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Essays on "Supernatural Religion"
by Joseph B. Lightfoot
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Philippians, German theories as to the Pauline Epistle to the, 24 sq

Phillips, 279 n

Philo, 173 sq, 200 n

Photius, 196 n, 238, 239, 241 n, 242, 243, 267 n

Pierius of Alexandria, 241 n

Pliny; his credulity and that of the early fathers, 269; his informant Sergius Paulus, 294 sq

Polycarp of Smyrna; date of his birth, 90; born at a crisis, 90 sq; of Christian parents, 94; reared in the centre of Christianity, 91 sq; under the influence of St John, 89, 92; bishop of Smyrna, 92; entertains Ignatius, 92, 113; his age at this time, 121; his letter to the Philippians (see Polycarp, Epistle of); a companion of Papias, 142, 150, 153, 218; his old age, 96; his pupils Florinus and Irenaeus, 96 sq, 264, 265; his journey to Rome, 99 sq, 121; preaches at Rome, 101; his encounter with Marcion, 101, 115, 212; his attitude in the Paschal controversy, 99 sq; date of his martyrdom, 90, 97, 103 sq, 147, 264; details of it, 77 n, 103, 220 sq; document preserving it (see Polycarp, Martyrdom of); his position and that of Clement of Rome, 89, 94; the depositary of Apostolic tradition, 89 sq, 96; the link with Irenaeus, 89, 100 sq; the reverence inspired by, 121 n; characteristic expressions of, 97, 115 sq; his use of the word 'oracles', 174

Polycarp, Epistle of; date and circumstances of writing, 93 sq, 101, 106 sq, 121; incomplete in the Greek, 11; its genuineness, 104 sq; (1) external evidence for, 104; (2) internal evidence, 105 sq; from (i) its formula of evangelical quotations, 105, 109; (ii) its picture of Church order, 106, 107 sq, 122; (iii) its Christology, 106, 108; (iv) the argument from silence, 106; (v) its style and subject-matter compared with the Ignatian Epistles, 106 sq; Ritschl's theory of interpretations considered, 110 sq; further objections dealt with, (a) the martyr journey of Ignatius, 111; (b) alleged anachronisms, 11, 111 sq, 122; (c) the Ignatian Epistles appended, 113 sq; (d) the thirteenth chapter, 114; (e) a supposed reference to Marcion, 115 sq; (f) the age of the writer, 121; scriptural quotations in, 42 sq, 49 sq, 93 sq, 109, 118, 227; Eusebius' method tested on, 42 sq, 49; the quotations from 1 Peter, 43, 49 sq, 95, 109, 191 sq; coincidence with 1 John, 49; relation to the Pauline Epistles, 95 sq, 101 sq; its testimony to the Ignatian Epistles, 11, 82, 113 sq

Polycarp, Martyrdom of; the document, 103, 220; its date, 220; emphasizes the coincidences with the Passion, 220 sq; its evidence to the Fourth Gospel, 221 sq; employed by the Paschal Chronicle, 148 n

Polycrates of Ephesus; his place in the School of St John, 218; his work on the Paschal controversy, 244, 248 sq; scriptural quotations in his letter to Victor, 248, 249; quotes the Fourth Gospel, 249; his reference to Melito, 224

Pontius Pilate, date of the termination of the procuratorship of, 131 n

Pothinus; probably a native of Asia Minor, 253, 265; date of his martyrdom, 253, 265; perhaps one of the elders of Irenaeus, 196 n, 266

Presbyter John; see John the Presbyter

Presbyters in Irenaeus; see Elders

Proclus, Cominius, proconsul of Cyprus, 294 n

Proconsuls; the title in imperial times, 292 sq; the Greek equivalent, 292; of Cyprus, 294

