[Footnote 1: Till skin cracks.]
In a properly constructed sun drier vegetables will dry in from 3 to 12 hours under normal summer conditions. Products dried in a sun drier are superior to those dried in the open without any protection. Products dry more quickly in high altitudes than at sea level.
EVERY STEP IN BRINING
We have learned how to preserve fruit and vegetables by canning and drying and now we are going to learn another method to preserve foods, in which salt is used. We use this salt method for vegetables. It is not adapted to fruits. We may pickle apples, pears and peaches, but we ferment, brine and dry-salt only vegetables.
This salt method is not a substitute for drying or canning, but just an additional method we may employ. Every thrifty housewife of to-day wants her shelves of canned foods, her boxes of dried foods and her crocks of salted foods. Each kind has its proper function to perform in the household. One cannot take the place of the other.
For women on the farm salting is a salvation. In busy seasons when canning and drying seem an impossibility, a great many vegetables can be saved by this method in a very short time. The labor required is very small, as no cooking is necessary. A good supply of salt is the one necessity.
Besides the saving of time, salting saves jars, which are absolutely necessary in canning. Old containers can be used if they are thoroughly cleansed. The vegetables can be put in any container, so long as it holds water and is not made of metal. Metal containers should not be used. Old kegs, butter and lard tubs if water-tight, stoneware jars or crocks, chipped preserve jars, glass jars with missing covers and covered enamel buckets can all be utilized. Avoid using tubs made of pitch or soft pine unless coated with melted paraffin, as they impart a flavor to the vegetables. Maple is the best.
THREE METHODS OF SALTING FOOD
There are three ways of preserving food by salting: First, fermentation with dry salting; second, fermentation in brine or brining; and third, salting without fermentation, or dry salting.
Dry Salting. Fermentation with dry salting consists in packing the material with a small amount of salt. No water is used, for the salt will extract the water from the vegetables and this forms a brine. This is the simplest process of all three and is used mostly for cabbage. To make sauerkraut proceed as follows: The outside green leaves of the cabbage should be removed, just as in preparing the head for boiling. Never use any decayed or bruised leaves. Quarter the heads and shred the cabbage very finely. There are shredding machines on the market, but if one is not available use a slaw cutter or a large sharp knife.
After the cabbage is shredded pack at once into a clean barrel, keg or tub, or into an earthenware crock holding four or five gallons. The smaller containers are recommended for household use. When packing distribute the salt as uniformly as possible, using one pound of salt to forty pounds of cabbage. Sprinkle a little salt in the container and put in a layer of three or four inches of shredded cabbage, then pack down with a wooden utensil like a potato masher. Repeat with salt, cabbage and packing until the container is full or the shredded cabbage is all used.
Press the cabbage down as tightly as possible and apply a cloth, and then a glazed plate or a board cover which will go inside the holder. If using a wooden cover select wood free from pitch, such as basswood. On top of this cover place stone, bricks or other weights—use flint or granite; avoid the use of limestone, sandstone or marble. These weights serve to keep vegetables beneath the surface of the liquid. The proportion of salt to food when fermenting with dry salt is a quarter pound of salt to ten pounds of food. Do not use more, for the product will taste too salty.
Allow fermentation to proceed for ten days or two weeks, if the room is warm. In a cellar or other cool place three to five weeks may be required. Skim off the film which forms when fermentation starts and repeat this daily if necessary to keep this film from becoming a scum. When gas bubbles cease to rise when you strike the side of the container, fermentation is complete. If there is a scum it should be removed.
As a final step pour very hot melted paraffin over the brine until it forms a layer from a quarter to a half-inch thick, to prevent the formation of the scum which occurs if the weather is warm or the storage place is not well cooled. The cabbage may be used as soon as the bubbles cease to rise. If scum forms and remains the cabbage will spoil. You may can the cabbage as soon as bubbles cease to rise and fermentation is complete. To can, fill jars, adjust rubbers and partly seal. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath, or 60 minutes in steam-pressure outfit at five to ten pounds pressure.
The vital factor in preserving the material by this method is the lactic acid which develops in fermentation.
If the vegetables are covered with a very strong brine or are packed with a fairly large amount of salt, lactic acid fermentation and also the growth of other forms of bacteria and molds are prevented. This method of preservation is especially applicable to those vegetables which contain so little sugar that sufficient lactic acid cannot be formed by bacterial action to insure their preservation.
In the well-known method of vinegar pickling the acetic acid of the vinegar acts as a preservative like the lactic acid produced by fermentation. Sometimes brining precedes pickling in vinegar, and often the pickling is modified by the addition of sugar and spices, which add flavor as well as helping to preserve the fruit or vegetables. In some cases olive oil or some other table oil is added to the vinegar, as in the making of oil cucumber pickles.
Besides sauerkraut, string beans, beet tops, turnip tops, greens, kale and dandelions are adapted for fermentation with dry salting. String beans should be young, tender and not overgrown. Remove the tip ends and strings; cut or break into pieces about two inches long. Wash the beet and turnip tops as well as all greens, in order to remove dirt and grit. Weigh all products that are to be salted.
For salting, a supply of ordinary fine salt, which can be purchased in bulk for about two cents a pound, is most satisfactory for general use. Table salt will do very well, but it is rather expensive if large quantities of vegetables are to be preserved. The rather coarse salt—known in the trade as "ground alum salt"—which is used in freezing ice cream can be used. Rock salt because of its coarseness and impurities should not be used.
A weight must be used. The size of the weight depends on the quantity of material being preserved. For a five-gallon keg a weight of ten pounds will be sufficient, but if a larger barrel is used a heavier weight will be needed. The weight should be sufficient to extract the juices to form a brine, which will cover the top in about twenty-four hours. If a brine does not form it may be necessary to add more stones after the material has stood a while.
There always will be more or less bubbling and foaming of the brine during the first stages of fermentation. After this ceases a thin film will appear which will rapidly spread over the whole surface and quickly develop into a heavy, folded membrane. This scum is a growth of yeast-like organisms which feed upon the acid formed by fermentation. If allowed to grow undisturbed it will eventually destroy all the acid and the fermented material will spoil. To prevent mold from forming it is necessary to exclude the air from the surface of the brine.
Perhaps the best method is to cover the surface—over the board and round the weight—with very hot, melted paraffin. If the paraffin is hot enough to make the brine boil when poured in, the paraffin will form a smooth, even layer before hardening. Upon solidifying, it forms an air-tight seal. Oils, such as cottonseed oil or the tasteless liquid petroleum, may also be used for this purpose. As a measure of safety with crocks, it is advisable to cover the top with a cloth soaked in melted paraffin. Put the cover in place before the paraffin hardens.
After sealing with paraffin the containers should be set where they will not be disturbed until the contents are to be used. Any attempt to remove them from one place to another may break the paraffin seal and necessitate resealing.
Some vegetables which do not contain sufficient water are better fermented by covering them with a weak brine. Those which are the most satisfactory when fermented in this way are cucumbers, string beans, green tomatoes, beets, beet tops, turnip tops, corn and green peas. The general directions for this brining are as follows:
Wash the vegetables, drain off the surplus water and pack them in a keg, crock, or other utensil until it is nearly full—within about three inches of the top of the vessel. Prepare a weak brine as follows: To each gallon of water used add one-half pint of vinegar and three-fourths of a cup of salt and stir until the salt is entirely dissolved. The vinegar is used primarily to keep down the growth of injurious bacteria until the lactic-acid ferment starts, but it also adds to the flavor. Spices may be added if desired.
The amount of brine necessary to cover the vegetables will be equal to about one-half the volume of the material to be fermented. For example, if a five-gallon keg is to be packed, two and one-half gallons will be needed. It is best to make up at one time all the brine needed on one day. A clean tub or barrel can be used for mixing the brine. Pour the brine over the vegetables and cover. Set the vessel and its contents away in a moderately warm room to ferment.
When fermentation ceases, the container should be placed in a cool cellar or storeroom and the surface of the liquid treated to prevent mold. Before adding the paraffin or cottonseed oil, any scum or mold which may have formed on the surface of the liquid should be removed by skimming.
These general directions can always be followed with successful results, but some modifications are desirable for certain vegetables.
Cucumbers—Dill Style. To pickle cucumbers wash the cucumbers and pack into a clean, water-tight barrel, keg or crock. On the bottom of the barrel place a layer of dill weed and a handful of mixed spice. Add another layer of dill and another handful of spice when the barrel is half full, and when almost full, add a third layer. If a keg or crock is used, the amount of dill and spice can be reduced in proportion to the size of the receptacle. When the container has been filled to within a few inches of the top, add a layer of covering material—beet leaves or grape leaves—about an inch thick. If any spoilage should occur on the surface, this layer will protect the vegetables beneath. Press down with a clean board weighted with bricks or stone.
Make the brine as given in the general rules. Add sufficient brine to cover the material and allow it to stand twenty-four hours. Then make air-tight. The time necessary for complete fermentation to occur depends upon the temperature. In a warm place five days to a week may suffice; in a cool cellar three to four weeks.
The dill and spices may be omitted, in which case we then have plain cucumbers.
String Beans. Remove the ends and strings from the beans and cut into pieces about two inches long; pack in the container; cover with brine and ferment.
Green Tomatoes. Green tomatoes should be packed whole and prepared as cucumbers. The dill and spice may be added if desired.
Beets. Beets must be scrubbed thoroughly and packed whole. If peeled or sliced before being fermented the beets lose considerable color and flavor.
Beet Tops and Turnip Tops. These should be washed thoroughly and packed into the container without being cut up.
Peas. Green peas should be shelled and packed in the same way as string beans. It is advisable to use fairly small containers for peas, so that the quantity opened up will be used before it has a chance to spoil.
Corn. Husk and clean the silk from the corn; wash and place the ears on end in the jar, packing the jar nearly full. Pour the brine over the ears; add cover and weights. Fermented corn has a sour taste, which may not be relished if the corn is eaten alone. For this reason it will be preferable in most cases to preserve corn by canning, drying or by salting without fermentation. Fermented corn, however, may be used in the preparation of some dishes, such as chowders, omelets, and so forth, where its flavor will be masked to some extent by the other ingredients. To some people this peculiar acid taste of fermented corn is not at all objectionable.
