Essays and Miscellanies - The Complete Works Volume 3
by Plutarch
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Homoioptelon in Homer.

Homoioteleuton, Homer's use of.

Honor, the god so called.

Honor to parents, in Homer.

Horatius and Horatia, and Greek parallel.

Horse, cure of a stumbling.

Horse-races, rites of.

Horses called [Greek].

Horta, temple of.

Hostages, Roman virgins as.

Hunger, causes of; allayed by drinking.

Hurricanes, causes of.

Hybristica, rites of.

Hydaspes, river.

Hyperbole in Homer.

Hyperides, Greek orator.


Ibis, worship of the; use of physic by; figure of, first letter in Egyptian alphabet.

Ibycus, story of murderers of.

Icarius, story of.

Icebergs, tradition of.

Ichneumon, armor of the; outmatched by the trochilus.

Ida, Mount.

Idathyrsus, sayings of.

Ideas, defined.

Idleness, a gentlemanly crime; and health.

Idola of Democritus originate with Homer.

Imagination, defined.

Immortality of the soul.

Impotency in men.

Inachus, river.

Incense used by Egyptians.

Inclination of the world.

Incongruous, a figure of speech.

India, river and mountain of; Alexaiider the Great in.

Indus, story of the.



Intemperance in eating.

Intercourse between men and their wives.

Interpreters of oracles.

Intoxication, signs of. See Drunkenness. Introductions, Homer's.

Ion the poet, cited.

Iphicrates, sayings of.

Ireland, mention of.

Iris-struck trees.

Irony, use of, in Homer.

Isaeus, Greek orator.

Isis and Osiris, essay on.

Imnenus, river.

Isocrates, Greek orator.

Isosceles triangles.

Isthmian games, crowns at.

Ivy, beliefs concerning; consecrated to Bacchus and to Osirls; the nature of.

January as the first month.

Janus, double-faced god; image of, on coins.

Jealousy. See Envy.

Jesting at an entertainment.

Jews, allusion to; Spartans of same stock as the; effect of superstition on; abstention of, from swine's flesh; customs of; God worshipped by.

Jocasta, death of.

Journeys, days for beginning.

Juno, Roman beliefs about; nuptial ceremonies connected with.

Jupiter, priests of; conception of year belonging to; rules or priests of; statue of, in Caria. See Zeus.

Justice, ancients' conception of.


[Greek], Cretans called.

Kingly rule, Homer's praise of.

Kissing, custom of.

"Know thyself," Delphic motto; to be observed by censorious persons.

[Greek] and [Greek].



L, the letter, pronounced R.

Labotus, saying of.

Labradean Jupiter, statue of.

Lacedaemonians, laws and customs of.

Lais, famous courtesan.

Lamachus, story of.

Lamp, the unextinguishable.

Lamps, putting out of.


Language, care of the. Sea Speech.

Lanthorns of priests.

Lares, customs concerning.

"Larks must have their crests," Greek proverb.

Laurentia, worship of.

Law, power of, over kings; Homer's knowledge of the word.

Leaena, Greek heroine.

Leisure, healthful use of.

Lemnos, women of.

Leo, son of Eucratidas.

Leonidas, hero of Therinopylae.

Leotychidas, son of Aristo.

Leotychidas the First.

Leprosy, from drinking swine's milk; from dewy trees; stone which cures.

Letters, avoidance of haste in opening; of alphabet.

"Let this be ratified," saying.

Leucophyllus, reed with white leaf.

Leucothea, festivals of.

Liars, a saying about.

Libertinism and liberty.


Licinius, Publius.

Lictors, derivation of name.

Lightning, theories concerning.

Lilaeus, mountain.

Lion, tracks of the.

Lions, cunning of.

Liquids, in one's diet; epithets of; passage of, through the lungs.

"Live unknown," precept.

Loadstone, the.

Lochagus, quoted.

Locrians, information about the.

