along the femur, as in Carabids.

Fulcrum: the chitinous envelope at the base of mouth in Diptera and Hymenoptera, covering the beginning of the oesophagus: any structure that serves as a support to another..

Fulgidus: shining.

Fuliginous -osus: sooty or smoky brown [Van Dyke brown + a little black].

Fulvo-aeneous: brazen, with a touch of brownish yellow [brown pink].

Fulvous -us: tawny; light brown with much yellow; nearly orange [pale cadmium yellow + Indian red].

Fumate -us: smoky gray [gray].

Fumose: smoky.

Function: the work or duty which a given part or organ normally performs.

Fungicolous: living in or on fungi.

Funicle: the joints between the scape and club in Funiculate antennae: a small cord: a slender stalk.

Funiculate: whip-like: long, slender, composed of many flexible joints.

Funicule: a small, cord-like structure; especially when sheathed.

Funiculus: the main tendon of abdomen: in Hymenoptera a slender ligament connecting the propodeum to petiole on its dorsal aspect.

Furca: a fork: the anal appendage used for leaping in Thysanura; see furcula: the forked ental processes of the sternum.

Furcal orifice: see sternal into orifice.

Furcate: forked; divided nto two approximately equal divisions.

Furcula: a forked process: an osmaterium {Scanner's comment: sic. See comment under "osmaterium".}: in Collembola the spring or saltatory appendage borne by the fourth abdominal segment: in Orthoptera, a pair of backwardly directed appendages which overlie in a more or less forked position the base of the supra-anal plate.

Furred: covered with dense hair resembling fur.

Fuscescent: becoming brown; with a brown shading.

Fusco-ferruginous: brownish rust red.

Fuseo-piceous: pitch black with a brown tinge or admixture.

Fuseo-rufous: red-brown, approaching liver brown.

Fuseo-testaceous: dull reddish brown [brown ocher].

Fuscous -us: dark brown, approaching black; a plain mixture of black and red [crimson lake + black].

Fused: run together: applied when two normally separated markings become confluent and have a common outline.

Fusiform: spindle-shaped: tapering gradually to each end.

Fusulus: = spinneret, q.v.


Gales: the outer lobe of the maxilla, usually two-jointed, often hood-like, subject to great modifications in Hymenoptera and Diptera, and forms the coiled tongue in Lepidoptera.

Galeotheca: that part of the pupal case that covers the gales.

Gall: an abnormal swelling or excrescence on a plant, produced by an insect: = cecidium.

Gallicolous: dwellers in galls, whether as producers or inquilines.

Gallivorous: feeding upon galls or gall tissue.

Gamogenesis: reproduction through fertilization: see agamogenesis.

Ganglion -ia: a nerve centre composed of a cell mass and fibres: the white disc-like bodies connected by a double cord, lying above the ventral surface within the body and forming the centre of the nervous system.

Gasterotheca: that part of the pupa case that covers the abdomen.

Gastric: of or belonging to the belly or to the stomach.

Gastric caeca: = caecum; q.v.

Gastro-coeli: a pair of usually transverse lateral pits near the base of the second abdominal tergite in some Hymenoptera.

Gastro-ileal folds: occur in some insects at the junction of the chylific ventricle with the ileum and serve as a valve.

Gastrula: that embryonic stage resembling a sac, with an outer layer of epiblastic cells and an inner layer of hypoblastic cells.

Gastrulation: the process of forming a gastrula.

Gathering hairs: the soft, flattened, often hooked hairs on the tongue of bees and other Hymenoptera; = hooked hairs.

Gelatinous: of a jelly-like texture or consistency: viscid.

Geminate: arranged in pairs composed of two similar parts: doubled.

Gemmate -us: marked with metallic or bright colored spots.

Gemmiparous: applied to that form of asexual reproduction where new individuals arise as buds from the germ body of the parent.

Gena -ae: the cheeks; includes that portion of the head on each side below the eyes, and extends to the gular suture: in Odonata the area between the eyes and clypeus and mouth parts: in Diptera the space between the lower border of the eye and oral margin, merging into face at front and limited by the occipital margin behind.

Genal bristles: Diptera; are on the cheeks near lower corner of eye.

Generalized: primitive: containing in combination characters that are separated and specialized in other forms.

Generation: used as the equivalent of brood; q.v.

Genicular arc: Orthoptera; a curved dark marking on the posterior knee-joint.

Geniculate: knee jointed: abruptly bent in an obtuse angle.

Geniculum: a little knee or bend.

Genital armature: all the processes concerned in copulation.

Genital hamule: a little hook or plate covering the anal cavity of the male: the supra-anal or genital hook: in Lepidoptera, the uncut: in Odonata, in the plural, one or two pairs of lateral processes of the male genitalia on the ventral surface of the second abdominal segment.