Salting Without Fermentation. In this method the vegetables are packed with enough salt to prevent fermentation or the growth of yeasts or molds. The vegetables preserved most satisfactorily by this method are dandelions, beet tops, turnip tops, spinach, kale, chard, cabbage, cauliflower, string beans, green peas and corn. The following directions should be followed:
The vegetables should be washed, drained and weighed. The amount of salt needed will be a quarter of the weight of the vegetables. Kegs or crocks make satisfactory containers. Put a layer of vegetables about an inch thick on the bottom of the container. Cover this with salt. Continue making alternate layers of vegetables and salt until the container is almost filled. The salt should be evenly distributed so that it will not be necessary to use more salt than the quantity required in proportion to the weights of the vegetables that are used.
Cover the surface with a cloth, and a board of glazed plate. Place a weight on these and set aside in a cool place. If sufficient liquor to cover the vegetables has not been extracted pour in enough strong brine—one pound of salt to two quarts of water—to cover the surface round the corner.
The top layer of vegetables should be kept under the brine to prevent molding. There will be some bubbling at first. As soon as this stops, set the container where it will not be disturbed until ready for use. Seal by pouring very hot paraffin over the surface.
String beans should be cut in two-inch pieces. Peas should be shelled. Cabbage should be shredded in the same way as for sauerkraut. Corn, however, requires somewhat different treatment, and the directions for salting it are as follows:
Salted Corn. Husk the ears of corn and remove the silk. Cook in boiling water for about ten minutes to set the milk. Cut off the corn from the cob with a sharp knife. Weigh the corn and pack in layers with a quarter its weight of fine salt, as described above.
Some experts insist on blanching and cold-dipping all vegetables for dry-salting without fermentation. They say that, though it is not necessary, it makes the tissues softer and consequently they are more easily penetrated by the salt. Furthermore, when preparing these products for the table the salt soaks out more readily and the products cook much more quickly if they have been blanched. So where there is time it seems advisable to blanch for five minutes for dry-salting.
If properly prepared and stored, fermented, brined and dry-salted products will keep for a long time. It is absolutely necessary to prevent mold from growing on the surface of the brine of fermented vegetables, by the addition of paraffin or in some other way. Protection of the surface of dry-salted vegetables is desirable, but not necessary if the containers are covered to prevent the evaporation of the brine. Most trouble with the fermented or salted products may be traced to carelessness in protecting the surface of the brine.
POINTS TO REMEMBER
These are the special things to remember about fermentation, brining and dry-salting:
1. For fermentation, such as in making sauerkraut, use a quarter pound of salt to ten pounds of food material. For every 100 pounds of food add two and a half pounds of salt.
2. For brining use three-quarters of a cupful of salt and one cupful of vinegar to each gallon of water.
3. For dry-salting use one pound of salt to four pounds of food.
4. Do not use vinegar, pickle or pork barrels as containers for salted foods unless they are very thoroughly scalded.
5. Thoroughly scald all containers, covers, weights and cloths before using.
6. If using glass jars put a cork inside to press the food down. If white vaseline is rubbed on the rubber rings the solution will not get through rubber and be lost.
7. After adding salt or brine for fermented foods, cover the food material with a piece of muslin or cheesecloth six inches larger in diameter than the diameter of the container. Tuck this in round the top of the food, cover with weight and adjust lid of container.
8. During fermentation keep the cover on loosely until all bubbles cease. Test by slightly knocking container to see if any bubbles appear on the surface.
9. When you have made this test and discovered that the bubbling has ceased, then it is time to protect the food from all organisms which destroy lactic acid.
10. To protect the food cover with hot melted paraffin or liquid oil.
11. If evaporation takes place, add water or brine to make up the original amount of water.
12. When dry sealing is used let the product stand twenty-four to thirty-six hours, then add strong brine to fill the containers. The water from the vegetables usually only half fills the containers.
TABLE FOR PRESERVATION OF VEGETABLES BY SALT
METHODS VEGETABLES ADAPTED AMOUNT OF SALT OTHER TO METHOD INGREDIENTS NEEDED I. Dry Cabbage, which is 1/4-lb. salt to 10 No other. salting with converted by this lbs. food or 21/2 fermentation. method into lbs. salt to 100 sauerkraut, string lbs. food. beans, beet tops, turnip tops, greens, kale and dandelions. II. Cucumbers, string 3/4-cup salt, 1 Dill and spices Fermentation beans, green gallon water, 1 can be added. 1 with brine. tomatoes, beets, cup vinegar for lb. dry dill or beet tops, corn brine. Amount of 2 lbs. green and green peas. brine required is dill and 1 oz. equal to 1/2 volume spices for a of food. 4-gallon crock. III. Dry Dandelions, beet 25 lbs. salt to Blanch and salting tops, turnip tops, 100 lbs. of food. cold-dip without spinach, kale, Salt should be 1/4 vegetables for fermentation. chard, cabbage, weight of five minutes cauliflower, vegetable. before dry string beans, salting. green peas, and corn.
CURING, SMOKING AND PRESERVING MEAT
Many farmers seem to have more trouble with the curing of meats than with the slaughtering. This part of the work is indeed very important as it determines whether one will have good tasting cured meat or meat that is too salty or possibly that is far removed from the original taste of the raw product.
It is worth every farmer or farmerette's attention to spend some time on this problem as it pays so well in the resulting, good tasting meat. Why not have a superior grade of home-cured meat as easily as a poor grade? Work carefully and accurately done will produce good results while work slovenly or carelessly done can produce nothing but poor results. To cure meat so that it is not only delicious but has good keeping qualities is an art and accomplishment worth striving for. A pride in this work is just as fine and worth while as the housewife's pride in her culinary skill or the pride of any other professional in his or her line of work. To-day we are thinking of food and its problems as never before and it behooves us all to put more time, thought, care and skill on all things that pertain to foods. And as meat is such an essential item in our diet, meat problems should receive their due attention.
All meat that is to be cured should always be thoroughly cooled and cut into the desired convenient sizes before it is put into the brine or packed in dry salt.
The pieces most commonly used for curing are the ham, shoulder and bacon pieces from pork. From beef we use the cheaper, tougher cuts such as the plate, shoulder and chuck ribs. Mutton is seldom cured and preserved.
The ham should be cut off at the hock joint, the spare ribs taken out of the bacon, and the ragged edges trimmed off smooth. If ragged edges or scraggy ends are left these portions will become too dry in the curing and will practically be wasted.
After all the animal heat is removed from the meat and it is properly cut it is then ready for the curing. If salt is put on the meat before the animal heat is all removed, it will have a tendency to shrink the muscles and form a coating on the outside which will not allow the generating gases to escape. Meat should never be in a frozen condition when the salt is added as the frost will prevent the proper penetration of the brine and uneven curing will be the result.
METHODS OF CURING MEAT
The two most common methods of curing meat are first the brine or sugar cure process and second the dry-curing process. For general farm use the brine cured process is the better. It requires less time, less effort and not such an exacting place for the work. On most farms it is impossible to secure a desirable place in which to do the dry-curing as the meat is exposed to rats, cats, flies and other insects. The dry-curing requires considerable time to rub and salt the meat at different times while the only attention that is necessary for brine-curing is to properly prepare and pack the meat in the vessel and prepare the brine for it.
UTENSILS FOR CURING
If possible use a round container for the curing. It is easier to put the meat in tightly, and the space can be used to better advantage. A hardwood barrel of some kind is excellent. Sirup, molasses or lard barrels which have been thoroughly cleaned are very satisfactory. If you use a vinegar or an oil barrel it should be well burned on the inside before using. Stone crocks or jars are sometimes used but they are expensive and cumbersome to handle besides the constant danger of loss of brine from breakage.
For curing the meat the farmer usually uses salt, salt peter, white or brown sugar or molasses. These are the necessary preservatives. The others such as boracic acid, borax and soda are often used for sweetening the brine and to keep it from spoiling but are not absolutely essential. The salt extracts moisture and acts as a preservative. The sugar or molasses imparts a nice flavor and has a tendency to keep the muscle tissue soft in contrast to the salt, which has a tendency to make it hard and dry. So the salt and sugar have two distinct functions to perform, the one to harden and preserve, the other to soften and sweeten. If you have a favorite recipe that has proved satisfactory and you want to use sorghum or molasses instead of sugar add one pound more of the molasses. If you have been accustomed to using 2 pounds of sugar then use 3 pounds of the other sweetening.
Salt peter is not absolutely necessary as far as the preserving is concerned but it helps to hold the red color of the lean meat. If salt peter is not used the lean meat will be gray in color. It may possibly be a little tenderer if the salt peter is not used as the salt peter tends to harden the meat. Chili salt peter can be substituted in place of salt peter, if only four-fifths as much is used.
THE SUGAR BRINE CURE
All formulas for the sugar brine cure are practically the same varying only a little in the proportions of sugar, salt and salt peter. If you have a formula that you have tried for years and have found it to be satisfactory there is no reason you should attempt a new one. But for those who want to try a different formula or recipe I will give you this reliable one that is widely used and indorsed by several agricultural colleges.
The container should be scalded thoroughly. Sprinkle a layer of salt over the bottom and over each layer of meat as it is packed in, skin down. When full, cover meat with boards and weight down with a stone so that all will be below the brine, which is made as follows:
Weigh out for each 100 pounds of meat, 8 pounds of salt, 2 pounds of sugar (preferably brown) or 3 pounds of molasses, and 2 ounces of salt peter. Dissolve all in 4 gallons of water. This should be boiled, and when thoroughly cooled, cover the meat. Seven days after brine is put on, meat should be repacked in another barrel in reverse order. The pieces that were on top should be placed on the bottom. The brine is poured over as before. This is repeated on the fourteenth and twenty-first days, thus giving an even cure to all pieces. Bacon should remain in the brine from four to six weeks, and hams six to eight weeks, depending on the size of the pieces. When cured, each piece should be scrubbed with tepid water and hung to drain several days before smoking; no two pieces should come in contact. For all curing always use dairy salt and not table salt, as the latter contains starch to keep it dry and this starch may cause the meat to spoil. If you carefully follow these directions you will have delicious sugar-cured hams and bacon.