Propraetors; the title in imperial times, 292; the Greek equivalent, 292

Protevangelium, 15, 256 sq

Quadratus, proconsul of Cyprus, 294 n

Quadratus, Statius, the Asiatic proconsulship of, 103 sq

Quartodeciman; see Paschal controversy

Renan, 104, 232 n, 291

Rhodon, 272, 273 n, 274

Ritschl, 63, 65, 110 sq

Rivetus, 66, 67

Roman Church, its influence in the time of Ignatius, 59

Roman prisoners, treatment of, 75 sq

Roman provinces; Augustus' division of, 291 sq; the titles of their governors, 292; interchange of imperial and senatorial provinces, 292; Asia and Africa the most sought after, 293

Rosenmueller, 68

Routh, 154 n, 201 n, 214 n, 241 n, 252 n

Rufinus, 203

Rufus, 111

Ruinart, 76 n, 80

Sachau, 232 n

Salutaris, C. Vibius, 302

Sanday; on the Fourth Gospel, 15; on Marcion's Gospel, 186 n

Saturus, 76

Saumaise, 66

Schleiermacher, 171

Schliemann, 70

Schmidt, 68

Scholten, 64, 119, 242, 262 n

Schroeckh, 68, 69

Schwegler, 24

Second century; its voluminous ecclesiastical literature, 32, 102; meagre literary remains of the first three quarters, 33, 53, 89, 102; small bearing on the Canon of the extant works, 33, 271; importance of Irenaeus at the close of the century, 53, 89

Semler, 68

Serapion, 238

Sergius Paulus, proconsul of Cyprus; perhaps an informant of Pliny, 294 sq; Cyprian inscription mentioning him, 294, 297

Sergius Paulus, L.; the friend of Galen, 296; proconsul of Asia, 223, 296; his date, 223; his cursus honorum, 296; his resemblance in character to his namesake in the Acts, 296; his scientific studies, 297; identification of an unknown, 295 n

Severians, Apollinaris' treatise against the, 238, 243

Severus of Antioch, 87

Shechem and Sychar, 17, 133 sq

Silence, its place in the Gnostic Systems, 86 sq

Siloam, 18, 203

Simon Magus, 268

Simonians, 86, 161

Smyrnaeans, Letter of the; see Polycarp, Martyrdom of

Socinus, 66, 67

Socrates, the historian, 239

Stephanus Gobarus, 12

Strabo, 292, 293 n

Supernatural Religion; criticisms on his grammar and scholarship, 3 sq, 53 sq, 126 sq; on his impartiality, 9 sq, 20 sq, 130 sq, 140 sq, 191 sq; on the plan of his book, 26, 138 sq; his charges against opponents, 20 sq, 137 sq; his lists of references, 23, 65 sq; his theological position, 139 n; on the silence of Eusebius, 33 sq; on the Paschal controversy, 17, 240 sq, 245; clerical and other errors, and ambiguities in, 124 sq, 182 sq, 257

Supernatural, meaning of the term, 29 sq

Sychar, identification of, 17 sq, 133 sq

Synoptists; their points of contrast with the Fourth Gospel, 15 sq; recognized by the early fathers, 207 sq, 239; their chronology compared, 16, 48, 131, 239 sq, 245 sq; see also Fourth Gospel

Tacitus, 25, 268 n

Tatian; an Assyrian, 272; a heathen sophist, 272; his travels, 272; his conversion, 272; a pupil of Justin Martyr, 272, 274; his disciples at Rome, 272, 274; removes to the East, 272; his subsequent heretical opinions, 272; his attitude towards St Paul and the Pauline Epistles, 273, 284; his views anti-Judaic, 273; date of his literary activity, 274; his extant Apology, 274; its date, 275; quotes from the Fourth Gospel, 50, 275; his formula of quotation, 276; his Diatessaron, 277 sq; its description in Eusebius, 277; who knew but disparaged it, 278; the evidence of the Doctrine of Addai, 278 sq; the commentary of Ephraem Syrus, 280, 283; [discovery of an Armenian Version, 288;] Bar-Salibi's statements, 280 sq; Theodoret's testimony to its circulation, 282 sq; summary of evidence, 283 sq; counter-statement of Epiphanius, 284 sq; of Victor of Capua, 285 sq; read in the Churches of Edessa, 278 sq; of Cyrrhestice, 282 sq; its opening words, 280, 281 n, 283; its plan, 280 sq; other than that of Ammonius' Diatessaron, 280 sq, 283; confusion of the two works, 281 n; Aphraates' knowledge of it, 283 n, [288]; the range of its circulation, 284; confused with the Gospel according to the Hebrews, 284 sq; [recent discovery of an Arabic Version, 288]