Genital hook: = genital hamule.

Genitalia: the external organs of generation with all appendages.

Genital lobes: in Odonata, a pair of-backward and downwardly directed processes from the 2d abdominal segment, between which the vesicle of the penis lies.

Genital papilla: in some Smynthurids, a tubercular elevation upon which the genital aperture opens.

Genital spike: the sheath of penis which, in male Diaspinae takes the form of a long mucronate spike.

Genital tuft: in Lepidoptera; an expansible tuft of fine hair believed to be scent-producing.

Genital valve: Odonata; a chitinous piece on each side of the ovipositor, derived from the sternum of abdominal segment 9: probably = outer pair of gonapophyses.

Genoholotype: the species on which a genus is founded, whether unique or one of a series, specifically named as generic type by the author.

Genolectotype: the one species of a series selected as the type of the genus in which the describer of the genus placed it, subsequent to the description.

Genosyntype: one of a series of species upon which a genus is founded, no one species being mentioned as type.

Genus: knee; the joint between femur and tibia.

Genus: an assemblage of species agreeing in some one character or series of characters; usually considered as arbitrary and opinionative, though some consider it a natural assemblage.

Geometrid: larva which, when walking, alternately elevate and straighten the middle of their body: opposed to rectigrade; q.v.

Geodephagous: = adephagous; q.v.

Geodromica: terrestrial Heteroptera in which the antennae are not concealed.

Geophilous: living on the ground: species that live on the surface or come freely into contact with it.

Germanium: an ovary: that portion of an ovarian tube containing the cell elements.

Germ-ball: reproductive cells in larvae from which, exceptionally, young may develop as buds.

Germ-band or Germinal band: that portion of a young embryo which is to become the future insect, when it is in the form of a band or strap and may or may not show the division into the future segments.

Gerontogeic: belonging to the old world: see neogeic.

Gibba: a rounded protuberance or prominence.

Gibbous: hump-backed; protuberant: said of a macula when it resembles a moon more than half full.

Gibbus: when the whole surface forms a hump or obtuse cone.

Gills: respiratory structures which function in water; distinguished as true or blood gills where contained blood conveys the absorbed oxygen from the gill to the tissues, and as tracheal gills when this conveyance is by contained tracheae.

Gilvus: = flavus; q.v.

Ginglymus: a hinge joint that permits flexion in one plane.

Gizzard: a pouch-like structure between the crop and chylific ventricle furnished with chitinous teeth or plates, in which the food is prepared for the digestive juices by grinding or merely sifting = cardia.

Glaber-rous: smooth; free from all vestiture.

Gland: a cellular sac which separates or secretes from the blood specific portions to produce characteristic products - e.g. wax, saliva, silk, etc.

Gland-bearing prominence: in Diaspinae a prominence on the margin, bear-ing a gland opening on the dorsal surface.

Gland orifice: in Coccidae, the external opening through which a gland pours its secretions.

Gland spines: in Coccidae; spiny appendages, each of which is supplied with a single gland whose opening is at the tip.

Glandular: having the character or function of a gland: used as descriptive of specialized hairs, spines or other processes.

Glassy: transparent; glass-like in appearance.

Glaucus: shining sea-green: whitish blue inclining to gray lavender.

Globose: formed like a globe or sphere.

Globulin; an albumenoid proteid compound formed in the blood of insects.

Glochis: a barbed point.

Glomerate: congregated or massed together.

Glossa: the inner lobe of second maxilla, corresponding to the lacing of first maxilla: loosely used as a synonym for tongue: especially applied to the coiled structure of the Lepidoptera; see also ligula.

Glossarium: Diptera; the labrum-epipharynx; q.v.

Glossata: a Fabrician term for Lepidoptera.

Glossate: furnished with a spiral tongue.

Glossotheca: that part of the pupa which covers the tongue.

Glutinose -ous: slimy; viscid.

Gnathal: relating or pertaining to the jaws.

Gnathite: a jaw or jaw-like appendage; in the plural, the mouth parts.

Gnathochilarium: a plate formed by the labial structures.

Gnathopoda: the arthropods: the first pair of legs; especially applied in crustaceans: mouth feet.

Goffered: a surface with regular impressions, closely set, and separated by narrow ridges: reticulated.

Gonapophyses: three pairs of processes in the Orthoptera, one arising from the eighth and two from the ninth abdominal segment op the ventral surface. They appear to = the rhabdites composing the ovipositor of other insects.

Gonyodon: a tooth-like articulated process at the apex of the femur in some Noctuidae.

Gonytheca: articulating surface of femur to which the tibia is joined.

Gorgeret: the barbed sting of the honey bee.

Gracile: slender; graceful.