It is desirable to have an ample supply of corned beef on hand. For this any part of the beef may be used but the parts usually selected are the plate, rump, cross-ribs and brisket, which are the tougher cuts of the meat. The brisket and plate are especially good because of the character of the fat, which is somewhat like a tissue. Cut all around the meat to about the same thickness, so that it will make an even layer in the barrel. It is best to remove the bone, although this is not necessary. Be sure to start the pickling or curing while the meat is perfectly fresh, but well chilled. Do not wait like some farmers do until they think the meat is beginning to spoil and then salt it down just to save it. Allow ten pounds of dairy salt to each 100 pounds of meat. Sprinkle a layer of the salt in the bottom of the crock, barrel, or whatever container is used. Have the salt about one-fourth of an inch in depth. After the layer is in the bottom of the container put the cuts of meat in as closely as possible, making the layer five or six inches in thickness, then put on another layer of salt, following that with another layer of meat. Repeat until the meat and salt have all been packed in the barrel, care being taken to reserve salt enough for a good layer on the top. Cover the meat with a board and weight down with a stone and not an iron weight. Do not allow any meat to project from the salt or mold will start and the brine will spoil in a short time. Let the meat stand over-night.
Prepare a brine by boiling 7 pounds salt, 3 pounds brown sugar or 6 pounds molasses, 2 ounces baking soda, 2 ounces salt peter and 4 gallons water for every 100 pounds of meat. This quantity of brine should be sufficient to cover that amount.
Remove any scum that rises to the surface and filter the hot brine through muslin. Set the brine aside, best over-night, to become perfectly cold before using. In the morning tip the container in which the meat is packed so that all liquor which has separated from the meat over night may drain off. Cover the meat with the cold brine. Put the container in a cool place. The curing will be more satisfactory if the meat is left at a temperature of about 38 degrees F. Never let the temperature go above 50 degrees F. and there is some risk with even a temperature of 40 degrees F. if it is continuous. The sugar or molasses in the brine has a tendency to ferment in a warm place.
After about five days the meat should be overhauled and repacked, putting the pieces which were previously on the bottom on top. Pour back the same brine, and five days later repeat the overhauling. This may seem like some trouble and possibly look like a useless waste of time but it is well worth while as it insures a more rapid and uniform curing of the meat.
When unpacking the meat watch the brine to see that it is not ropy or moldy. If you find either condition existing remove the meat and rinse each piece with cold water and after scalding the container pack the meat as at first with a little salt. Scald and skim the brine and after it is cold pour it on the meat as before. You can use corned beef if necessary after a week in the cure, but it is not thoroughly cured until it has been from 20 to 30 days in the brine. If kept for sixty days it will be salty enough to need freshening before cooking.
If the meat has been corned during the winter, and is to be kept until summer, watch the brine closely during the spring as it is more likely to spoil then than at any other time.
PLAIN SALT PORK
Rub each piece of meat with dairy salt, and pack closely in a container. Let stand over-night. The next day weigh out ten pounds of salt and two ounces of salt peter for each 100 pounds of meat, and dissolve in four gallons of boiling water. Pour this brine, when cold, over the meat, cover, and weight the meat down to keep it under the brine. The pork should be kept in the brine until used.
SMOKING CURED MEATS
Of course many farmers never attempt to smoke their cured meats but use them directly from the brine but if possible it is more satisfactory to smoke them before using for several reasons. First, the process of smoking helps to preserve the meat. The creosote formed by the combustion of the wood closes the pores of the meat to a great extent thus excluding the air and helping it to keep and at the same time makes the meat objectionable to insects. In the second place, pickled or cured meats taste better and are more palatable if smoked. Of course the smoking must be properly done and the right kind of fuel must be used.
The Smokehouse and the Smoke. It is not necessary to have a regular smokehouse—although it is a delightful addition to any farm. Here again a community meat ring is of great advantage. One smokehouse will answer for many families. This is the ideal arrangement and it can easily be managed if you are progressive and anxious enough to supply your family with delicious meat the year around saving time and money.
If, however, you have to do your own smoking and smoke only a small quantity at a time a barrel or box will answer. Overheating of the meat must be guarded against.
Green hickory or any of the hardwoods or maple should be used for the smoking. Pine or any other resinous woods should not be used as they give a disagreeable flavor to the meat. If it is impossible to get hardwood use corncobs rather than soft wood. The corncobs will leave a dirty deposit on the meat, which is carbon. It is not objectionable only from the standpoint of "looks." The meat which you are going to smoke should be removed from the brine the day before the smoking. A half hour soaking in cold water prevents a crust of salt from forming on the outside. Do not hang the meat so that any two pieces touch as this would prevent uniform smoking.
Always start with a slow fire so as to warm the meat up gradually. Thirty-six to forty-eight hours of heat as near 120 degrees F. as possible will be sufficient under most circumstances.
How to Store Smoked Meats. A dry, cool cellar or attic where there is good circulation is a good place for storage. If the meat is to be used soon the meat can hang without coverings but for long keeping you will have to wrap it when cold in waxed paper and then in burlap, muslin or canvas bags and then hang it, after it is tied very tightly to prevent insects from getting in, in a room with a cool uniform temperature.
Some farmers get satisfactory results by wrapping the meats in strong bags and then burying them in oat bins.
Frequently when animals are butchered on the farm there are often wholesome portions of the carcass that are not used. All trimmings, cheeks, liver, tongue, breast and other pieces can be made into bologna, headcheese or some other form of sausage. Sausage making is an art worth acquiring. There is always a good demand for fresh and smoked country sausage, so if you wish to sell some you will have no trouble in finding a market for your product if it is a good one.
To make sausage you should have a meat grinder, which is an absolute essential on every farm. If you do not have one already then buy a No. 22 or No. 32.
In addition to the grinder you will need a stuffer attachment which costs very little. A knife, cord, string, a clean tube and casings or muslin bags will complete your equipment. The muslin bags can be of any size but the easiest to handle are 12 inches long and 2 inches in diameter. If the sausage is stuffed into these bags they must be paraffined for home use. If you do not want to bother with casings or bags put the sausage in stone crocks or tin pans with a layer of lard or paraffin on top.
The best sausage is made by using 3 parts of lean meat to one of fat. When using the grinder, distribute the lean and fat meat as uniformly as possible.
You are not necessarily limited to pork sausage, for there are many other delicious varieties you can make. They vary in the different kinds of meat used and in the different seasonings and spices.
Breakfast sausage has bread added to it; frankfurters are smoked pork sausage in casings; liver sausage has pork and beef or veal and bread in it; and blood sausage, as its name suggests, has blood (preferably from a hog) added to it. Then there is tomato sausage which is made of pulp from fresh tomatoes, pork sausage and crackers. Summer sausage is made in the winter and kept for use during the summer. After being dried and cured it will keep for months. Brain sausage is delicious. To make it calves' brains are mixed with lean pork. Cambridge sausage has rice added to it.
Headcheese is usually made from the hog's head but odds and ends also can be used not only from pork but from beef and veal.
Scrapple usually means the head and feet of hogs but it can be made from any hog meat. It is a good food as it uses cornmeal. It makes a change from fried mush and most men working on a farm relish it.
Sausage can be made from mutton mixed with pork in much the same way as beef is used for similar purposes. A general formula would be 2 parts of mutton to 3 parts pork with seasonings.
With a plentiful supply of good home-cured and home-smoked meats, together with several varieties of sausages, you can feel you are well equipped to feed your family with its share of meat. Everything will have been utilized, nothing will have been wasted. You produced your own meat, you slaughtered and cured and smoked it and put all trimmings and other "left-overs" into appetizing food for your family and you have saved money. You have utilized things at hand and required no transportation facilities. And best of all, you have the very finest in the land for your family and that gives one a perfectly justifiable pride in the work accomplished.
PRESERVED OR "CANNED" EGGS
As one-half of the yearly egg crop is produced in March, April, May and June consumers would do well to store enough at that time to use when production is light. Fifty dozen eggs should be stored for a family of five to use during the months of October, November, December and January, at which time the market price of eggs is at the highest.
When canning them the eggs must be fresh, preferably not more than two or three days old. This is the reason why it is much more satisfactory to put away eggs produced in one's own chicken yard or one's neighbor's.
Infertile eggs are best if they can be obtained—so, after the hatching exclude the roosters from the flock and kill them for table use as needed.
The shells must be clean. Washing an egg with a soiled shell lessens its keeping quality. The protective gelatinous covering over the shell is removed by water and when this is gone the egg spoils more rapidly. Use the soiled eggs for immediate use and the clean ones for storage.
The shells also must be free from even the tiniest crack. One cracked egg will spoil a large number of sound eggs when packed in water glass.
Earthenware crocks are good containers. The crocks must be clean and sound. Scald them and let them cool completely before use. A crock holding six gallons will accommodate eighteen dozen eggs and about twenty-two pints of solution. Too large crocks are not desirable, since they increase the liability of breaking some of the eggs, and spoiling the entire batch.
It must be remembered that the eggs on the bottom crack first and that those in the bottom of the crock are the last to be removed for use. Eggs can be put up in smaller crocks and the eggs put in the crock first should be used first in the household.
METHOD OF STORING
There are many satisfactory methods of storing eggs. The commercial method is that of cold storage and if it were not for this method winter eggs would be beyond the average purse.
The fact that eggs have been held in cold storage does not necessarily mean that they are of low quality. Carefully handled cold-storage eggs often are of better quality than fresh local eggs that have been improperly cared for.
In the home they may be packed by several methods: Salt, oats or bran; covering them with vaseline, butter, lard, paraffin or prepared ointments; immersion in brine, salicylic acid, water glass (sodium silicate) or limewater.
Any of these methods will keep the eggs for short periods if stored in a cool place. The salt, oats and bran are very satisfactory. The ointments also are satisfactory. The water glass and limewater will keep eggs without loss for a year. However, it is not wise to put down more eggs than is necessary to tide over the period of high price.