Tertullian; gives evidence to the Fourth Gospel, 52; his Apologeticum, 275; on the episcopate of Polycarp, 92 n; on the style of Melito, 229; Chiliasm of, 151

Theodoret; date of his episcopate, 282; his treatise on Heresies, 282; his evidence for the Ignatian Epistles, 72; for Tatian's Diatessaron, 282 sq; for Apollinaris, 238, 239, 242 sq

Theodotion's Version of the LXX, 260

Theophilus of Antioch; his works, extant and lost, 44; quotes the Fourth Gospel, 44, 52, 179, 215, 216; Eusebius' method tested on his Autolycus, 44, 52, 215; his testimony to the Apocalypse, 44, 47, 216; his investigations in comparative chronology, 269

Thiersch, 68

Thomas (St), 143, 193

Thomasius, 210 n

Tillemont, 241 n, 253 n

Tischendorf; defended against S.R.'s charges, 5 sq, 54 sq, 125 n, 127 n, 128 n, 138; other references to, 4, 129, 165, 167, 210

Tuebingen School, criticised, 12, 24, 42, 64, 82, 89 sq, 95 sq, 101 sq, 110 sq, 151 sq, 251

Uhlhorn, 63, 71

Ussher, 60, 61

Valens, the Presbyter, 108

Valentinianism; its expressions anticipated in the Ignatian Epistles, 85, 86 sq; opposed by Irenaeus, 98, 101, 219, 245 sq, 262; by Hippolytus, 161; its appeal to the Canon, 219, 262, 268; to the Fourth Gospel, 52; to uncanonical books, 263; its bearing on the chronology of our Lord's Life, 245 sq; its exegesis, 161

Vettius Epagathus, 255, 256

Victor of Capua; his date, 286; discovers an anonymous Harmony of the Gospel, 286; Frankish translation of this Harmony, 286 n; assigns it to Tatian, 286; [perhaps rightly, 288;] the word Diapente in his notice of Tatian, 279 n, 285 sq

Victor of Rome; his date, 261; his attitude in the Paschal controversy, 100, 244, 245, 248, 253 sq

Vienne and Lyons, Churches of; see Gallican Churches

Virgin Mary, character of the allusions in Justin Martyr and Melito to the, 235 sq

Volkmar, 24 sq, 64, 71, 79 sq

Voss, 61

Vossian Epistles; see Ignatian Epistles

Waddington, 98 n, 103 sq, 115, 121, 223, 295 n, 296 n

Weiffenbach, 146 n, 158 n

Weismann, 68, 69

Weiss, 63, 65, 71

Westcott; defended against the attacks of S.R., 4 sq, 12 sq, 21 sq, 53 sq, 123 sq, 128 n, 137 sq; other references to, 93, 130, 155, 161 n, 211 n, 226 sq, 275 n; his reply to S.R., 79 n

Whiston, 69

Wisdom of Solomon, 46

Wood's discoveries at Ephesus, 294 n, 297 sq

Wordsworth, Bishop Christopher, 222 n

Wright, 282 n

Zacharias, 146 n, 255 sq, 262 n

Zahn, 63, 71, 75 n, 77 n, 79 n, 81 n, 115 n, 213 n, 279 n, 283 n, [287]

Zeller, 64

Ziegler, 68, 264 n

Zosimus, 111

Zunz, 153 n



INDEX OF PASSAGES.