Gradate -vim: one grade or step at a time: to arrange in a series: to blend so as to merge one into the other - e.g. colors.

Gradate veins: a transverse series of veins, each before or beyond the next.

Grammineus: grass-green [apple green].

Granose: like a string of beads; moniliform.

Granulated: covered with small grains.

Granule: a little grain or grain-like elevation.

Granulose: roughened with granules or made up of distinct grains.

Gregarious: living in societies or communities; but not social.

Grege: raw silk, including the gummy outer layer, as spun by a caterpillar.

Gres: the gummy layer surrounding the silk thread spun by a caterpillar.

Gressorious -vial: with legs fitted for walking: in Lepidoptera; the anterior legs aborted, the others fitted for walking.

Griscent: ashen gray.

Griseus: light gray; a mixture of white and black [gray].

Group: a division of classification used indefinitely for a series of allied species, genera or larger assemblages.

Grouped glands: see circumgenital glands.

Grub: an insect larva: a term loosely applied, but more specifically to larvae of Coleopteran and Hymenoptera.

Guanin: a white amorphous compound which occurs in the transparent areas of some wings, giving a milky tinge, and is also found in the photogenic organs of Lampyridae: an excretory substance, composition C5H5N5O (von Furth).

Guest: applied to those insects that live in nests or dwelling places of other species, not necessarily at the expense of the host.

Gula: the throat: that sclerite forming the central portion of the head beneath, extending from the submental to the posterior margin, and laterally bounded by the genae.

Gular peduncle: in Coleopteran = submental peduncle.

Gular suture: the line of division between the gulag or throat and the gene or cheeks.

Gulf strip: see semitropical or gulf strip.

Gullet: = oesophagus; q.v.

Gulo-mental: includes the region covered by the gulag and mentum.

Gustatory: elating to the sense of taste.

Gutta: a light spot on a dark ground.

Guttate: with light spots or drops on a dark ground.

Gymnocerata: insects with freely movable, conspicuous antennae: see cryptocerata.

Gymnogastra: Hymenoptera; species in which the venter is visible: see cryptogastra.

Gymnoptera: species with membranous wings not covered with scales.

Gynandromorphic: when an individual of one sex exhibits on one lateral half the organic characters of the other, more or less completely.

Gyri-cerebrales: lobes of the oesophageal ganglion of the embryo, connected with the primary lobe: = stalked bodies.


Habena: a fascia on the thorax.

Habit -us: the port or aspect: used to express a resemblance in general appearance.

Habitat; abbreviated Hab.: the region or place which an insect inhabits or where it was taken.

Haemoglobin: the coloring matter of blood which serves to carry oxygen.

Haemolymph: the watery blood or lymph-like nutritive fluid of the lower invertebrates.

Haemoxanthine: a dissolved albuminoid in the insect blood, which has both a respiratory and nutritive function.

Hair: a slender, flexible filament of equal diameter.

Hairy: covered or clothed with hair.

Halophilous: species living in salt marshes, or near the sea.

Halterata: the Diptera.

Halteres: the poisers or balancers: capitate movable filaments in Diptera, situated one on each side of the thorax and representing rudimentary hind wings.

Halteriptera: the Diptera.

Hamule -us: furnished with hooks, or bent like a hook.

Hammock: the hammock-like covering of the caterpillars of certain moths. Hamule: a little hook.

Hamuli: Odonata; one or two pairs of hooked processes projecting from the ventral surface of the 2d abdominal segment of the male; usually termed genital hamules: in Hymenoptera; minute hooks on the anterior margin of secondaries used to unite them in flight with the inner margin of primaries: in tree crickets, hook-like processes of the male genitalia.

Hamus: Lepidoptera; a hook or loop attached to the under side of costal margin of primaries near base, to receive the frenulum of male moths.

Harpago -ones: the inner basal lobes of the clasping organs of d culicids also, more generally = harpes.

Harpes: the lateral pieces of the male genitalia in Lepidoptera, used as clasping organs: also applied to the corneous hooks often borne by these lateral pieces, which are then termed valves; see clasper: in culicids an articulated process, sometimes jointed, at the base of inner side of side-piece, below and exterior to the harpagones.

Hastate: halbert-shaped: excavated at base and sides but with spreading lobes or angles.

Hastiform: = hastate.

Hatched: closely marked with numerous short, transverse lines.

Hatching spines: = egg burster; q.v.

Haustellate: formed for sucking: applied chiefly to mouth structures.

Haustellum: a sucker: applied to that portion of the mouth of a sucking insect through which liquid food is drawn into the gullet.

Head: the first or anterior region of the insect body, articulated at its base to the thorax, bearing the mouth structures and antennae. It is now believed to be made up of seven primitive segments, named in order: 1, the ocular or protocerebral; 2, the antenna or deutocerebral; 3, second antenna or tritocerebral; 4, mandibular; 5, superlingual; 6, maxillary; 7, labial or 2d maxillary.