WATER GLASS METHOD
"Water glass" is known to the chemist as sodium silicate. It can be purchased by the quart from druggists or poultry supply men. It is a pale yellow, odorless, sirupy liquid. It is diluted in the proportion of one part of silicate to nine parts of distilled water, rain water, or other water. In any case, the water should be boiled and then allowed to cool. Half fill the vessel with this solution and place the eggs in it, being careful not to crack them. The eggs can be added a few at a time until the container is filled. Be sure to keep about two inches of water glass above the eggs. Cover the crock to prevent evaporation and place it in the coolest place available from which the crock will not have to be moved. Wax paper covered over and tied around the top of the crock can be used. Inspect the crock from time to time and replace any water that has evaporated with cool boiled water.
Limewater is also satisfactory for preserving eggs and is slightly less expensive than water glass. A solution is made by placing two or three pounds of unslaked lime in five gallons of water, which has been boiled and allowed to cool, and allowing the mixture to stand until the lime settles and the liquid is clear. The eggs should be placed in a clean earthenware jar or other suitable vessel and covered to a depth of two inches with the liquid. Remove the eggs as desired, rinse in clean, cold water and use immediately.
If using the limewater method add a little of the lime sediment to insure a constantly saturated solution. If a thin white crust appears on the limewater solution it is due to the formation of calcium carbonate coming in contact with the air and consequently does no harm.
CANDLING EGGS AT HOME
If you purchase the eggs that are to be stored it is safer to candle them. Examining eggs to determine their quality is called "candling." Every one knows that some eggs are better than others, but the ease with which the good ones can be picked out is not generally understood. The better the quality of eggs, the surer the housewife can be that they will keep satisfactorily.
The equipment for candling usually consists of either a wooden, a metal, or a cardboard box and a kerosene lamp or an electric light. A very inexpensive egg candler for home use can be made from a large shoe-box or similar cardboard box. Remove the ends of the box, and cut a hole about the size of a half-dollar in one side. Slip the box over the lamp or electric bulb, darken the room, hold the egg, with the large end up, before the opening in the box and its quality can easily be judged.
SIGNS OF A GOOD EGG
When held before the opening of the candle, good eggs will look clear and firm. The air cell (the white spot at the large end of the eggs) should be small, not larger than a dime, and the yolk may be dimly seen in the center of the egg. A large air cell and a dark, freely moving yolk indicate that the egg is stale.
If the shell contents appear black or very dark, the egg is absolutely unfit for food. If you are in doubt about the quality of any eggs you are candling break a few of them into a dish and examine them. This is an excellent way to learn to know how good and bad eggs look when they are being candled.
Discard all eggs that have shrunken, loose contents, a watery appearance, cracked and thin shells. Eggs of this description will not keep and are apt to spoil the eggs close around them. Any egg that floats in the solution should be discarded.
When packing eggs whether in salt, oats, or in solution place them with small end down. When packing them in salt, oats, etc., do not allow any two eggs to touch.
PACKING THE EGGS
One gallon of water glass as purchased will make enough preservative to preserve from 75 to 100 dozen eggs.
Three gallons of either water glass solution or limewater solution will preserve from 200 to 240 dozen eggs according to the size of the eggs and the shape of the container.
The cost of preserving eggs by the water glass method is about one cent per dozen eggs, not considering the cost of the container. The lime water method is still cheaper.
The following gives the sizes of jars with approximate capacity for eggs and the amount of water glass solution required to cover the eggs:
1 gallon jar—40 eggs, 31/2 pints of solution or 13/4 qt.
2 gallon jar—80 eggs, 8 pints of solution or 2 quarts.
3 gallon jar—120 eggs, 11 pints of solution or 51/2 quarts.
4 gallon jar—160 eggs, 141/2 pints of solution or 71/4 quarts.
5 gallon jar—200 eggs, 18 pints of solution or 9 quarts.
6 gallon jar—216 eggs, 22 pints of solution or 11 quarts.
10 gallon jar—400 eggs, 36 pints of solution or 18 quarts.
HOW TO USE PRESERVED EGGS
When the eggs are to be used, remove them as desired, rinse in clean, cold water, and use immediately.
Eggs preserved in water glass can be used for soft boiling or poaching up to November. Before boiling such eggs prick a tiny hole in the large end of the shell with a needle to keep them from cracking, as the preservative seals the pores of the shell and prevents the escape of gases, which is possible in the strictly fresh egg.
They are satisfactory for frying until about December. From that time until the end of the usual storage period—that is until March—they can be used for omelettes, scrambled eggs, custards, cakes and general cookery. As the eggs age, the white becomes thinner and is harder to beat. The yolk membrane becomes more delicate and it is correspondingly difficult to separate the whites from the yolks. Sometimes the white of the egg is tinged pink after very long keeping in water glass. This is due, probably, to a little iron which is in the sodium silicate, but which apparently does not injure the eggs for food purposes.
HOME STORAGE OF VEGETABLES
Towards the end of the canning season most housewives have used every available glass jar and tin can and hesitate about purchasing a new supply. They have dried and brined many products and yet they feel, and rightly so, that they would like still more vegetables for winter use. There still remains another method that they may employ to provide themselves with a plentiful supply of vegetables and these vegetables can be in the fresh state too. Neither canned, dried, pickled or salted but fresh.
Canning, drying, pickling and salting are essential and necessary but they can not take the place of storage. To keep vegetables in their natural state is the easiest and simplest form of food preservation. Of course, you must take proper precautions against freezing and decay. If you do this you can have an abundant supply of many kinds of fresh vegetables all winter, where climatic and living conditions will permit. Storage costs but little money and little effort and yet it is very satisfactory.
There are many vegetables that can be stored to good advantage. They are: Beets, Brussels Sprouts, Beans, Celery, Carrots, Chicory or Endive, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Kohl-rabi, Lima Beans, Onions, Sweet Potatoes, Squash (Winter), Salsify or Vegetable Oyster, Tomatoes, Turnips.
To get good results in any kind of storage, you must observe four things:
1. Proper ventilation. 2. Proper regulation of temperature. 3. Sufficient moisture. 4. Good condition of vegetables when stored.
There are six different ways to store vegetables. They are: cellar storage, pit storage, outdoor cellar or cave storage, attic storage, sand boxes and pantry storage.
We will first of all consider cellar or basement storage. One of the most convenient places for the storage of vegetables is a cool, well-ventilated and reasonably dry cellar underneath the house. This cellar must have windows or some method of ventilation, must not be too warm and not so cold that food will freeze. If there is proper ventilation there can be some dampness without injury to the vegetables. If your cellar or basement floods easily or has water standing in it anywhere it should not be used for vegetable storage.
If there is a furnace in the cellar or basement a small room as far as possible from the heating plant should be partitioned off. Do not build a room in the middle of the cellar, for two sides of the room should consist of outside walls.
If possible have two outside windows for proper regulation of the temperature and for good ventilation. If you cannot have two windows have one.
A very good arrangement for constant circulation of air consists in having a stove-pipe inserted through one of the lower panes of the window to admit cold air. One of the upper panes of the window can be removed to allow for the escape of warm air. That is, of course, if the window is made of nine or twelve small panes of squares of glass. In severely cold weather this upper pane can be replaced or the opening stuffed up in some way.
If you do not have an old stove-pipe you can make a wooden flue of old boards or old discarded boxes.
Most cellars and basements are now made with concrete floors. The ideal floor for storage purposes is an earth floor. However, we can put two or three inches of sand on our concrete floors and get good results. Sprinkle the sand with water from time to time.
Put the vegetables that are to be stored in boxes, baskets, barrels or crates. Use containers that hold only two or three bushels apiece. If larger boxes or barrels are used there is always danger of heating and decay. Of course, proper precautions should be taken against mice.
An excellent way to prevent wilting of crops and shrinkage is to put moist leaves, oak or maple, in the containers with the vegetables. Moist sand is sometimes used but it is much heavier to handle than the leaves. It is no difficult matter to rake the lawn when you are ready to store the vegetables.
The vegetables that are adapted for cellar storage are beets, cabbage, carrots, celery, parsnips, potatoes, salsify and turnips.
There are two kinds of pits that may be used for storage. Those that are not frost-proof and those which are frost-proof.
Some vegetables are not injured by being held in a frozen condition during the winter months. Cabbage is not injured by moderate frost. Cabbage and parsnips will stand freezing and a little thawing, so they can be put in pits or better still, boxes or barrels set into the ground may be used. Make the pit mound shaped. If the earth is mounded around the box, barrel or pit, surface water cannot run in.
If using this kind of storage do not store the products until both the ground and the products are frozen solid. The idea is to keep the vegetables frozen or to have very few freezings and thawings, and those few should be gradual.
After the pit has been made or the box or barrel has been set into the ground and filled with vegetables, it should be covered first with a piece of burlap or carpet, then with a mouse-proof board cover and finally with straw or similar material. When taken from the pit, the vegetables can be thawed out over night in cold water, after which they can be kept in the cellar for a short length of time.
The pits for keeping vegetables free from frost must be carefully and thoughtfully made, but they are cheap and are very useful and practical when caves or cellars are not convenient.
The frost-proof pit for storing vegetables should always be placed in as well-drained a place as possible. A shallow excavation should be made from one to two feet deep, four feet wide and as long as desired. Line the pit with straw, hay or leaves, then place the vegetables in a conical pile on the straw. Cover the vegetables with six inches of the material used in making the lining. This is covered with three or four inches of earth. The straw is allowed to extend up through the earth at the top of the pile, thus assuring ventilation.
When it becomes colder add more covering to the pit by another layer of straw and a layer of earth. In very cold climates a layer of manure or corn stalks will afford protection against frost.
It is well to make several small pits rather than one larger one for the reason that when a pit has once been opened it is difficult to protect the remaining vegetables from frost.
It is advisable to store several varieties of vegetables in one pit so that when each pit is opened you have a variety of vegetables. If you follow this plan separate the various crops by using straw or leaves.
