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Essentials in Conducting
by Karl Wilson Gehrkens
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[Sidenote: ORGAN ACCOMPANYING]

If the accompaniments are played on the organ, the conductor will need to take into consideration the fact that preparing and manipulating stops, pistons, and combination pedals takes time, and he will therefore not expect the organist to be ready to begin to play the instant he takes his place on the bench; neither will he be unreasonable enough to assume that the organist ought to be ready to pass from one number to another (e.g., from a solo accompaniment to a chorus) without being given a reasonable amount of time for arranging the organ. The fact that in such a case the accompanist has been working continuously, whereas the director has had an opportunity of resting during the solo number, ought also to be taken into consideration; and it may not be unreasonable for the organist to wish for a moment's pause in order that he may adjust his mental attitude from that demanded by the preceding number to that which is appropriate to the number to follow. All this is especially to be noted in performances of sacred music, in which no time is taken between the numbers for applause. In any case, the least the conductor can do is to watch for the organist to look up after he has prepared the organ, and then to signal him pleasantly with a nod and a smile that he is ready to go on with the next number. This will not only insure complete preparedness of the organ, but will help "oil the machinery" and keep relations pleasant.

The conductor of a church choir should remember that the organist has probably studied and is familiar with the dynamic resources of his instrument to a much greater extent than the conductor; and that many times the organist is not depending upon his ear in deciding the amount of organ needed, so much as upon his knowledge of what the total effect will be in the auditorium. It is frequently impossible to tell from the choir loft how loud or how soft the sound of the organ is in the body of the house. The conductor, not knowing the dynamic values of the various stop combinations as well as the organist, must not presume to criticize the latter for playing too loudly or too softly unless he has gone down into the auditorium to judge the effect there. Even this is not an absolute guide, for the balance is very likely to be different when the auditorium is full of people from what it was when empty. Moreover, the amount of choral tone frequently increases greatly under the stimulus of public performance. All in all, therefore, a good organist should be permitted to use his own judgment in this matter. In any case, do not resort to conspicuous gestures to let him know that there is too much or too little organ. He has probably discovered it as soon as you have, and will add or subtract as soon as it can be done without making an inartistic break in the dynamic continuity of the accompaniment. If a signal becomes absolutely necessary, make it as inconspicuously as possible.

[Sidenote: ACCOMPANIST MUST SEE DIRECTOR]

We have previously stressed the fact that the conductor must stand so that his beat may be easily seen by all performers; and this matter is of the utmost importance in connection with the accompanist. He must be able to see you easily if he is to follow your beat accurately; further, he should be able to see your face as well as your baton, if a really sympathetic musical relationship is to exist. This may appear to be a small point, but its non-observance is responsible for many poor attacks and for much "dragging" and "running away" on the part of accompanists.

The sum and substance of the whole matter may be epitomized in the advice, "Be courteous, considerate, and sensible in dealing with your accompanist and verily thou shalt receive thy reward!"



CHAPTER XVI

EFFICIENCY IN THE REHEARSAL

[Sidenote: ORGANIZING ABILITY NEEDED TO AVOID WASTING TIME]

Having now reviewed the various essentials in conducting from the standpoint of public performance, we wish emphatically to state our conviction that in many cases both choruses and orchestras have been short-lived, being abandoned after a season or two of more or less unsatisfactory work, directly as a result of the inefficient methods used by the conductor in the rehearsal. In an earlier chapter (p. 18) we noted that the successful conductor of the present day must possess a personality combining traits almost opposite in their nature; viz., artistry and organizing ability. We were referring at that time to business sense in general as needed by the conductor in selecting works to be performed, deciding upon the place, duration, and number of rehearsal periods, engaging artists to assist in the public performances, and in general, seeing to it that the business details of the organization are attended to in an efficient manner. But such organizing ability is needed most of all in planning and conducting the rehearsal, and there is no doubt that mediocre results at the public performance and not infrequently the actual breaking up of amateur organizations may be traced more often to the inability of the conductor to make the best use of his time in the always inadequate rehearsal hour than to any other source. It is for this reason that we have thought best to devote an entire chapter to a discussion of what might be termed "The Technique of the Rehearsal."