Head vesicle: in Diptera, = ptilinum, q.v.

Heart: the dorsal vessel or tubular structure divided into chambers, lying just beneath the dorsal, which serves to propel the blood and controls the circulation.

Heautotype: = autotype; q.v.

Helcodermatus: a surface with ulcer-like depressions: applied also to the boring or tearing spines of pupae.

Heliciform: in the form of a spiral snail shell: applied to the cases of some Trichoptera.

Helocerous: with clavate antennae.

Helvolus: tawny or dully reddish yellow.

Helvus: honey yellow [brown pink + chrome lemon].

Hemelytra: a modification of the anterior wings of Heteroptera, coriaceous at base, membranous at tip, not meeting in a straight line at the middle: more specifically applied to the corium; q.v.: also used for the tegmina of Orthoptera.

Hemi: as a prefix, means half.

Hemimeroptera: an obsolete term for Hemiptera.

Hemimetabolous: manifesting an incomplete metamorphosis, but with a marked difference between the stages: specifically the Ephemerida, Odonata and Perlidae. {Scanner's comment: nowadays applied to far more orders, generally to those that undergo a marked metamorphosis, but without a pupal stage.}

Hemiptera: half-winged: an ordinal term applied to insects in which the mouth parts consist of four lancets inclosed in a jointed beak or rostrum; metamorphosis incomplete: the primaries may be of uniform texture throughout (Homoptera) or may be thickened at base, membranous at tip (Heteroptera).

Hemispheric: like the half of a globe or sphere.

Hepaticolor: liver-brown [dragon's blood].

Hepatic pouches: applied to caeca pouches; q.v.

Herbivorous: feeding upon plant tissue: a leaf feeder.

Heremetabola: with slight or incomplete metamorphosis, but with a resting stage at the end of the nymph life; specifically the Cicadidae.

Hermaphrodite: an individual in which the characters of both sexes are combined.

Hetero: as a prefix, unequal; different from.

Heterocera: Lepidoptera in which the antenna are of any form other than clubbed at tip: opposed to Rhopalocera.

Heterochrome: of different color: applied to species in which there are two color forms of one sex, one of which is like (homoeochrome), the opposite sex, as in certain Odonata and Lepidoptera.

Heterochrony: an irregular development in point of time, a later stage becoming evident before one that is earlier in ordinary course.

Heterogamy: applied to those cases in which two sexual or a sexual and parthenogenetic generation alternate.

Heterogeneous: a mixture of different forms; abnormal.

Heterogeny: the alternation of sexual and parthenogenetic generations.

Heterogyna: the ants: referring to the different kinds of females, - queens and workers, - as distinguished from males.

Heteromera: Coleopteran in which the anterior and middle tarsi are 5-jointed and the posterior are 4-jointed.

Heteromerous: having an unequal number of tarsal joints on the feet.

Heterometabola: differing among themselves in metamorphosis; but not manifesting abrupt stages.

Heteromorphous: the metamorphosis complete, in abrupt stages, the larva unlike the adult.

Heteronomous: if two parts, compared with each other, are of different quality: differing in development or function.

Heteropalpi: palpi with a different number of joints in male and female, as in some Trichoptera.

Heteroptera: an ordinal term applied to that series of Hemiptera in which the anterior wings differ in texture from the posterior, and the different regions of primaries differ in texture.

Heteropterous: with wings of different texture in different parts.

Heterotypical: a genus, described from more than one species, these differing in structure,

Hexachaetous: Diptera in which the mouth structures have six piercing setae.

Hexanephric: with six kidneys, or structures serving as such.

Hexapoda: tracheate arthropods with head, thorax and abdomen distinct, and only six legs in the adult stage: the true insects.

Hexapodal -ous: provided with six feet.

Hians: gaping.

Hibernaculum: a tent or sheath made out of a leaf or other material in which a larva hides or hibernates.

Hibernate: to pass the winter in a dormant condition.

Hicks' bottles: {Scanner's comment: sic} flask-shaped pits or depressions in the antennae of bees and ants: supposed to be the organs of hearing.

Hind angle: in primaries of Lepidoptera, is that point where inner and outer margin meet: = anal angle of secondaries.

Hind-body: the abdomen.

Hind-gut: the intestinal canal from the end of chylific ventricle to the Anus, including the malpighian tubules and anal glands.

Hind-head: Mallophaga; that part of head behind mandibles and antennae.

Hind-intestine: = hind-gut.

Hinge: of maxilla = cardo; q.v.: the point of articulation of a movable joint.

Hips: the coxa; q.v.

Hirsute: clothed with long, strong hair; shaggy.