Pits are entered by chopping a hole through the frozen earth at one end, large enough to reach into or crawl into. After the vegetables have been obtained keep the hole stuffed and covered most carefully and deeply with old sacks and straw.
If the smaller pits are used, a decidedly better arrangement, take out all the vegetables in the pit and those that are not needed for immediate consumption can be placed in the cellar storage room, or other cool place, until needed. Do not use those pits if you live where winter rains are abundant as the pits will become water soaked and the vegetables will suffer more or less decay.
OUTDOOR CELLAR STORAGE
Outdoor cellars or caves may be cheaply built for more or less temporary use or they may be very expensively built of concrete, brick, or clay blocks. Of course, the latter are permanent storing places and offer perfect storage for potatoes, carrots, cabbages, parsnips, beets, turnips and salsify.
The objectionable features of indoor cellar storage is that such storage does not furnish ideal conditions for keeping the vegetables fresh for any great length of time.
The objectionable feature to the pit storage is the inaccessibility to these pits during severe weather.
The outdoor cellar or cave overcomes both these objections. The outdoor cellar or cave is an underground structure, preferably built in a hillside and fully covered with earth except at one end only where the entrance is located. If there are doors at both ends it is almost impossible to prevent freezing in very cold weather. The cave door should fit perfectly and there should be a hatchway or door over the steps leading down to the cave door.
A very satisfactory inexpensive cellar can be made by digging an excavation about 5 ft. deep and in this erecting a frame by setting posts in rows near the dirt walls. Saw these posts off at uniform height and place plates on their tops. On these plates place rafters. Board up completely with the exception of the entrance. Cover the whole with dirt or sod and in cold climates add a layer of straw or fodder.
A ventilation must be provided in the roof at the back end. A sewer tile with the bell end up makes a very good flue. A dirt floor is satisfactory as it contains moisture. If there is any seepage use a drain tile to carry it off.
The more pretentious permanent cellars are provided with air spaces to furnish insulation; are provided with large ventilation shafts through the roof and cold air intakes under the floor. Thorough drainage is obtained by placing a line of tile around the outside wall and also by having the air intake serve as a drain for surplus water that might get into the cave. The floor is cement or concrete. Such a cave is expensive but is a permanent structure and a good addition to any farm or estate. If properly made it is possible to maintain a temperature of 34 to 38 degrees without much fluctuation during the winter months. This kind of storage is not only adapted for vegetables but apples as well. It is better adapted to the Northern, Eastern and Western States than to the Southern States, where it is likely to be warm at the time the vegetables are ready for storage. When making the cave, have it as near as possible to the kitchen door. Sometimes caves are made so that they can be entered from the house, cellar or porch.
Some vegetables such as onions, squashes, sweet potatoes and pumpkins can be stored in the attic in crates which allow free circulation of air. They must be absolutely free from bruises and must be well ripened and cured. To cure the vegetables expose them to the air for a few days in the shade. Remove the tops of onions before storing. The attic is much better for storing onions than the basement. Squashes are susceptible to cold and moisture, so are suitable for the attic.
Be very careful in handling the squashes to prevent breaking the stems off. Watch pumpkins and squash carefully and at the first sign of decay, use immediately or can.
SAND BOX STORAGE
Sand boxes in cellars, pits or caves are desirable for beets, turnips, kohl-rabi, carrots, winter radishes and rutabagas. The sand keeps them cold and prevents evaporation. Kohl-rabi should be tender when stored.
Where there is no attic or where it is inconveniently reached, the products that are adapted to a very dry place can be stored on the pantry shelves or in a dry cellar near the furnace. They are onions, squashes, pumpkins and sweet potatoes.
The keeping qualities of all these vegetables, no matter what storage is used, depends chiefly upon their condition when placed in storage. All products to be stored must be mature, but not overgrown. Root crops should be dry while the ground is in good working condition. All vegetables should be allowed to become surface dry before placing them in storage.
White or Irish potatoes, especially, should not be exposed to bright sunlight any length of time. Only vegetables free from disease or injury should be stored. Any that are damaged can be used immediately, or can be canned or dried.
Further particulars for the storing of fresh vegetables are given in the following tables.
TABLE FOR VEGETABLE STORAGE
VEGETABLES HOW BEST STORED PREPARATION FOR STORAGE AMOUNT FOR FAMILY OF TWO REMARKS Irish Potatoes Must be kept cool with a slight degrees of moisture. Use either cellar or cave methods. No potato should be more than four ft. from air if stored in barrels, boxes, crates or bins. Potatoes must be dug before the ground is crusted with frost. Frosted potatoes will spoil, one after another. Impossible to sort out frosted potatoes. 10 to 15 bus. Remember Irish potatoes are ruined by freezing. Potatoes should be kept absolutely dark to prevent greening by light. Never buy potatoes in sacks that show wet places due to a frosted potato. Sweet Potatoes Require warmth and dryness. In crates or on shelves in warm dry room. Can be spread on the floor in the room above the kitchen where they will have plenty of heat, especially for the first 2 or 3 weeks after they are dug. When the sweet potatoes are dug they should be allowed to lie in the sun and wind for 3 or 4 hours so as to become perfectly dry. They must be well ripened and free from bruises. Can be kept on shelves in a very dry place and they need not be kept specially cold. Sweet potatoes keep best when they are showing just a little inclination to sprout. However, if they start growing the quality is greatly injured. 2 to 3 bus. If you are in doubt as to whether the sweet potatoes are matured enough for storage, cut or break one end and expose it to the air for a few minutes. If the surface of the cut or break dries, the potato is mature. But if moisture remains on the surface, it is not fully ripened. In places where there are early frosts, sweet potatoes should be dug about the time the first frost is expected, without considering maturity. Carrots Are best stored in sand in cellars, caves or pits; or in tightly covered boxes or crocks. Must be kept cold and evaporation must be prevented, for otherwise they become wilted. Can remain in the ground until the weather is quite cool; then be pulled, the tops cut off and then stored. 1 to 3 bus. If you store carrots in the cellar and it is extremely dry cover them with a little moistened sand. Celery May be rooted in earth in a cellar or cave and if watered occasionally will keep fresh until Christmas. The soil, earth or sand, in which the celery is set should be 2 or 3 inches deep. This soil must not be allowed to become dry. Can remain in the ground until the weather is quite cool. 5 dozen good plants or bunches. Another way to store celery is to bank it to the top with earth; cover the tops with boards, straw, or leaves and allow it to remain where it has grown until wanted for use. Another way is to dig a trench 12 inches wide and deep enough to correspond with the height of the celery, then lift the celery and pack it in this trench with some soil about the roots. When the weather becomes colder, cover the trench with boards nailed together in the form of a V shaped trough and over this inverted trough put a layer of soil. The ends of this trough should be left open for ventilation until freezing sets in, then close these openings with straw, old bags or soil. If the freeze ceases and there is a spell of warmer weather open the ends slightly for ventilation. When the celery is first stored in the trenches the soil about the roots of the celery should be watered and and if the weather is dry after the celery is put in the trenches, pour some water around the roots to keep the celery crisp and fresh. Cabbage Can be wrapped in paper with the outer leaves left on for immediate use and stored in ventilated barrels or large crates in the cellar. But as few cellars are cool enough to keep cabbage in good condition it is more advisable to store it in a long shallow pit in the garden. Is not injured by moderate frost while in the pit but should not be disturbed while frozen. The pit should be long and narrow. Pull the cabbage, stem, root and all, and then laid with heads down about 3 heads in width can be placed in the pit. Cover lightly with soil and as the weather becomes colder add a little more soil until there is a layer 6 or 7 inches thick over the cabbage. Keep the ends of the pit partially open for ventilation until the weather becomes very cold. 25 heads. Late varieties of cabbage are the only ones fit for storage. It is advisable to dig a shallow ditch around the pit so that all surplus water can be carried off. Chickory or Endive Store in a box or bed of moist sand in the cellar. Put roots in an upright position with the sand coming just to their tops. Water the sand occasionally. Sometimes a covering of straw is added to blanch the tender growth of shoots, which is the part used as food. Late in the fall lift the roots out and carefully trim off the leaves without injury to the heart. 5 doz. roots. Chickory or endive is grown the same as carrots or salsify. It is useful in the winter for it furnishes the needed green that is so scarce in winter. Beets Must not be placed in too large piles in the cellar as they are inclined to mold. Can also be buried in pits in open ground. Can remain in the ground until very cool weather; then should be pulled, the tops cut off and then stored in the cellar. 1 bushel. Beets are not so much inclined to shrivel as carrots. Salsify or Vegetable Oyster Pack roots in box with moist sand in cellar or as they are not injured by remaining in the ground all winter they can be left there. Enough for immediate use may be dug in the autumn and the others dug as desired. When stored in the cellar after the salsify is pulled, trim off the tops and then stand them in an upright position with the sand even with the tops. 75 to 100 roots. Is injured by too much freezing and thawing, so should remain frozen. Parsnips Can be stored just as salsify or be allowed to remain in the ground until wanted. Those that are to be stored in the cellar can remain in in the garden until the weather is quite cool, then prepare and store like salsify. 1 bushel in the cellar and one in the garden. Parsnips are best kept frozen or fresh in the cellar as too much freezing and thawing destroys them. Turnips Must be stored where temperature is low or sprouting will result. Moderate freezing does no harm while in the storage pit but they must not be disturbed while frozen. Pull; cut tops off and store in sand in cellars or caves, or in pits, or in tightly covered boxes or crocks. 1 to 3 bus. The object is to keep them cold and prevent evaporation. It is a good plan to store a portion in the cellar so as to be available during the time that those buried in the pit are "frozen in" and not so easily accessible. Onions Require a cool dry place. Attic excellent. Before storing, cure them by exposing to the air for a few days in the shade. Dryness is absolutely essential. A well cured onion should be firm and not readily dented at the base of the tops by the tip of the thumb when held in the hand. 3 bushels. Onions are best for storage if topped about 11/2 inches long. Cauliflower Planted in shallow boxes of soil in light place in the cellar. Must not be too mature. Store as many as possible. If kept well watered they will mature for winter use. Brussels Sprouts Planted in soil in cellar. Must not be too mature. According to family tastes. Keep watered and will mature. Ground Cherries or Husk Tomatoes May be stored for some weeks in the husk in their layers in a dry place free from frost. Kohl-rabi, Winter Radishes, Rutabagas Best stored in sand in cellars, cares or pits. Must be kept cold to prevent evaporation. According to the family tastes. Kohl-rabi must be tender when stored. Horse-radish May be kept in the ground where grown all winter. Must be kept frozen as thawing injures it. Pumpkins Best kept on shelves in a very dry place. Can be kept on shelves in furnace room. Must be ripened and cured and free from bruises. 