[Sidenote: EFFICIENCY NOT A DESTROYER OF IDEALISM]

The word efficiency has been used so frequently in recent years that it has come to be in almost as bad odor as the word artistic, as employed by the would-be critic of esthetic effects. This antipathy to the word is perhaps most pronounced on the part of the artist, and there has been a well-defined feeling on the part of a good many of us that efficiency and advancement in art appreciation do not perhaps go hand-in-hand as much as might be desired. Granting the validity of this criticism of efficiency as a national ideal, it must nevertheless be evident that the artist has in the past been far too little concerned with life's business affairs, and that both he and his family on the one hand, and those having business relations with him on the other would be far better off if the artist would cultivate a more businesslike attitude in his relationships with the rest of the world. However this may be in general, it is certain that the conductor of the present must take more definitely into consideration what is going on outside the world of art; must recognize the fact that this is now a busy world and that there are a great many interesting things to do and a great many more distractions and amusements than there were a half-century ago; and that if the members of a chorus or orchestra (particularly in the case of an amateur society) are to continue to attend rehearsals regularly and to keep up their enthusiasm for the work of the organization, the conductor must see to it that something tangible is accomplished not only during each season, but in each and every practice hour, and that regular attendance at the rehearsals does not cause the members to feel that they are wasting time and energy.

This is, after all, the essence of scientific management—to accomplish some desired result without any waste moves and without squandering valuable material; and surely no artistic loss will be involved if efficiency of this type is applied to conducting a musical rehearsal. On the contrary, the application of such methods will enable the conductor to secure a much higher degree of artistry in the public performance because, by avoiding any waste of time in rehearsing, he will be able to put the musicians through the music more often, and thus not only arouse greater confidence on their part, but be enabled to emphasize more strongly the interpretative, the artistic aspect of the music. Most of the rehearsal hour is often spent in drilling upon mere correctness of tone and rhythm, especially in the case of amateur organizations.

In order to make these matters as concrete and practical as possible, we shall give in the remainder of this chapter a series of somewhat unrelated suggestions about conducting an ensemble rehearsal, trusting that the reader will forgive the didactic (and possibly pedantic) language in which they are couched.

[Sidenote: PLANNING THE REHEARSAL]

Do not make the mistake of attempting to study your score at the same time that your singers or players are learning it. Study your music exhaustively beforehand so that at the rehearsal you may know definitely just what you are going to do with each selection and may be able to give pointed directions as to its rendition. This will enable you to look at your performers most of the time, and the freedom from the score thus allowed will make your conducting very much more effective and will enable you to stir your singers out of their state of inertia very much more quickly. Weingartner, in writing upon this point (with especial reference to the public performance) says:[36] "He should know it [the score] so thoroughly that during the performance the score is merely a support for his memory, not a fetter on his thought." The same writer in another place quotes von Buelow as dividing conductors into "those who have their heads in the score, and those who have the score in their heads"!

[Footnote 36: Weingartner, On Conducting, p. 43.]

Study the individual voice parts, so as to find out so far as possible beforehand where the difficult spots are and mark these with blue pencil, so that when you want to drill on these places, you may be able to put your finger on them quickly. It is very easy to lose the attention of your performers by delay in finding the place which you want them to practise. It is a good plan, also, to mark with blue pencil some of the more important dynamic and tempo changes so that these may be obvious to the eye when you are standing several feet from the desk.

Decide beforehand upon some plan of studying each composition, and if a number of works are to be taken up at any given rehearsal, think over in advance the order in which they are to be studied. In brief, make a plan for each rehearsal, writing it out if necessary, and thus avoid wasting time in deciding what is to be done.