Hispid: bristly: sparsely set with short, stiff hair.

Histoblast: the morphological unit or cell characteristic of a particular tissue.

Histogenesis: the formation and development of tissue.

Histolysis: the degeneration and dissolution of organic tissue.

Hoary: covered with a fine, white, silvery pubescence: pruinose q.v.

Holometabolous: having a complete transformation; with egg, larval, pupal and adult stages distinctly separated.

Holopneustic: having many pairs of open stigmata.

Holoptic: Diptera in which the eyes of male are contiguous between vertex and antennae: see dichoptic.

Holosericeus: with short, dense, silky hair, giving a satiny lustre.

Holotype: the unique type: = type; q.v.

Homelytra: elytra of similar or equal substance.

Homo: prefix = the same; similar.

Homochronic heredity: inheritance at corresponding periods of life.

Homochronous: changes in an organism which appear in the offspring at the same age at which they did in the parent.

Homodynamous: serially homologous: homology of the metameres.

Homoeochromatism: applied when over a given region many butterflies tend to vary similarly as regards color.

Homoeochrome: of the same color: see heterochrome.

Homoeomerous: all feet with an equal number of tarsal joints: = isomerous.

Homoeonomous: of the same substance or texture.

Homoetype: = homotype; q.v.

Homogeneous: of the same kind or nature: similar in texture or parts.

Homogenous: similar in structure due to a community of descent.

Homologous: implies that organs are identical in general structure and origin, though they may have developed in different ways for special purposes: see analogous.

Homomorpha: insects in which the larvae resemble the adults.

Homonymous: pertaining to homology of parts arranged on a transverse axis similarly developed and of equal function.

Homonym: a name similar to or like another already used for a species in the same genus, or for a genus in the same kingdom: such names are paid to be preoccupied.

Homonymous: where the same name is applied to different conceptions.

Homophonous: words differently written but indistinguishable in sound, applied to different conceptions.

Homoplastic: implies that organs, similar in situation and purpose, are not structurally the same, or have not the same origin.

Homoptera: an ordinal term applied to those Hemiptera in which the primaries are of the same consistence throughout.

Homotenous: retaining the primitive form: applied to insects without or with an incomplete metamorphosis.

Homotype: is a specimen named by another than the author after comparison with the type.

Honey dew: a sweetish excretion produced by certain insects, notably Aphids and Coccids, and exuding from the surface of some galls.

Honey tubes: small tubes or tubercles on the abdomen of plant lice and other insects through which a sweetish liquid or honey dew is excreted siphonets; siphuncles; cornicles.

Hood: of the maxilla is the galena; q.v.: in Tingitidae the elevated portion of the prothorax, often covering the head.

Hooked hairs: = gathering hairs; q.v.

Horismology: see orismology.

Horizontal: said of wings when held parallel to the horizon.

Horn: a pointed chitinous process of the head: in the plural form applied to the antennae; q.v.

Host: the individual infested by or upon which a parasite grows: also applied to the maker of a cell or other structure in which guest flies or other insects take up their abode.

Hudsonian zone: is that part of the boreal region comprising the northern part of the great transcontinental coniferous forests. In the eastern United States restricted to the cold summits of the highest mountains, from northern New England to western North Carolina: in the west it covers the higher slopes of the Rocky and Sierra-Cascade systems.

Humeral: relating to the shoulder or humerus.

Humeral angle: in Lepidoptera, that angle of the wings at the base of costa, near the point of attachment to the body: in Coleopteran, the outer anterior angle of elytra: in Orthoptera, the obtusely rounded angle formed by the deflection of the sides of the pronotum from the dorsal.

Humeral bristles: in Diptera, are situated on the humeral callus.

Humeral callus: in Diptera, is a rounded callus forming the anterior superior angle of the mesothorax.

Humeral carina: in Coleoptera, an elevated ridge or keel on the outer anterior angle of elytra.

Humeral cross-vein: (Comst.); extends between the costa and subcosta close to base.

Humeralis: Coleopteran; when the elytral has an angulated projecting margin at base.

Humeral stripe: in Odonata, covers the humeral suture.

Humeral suture: in Odonata, runs from just in front the base of the fore-wing to the edge of the median coxa, separating the mesepisternum from the mesepimeron.

Humeral veins: in Lepidoptera, secondary veins on posterior wings of Lasiocampids, developed to strengthen the humeral angle.

Humerus: the shoulder: in Coleopteran; the basal exterior angle of elytra: in Diptera, the anterior superior angles of the mesothorax: in Orthoptera, the femur of the fore-leg: in Hymenoptera, applied to the sub-costal vein in some groups.

Humid: applied to regions in which the normal rainfall is sufficient to produce ordinary farm crops without irrigation: see arid.