5 ordinary sized pumpkins. Need not be kept especially cold. Squashes Susceptible to cold and moisture, so store in a dry place where temperature will be between 50 and 60 degrees. Care must be taken that stem is not broken. 10 ordinary sized hubbard squashes. Whenever squashes or pumpkins in storage show signs of decay, the sound portion should be immediately canned. Tomatoes Cool cellar or cave; can be wrapped in any absorbent paper preferably without printing upon it, and laid upon shelves to ripen. The paper absorbs the moisture given off by the tomatoes and causes them to ripen uniformly. If cellar is dry or well ventilated, tomatoes can be kept a month or six weeks in this manner. May be kept until Christmas if vines with the green tomatoes hanging on them are pulled and hung in the cellar. Pull the vines before they are frosted. All that you can put away. Most of the tomatoes that are put into storage will ripen and be most acceptable as soon as they color up. If these tomatoes, when cooked, are found to be very acid, the acidity may be overcome by using baking soda. Parsley Transplant into flower pots late in the fall. Keep in windows where they will receive plenty of sunshine. Garlic Should be thoroughly cured as are onions. Or it may be braided by the tops into strings which are hung up in dry places for curing and storing. Head Lettuce Rooted in earth in a cellar or cave. Water occasionally. All you have in the garden. Dry beans and peas Stored where protected from weevils. Should be fully ripened before shelling. Pick pods by hand as they ripen and spread pods to become thoroughly dry. May be shelled by spreading pods on a sheet and beating them with a stick. Can be cleaned by pouring them from a height of 4 or 5 ft. upon a sheet and allowing the wind to blow the particles of pod out of them as they fall. As many as you can gather. Apples Must be kept in a dry, cool place and so stored as to be in no danger of absorbing odors from vegetables stored nearby. Apples absorb odors from potatoes, onions, turnips and other strong vegetables. Sort apples carefully removing and using at once all fruit that is bruised and shows signs of decay. The best results are obtained by wrapping each apple in half a sheet of newspaper and storing in barrels, boxes, crates or bins. The wrapping prevents apples from touching and thus prevents decay. It also protects apples from odors of vegetables stored nearby. As many barrels of apples as possible. Remember that "An apple a day will keep the doctor away." The cellar or other storage place must be kept cool. 32 deg. F. is ideal. Never allow temperature to go above 40 deg. F. They can be stored unwrapped in barrels, boxes, crates, bins, etc., if proper attention is paid to sorting, to providing a cool place for storage, to occasional sorting during the winter and for the immediate removal of all decayed fruit. Even if you do not raise apples, but have a good storage place, meeting the requirements as regards temperature, you will find it advantageous to buy a winter's supply in the autumn, when prices are low.
HOW TO MARKET HOME CANNED PRODUCE
You have some delicious jellies, jams, canned fruits and vegetables that you wish to sell and you do not know just how to go about it. There are at your disposal several means of selling:
1. Through advertising.
2. Through personal letters to desirable shops, delicatessens, boarding-houses, colleges, etc.
3. By direct salesmanship; that is, by making personal visits to the buyers, either homes or stores.
4. Through jobbers to whom you pay a commission on all sales.
5. Through cooeperative selling.
Perhaps the cheapest and easiest way for you to handle your problem is to employ the method so much used to-day and that is wayside advertising. Wayside advertising costs practically nothing and yet it pays.
Autos are everywhere these days. You cannot take a country ride without seeing many signboards at the farm entrances advertising chickens, fresh eggs, vegetables, honey, apples and canned goods. I have a friend who drives 50 miles every fall for her honey. She first found it by seeing the sign in front of the farm and now she returns year after year because she thinks no other honey is just like it. She would never have discovered it if that farm woman had not been clever enough to think of advertising her goods in this cheap way. My friend told all her other "auto" friends, so the country woman has a splendid outlet for her product now. If you live on a good road that is patronized at all by autoists you ought to get your signboard up at once.
We often pass a farm where the sign "Fresh Home-Made Candy" always tempts us to stop and buy. What autoist could resist that sign? And here miles from town this clever woman is carrying on a profitable side trade, which is netting her a nice little yearly income. Her candy is good; we go often and so do many others. She has turned her profession into a paying proposition. She could send her candy away by parcel post or by some other means, but she would not be so far ahead as she is now.
In addition to your wayside advertising you could advertise in papers, magazines, etc. Many producers believe strongly in advertising in daily and weekly papers. You can quickly find out whether this kind of advertising pays. Give it a trial at least. After you have spent ten or fifteen dollars in advertising you ought to know whether it pays.
Use one or two of the city papers near you, taking the publisher's advice as to the best day of the week on which to run the advertisement, the size and the position of the "ad." The first cost of getting your customers may seem high, but with good products you could soon build up a list of people to whom sales can be made year after year.
This form of advertising has many advantages. If your advertising copy is clever and you have some novelty to offer, you ought to receive many orders. If orders come, you get the full retail price, the shipping charges are paid by the customer, and cash comes with every order. And it means, if your customers are pleased, that you have permanent customers. The initial cost is great and there is a risk, but remember "it pays to advertise."
There are millions of city women who never can a jar of fruit or put up a single glass of preserves or jelly who will be glad to have you send your goods direct to them by parcel post. But you must get in touch with these women either through wayside advertising, magazine and paper advertising or by direct salesmanship, although very few women have the time for personal calls.
Considerable business can be done by letter writing to stores, restaurants and boarding-houses in distant cities. It may be impossible for you to go personally, in which case letters often bring the desired results. Make your letters business-like and typewrite them. Do not be discouraged if you do not get many replies at first as there are at least fifty per cent who pay no attention to such letters. But this form of advertising usually pays.
Another method followed by many home canners is that of marketing direct to the retail grocers, care being taken, of course, to protect these grocers by not selling to more than one member in a community. One of the great advantages, of this direct salesmanship is that little selling effort is required on your part after the first arrangements have been made. The nearby market plan is greatly to be recommended because you can keep in touch with your selling concern, build up a line of desirable goods and promote its sale by advertising.
Of course you can get more money for your goods if you have time and the opportunity to sell direct to the consumers. You will of necessity have to sell cheaper to the grocers because they too must make their profit. Marketing direct to the consumer has a special appeal to many people. Where time is available and the community accustomed to purchasing in this manner, this method offers great possibilities. The profits are of course higher but the results more uncertain, for it is somewhat difficult to gauge the demands of the public, and the canner must assume the risk ordinarily taken by the merchant.
It takes time and patience to develop a list of customers but if you have time in the winter to do this you will find it will pay you well. If you can get customers who are willing to pay good prices for quality, scrupulous cleanliness and the homemade flavor, you will get a larger gross return than if you sold through merchants, but if your time is valuable it would scarcely pay you to take individual orders and deliver goods.
There is still another way and that is to market your home-canned products in large lots to jobbers, but if this plan is to be pursued successfully there must be a reasonably large pack and wholesale rates. This method produces more uniform profits year by year, for after a reputation is established the home-canner would not experience great difficulty in thus disposing of her entire output by contract, providing the quality was high and the price demands not excessive.
But the greatest and best way of all to find a profitable market for your things is to cooeperate with other canners in your own neighborhood and find a market for quantity as well as quality. Delicatessens, club houses, tea shops, college dormitories, restaurants and hotels, all pay good prices for fine quality. No big buyer will bother to purchase one or two dozen of this or that. He wants dozens of things. One of the very best profitable ways to sell with little trouble is through quantities. Get all the women in your community to bring together cans of fruit and preserves, etc., to some marketing place. Find out how many jars of currant jelly you have, how many cans of peas and corn, how many of cherries, etc., and then notify your buyer or prospective buyer.
Cooeperative selling has been undertaken and found profitable. In some cases, especially in localities frequented by the summer boarder or the automobile tourist, sales are made direct to customers who come to the salesrooms of the organizations or to their special sales; in other cases goods are sent by parcel post and other means. The women in the community can hire or beg a room where all the women of the community can sell their products for individual profit. This room should be located on the direct automobile road in order to attract tourists and automobile parties. An annual membership fee of from 50 cents to $1 generally is required for these organizations, and a charge of from 10 to 15 per cent of the selling price usually is made to cover the cost of selling. In a few instances the managing board has been able to secure an efficient person to take charge of the enterprise for a specified percentage on the sales.
Wholesale grocery concerns are interested in big things—orders can be placed with them. Soda fountains in towns and cities are excellent customers for the freshest eggs they can get. They are encroaching more and more on the trade of the restaurants and lunch rooms. Many serve light luncheons and would be interested in good butter, preserves and jams. When you get a list of names and addresses write to several dozen places, tell what your organization has in the way of guaranteed eggs, homemade products and what kind of service you could offer in the way of regular shipments. When orders come it is an easy matter to look up at your local bank the responsibility of any customer, so there is little risk. Or cash can be insisted upon with every order, although large concerns prefer to pay after receipt of goods and bill.
Each woman in this cooeperative organization must keep her goods up to a certain standard, for an inferior lot of goods sent to a large firm might ruin a reputation.
Three things govern the sale of canned products—appearances, quality and price. So many things enter into consideration of prices obtainable that it is difficult to set a standard which will be applicable to different sections. The quality of the pack, its neatness, the method of marketing and many other matters must be considered in deciding this all-important point. As a general proposition, however, if the products are uniformly high grade, prices may be obtained which are somewhat in excess of factory-made products marketed in the same manner.