In case you are a choir director, learn also to plan your services weeks or even months in advance,[37] and then keep working toward the complete carrying out of your plan by familiarizing your musicians with the material as far in advance of the public performance as possible. In this way the music is absorbed, as it were, and the singers and players are much more apt to feel at ease in performing it than when it has been taken up at only one or two rehearsals.

[Footnote 37: The complete list of works to be given by leading symphony orchestras during the entire season is usually decided upon during the preceding summer, and somewhat the same procedure might profitably be followed with a church choir or an amateur orchestra.]

[Sidenote: DISCIPLINE IN THE REHEARSAL]

It is impossible to conduct well unless you have the absolute attention of every singer or player. Hence the discipline at all rehearsals must be rather strict and the performers must be trained to keep their eyes on you practically all the time. (In the case of choral music, it would be well to have a great deal more of it entirely committed to memory so that at the performance the singers might be enabled to give the conductor their absolute attention.) You have a perfect right to demand that all shall work industriously during every working minute of the rehearsal hour and that there shall be no whispering or fooling whatsoever, either while you are giving directions, or while you are conducting. If you are unfortunate enough to have in your organization certain individuals who do not attend to the work in hand even after a private admonition, it will be far better to drop them from the organization, for they are bound to do more harm than good if they are retained. On the other hand, you will recognize the temptation to whisper which the performer feels while you are giving a long-winded explanation of some pet theory of yours, and you will accordingly cut down the amount of talking you do to the minimum. A good rule to follow is this: "Talk little at the rehearsal, but when you do talk, be sure that every one listens." Keep your performers so busy that they will have no time to think about anything but the work in hand. Plan plenty of work so as to be able to keep things moving through the entire hour. Better a rehearsal conducted in this way and only one hour long, than a slow-moving, boresome affair, two hours in length. If the tax of such concentrated attention is too severe to be kept up constantly for an entire hour, plan to have a five-minute intermission when everyone may talk and laugh and thus relax. The author has found that with a body of amateur singers, a ninety-minute rehearsal, with a five- to seven-minute intermission in the middle, works very well indeed.

[Sidenote: BEGINNING THE REHEARSAL]

Do not shout at your chorus or orchestra if the members are noisy. Wait until the noise subsides entirely before you begin to speak, and address them in a quiet, dignified, authoritative way when you do begin. Unless you have some pointed remark to make about the rendition of the music, it is far better to give merely the place of beginning without making any remarks at all. Securing quiet by a prolonged rapping with the baton is a sign of weak discipline. Do not rap at all until the music is distributed, the accompanist in his place and ready to begin, your score open, and until you know exactly what you are going to do first. Then let just a slight tap or two suffice to notify everyone that the rehearsal is to begin at once.

[Sidenote: LEARNING DIFFICULT PASSAGES]

In drilling on a difficult passage, it is usually better to stop at the actual spot where the mistake occurs than to go on to the end and then turn back. Find the exact spot that is causing trouble and "reduce the area of correction to its narrowest limits," as one writer[38] states it. It is to be noted that merely one repetition of such a passage is usually of little avail. It must be gone over enough times to fix the correct method of rendition in mind and muscle as a habit. If a section sings a certain passage incorrectly twice and then correctly only once, the chances are that the fourth time will be like the first two rather than like the third. The purpose of drilling on such a passage is to eradicate the wrong impression entirely and substitute for it an entirely new habit at that point. After learning a difficult tonal or rhythmic phrase in this way, be sure to fit it into its environment before assuming that it has been finally mastered. The difficulty in such passages often consists not in performing the intervals or rhythms in isolation, but in doing them while the other parts are going on.

[Footnote 38: Richardson, The Choir-trainer's Art, p. 156.]