Hyacinthine: the purple blue of the hyacinth [between mauve and lilac].

Hyaline: vitreous: transparent or partially so.

Hyaloplasm: the clear, semi-fluid material between the meshes of the cell reticulum.

Hybrid: the progeny from the mating of two species.

Hydradephaga; -ous: applied to aquatic, predatory pentamerous beetles with filiform antennae: see adephagous.

Hydro: relating to water: a combining form used as a prefix.

Hydrolysis: the chemical decomposition of a compound by water, causing formation of a new compound.

Hydrophilous: applied to species living in low, damp places.

Hymen: a thin plane membrane serving as a partition.

Hymenoptera: membrane-winged: an ordinal term applied to insects with four membranous wings with few veins, the anterior usually larger than the posterior; mouth mandibulate; head free; thorax agglutinate, transformations complete.

Hyoid: having the form of the Greek upsilon, Y

Hypermetamorphosis: when an insect passes through more than the normal number of stages; the interpolated stages coming usually between the full-grown larva and adult.

Hyperparasite: is a form that is parasitic upon another parasite.

Hypertely: beyond the bounds of the useful: those forms whose resemblance to other objects is closer than needful, or without apparent object.

Hypertrigonal space: = supra-triangular space; q.v.

Hypertrophied: abnormally large or excessively developed.

Hypnody: lethargy; a condition similar to or identical with hibernation.

Hypertrophy: any abnormal enlargement or excessive development.

Hypoblast: = entoderm.

Hypocrateriform: salver-shaped.

Hypodactyle: the so-called labium of Hemiptera.

Hypoderm -is: the cellular layer which secretes the chitinous cuticula and in this sense = epidermis: specifically applied to the lining membrane of elytral and hemelytra.

Hypodermatic: of or concerning the hypodermic.

Hypodermic: under the skin.

Hypoglottis: the under surface of the tongue = hypoglottis.

Hypoglottis: a sclerite inserted between rectum and labium in many Coleopteran.

Hypognathous: having the mouth parts directed more or less vertically ventrad.

Hypographous: shaded; applied to a fascia that becomes gradually darker.

Hypomeron -a: in Coleopteran; the inflexed edge of the pronotum (pronotal hypomera); and the raised lower margin of the epipleural (elytral hypomera) (see epipleural) fold.

Hypopharyngeal: relating to the hypopharynx.

Hypopharyngeal sclerites: in bees, a pair of strap-like pieces along the hypopharynx to the mentum: see also epipharyngeal sclerites.

Hypopharynx: a sensitive and sensory structure on the upper surface of labium that serves as an organ of taste, or true tongue.

Hypopleura: in Diptera, the space over the middle and hind coxa, between the metapleura and pteropleura: the side of the metasternum: the mesepimeron of the mesothorax.

Hypoptere: = tegula; q.v..

Hypopygium: the anus: more specifically the lower plate of the anal opening: in Diptera, the male sexual organs and terminal segments of abdomen = propygium.

Hypostoma: in Diptera; that portion of the head included between antennae, eyes and mouth: in Hemiptera: the lower part of face.

Hypotenuses: in Odonata; the simple or broken cross-vein between media 4, and cubitus 1, forming outer boundary of triangle.

Hypotypes: includes specimens upon which supplementary descriptions are based: = apotypes.


Iceous or Icius: suffix; expresses a likeness or the possession of a character see aceus.

Icotypes: typical specimens which serve for purposes of identification, but have not been used in literature.

Idiotype: a specimen named by the author after comparison with the type, but not also a topotype.

Ignitus: fire-red [vermilion].

Ileo-colon: the anterior portion of the hind-gut, extending from the mid-gut to the rectum, when not distinctly differentiated into ileum and colon.

Ileum: the small intestine; begins at end of chylific ventricle at the point where malpighian tubules join, and extends to colon.

Imaginal: pertaining to the adult or imago.

Imaginal buds, cells, or discs: in forms with a complete metamorphosis are those embryonic cells around and from which the organs and appendages of the future imago develop.

Imago: the adult or sexually developed insect.

Imbricate: arranged or appearing like the scales on a fish or the shingles on a roof.

Immaculate: destitute of spots or marks.

Immarginate: without an elevated rim or margin.

Immersed -us: inserted, imbedded or hidden in.

Imponderable: that which cannot be weighed.

Impregnate-ed: to make or made fertile or pregnant: fertilized.

Impressed -us: a surface with shallow depressed areas or markings.

Impubis: without hair.

Inaequalis: unequal.

Inarticulate: not jointed or segmented.

Inaurate -us: golden yellow [pale cadmium yellow].

Ineanus: hoary.

Inch: the English and American standard of length in insect measurement: it is = 12 lines and = 25.4 mm.: usually expressed in units and hundredths, as 1.01.