Love, tragical histories of; festival to God of; essay on; brotherly; men made poets by.

Lovers of boys.

LUCAR, derivation of.


Lugdunum, mountain and city.

Lungs, passage of drink through.

Lupercal plays.

Lutatius Catulus.

Lute, invention of.

Lycia, women of.

Lycormas, river.

Lycurgus, Life of; teaches brevity and terseness.

Lydian mood in music.

Lyre, playing on the; mention of, by Homer.

Lysander, Lacedaemonian general; stories and sayings of.

Lysias, Greek orator.

Macellum, market called.

Madness, anger and; root and plant for causing and curing.

Maeander, river.

Magpie, story of a.

Manlius, M.

Mare, child horn of a.

Marius, C.; and Sylla.

Marriage customs, Roman.

Marriage of kindred.

Mars, Greek and Roman parallels concerning.

Marsyas, Phrygian river.

Matter, defined; motion and.

"Matters of concern to-morrow,".

Matuta, temple of; festivals of.

Maximus, Fabius, stories of.

May, Roman marriages forbidden during.

Meals, Latin and Greek names of.

Meat, the eating of; putrefaction of, by moon.

Medicine, Homer's familiarity with.

Medietics, harmonical and arithmetical.

Megisto, and Aristotimus.

Melian women, the.

Memnon, sayings of.

Memory, cultivating the.

Men, impotency in.

Menander, quoted; comparison between Aristophanes and.

Mercury, statue of, among the Graces; statues of.

Metageitnia, festival.

Metaphor in Homer.

Metellus, Caecillus.

Metellus Nepos.

Meteors resembling rods.

Metonymy in Homer.

Micca, story of.

Midas fountain of.

Milesian women.

Milky Way.

Mills grinding, listeners to.

Minerals, ancient production of.

Minerva, priestess of.

Minerva of the Brazen House.

Minerva the Artisan and Minerva the Protectress of Cities.

Minstrels, women's dress worn by.

Mirror, comparison of wife and.

Mirrors, rusting of; of the ancients; the working of.

Miscarriage, herb for causing.

Mithridates, and the woman of Pergamus; a great drinker.


Mnemosyne, mother of Muses.

Mob rule in Homer.

Modesty, the vice of false; of women.

Monarchy, democracy, and oligarchy compared.

Monophagi, the, in Aegina.

Monstrosities, birth of.

Month, relation between Juno and the.

Months, order of; beginnings and periods of.

Moon, relation of Juno to; the face in the; influence of, on tides; and Styx; essence, size, figure, light of, etc.; putrefaction of flesh exposed to.

Moons on shoes.


Moral virtue.

Mothers, love of, for sons.

Motion, defined; of the soul.

Mountains, names of, and details concerning.

Mourning, white, for women.

Mucius Scaevola.

Mule, an intelligent; fable of, laden with salt; barrenness of the.

Mullets, beliefs regarding.

Muses, derivation of name; observation about the number of.

Mushrooms, produced by thunder.

Music, Lacedaemonian; essay concerning; effect of, on various animals; pleasures arising from bad; kind of, fittest for entertainments; as mentioned in Homer.

Musicians, ancient.

Must, effect of cold on.

Mutation, a figure of speech.

Mutilations of mourners.

Mycenae, mountain.

Myenus, mountain of Aetolia.

Myops, magic herb.


Myrrh used for incense.

Namertes, remark of.

Naming Roman children.

Narrative style found in Homer.

Natural philosophy; of Homer.

Natural Questions.

Nature, sentiments concerning; what is?

Necessity, philosophers on.

Necklaces called bullae.

Nestor and Odysseus in Homer.

Nicander, sayings of.

Xicostratus, saying of.

Niger and the fish-bone.

Night, the time for thought; called the good adviser; noises better heard in, than in day.

Nile, river; the over-flowing of the; use of water of, for drinking.

Nine, most perfect number.