[Sidenote: LOCATE DIFFICULT SPOTS QUICKLY]

In directing attention to some particular place in the score about which you wish to speak, give the details of your direction always in the same order, viz.: (1) page, (2) score (or brace if you prefer), (3) measure, (4) beat. Thus e.g., "Page 47, second score, fourth measure, beginning with the second beat." Give the direction slowly and very distinctly, and then do not repeat it; i.e., get your musicians into the habit of listening to you the first time you say a thing instead of the second or third. Carrying out this plan may result in confusing unpreparedness on the part of your singers or players for a time or two, but if the plan is adhered to consistently they will very soon learn to listen to your first announcement—and you will save a large amount of both time and energy.

[Sidenote: REHEARSAL LETTERS AND NUMBERS]

Ensemble music is frequently supplied with rehearsal letters or numbers, these enabling the performers to locate a passage very quickly. When not printed in the score, it will often be a saving of time for the conductor to insert such letters or numbers in his own copy of the music in advance of the first rehearsal, asking the members to insert the marks in their music as he dictates their location by page and score, or by counting measures in the case of orchestra music. These letters or numbers are best inserted with soft red or blue pencil.

[Sidenote: THE "WHOLE METHOD" OF LEARNING]

When a new composition is to be taken up, go through it as a whole a few times, so as to give everyone a general idea of its content and of the connection and relation of its parts. After this, begin to work at the difficult spots that you have found, then when it begins to go fairly well, work definitely for expressive rendition. You will of course not expect ordinary performers to go through the composition the first time in a very artistic fashion. If they keep going and do not make too many mistakes, they will have done all that non-professionals should be expected to do. Psychologists have found as the result of careful investigation that the "whole method" of study is much to be preferred to what might be termed the "part method," because of the fact that a much clearer and closer association between parts is thus formed, and there is no doubt but that this point applies very forcibly to the study of music. In an interview published in the New York World in June, 1916, Harold Bauer writes as follows about this matter as related to piano music:

Now, in taking up a new work for the piano, the child could and should play right through every page from beginning to end for the purpose of obtaining a definite first impression of the whole. A mess would probably be made of it technically, but no matter. He would gradually discover just where the places were that required technical smoothing, and then by playing them over slowly these spots would be technically strengthened. By the time the composition was thoroughly learned the technique would be thoroughly acquired, too. Obtaining first a perfect mental picture of the whole, and afterward working out the details, is better than learning a work by starting with the details before gaining a broad impression of the composition as a whole.

This method of studying musical compositions is especially important from the standpoint of expression. In many an instance, the source of wrong interpretation (or of no interpretation at all) may be traced directly to a method of studying the composition which has not impressed the singers or players with its essential meaning and spirit, and with the significance of the various details in relation to the plan of the work as a whole. This is particularly true of choral compositions, and in taking up such works, it may often be well for the conductor to read aloud the entire text of the chorus that is being studied in order that the attention of the singers may be focused for a few moments upon the imagery conveyed by the words. Such attention is frequently impossible while singing, because the minds of the singers are intent upon the beauty or difficulty of the purely musical aspects of the composition, and thus the so-called "expression" becomes merely a blind and uninspired obedience to certain marks like piano, forte, and ritardando—the real spirit of interpretation being entirely absent.

[Sidenote: DISTRIBUTING AND CARING FOR THE MUSIC]

Have the distribution and care of music so systematized that there will be neither confusion nor waste of time in this part of the rehearsal. In a professional organization there will of course be a salaried librarian to see to such work, but it is entirely possible to secure somewhat the same kind of results in an amateur body by having two or three members elected or appointed for the task, these persons serving either entirely without salary or being paid a purely nominal sum. These librarians will then be expected to take the responsibility of marking new music, of distributing and collecting it at such times as may be agreed upon by librarian and conductor, and of caring for it at concerts or at any other time when it is to be used.