Incised: notched or deeply cut into.

Incision: any cut into a margin or through a surface: the marginal slits or notches in Coccidae.

Incisure: an impressed line marking the junction of two segments: an incision.

Inclinate -us: leaning or inclining.

Inclusus: when one part is wholly or partially hidden in another.

Inconspicuous: not attracting attention or quickly noticeable.

Incrassated: thickened: rather suddenly swollen at some one point, especially near tip.

Incubate: to brood: to cause to develop; as an egg.

Incumbent: lying one over another: wings when they cover the dorsal horizontally.

Incunabulum: = folliculus and cocoon; q.v.

Incurved -ate: bowed or curved inwards.

Independent: in Lepidoptera; that vein of the wings that arises from the cross-vein closing the cell, and does not branch directly from any vein reaching the base: it is v. 5 of the numerical series in both wings and the media of Comstock.

Indeterminate: not defined nor well marked; obscure: of no constant form or shape.

Indigote: a very deep indigo blue.

Indirect: applied to metamorphosis = complete.

Indumentum: a covering of hairs, scales or tufts.

Indurated: hardened.

Indusium: the case made by an insect larva: a membranous layer of the embryo of Locustidae below the serosa.

Inequal: a surface with irregular elevations and depressions.

Inermis: unarmed: without spines or spurs.

Infericornia: Hemiptera; in which the antenna appear to be inserted well down on the sides of head; e.g. Lygaeidae.

Inferior: beneath, below or behind: a term of position.

Inferior appendage -es: in male Odonata the lower one or two of the terminal abdominal parts used to clasp the female in copulation.

Inferior wings: = hind wings or secondaries: q.v.

Infero-posterior: below and behind: refers to location.

Inflated: blown up; distended bladder-like.

Inflected: bent inward at an angle.

Inflexus: = inflected.

Infra: below or beneath: opposed to supra.

Infra-anal lobe: a thick, conical fleshy lobe, often ending in a chitinous point, situated beneath the vent in caterpillars.

Infra-cereal plates: in Orthoptera - generally inconspicuous paired plates which underlie in part the cerci and in part the lateral portion of the supra-anal plate.

Infra-clypeus: = ante-clypeus and rhinarium: q.v..

Infracted: abruptly bent inward, as if broken.

Infra-genital: below the genital opening or process.

Infra-marginal: situated below or behind the marginal cell.

Infra-median vein; in Orthoptera: = ulnar vein: q.v.

Infra-ocular: applied to the region below and between the eyes.

Infra-oesophageal: situated below oesophagus; see sub-oesophageal.

Infra-stigmatal: situated below the stigmata or spiracles.

Infringing: encroaching upon.

Infumated: clouded.

Infundibuliform: funnel-shaped.

Infuseated: smoky gray-brown with a blackish tinge [Roman sepia].

Ingens: unusually large or disproportionate in size.

Ingluvies: the crop; q.v.

Inner lobe: of maxilla = lacinia: q.v.

Inner margin: the line extending along the lower or interior edge of the wing from the base to the hind or anal angle.

Innervate: to supply with nerves.

Innotatus: without markings.

Inocular: inserted in the inner margin of and partially or wholly surrounded by the eye.

Inquiline: a species living in a gall or other structure prepared by a different species, not as a parasite but as, a guest.

Inquiline: living as guests in the homes of others; as in galls.

Insect: a member of the class Insecta strictly limited.

Insecta: broadly defined, contains all articulates that are also tracheates and have the head free from the thorax; more strictly limited to those forms that have only three pairs of thoracic legs in the adult stage and a limited number of segments.

Insectary: a place or building where insects are bred and studied.

Insectivorous: feeding upon or devouring insects.

Insectologist: a student of insects: = entomologist.

Insectology: the science of insect study: = entomology.

Insertion: the point or place where a part is inserted: a part that is inserted: the act of inserting.

Insertus: a part that has its base set into another.

In situ: in its natural place or normal position.

Instar: the period or stage between molts in the larva, numbered to designate the various periods; e.g. the first instar is the stage between the egg and first molt, etc.: see stadium.

Institia: stria or furrows of equal width throughout.

Instrumenta cibaria: mouth parts of a mandibulate insect as a whole.

Instrumenta suctoria: mouth parts of a haustellate insect as a whole.

Integer: entire: applied to a margin without incisions.

Integument: the outer covering to the insect body.

Inter: between; among.

Inter-alar space: in Odonata; the terga of meson- and meta-thorax.

Interantennal: between the basal segments of antennae.

Inter-articular: the membranous tissue between joints or segments.