PAGE

Genesis iv. 15 174

Exodus xxxii. 7 sq 174

Deuteronomy ix. 12 sq 174 x. 9 173 xxxi. 7, 23 221

1 Kings iv. 33 25

Psalms iv. 4 94

Isaiah xi. 6 sq 198 lxv. 25 sq 198 lxvi. 22 55, 198

Ezekiel xxviii. 13 200 xxviii. 15, 16 201

Hosea ii. 6-17 241

Tobit iv. 10 94 xii. 9 94

St Matthew v. 44 123 x. 16 41 xi. 27 sq 16 xii. 33 41 xiii. 8 4 xix. 12 41 xix. 29 158 xix. 30 125 xx. 16 125 xxiii. 35 256 xxiii. 37 16, 131 xxvi. 29 158, 205 xxvi. 42 221 xxvi. 55 221 xxviii. 1 208

St Mark x. 29, 30 158 x.31 125 xiv. 48 221

St Luke i. 1 286 i. 3 189 i. 5 sq 146 i. 6 255 i. 67 255 ii. 24 276 iii. 23 231 x. 18 186, 200, 201 xi. 51 257 xiii. 30 125 xiii. 32, 33 16 xiii. 34 16, 131 xiv. 13, 14 158 xviii. 30 158 xxi. 38 204 xxii. 52 221 xxiii. 43 201

St John i. 1 44, 232, 280, 281, 283, 286 i. 3 276 i. 5 275 i. 18 52 i. 44 91 iii. 8 41 iv. 5 17, 133 iv. 18 52 iv. 24 275 iv. 35 136 v. 3, 4 9, 52, 126 v. 29 223 vii. 36 204 vii. 37 sq 203 vii. 52 204 vii. 58-viii. 11 203 viii. 12 sq 204 viii. 15 204, 205 viii. 29 41 viii. 44 13 viii. 56 248 viii. 57 246, 247 ix. 7 18 xii. 21 sq 91 xii. 28 222 xii. 33 222 xiii. 25 249 xiv. 2 4, 54, 194, 247 xvi. 2 258 xvii. 3 223 xviii. 31, 32 222 xix. 28, 30 222 xix. 34 sq 222 xix. 35 187 xx. 1 208 xx. 25 257 xx. 31 187 xxi. 20 249

Acts ii. 16 276 ii. 24 95 v. 29 249 vii. 60 257 xiii. 7 292, 294, 295 xiii. 40 276 xix. 24 sq 297 xix. 31 299 xix. 35 299, 300 xix. 37, 38 299, 301 xxi. 9 149 xxi. 14 221

Romans i. 5 237 iii. 2 173 iv. 1 sq 173 iv. 18 276 viii. 18 254 xv. 19 125 xvi. 26 237

1 Corinthians vi. 12-18 119 vii. 5 273 viii. 1 sq 119 x. 1 sq 173 x. 7, 8, 14, 21 14 xi. 8 sq 173 xv. 12 120

2 Corinthians xii. 12 125

Galatians ii. 9 14 iv. 21 sq 173

Ephesians iv. 26 95 v. 21 109 vi. 14 50 vi. 18 123

Philippians ii. 6 254 ii. 7 237 iii. 18 123 iv. 2 24

1 Timothy ii. 2 123 iii. 15 254 iv. 3 273 iv. 3, 4 255 v. 1, 2, 17, 19 146 vi. 7 123 vi. 10 122

2 Timothy ii. 18 120 iv. 10 251

Hebrews v. 12 173 xi. 2 145

1 Peter i. 1 92 i. 8 50 i. 13 50 i. 21 50 ii. 11, 12 50 ii. 17 50, 122 ii. 22, 24 50 iii. 9 50 iv. 7 49, 191 iv. 14 50 v. 5 50, 109 v. 13 207