It will be the duty also of the head librarian to keep a record of all music loaned or rented, and to see that it is returned in good condition. It would be well too if he kept a card index, showing just what music is owned by the organization, the number of copies of each selection, the price, the publisher, the date when purchased, et cetera. Ask the librarians to come five or ten minutes before the beginning of the rehearsal, and make it your business to provide one of them with a slip having upon it the names or numbers of all the selections to be used at that particular rehearsal. Keeping the music in covers or in separate compartments of a cabinet, one of which will hold all of the copies of a single selection, and having these arranged alphabetically or numerically, will considerably facilitate matters for both you and the librarians. Do not think it beneath your dignity to investigate the number of copies of any composition that you are planning to use, and when there are not enough to supply each singer in the chorus and each desk in the orchestra with a copy, to see to it that more music is ordered. It is impossible to rehearse efficiently if the singers in a chorus have to use a part of their energy in trying to read music from a book or sheet held by some one else, or if the players in an orchestra are straining their eyes because three or four instead of two are reading from a single desk.

It will be convenient for the conductor to possess a file containing a copy of each number in the library at his home or studio, each copy being marked "conductor's copy." In this way, the director will always be assured of having the same music, and will feel that it is worth while to mark it in such a way as to make it more useful in both rehearsal and performance.

[Sidenote: COUNTING ALOUD, TAPPING, AND SINGING WITH THE CHORUS]

Do not make the mistake of counting or tapping on the desk constantly during the rehearsal. You may think you are strengthening the rhythm, but as a matter of fact, you are actually weakening it, for in this way you take away from the performers the necessity of individual muscular response to the pulse, and at the performance (when you cannot, of course, count or tap) the rhythm is very likely to be flabby and uncertain. Singing with the chorus is another mistake against which the amateur should be warned. The director not only cannot detect errors and make intelligent criticisms if he sings with the chorus, but will make the members dependent upon his voice instead of compelling them to form the habit of watching him. The only exception to this principle is in teaching new music to a choir composed of very poor readers, in which case it is sometimes much easier to teach a difficult phrase by imitation. Even here, however, it is almost as well to have the organ give the correct tones. In leading community singing, the conductor will of course sing with the crowd, for here he is striving for quite a different sort of effect.

[Sidenote: VENTILATION]

See to it that the practice room is well ventilated, especially for a chorus rehearsal. Plenty of fresh air will not only enable your chorus to sing with better intonation, but will allow them to sing for a longer period without fatigue. (We are tempted to add a corollary to this proposition: namely, that sleepy congregations are not always due to poor preaching, as is generally supposed, but are as frequently the result of a combination of fairly good preaching and a badly ventilated auditorium!)

[Sidenote: A CAPPELLA REHEARSING]

In directing a chorus rehearsal, have your singers study without accompaniment much of the time. The organ "covers a multitude of sins" and practising without it will not only enable you to discover weaknesses of all sorts but will help the singers themselves enormously by making them more independent, improving the intonation, and compelling them to make cleaner and more definite attacks and releases.

[Sidenote: THE VALUE OF A SENSE OF HUMOR]

Finally, in concluding both this chapter and the book as a whole, let us commend once more to the conductor that he cultivate "the saving grace of humor." This quality has already been commented on somewhat at length in an earlier chapter (see p. 8), but it is in the rehearsal period that it is most needed, and the conductor who is fortunate enough to be able to laugh a little when annoyances interrupt or disrupt his plans instead of snarling, will not only hold the members of the organization together for a longer time, because of their cordial personal attitude toward him, but will find himself much less fatigued at the end of the rehearsal; for nothing drains one's vitality so rapidly as scolding. A bit of humorous repartee, then, especially in response to the complaints of some lazy or grouchy performer; the ability to meet accidental mishaps without anger; even a humorous anecdote to relieve the strain of a taxing rehearsal—all these are to be highly recommended as means of oiling the machinery of the rehearsal and making it run smoothly.

But of course, even humor can be overdone. So we shall close by quoting the Greek motto, "Nothing too much," which will be found to apply equally well to many other activities recommended in the foregoing pages.