"No," courage to say.

Noisy-with-the-pen, nickname bestowed on Antipater.

Nome, derivation of.

North Pole, Homer's and Plutarch's knowledge of.

"Nothing too much," inscribed in temple of Apollo; in homer.

"Not so had" philosophy.

Nouns and verbs, speech composed of.

Numa, reign of.

Number, the perfect; change of, in Homer.

Numbers, superstitions concerning; in procreation of the soul; Pythagorean view of nature of; triangular; science of, in Pythagoras and in Homer.

Nursing of children.

Nutrition and growth of animals.

Nymphs, life of.

Oak, garlands of leaves of; "darkness at the oak,".

Oaths, by Hercules; forbidden to priests.


Ocresia, Roman virgin.

Ocridion, temple of.

Octaves in music.

Odd and even numbers in Homer.

Odysseus, Circe and; self-control of; Homer's meaning in.

Offspring, affection for one's.

Ogyian isle (Ireland).

Oil, poured on the sea; cause of transparency of; considered as purely liquid.

Old men, council of. See Aged.

Oligarchy depicted by Homer.

Olympus, inventor of Grecian and nomic music.


Onions for lung disease.

Onobatis, woman called.

Onomatopoeia in Homer.

Oracles, essay on the cessation of.

Oracular responses.

Orations, political.

Orators, Lives of the Ten.

Oratory, extempore and studied.

Orestes, story of, and Roman parallel.

Orontes, sayings of.

Orpheus, thrown into the Hebrus.

Oryx, fables of the.


Osiris, Isis and; birth of; death of; derivation of name.

Otus, method of capturing the.

Outspokenness, false and true.


Overturners of wagons.

Ox, sacrifice of, by Pyrrhias; in Egyptian sacrifices; and the camel.

Oxen, hay bound about horns of; counting by.

Oxyrhyncus, worship of the.

Pactolus, river of Lydia.

Paedaretus, anecdote of; sayings of.

Painting, defined as silent poetry; Homer a master in painting by words.

Palaestinus, river, and son of Neptune.

Palillogia, Homer's use of.

[Greek], defined.

Palladium, Greek and Roman parallels relating to.

Palm, garlands of, given in games.

Palms, growth of, increased by weights laid on them.

Pan, Spania derived from.

Panaema, derivation of.

Pangaeus, mountain.

Panthoidas, sayings of.

Parallels drawn between Greek and Roman history.

Paranomasia in Homer.

Paraphrases of Homer by later writers.

Parembole, a figure of speech.

Parents, advice to; honor to, shown in Homer.

Parison, a figure of speech.

Parmenides, on love; an Epicurean's attack on; defence of.

Parsley, crowns of.

Partridges, cunning of.

Parysatis, sayings of.

Passions of the body.

Pater Patratus.

Patres Conscripti distinguished from Patres.

Patricians prohibited to dwell about Capitol.

Pausanias, son of Cleombrotus.

Pausanias, son of Plistonanax.

Pausanias and Cleonice.

Peace of mind; in exile.

Pedagogues, choice of. See Tutors.

Pedetes, Andron in Samos called.

Peeping Girl, the.

Pergamus, the woman of.

Pericles, sayings of.

Peripatetics and Homer.

Periphrasis in Homer.

Persian women, the.

[Greek], defined.

Phallus, festival of the.

Phantom, defined.

Phasis, river.

Philadelphi, stones called.

Philip of Macedon and Arcadio the Achaean.

Philosophers, conversation of; reasonings of, originate with Homer.

Philosophizing at table.

Philosophy, defined; difficulties in, may be overcome.

Phocion the Athenian.

Phocis, women of.

Phocus, daughter of.

Phoebidas, quoted.

Phryne the courtesan.

Phryxa, herb called.

Phylacteries of the Jews.

Physics, use of; animals' use of.

Phyxemelum, defined.


Piety toward the gods taught by Homer.