Intercalary -ies: additional or inserted between others; as a vein: plural; added or supplementary longitudinal wing reins: see under specific headings; i.e. anterior, etc.: in Ephemerides, certain longitudinal veins between the 8th (anal) and 9th (1st maxillary) and not branches of either: in Diptera, the anterior intercalary (Loew) = the discoidal, and the posterior intercalary = the cubitus 1 of Comstock: applied to an evanescent sclerite in the embryo between antenna and mandible; also termed premandibular.

Intercostal: between veins or costae; usually in the narrow grooves between veins in the costal region of a wing.

Intercostula: those small, vein-like structures between the normal veins, visible on a wing margin but lost toward the disc.

Intercoxal process: in Coleopteran; a median protrusion of the basal segment of abdomen between the hind coxae.

Intermediate: lying between others in position or possessing characters between two other forms.

Intermediate field: of termini is = discoidal field q.v.

Internal area: in Hymenoptera; the posterior of the three areas between median and lateral longitudinal carina on the metanotum third lateral area.

Internal cell: in Hymenoptera (Pack.) 2d anal (Comst.).

Internal triangle: in Odonata see triangle.

Internal veins: in Lepidoptera, from one to three in number, run free from base to outer margin near hind angle; never branched;1a to is in the numerical series: = anal veins (Comst.).

Interneural: between the nerves (or veins) of wings.

Interno-mandibular: applied to one of the pairs of salivary glands in bees, situated at the inner side of base of mandible.

Internomedian: in Orthoptera; = cubitus (Comst.); q.v.

Interocular: between the eyes.

Interplical: lying between folds; specifically applied to the alternate ridges and grooves in anal area of secondaries of Orthoptera.

Interposed sectors: in Odonata; the shorter longitudinal veins occurring in the wings of some species between the chief veins; = supplementary sectors. Interrupted: broken in continuity, but with the tips of the broken parts in a right line with each other.

Intersegmental: = interarticular; q.v.

Interspace: Coleopteran; the plane surface between elytral striae: Lepidoptera spaces between wing veins not included in closed cells.

Interspaceal: occurring in the interspaces between two wing veins or two elytral striae.

Interstice -tium: space between two lines, whether striate or punctate.

Interstitial line: the elevated ridge between two striae or series of punctures.

Interval: the space or time between two structures, sculptures or periods of development.

Interventricular: the inner valve between the chambers of the heart.

Interventricular valvule: of heart, lies in front of seluilunar valve.

Intervenular: in thespace between two veins.

Intestinal caecum: that point of the large intestine in front of the junction with the small intestine.

Intestine: that part of the alimentary canal through which the food passes from the stomach, in which absorption is completed and the excretions are formed for expulsion.

Intima: the lining membrane of the trachea: see endotrachea.

Intorted: turned or twisted inwardly.

Intra-: within: between.

Intra-alar bristles: in Diptera; a row of two or three between the supra-alar and dorso-central groups.

Intracellular: occurring within the cell or in a cell.

Infra-humeral bristles: in Diptera calyptrata; occur immediately in front of the thoracic suture, between the humeral callus and the presutural depression.

Infra-ocular: situated within the eye, actually or apparently.

Intra-pulmonary: that method of respiration which does not involve movements of the outer body wall and is confined to the respiratory organs.

Intrauterine: applied to development, when the young hatch within the vagina of the mother.

Intricate: irregular: confused; applied to markings and sculpture.

Intromittent: used for throwing within.

Intromittent organ: the penis; q.v.

Introse -um: directed inward, toward the body.

Intrusus: seemingly impressed with a sharp point.

Intumescent: enlarged; swollen: expanded.

Invaginate: when a tubular or vesicular part is turned inward or retracted within the body wall.

Invagination: a pouch or sac formed by an infolding or indrawing of the outer surface.

Investitus: unclothed: a surface without scales or hair.

Involucrate: = involute.

Involucrum alarum in Dermaptera a flap of the metanotum.

Involute: spirally rolled inwardly.

Involuti: butterflies whose larvae live in a folded leaf; Hesperidae.

Iridescent: a surface which reflects the prismatic hues.

Iridicolor: any color so broken up as to reflect the prismatic hues.

Iris: the circle which, in an ocellate spot surrounds the pupil.

Irised: with rainbow colors.

Iris-pigment: = iris tapetum.

Iris tapetum: the pigment layer of the compound eye just below the crystalline cone.

Irregular: unequal, curved, bent or otherwise twisted or modified without order or symmetry, e.g. certain antennae.

Irrorate: marked with minute points; freckled.

Isabelline -us: pale yellow with some red and brown [chronic lemon with a little carmine and roman sepia].

Ischia: = pleura; q.v.

Iso-: equal.

Isolate: to separate out from others; occurring alone.

Isomers: that series of Coleoptera in which the tarsi have an equal number of joints on all feet.

Isomerous: with equal number of tarsal joints on all feet := homoeomerous.

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