APPENDIX A

REFERENCE LIST

I. GENERAL:

Berlioz, The Orchestral Conductor. A short treatise full of practical suggestions. It is found in the back of the author's well-known volume on Orchestration.

Weingartner, On Conducting. A small volume of about seventy-five pages, but containing excellent material for both amateur and professional.

Schroeder, Handbook of Conducting. A practical little book from the standpoint of both orchestral and operatic directing.

Wagner, On Conducting. A short treatise that every professional conductor will wish to read, but not of much value to the amateur.

Mees, Choirs and Choral Music. A well-written account of the history of choral music from the time of the Hebrews and Greeks down to the present, containing also an excellent chapter on the Chorus Conductor.

Grove, Dictionary of Music and Musicians (article, Conducting).

Henderson, What Is Good Music? (chapters XIII and XVII).

Krehbiel, How to Listen to Music (chapter VIII).

II. INTERPRETATION:

Coward, Choral Technique and Interpretation. One of the few really significant books on conducting. The author gives in a clear and practical way the principles on which his own successful work as a choral conductor was based.

Matthay, Musical Interpretation. A book for the musician in general, rather than for the conductor specifically; an excellent treatise and one that all musicians should read.

III. THE ORCHESTRA:

Lavignac, Music and Musicians (chapter II).

Mason, The Orchestral Instruments and What They Do.

Corder, The Orchestra and How to Write for It.

Prout, The Orchestra (two volumes).

Kling, Modern Orchestration and Instrumentation.

Henderson, The Orchestra and Orchestral Music; contains two chapters (XII and XIII) on the Orchestral Conductor that will be of great interest to the amateur.

Mason (Editor), The Art of Music (Vol. VIII).

Stoeving, The Art of Violin Bowing.

Forsyth, Orchestration. A particularly good book both for professional and amateur, as it gives many illustrations and treats the various instruments from an historical as well as a practical standpoint.

Widor, The Modern Orchestra.

IV. THE CHURCH CHOIR:

Curwen, Studies in Worship Music (two volumes).

Dickinson, Music in the History of the Western Church.

Helmore, Primer of Plainsong.

Pratt, Musical Ministries in the Church.

V. THE BOY CHOIR:

Bates, Voice Culture for Children.

Brown and Behnke, The Child Voice.

Howard, The Child Voice in Singing.

Johnson, The Training of Boys' Voices.

Richardson, The Choir Trainer's Art.

Stubbs, Practical Hints on Boy Choir Training.

VI. VOICE TRAINING:

Ffrangcon-Davies, The Singing of the Future.

Fillebrown, Resonance in Singing and Speaking.

Greene, Interpretation in Song.

Henderson, The Art of the Singer.

Russell, English Diction for Singers and Speakers.

Withrow, Some Staccato Notes for Singers.

VII. MISCELLANEOUS:

Hamilton, Outlines of Music History.

Hamilton, Sound and Its Relation to Music.



APPENDIX B

HAYDN—SYMPHONY No. 3

"Surprise" Symphony

Score of Second Movement

[Transcriber's Note: The modern designation for the "Surprise" Symphony is No. 94.]

[Music]



INDEX

A

A cappella singing, 162.

Accompanist—Relation to conductor, 147. Choosing of, 147. Treatment of, 148.

Accompanying, organ, 150.

Adolescent boy, 124, 125.

Alto, male, 119.

Altschuler, quoted, 61.

Anglican chant—Baton movements for, 33.

Attack—How to secure it, 30. In reading new music, 32.

B

Back stroke, 28.

Baton—Description of, 20. How used, 21. Position of, 22.

Baton movements—Diagrams of, 22. Principles of, 22. Length of stroke, 32.

Bauer, quoted, 159.

Berlioz, quoted, 62.

Boundaries of music, 41.

Bowing—Directions for, 103. Signs, 103, 104.

Boy—Problem of, 126-129.

Boy choir—Problem of, 118. Government of, 126-129. Remuneration of members, 129.