Pinarii, the.

Pindar, elegy of.

Pine, garlands of.

Pipe, mentioned by Homer; made from asses' bones.

Pipe-music at entertainments.

Pisistratus, tyrant of Athens.

Pittacus, philosophy of.

Place, definition of.

Planets, musical proportions in distances between. See Astronomy.

Plants, with special properties; method of increase of.

Plato, on music; on procreation of the soul; on music of the spheres; on an oracle delivered by Apollo; on fatigue as the enemy of learning; quoted; reproof of Socrates by; praise of concise speaking by; on the immortality of the soul; knowledge of music shown by; on God; statement of, that drink passes through the lungs; birthday of; Chrysippus' works against; Colotes' criticisms of; defence of.

Platonic Questions.


Pleonasm in Homer.

Plistarchus, son of Leonidas.

Plistoanax, son of Pausanias.

Ploiades, clouds called.

Poetry, Lacedaemonian; rank of music and; and love; parts common to dancing and; of Homer; how a young man ought to hear.

Poets, greater improbabilities spoken by Stoics than by; prize for, at games.

Poletes, among Epidamnians.

Political precepts.

Polity, civil, in Homer.

Poltys, sayings of.




Polypus, the; change of color of.

Pompeius, Cn.

Pontius, C., Roman hero.


Porsena and the Roman maidens.


Posidonius, school of.

Postumia, Vestal Virgin.

Poverty and wealth.

Praise of one's self.

Praising, directions concerning; care to be observed in.

Priest of Hercules at Cos.

Priests, customs of Roman.

Prince, Discourse to an unlearned.

Principle, difference between element and.

Principles, four first; defined.

Prinistum, founding of.

Proanaphonesis in Homer.

Procreation, of the soul; of children.

Prometheus, fate of, and herb named for.

Prosopopoiia, Homer's use of.

Providence, and fate; pertains to mind of God; Homer's views of.

Ptolemies, the, and flatterers; titles of the.

Ptolemy, son of Lagus.

Publius Decius, case of, and Greek parallel.

Pulse, abstention from; use of, by the Trallians.

Punishing, God's delay in.

Putrefaction of flesh.

Pyrrhus the Epirot, surnamed the Eagle; C. Fabricius and.

Pythagoras, discourages cruelty to animals; judgment of music by; on principles and elements; conception of God; symbols and superstitions of; doctrines of, which originated with Homer; parallel sayings of Homer and.

Pythagoreans, beliefs about eating.

Pytheas, story of.

Pythes, the wife of.

Pythia, death of.

Pythian responses.

Quarry of asbestos.

Quaternary of Pythagoreans.

Questions, answers to; the asking of; for discussion at table.

Quickness effected by ellipsis in Homer.

Quince, to be eaten by brides.

Quinctius, T., stories of.

Quintessence, the, of the Aristote1ians.

Quirinalia, the Feast of Fools.

Quiritis and Quirinus.

Raillery at an entertainment.

Rainbow, cause of.

Rains, generation of, known to Homer.

Razor, mentioned by Homer.

Reading by old men.

Reason, paralyzed by fear.

Recapitulation, Homer's use of.

Red Sea, woods and plants in.

Regression, a figure of speech.

Relation, a figure of speech.

Reproofs, on bearing.

Resin used for incense.

Respiration, voice and; cause of.

Restraint, a character of speech.

Rex Sacrorum, king of priests.

Rhea, myth relating to; five gods of.

Rhetoric, Homer a master of.

Rhodope, the courtesan; mountain.

Riches, remarks on.

Rivers and their characteristics.

Rods and axes carried before officers.

Rogue Town, Philip's.

Roman Apothegms.

Roman Questions.

Romans, the fortune of the.

Romulus and Remus; Greek parallel.

Roundelay, Terpander invents.


Rules of health.

Rumina, sacrifices to.


Rusticus, anecdote of.

Sacred geese, the.