1 John i. 1 97, 190 iv. 2, 3 118

Revelation i. 4 133 ii. 2 14 ii. 6, 14, 15, 20, 24 119 ii. 14 13 xii. 9 201 xix. 13 15

Anastasius of Sinai 154, 200, 201, 202, 225, 230

Andreas of Caesarea 214

Aphraates Hom. i. p. 13 (ed. Wright) 283

Apost. Constit. ii. 24 203

Aristides Op. I. p. 453 (ed. Dind.) 98

Barnabae Ep. 4, 5 177 15 151

Basil (St) Hom. xi. 5 175 Hom. xii. 1 175

Capitol. Vit. Anton. 7 98

Chronicon Pasch. p. 13 (ed. Dind.) 238 p. 481 148

Claudius Apollinaris 207

Clemens Alexandrinus Coh. ad Gent. p. 84 (ed. Potter) 174 Exc. Theod. 38 273 Strom. i. 1 218, 274 Strom. i. p. 392 174 Strom. ii. 9 152 Strom. iii. 12 270 Strom. iii. 13 152, 270 Strom. iv. 12 161 Strom. vii. p. 889 257 Strom. vii. 17 21, 161, 213 Quis Div. Salv. 42 91, 218

Clem. Rom. 5 40 25 268 45 174 47 40 53 174

Dion Cassius liii. 12 293 liv. 4 294

Euripides Iph. Taur. l. 1359 301

Epiphanius De Pond. et Mens. 16, 17 260 Haer. xlvi. 1 273, 284 Haer. li. 1 sq 215

Eusebius Chron. (Syr. epit.) p. 216 (ed. Schoene) 149 Eccl. Theol. ii. 9 87 Hist. Eccl. i. 13 279 iii. 3 37, 145 iii. 23 48, 168, 209 iii. 24 39 iii. 25, 27 152 iii. 30, 31 91 iii. 36 41, 43, 152 iii. 37 40 iii. 39 91, 143, 150, 152, 157, 193, 209 iv. 14 43, 49, 150, 191 iv. 15 77, 90, 121, 148, 150, 220 sq iv. 16 273 iv. 18 43 iv. 21 239 iv. 22 152, 183 iv. 23 156, 177, 228 iv. 24 44 iv. 26 32, 47, 223, 225, 243, 296 iv. 27 82, 238 iv. 28 273 iv. 29 273, 277 v. 1 146, 252 v. 3,4 253, 259 v. 6 45 v. 8 45, 145, 156 v. 13 273 v. 15 98 v. 18 47, 91 v. 19 238 v. 20 97, 98, 116, 218, 265 v. 24 91, 100, 224, 244, 248, 254 v. 26 46 v. 28 102, 230 vi. 13 47, 145, 244 vi. 14 47, 145 vi. 20 47 vii. 25 216 Quaest. ad Marin. 2, iv. 208 Quaest. ad Steph. 1 73 Op. IV. p. 1276 (ed. Migne) 281

Galen de Anat. Admin. i. 1 296 de Praenot. 2 296 Op. XIX. p. 11 (ed. Kuehn) 196

Hippolytus Ref. Haer. v. 7 161 Ref. Haer. vi. 42, 55 145, 202

Ignatius Ephes. 1 42 Ephes. 7 42 Ephes. 9 302 Ephes. 12 41, 42 Ephes. 14 41 Ephes. 19 73 Magn. 8 41, 42, 86 Magn. 11 118 Magn. 13 109 Trall. 6 161 Trall. 9 118 Rom. inscr. 161 Rom. 2 232 Rom. 4 41, 42, 114 Rom. 5 73, 74, 78 Rom. 6 42, 85 Rom. 7 85 Philad. 3 161 Philad. 6 42 Philad. 7 41 Smyrn. 1 118 Smyrn. 6 41 Polyc. 1-4 93 Polyc. 2 41 Polyc. 3 42, 93 Polyc. 7 77, 93