Boy voice—In church choir, 118-125. Life of, 123. During adolescence, 124.

Break—Adult voice, 137. Child voice, 122.

Breathing, 132.

Breath Control, 133.

C

Canadian Journal of Music, quoted, 19.

Caruso, quoted, 44.

Chant, Anglican—Baton movements for, 33.

Cheatham, quoted, 87.

Cheerful attitude—Value of, 10.

Child Voice—Peculiarities of, 118. Difference between boy and girl, 120. Compass of, 121.

Children, directing, 79.

Choir, boy—Problems of, 118. Boy voice, 118, 119, 120-125. Qualifications of leader, 119. Remuneration of boys, 129. Government of boys, 126-129.

Choir, church—Problems of directing, 108. Remedies, 109. Difficulties involved in, 111. Qualifications of leader, 112. Danger of individualism, 112. Solo singing in, 114.

Chorus, high school—Music for, 80. Direction of, 82. Seating of, 83

Church music—Remedies needed, 108. Solo singing, 114. Importance of congregation singing, 116.

Clarinet, 99.

Clearness of speech—As element in leadership, 16.

Community music—Significance of, 85. Social effects of, 86. Qualifications of song leader, 87. Song material, 89. Advertising, 90. Provision of words, 91.

Compass of child voice, 121.

Compass of orchestral instruments, 107.

Compound measures, 23, 24, 26, 27.

Conducting—Definition, 1. History of, 2. Psychological basis of, 3. Orchestral, 93. Church choir, 108. Boy choir, 118.

Conductor—Qualities of, 8, 110. Present status of, 2, 3. As organizer, 13. As interpreter, 36. Orchestral, 93. Relation to accompanist, 147-151.

Congregational singing, 116.

Consonants in singing, 135.

Counting aloud, 161.

Coward, quoted, 65.

Creative imagination, 11.

Crescendo, 58.

D

Diagrams of baton movements, 22, 23, 24.

Dickinson, quoted, 62, 109.

Discipline in rehearsals, 155.

Dynamics, 57-63. Terms defined, 59, 60.

E

Efficiency in the rehearsal, 152.

Efficiency vs. Idealism, 153.

Emotion—In interpretation, 38.

Enthusiasm as an element in leadership, 16, 17.

Expression—Meaning of, 36, 43. In instrumental music, 46. Elements of, 46. How produced, 72, 75.

F

Fermata, 31.

Five-beat measure, 27.

G

Gehring, quoted, 42.

Girl voice, 120, 121.

H

Harmony, 71.

Haydn score, 166.

Head voice, 122, 123.

High school chorus—Direction of, 82. Seating of, 83. Music for, 80.

History of conducting, 2.

Hold, 31.

Humor—Sense of, 8. Illustrations of, 9. Value in rehearsals, 162.

Hymns—Selection of, 117.

I

Idealism vs. Efficiency, 153.

Imagination—Value of, 11.

Individualism—Danger of in church choir, 112.

Instinctive imitation, 3.

Instrumental music—Expression in, 46. Timbre in, 66. Phrasing in, 69.

Instruments—Proportion of, 97. Transposing, 98-100. Pitch standards, 101. Tuning of, 102. Bowing, 103. Range of, 107.

Interpretation and expression—Definition, 36.

Interpretation, 36-75. Emotion in, 38. Definition, 40. In vocal music, 43. Importance of timbre in, 66.

L

Leadership—Sense of, 13. Elements of, 15, 16, 17. Summary, 18.

Legato, 135.

Length of program, 142.

Life of boy voice, 123.

M

Male alto, 119.

Melody accentuation, 61.

Memory, muscular in tempo, 55.

Messa di voce, 138.

Metronome, 48.

Movable break, 122.

Music—Non-measured, 33. Boundaries of, 41. Vocal, 43. Instrumental—Expression in, 46. School—Field of, 75. Church, 108-117.