Sacrifices, of human beings by Romans; the result of superstition; flesh of.

Sagaris, river of Phrygia.

Sailing, rate of, in winter.

St. Elmo's Fire.

Salmantica, women of.

Salt, Egyptian beliefs concerning; use of, for cattle; reasons for lack of, in fruit; held in honor.

Sambicus, sufferings of.

Same and Other, Plato's.

Samian customs.

Sarcasm, use of, in Homer.

Sardians, sale of.

Saturn, the father of truth; temple of, as treasury and office of record; star of the Jews.


Savings, remarkable; in Homer.

Scamander, river in Boeotia.

Scape-goat, ceremony of, among Egyptians.

Scedasus, daughters of.

Scilurus, sayings of.

Scipio the Elder.

Scipio Junior, sayings of.

Scolding, fault of.

Sea, less salt in winter; water of, poured upon wine; waves of, heated by motion; calming the, by pouring on oil; composition and other qualities of: food from the, vs. food from land.

Sea-sickness, degrees of.

Sea-water and trees.

Secret, keeping a.

Seed, generative.



Semiramis, monument of.

Senses, definition, objects, number, action of, etc.

Septimontium, festival called.

Serapis, Egyptian name for Pluto.

Serpent, amour of a.

Servants' Holiday, origin of.

Servius, Roman king.

Seventeen, superstition concerning the number.

Seven Wise Men, banquet of the.

Sexes, generation of the different.

Shadows, guests called.

Sheep, qualities of flesh of, when bitten by wolves.

Shetland Islands.

Ships, sterns and stems on coins.

Shyness, an excess of modesty.

Sickness, causes of.

Sight, herb for curing weak; cause of; of old men; process of.

Silence, advantages of, contrasted with talkativeness; an answer to wise men.

Simonides, quotation from.

Sinister, birds called, in soothsaying.

Sipylus, mountain of Asia.

Sirens, music of the.

Skeleton at the feast.

Slave, an obedient but stupid.

Slaves, feast-day of Roman; blinding of.

Sleep, and death; eating ore; cause of; question of, appertaining to soul or body; Homer's valuation of.

Small Fortune, temple of.

Smelling, means of.

Sneezing, the Daemon of Socrates.

Snoring as a good omen in Homer.

Snow, generation of; preservation of.

Soap, natron the ancient substitute for.

Sober-stone, the.

Socrates, the Daemon of; on training of children; on the seat of true happiness; quoted; conception of God; birthday of; Colotes' criticisms of; defence of; "a midwife to others, himself not generating,".

Solon, precept of; and Croesus; on virtue and wealth.

Solstice, winter and summer.

Sons, conspicuous examples of deaths of.

Soos, story of.

Soothsaying, birds for; in Homer.

Sophocles, quotation from; paraphrase of Homer by.

Sorrow, advice on; exhibitions of.

Soul, essay on procreation of; passions of, vs. disorders of body; nature, essence, parts, motion of, etc.; means by which sensible, and principal part of; sympathy of, with passions of the body; Plato's reasoning concerning; immortality of, according to Pythagoras, Plato, and Homer; transmigration of the; Homer's treatment of powers and passions of.

Sounds, heard better in the night than in the day; harmonizing of.

Sows, farrowing of.

Space, theories of.

Sparta, customs in.

Spartans, sayings of the; remarkable speeches of some obscure.

Speech, ill-advised freedom of; control of one's; of statesmen; value of, to the health; composed of nouns and verbs, according to Plato.

Sperm, constitution of.

Spermatic emission of women.

Spiders, as an omen; skill of.

Spies, unpopularity resulting from.

Spoils of war, fate of.

Spurius, significance of name, and reason.

Stars, Egyptian beliefs concerning the; essence and composition; form of; order and place; motion and circulation, whence their light, and other qualities; circles about.

Statesmen, may praise themselves.

Stealing, among Lacedaemonians.