Like any other new industry, the selling should be developed slowly in order to minimize the possibility of loss and to assure stable business. One should study the situation carefully both from the manufacturing and marketing standpoints. Plan the season's campaign before taking up the work, and do not let the enthusiasm of the beginner interfere with good business judgment.
The selling when rightly managed can be made a successful business or it can be turned into a liability through careless, unbusinesslike methods and insufficient or unwise planning. Properly handled it will pay well for the investment of time and money, and offer opportunity for the disposal of surplus home-canned, home-grown, homemade and home-prepared products of all kinds.
LIVING UP TO CONTRACTS
Care must be taken not to contract for more than can be delivered. This would be bad business, and business principles must govern in selling home products just as in other enterprises if one is to be increasingly successful from year to year.
Occasionally a quantity of fruit which will not meet the rigid requirements of the canning business can be turned into preserves, jellies or fruit juices. Preserves and jellies should be marketed in glass, and fruit juices in bottles, although some manufacturers are now marketing some of these products in fiber cups. This line of products will require some additional equipment, but there is a steady demand for such homemade things and many women are deriving profits through the sale of their tastily prepared jellies, just as pickles and condiments have lined the pocketbooks of ambitious housewives before now.
Home canning for the market is essentially a matter of specializing and of giving the consumer a better product than he is accustomed to purchase. Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the maintenance of a high standard for home-canned goods. Care should be taken that every jar measures up to a rigid standard, for a single one which falls below grade will neutralize the reputation and standing obtained by the sale of a dozen jars of perfect product. A quality is necessary which will warrant a money-back guarantee on every jar.
THE USE OF LABELS IN CANNING
Labels for both tin cans and glass jars should tell the truth as to the quality, weight and kind of product within the pack. Before adopting a trade-mark and label, consult the Bureau of Chemistry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., as to label requirements for canned goods prepared for the market.
It pays to show samples of all your canned goods at county and state fairs. You may win many premiums. Goods which are canned with preservatives should be debarred from all exhibits.
PACKING GLASS FOR SHIPPING
Wrap each glass or jar separately in rumpled newspapers or excelsior and pack in barrels or boxes. Line these containers with papers or excelsior.
Strong corrugated parcel post boxes can be obtained for this purpose. Wrap each jar with excelsior or paper before putting it in its proper section. If sending large amounts send all boxes or all barrels, do not mix them,—sending half barrels and half boxes—as large concerns like uniform packages.
PACKING TIN FOR SHIPPING
Two dozen cans is the regulation shipping case. Have the shipping boxes of uniform size. Put the two dozen cans in the box and nail on the top. Be exceedingly careful not to drive nails into the cans. On both ends of the box paste labels such as are on the cans, telling what the contents of the box are.
Address the box carefully using marking ink or a regulation tag. If a tag, tack with small tacks on the top of the box. Write your own name and address on the tag distinctly as the sender. Be as careful of the tacks as you were of the nails. Always get a receipt from your express agent if shipping by express as this will be necessary in case of non-receipt of goods.
Send to the concern or individual to whom you are sending the goods a list of the things you have sent. This is called an invoice. Keep a copy of the invoice for yourself so if any question arises you will know what you are talking about.
C.O.D. means collect on delivery. The purchaser pays the price of the products to the transportation company before they are delivered.
F.O.B. means free on board. For instance: if you send a shipment of canned goods to Chicago at $6.00 per case f.o.b. Charles City it means that you deliver the canned goods to the freight depot at Charles City and the purchaser pays both the price per case and the freight. If you deliver them f.o.b. Chicago it means you deliver them to the freight depot at Charles City and also pay the freight to Chicago.
Bill of Lading with Sight Draft Attached is a call for the money before the purchaser can take the products from the freight office.
Drop Shipment. If a wholesale firm requests that you ship direct to another firm buying from him, thus avoiding two shipments, this is called a drop shipment.
Lot Shipment. If you ship two or more barrels or cases as a "lot shipment" to the same destination they may be sent at a cheaper rate than if each were shipped separately.
LIST OF FIRMS FURNISHING SUPPLIES FOR CANNING, DRYING, PRESERVING, ETC
HOME AND CLUB COOEPERATIVE CANNING OUTFITS AND DEVICES
Butler Manufacturing Co. Kansas City, Mo., and Hot water and steam Minneapolis, Minn. pressure canners.
Carolina Metal Products Co. Wilmington, N.C. " " "
H.P. Chandlee Sons Co., Baltimore, Md. Hot water canners.
Farm Canning Machine Co. Meridian, Miss. " " "
Favorite Manufacturing Co. Tamps, Florida Water-seal canners.
Florida Metal Products Jacksonville, Fla. Water-seal canners.
Griffith & Turner Co. 205-207 N. Pace St., Steam canners. Baltimore, Md.
Halftime Cooker Co. 7556 Oglesby Avenue, Pressure canners. Chicago, Ill.
Hall Canner Co. Grand Rapids, Mich. Hot water bath canners.
Henninger & Ayes Mfg. Co 80-82 N. 5th Street, Steam pressure Portland, Ore. canners.
Home Canner Manufacturing Hickory, N.C. Hot water canners. Co.
E.F. Kirwan & Co. Baltimore, Md. " " "
Modern Canner Co. Chattanooga, Tenn. " " "
Monarch Manufacturing Co. Chattanooga, Tenn. " " "
Northwestern Steel & Iron Eau Claire, Wis. Steam pressure Wks. canners.
Phillips & Buttorff Mfg. Nashville, Tenn. Hot water canners. Co.
Pressure Cooker Co. Denver, Colo. Aluminum steam pressure cookers and canners.
T.H. Raney Chapel Hill, N.C. Hot water canners.
A.K. Robins & Co. Baltimore, Md. Steam pressure canners
Royal Supply Co. Cincinnati, Ohio Steam process canners.
Southern Canner and Chattanooga, Tenn. Hot water canners Evaporator Co.
Sprague Canning Machinery 222 No. Wabash Ave., Steam pressure Co. Chicago, Ill. canners.
F.S. Stahl 212 N. 4th Street, Hot water canners. Quincy, Ill.
Standard Water-Seal Canner 17 N. 2nd Street, Water-seal canners. Co. Philadelphia, Pa.
Utility Company Hickory, N.C. Hot water canners.
Willson Canner Company Louisville, Ky., and Water-seal and No. 8 G St., N.W. pressure canners. Washington, D.C.
HOME EVAPORATORS, DRYERS, AND EQUIPMENT FOR DRYING
American Paring Machine Co 1231 Callowhill St., Philadelphia, Pa. Peeler
Harry Bentz Engineering Co. 90 West St., New York City Dryer
G.S. Blakekslee & Company, 2806 Quinn St., Chicago, Ill. "
H.P. Chandlee Sons Co., Baltimore, Md.
Enterprise Mfg. Co., 3rd and Dauphin Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. Slicer
Edw. B. Fahrney, Waynesboro, Pa.
Gordon Engineering Corporaton 39 Cortlandt St., New York City "
The Grange Sales Association, Lafayette Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa.
Hunter Dry Kiln Co. Indianapolis, Ind. Dryer
Imperial Machine Company, 108 West 34th St., N.Y. City Cuber
Lake Breeze Motor Co., 564 W. Monroe St., Chicago Dryer
Philadelphia Drying Machinery Stekley St., above Westmoreland, Co. Philadelphia, Pa. "
Philadelphia Textile Machinery Sixth St. and Tabor Road, " Co. Philadelphia, Pa.
Phillips & Buttorff Mfg. Co., Nashville, Tenn.
John E. Smith's Sons Co., Buffalo, N.Y. Cuber
Southern Evaporator Co., Chattanooga, Tenn.
F.S. Stahl, 212 N. 4th St., Quincy, Ill.
N.R. Streeter Company, Rochester, N.Y. Dryer
N.R. Streeter & Co., Rochester, N.Y. "
B.F. Sturtevant Company, Hyde Park Dist., Boston, Mass. Peeler
Stutzman Mfg. Company, Ligonier, Ind.
H.G.W. Young Co., 61 Hanover St., Boston, Mass. Cuber
MECHANICAL SEALS AND SEALERS FOR TIN AND GLASS
American Metal Cap Co., Summit St. and Commercial Wharf, Brooklyn, N.Y. Metal bottle caps.
American Pure Food Process Co., Greenmount Avenue and Preston St., Baltimore, Md. Mechanical sealer for glass jars.
Bowers Can Seal Company, 146 Summer St., Boston, Mass. Automatic can sealers for tin cans.
Burpe Can Sealer Co., 215 W. Huron St., Chicago. Tin can sealer and opener.
Columbia Specialty Co., Baltimore, Md. Metal bottle caps.
Crown Cork and Seal Co., Baltimore, Chicago, San Francisco, and other cities Sanitary metal bottle caps and sealers.
The Enterprise Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Bottle cappers from 3 in. to 14 in.
Frazer & Co., Mechanical hand sealer for sanitary 50 Church Street, New York City cans.
Henninger & Ayes Mfg. Co., 47 1st Street, Portland, Ore. Automatic can sealers for tin cans.
States Metals Co., Hand sealers for sanitary cans. 30 Church Street, New York City
Aluminum Cooking Utensil Co. New Kensington, Pa.
Toledo Cooker Co. Toledo, Ohio.
Wilmot, Castle & Co. Rochester, N.Y.
HEATING DEVICES, LIFTING CRATES, AND OTHER LABOR-SAVING DEVICES
L.B. Allen Co. 4517 No. Lincoln St., Chicago, Ill. Commercial flux.
Biddle-Gaumer Co. Philadelphia, Pa. Patent canners.
H.P. Chandlee Sons Co. Baltimore, Md. " " "
Fagley & Halpen Philadelphia, Pa. " " "
Handy Mfg. Co. Maritime Bldg., Seattle Wash., and Individual jar holders. 208 No. Wabash Ave., Chicago, Ill.
Kerr Glass Mfg. Co. Sand Springs, Okla. Duplex fork.
Manning, Bowman & Co. Meriden, Conn. Alcholite stoves.
Parker Wire Goods Co. Worcester, Mass. Lifting tray for jars.
Pearce Co. Albion, Mich. Racks and lifters.