Music—Distribution and care of, 160.

Music—Selection of, 80. For children, 80. High school chorus, 81. Church, 108-117.

Music stand, 20.

Musical scholarship, 6.

N

Non-measured music, 32.

Nuances, tempo, 53.

O

Orchestra—Directing of, 93-95. Seating of, 96.

Orchestral instruments—Proportion of, 97. Transposing, 98. Pitch standards, 101. Tuning, 102. Ranges of, 107.

Organ accompaniments, 150.

Organizing ability, 13.

P

Personality of conductor, 8.

Personality of supervisor, 78.

Phrasing—Explanation of, 66. In vocal music, 67. Mistakes in, 68. In instrumental music, 69.

Pianissimo, 60, 61.

Pitch—Registers, 71. Standards, 101.

Planning the rehearsal, 154.

Poise—as element in leadership, 16.

Portamento, 138.

Principle of time beating, 28.

Program-making, 140. Length of, 142. Arrangement of numbers, 144. Importance of details, 146.

Program music, 42.

Psychological basis of conducting, 3.

Public performance—Attitude of conductor at, 82.

Public school music, 76. Relation to church choirs, 115.

Q

Qualities of conductor, 8.

R

Ranges of orchestral instruments, 107.

Recitative, 33.

Registers—Child voice, 122, 123. In adult voice, 136.

Rehearsal—How to save time in, 152-163. Planning of, 154. Discipline in, 155.

Rehearsal letters or numbers, 158.

Relation between conductor and accompanist, 147-151.

Relaxation in singing, 136.

Release—How to secure, 30.

Resonance, 134.

Rhythm, 70.

Rubato, 53.

S

Scholarship, musical—Importance of, 6.

School music—Field of, 76. Supervisor's personality, 78. Direction of children, 79. Selection of music, 80. Public performance, 81.

Schumann as a conductor, 13.

Score—Reading, 93, 105.

Seating—Orchestra, 96. High School chorus, 83.

Self-confidence—Element in leadership, 15.

Seven-beat measure, 27.

Singing—Solo, 114. Congregational, 116. Use of vowel and consonants 134, 135. Legato, 135. Relaxation in, 136. Summary of good, 139. A cappella, 162.

Solo singing, 114.

Spitta, quoted, 13.

Standards of pitch, 101.

Sternberg, C. von, quoted, 37.

Stroke, length of, 32.

Supervisor of music, 76.

T

Table—Of orchestral instruments, 107. Transposing instruments, 100.

Technique of the rehearsal, 152.

Tempo, 46-56. Importance of, 47. Finding correct, 48. Rubato, 54, 55. Establishing of, 55.

Tempo terms defined, 49-53.

Timbre, 64. In instrumental music, 66. In vocal music, 64, 65, 66.

Time beating—Principles and methods of, 22-29. Back stroke, 28, 29.

Tone—How produced, 134.

Tone quality, 64-66.

Transposing instruments, 98, 99, 100.

Tremolo in singing, 138.

Tuning orchestral instruments, 102.

U

Unity in program making, 142.

V

Varasdin, quoted, 19.

Variety in program, 140.

Ventilation of practice rooms, 162.

Vibrato, 138.

Vocal cords, Action of, 137.

Vocal music—Interpretation, 43. Timbre, 64. Phrasing, 67.

Vocal register, 136.

Voice, the boy's—In church choir, 118-125. Life of, 123. During adolescence, 124, 125.

Voice, the child's—Peculiarities of, 118. Compass of, 121. Difference between voice of boy and girl, 120. Head voice, 122, 123.

Voice training—In conducting, 119, 131. Breathing, 132. Breath control, 133. Resonance, 134. Legato, 135. Tone production, 137.

Vowel in singing, 134.

W

Wagner, quoted, 47.

Weingartner, quoted, 12.

Whipple, quoted, 10.

Whole method, 158.

Williams, C.F.A., quoted, 75.

THE END

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