Irenaeus Haer. pref. i. 160 i. 3. 6 160 i. 8. 1 174 i. 26. 1 118 i. 27. 2 117 i. 27. 3 117, 120 i. 28. 1 273, 274 ii. 22. 5 48, 91, 92, 131, 168, 209, 217, 218, 245, 264 ii. 31. 2 120 iii. 1. 1 48, 182 iii. 3. 3 260 iii. 3. 4 92, 101, 115, 217, 218, 264 iii. 11. 1 48,182 iii. 11. 9 215 iii. 12. 12 117 iii. 16. 8 118 iii. 21. 1 260 iii. 25. 2 120 iii. 25. 3 120 iv. 26. 2 218 iv. 27. 1 sq 145, 196, 248, 266 iv. 30. 1 145, 196 iv. 31. 1 145, 196, 248 iv. 32. 1 196 v. 5. 1 145, 198, 218 v. 20. 2 177 v. 30. 1 218 v. 31. 1 sq 151 v. 33. 1 158 v. 33. 3 145, 218 v. 33. 4 142 v. 86. 1, 2 3, 54, 126, 145, 194, 199

Jerome de Vir. Illust. 16 42 de Vir. Illust. 17 105 de Vir. Illust. 24 229 de Vir. Illust. 26 243 Ep. ad Magnum (p. 83) 243 Ep. 70 (I. p. 428) 239 Ep. 120 ad Hedib. (I. p. 826) 208 praef. ad Tit. vii. 273

John Malalas p. 276 (ed. Bonn.) 79 p. 280 98

Justin Martyr Apol. i. 26 268 Apol. i. 66, 67 43, 227 Dial. 34 235 Dial. 51 sq 151 Dial. 61 235 Dial. 80 sq 151 Dial. 100 235, 236

Lucian de Morte Peregr. 12 76 de Morte Peregr. 41 77

Martyr. Polyc. 1 220 5 222 6, 7, 8 221 9 90, 221 12 222 13 121 14 223 15 222 16 77, 222, 223

Origen c. Cels. pref. etc. 278 c. Cels. i. 8 7 c. Cels. viii. 76 7 de Princ. iv. 11 175 in Matth. x. 6 175 in Matth. xvi. 6 212 in Luc. Hom. i. 152

Philo de Conj. Erud. Grat. 24 174 de Profug. 11 174 Vit. Moys. iii. 23 174

Photius Bibl. 14 238, 239 Bibl. 119 241 Bibl. 121 196, 267

Pliny Nat. Hist. ii. 90, 97, 112 295 Nat. Hist. xviii. 12, 57 295

Polycarp Phil. 1 50, 95 Phil. 2 50 Phil. 3 93, 96, 112, 114 Phil. 4 122 Phil. 5 50, 108 Phil. 7 49, 93, 115, 116, 174, 191 Phil. 8 50 Phil. 9 111, 112 Phil. 10 50, 94 Phil. 12 95, 112, 122 Phil. 13 11, 93, 111, 114

Protevangelium 11, 12 257 23 256

Socrates Hist. Eccl. III. 7 239 VII. 32 118

Tacitus Hist. v. 1 sq 268

Tatian Orat. ad Graec. 4, 13 275 Orat. ad Graec. 19 273, 276 Orat. ad Graec. 29, 35, 42 273

Tertullian adv. Marc. iii. 24 151 adv. Marc. iv. 2 8 adv. Marc. v. 10 120 de Praescr. Haer. 32 92 de Praescr. Haer. 33 120 de Resurr. Carn. 19 120 de Resurr. Carn. 24 151

Theodoret Haer. Fab. i. 20 273, 282 Haer. Fab. i. 21 238, 243 Haer. Fab. iii. 2 239, 243 Ep. 113 283

Theophilus ad Autol. ii. 22 44

Victor Cap. Praef. ad Anon. Harm. Evang. 286

Xenophon Anab. v. 3, 6 300

THE END

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