W.H. Schaefer Co. Toledo, Ohio. Fruit jar wrench.
LABELS, STICKERS, SHIELDS AND BADGES
Camden Curtain and Embroidery Co Camden, New Jersey.
R.P. Clarke & Co. Washington, D.C.
Dennison Mfg. Co. Boston, Mass.
U.S. Printing and Lithograph Co. Cincinnati, Ohio.
TIN CANS AND GLASS JARS
American Can Co. New York City. Tin cans.
Ball Bros. Glass Mfg. Co. Muncie, Ind. Screw top and glass-top jars
Ben Schloss San Francisco, Cal. Glass jars.
Buck Glass Co. Baltimore, Md. Glass jars.
Chesapeake Glass Co. Baltimore, Md. Glass jars.
Continental Can Co. Chicago, Ill. Tin cans.
Frazer & Co. 50 Church St., N.Y.C. Sanitary cans.
Hazel-Atlas Glass Co. Wheeling, W. Va. Glass-top jars.
Johnson-Morse Can Co. Wheeling, W. Va. Tin cans.
Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Co. Zanesville, Ohio. Glass jars.
Kerr Glass Mfg. Co. Sand Springs, Okla. Suction seal and Mason jars.
E.F. Kirwan Co. Baltimore, Md. Tin cans.
A.K. Robins & Co. Baltimore, Md. Tin cans and general equipment.
Schramm Glass Mfg. Co. St. Louis, Mo. Suction seal and screw top jars.
Smalley Fruit Jar Co. 26 Dock Sq., Boston, Glass-top jars. Mass.
Southern Can Co. Baltimore, Md. Tin cans.
F.S. Stahl Quincy, Ill. " "
Staunton Jar Corporation Ellicott Sq, Buffalo, Vacuum seal jars. N.Y.
United States Can Co. Cincinnati, Ohio Tin cans.
Virginia Can Co. Buchanan, Va. " "
Wheeling Can Co. Wheeling, W.Va. " "
RUBBER RINGS FOR COLD-PACK CANNING
Acme Rubber Co. Trenton, N.J.
Boston Woven Hose & Rubber Co. Boston, Mass.
United States Rubber Co. Cleveland, Ohio.
GLASS BOTTLES AND OTHER CONTAINERS FOR FRUIT JUICES, CATSUP, ETC.
Adams Brothers Co. Chicago, Ill.
Atlantic Bottle Co. 90 West Broadway, N.Y. City.
Berney-Bond Glass Co. Bradford, Pa.
Cape May Glass Co. Cape May Court House, N.J.
Cumberland Glass Mfg. Co. Bridgeton, N.J.
The Federal Glass Co. Columbus, Ohio
C.L. Flaccus Glass Co. Pittsburgh, Pa.
Glenshaw Glass Co. Glenshaw, Pa.
C.C. Goss Glass Co., Mfg. Agts. 172 Fulton St., New York City.
Hocking Glass Co. Lancaster, Ohio.
Imperial Glass Co. Charleroi, Pa.
Indiana Glass Co. Dunkirk, Ind.
D.C. Jenkins Glass Co. Kokomo, Ind.
Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Co. Zanesville, Ohio.
North Wheeling Glass Bottle Co. Wheeling, W.Va.
Ripley & Co. Connellsville, Pa.
Schramm Glass Mfg. Co. St. Louis, Mo.
Sheffield Glass Bottle Co. Sheffield, Pa.
The Sterling Glass Co. Lapel, Ind.
Turner Brothers Co. Terre Haute, Ind.
United States Glass Co. Salem, N.J.
Upland Flint Bottle Co. Upland, Ind.
Western Bottle Mfg. Co. West end Randolph St. Bridge, Chicago, Ill.
Whitall-Tatum Co. 410-416 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Wightman Bottle & Glass Mfg. Co. Parkers Landing, Pa.
Williamstown Glass Co. Williamstown, N.J.
Woodbury Glass Co. Winchester, Ind.
GLASS BOTTLES SEALED WITH CORKS AND METAL CAPS
Acme Glass Co. Olean, N.Y.
Binghamton Glass Co. Binghamton, N.Y.
C.L. Flaccus Glass Co. Pittsburgh, Pa.
Hazel-Atlas Glass Co. Wheeling, W.Va.
Imperial Glass Co. Charleroi, Pa.
Jeanette Glass Co. Jeanette, Pa.
Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Co. Zanesville, Ohio.
North Baltimore Bottle Glass Co. Terre Haute, Ind.
Turner Brothers Co. Terre Haute, Ind.
Whitney Glass Works Glassboro, N.J.
EARTHENWARE AND STONEWARE CONTAINERS
Buckel Pottery Co. White Hall, Ill.
Buckeye Pottery Co. Macomb, Ill.
Burley and Winter Pottery Co. Crooksville, Ohio.
Hawthorn Pottery Co. Hawthorn, Pa.
Logan Pottery Co. Logan, Ohio
Louisville Pottery Co. Louisville, Ky.
Muskingum Pottery Co. White Cottage, Ohio.
Nashville Pottery Co. Nashville, Tenn.
Nelson McCly Sanitary Hardware Co. Roseville, Ohio.
Paducah Pottery Co. Paducah, Ky.
Pfaltzaraff Pottery Co. York, Pa.
Ransbottom Bros., Pottery Co. Roseville, Ohio.
Red Wing Union Stoneware Co. Red Wing, Minn.
Star Stoneware Co. Crooksville, Ohio.
Uhl Pottery Co. Evansville, Ind.
Western Stoneware Co. Monmouth, Ill.
White Hall Sewer Pipe & Stoneware Co. White Hall, Ill.
FIBRE AND PAPER CANS AND BOTTLES
American Can Co. 447 W. 14th, New York City, and Chicago, Ill.
The American Paper Can Co. Washington, D.C.
The Canister Company of New Jersey Phillipsburg, N.J.
Continental Paper Bag Co. 17 Battery Place, New York City.
Cordley & Hayes 7-9 Leonard St., New York City.
The Empire Paper Tube and Box Co. 155 Bank St., New York City.
The Hygeia Paper Container Co. 2106 Auburn Ave., Toledo, Ohio.
Moisture Proof Fibre Can Co. Detroit, Mich.
Mono-Service Co. Newark, N.J.
Samuel W. Moore & Sons 95 Liberty St., New York City.
National Paper Can Co. 576 Clinton St., Milwaukee, Wis.
National Paper Products Co. San Francisco, Cal.
Pure Food Package Co. 200 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass.
The Purity Paper Bottle Co., Inc. 1341 S. Capitol St., Washington, D.C.
W.C. Ritchie & Co. 400 S. Green St., Chicago, Ill.
Sanitary Paper Bottle Co. Sandusky, Ohio.
Single Service Package Corp. of America 326 Hudson St., New York City.
St. Louis Paper Can & Tube Co. 4400 Union Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo.
The Standard Package Co. 50 State St., Boston, Mass.
Washington Paper Can Co. 425 12th St., N.W., Washington, D.C.
Weis Fibre Container Corporation Monroe, Mich.
FOIL-LINED PAPER BAGS
Thomas M. Royal & Co. Bryn Mawr, Pa.
DELIVERY CONTAINERS FOR EGGS, VEGETABLES, DRIED FOOD PRODUCTS, ETC.
Bloomer Bros. Co. Newark, New York.
Doane Carton Co. 920 N. Market St., St. Louis, Mo.
Hinde & Dauch Paper Co. Sandusky, Ohio.
Mono-Service Co. Newark, N.J.
National Paper Products Co. San Francisco, Cal.
Thomas M. Royal & Co. Bryn Mawr, Pa.
W.A. Schurmann & Co. 365 E. Ill. St., Chicago, Ill.
Sefton Mfg. Co. 1301 W. 35th St., Chicago, Ill.
Thompson & Norris Co. Brooklyn, N.Y.
United States Corrugated Fibre Box Co. Roosevelt Ave., Indianapolis, Ind.
Weis Fibre Container Corporation Monroe, Mich.
PARCEL POST EGG CONTAINERS
O.B. Andrews Co. Chattanooga, Tenn.
H.K. Brunner 45 Harrison St., New York City.
J.C. Bulis Mfg. Co. 1122-28 S. 12th St., St Louis, Mo.
Continental Paper Bag Co. 17 Battery Place, New York City.
Cummer Mfg. Co. Cadillac, Mich.
Day Collapsible Box Co., Inc. Washington Grove, Md.
Empire Printing & Box Co. Atlanta, Ga.
F.B. Foster & C o. 2447 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Robert Gair Co. Brooklyn, N.Y.
Hinde & Dauch Paper Co. Sandusky, Ohio.
Ohio No-Break Carrier Co. 702 Mercantile Library Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Sefton Mfg. Corporation 1301 W. 35th St., Chicago, Ill.
Self-Locking Carton Co. 437 E. Illinois St., Chicago, Ill.
Thompson & Norris Co. Concord & Prince Sts., Brooklyn, N.Y. Boston, Mass., and Brookville, Ind.
U.S. Safety Egg Carrier Co. Newark, N.Y.
Wallace Egg Carrier Co. 451 3rd St., San Francisco, Cal.
MISCELLANEOUS CORRUGATED BOARD CONTAINERS
American Can Co. New York City and Chicago, Ill.
J.C. Bulis Mfg. Co. 1122-28 S. 12th St., St. Louis, Mo.
Empire Printing & Box Co. Atlanta, Ga.
Federal Glass Co. Columbus, Ohio
Robert Gair Co. Brooklyn, N.Y.
Hinde & Dauch Paper Co. Sandusky, Ohio
National Paper Products Co. San Francisco, Cal.
Sefton Mfg. Corporation 1301 W. 35th St., Chicago, Ill.
Thompson & Norris Co. Concord and Prince Sts., Brooklyn, N.Y. Boston, Mass., and Brookville, Ind.
U.S. Corrugated Fibre Box Co. 1315 Martindale Ave., Indianapolis, Ind.
THERMOMETERS FOR OVEN, CANDY AND SUGAR
Taylor Instrument Companies Rochester, N.Y.