Stepmother, flower which dies at name of; the herb phryxa a protection against.

Steward at banquets.

Stilpo, and Poseidon; references to; attacked by Colotes.

Stoics, views of God; improbabilities spoken by; common conceptions against; contradictions of the; origin of doctrines of, with Homer.

Stones with special properties.

Stories of rivers and mountains.

Stratonica, Galatian woman.

Strymon, river of Thrace.

Style, types of, in Homer.

Summer, cause of; Stoics' view of.

Sun, titles of the; beliefs concerning the; Homer's opinions about; identification of Apollo with.

Sun and Wind, fable of.


Superstition, essay on.

Surgery in Homer.

Swallows, nests of; superstitions about.

Swine as an unholy animal.

Sword-blades, cold-hammered.

Sycophant, derivation of.

Sylia the Fortunate; Marius's treatment of.

Syllables, number of, possible to make.


Synecdoche in Homer.

Table customs, Roman; Greek, see Banquets.

Table-talk (Symposiacs).

Tactics, Homer's knowledge of.

Tagyrae, oracle at.

Talkativeness, essay on.

Tanais, river of Scythia.

Tarpeia, Roman traitress, and Greek parallel.

Taste, cause of.

Taygetus, mountain.

Taylor, Jeremy, a borrower from Plutarch.

Tears of boar and hart.

Teleclus, King.

Telecrus, sayings of.

Telesilla, poetess.

Temper, governing the. See Anger.

Temperance, wisdom of.

Temples, in Rome; traitors walled up in.

Tenes, temple of.

Tenses in Homer.

Teres, saying of.

Terminus, the god.

Terpander, Lacedaemonian musician.

Teuthras, mountain.

Thalassius, name sung at nuptials.

Thales the Milesian; conception of God.

Theagenes, Theban hero.

Theano, wife of Pythagoras.

Thearidas, saying of.


Themisteas the prophet.


Theocritus, unlucky remarks of; paraphrase of Homer by.

Theodorus of Soli, quoted.

Theogony, the ancient.

Theopompus; quoted.

Theoretic style in Homer.

Theoxenia, festival called.

Thermodon river of Scythia.

Theseus and Pirithous.

Thespesius, story of.

Thessaly, enchantments of.

Thiasi, sacrifice called.

Thirst, causes of; increased by eating.


"Thou art" and "Know thyself,".

Three accords between wine and water.

Three elements necessary for moral excellence.

Three parts in dancing.

Thunder, theories about.

Thunder-showers, water of.

Tiberius and flatterer.

Tides, cause of.

Tigris, myths of the.

Timaeus, on the procreation of the soul; Atlantic by, cited.

Time, defined; substance and nature of.


Timotheus; sayings of.

Timoxena, daughter of Plutarch, death of.

Tmolus, mountain, story of.

Tobacco, use of, hinted.

Togas without tunics for candidates for office.

Torches at nuptials.

Torture, inventors of engines of, rewarded.

Tracking wild beasts.

Tragedy, origin of, with Homer.

Training of children.

Traitors, parallel cases of Greek and Roman.

Tranquillity of mind.

Transmigration of the soul.

Trees, sea-water and; thrive better with rain than with watering; grafting of fir, pine, etc.; so-called Iris-struck.

Triangle, revered by Egyptians.

Triangles, Plato's theories about.

Tribune of the people.

Tropes in Homer.

Troy, women of.

Truce from words, Pythagoras'.

Truthfulness, honorableness of, shown in Homer.

Tutors, qualifications of; responsibilities of.

Twins and triplets, causes of.

Typhon, legends of.

Tyranny depicted by Homer.

Tyrrhene women, the.

Ulysses, and the Coliads; temple of, in Lacedaemon; and Circe. See Odysseus.

Unhappiness caused by vice.

Union results in strength.

Universe, theories of the government of the; conceptions of the; principles and elements of; question as to whether it is one



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