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Esperanto Self-Taught with Phonetic Pronunciation
by William W. Mann
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cheque cxeko cheh'ko claim pretendo prehtehn'doh clerk oficisto ofeet-sist'o company kompanio kompah-nee'oh , joint-stock akcia kompanio ahk-tsee'ah kompah-nee'oh , limited limigita kompanio limighee'tah " compensation kompenso kompehn'so complaint plendo plehn'doh confiscate, to konfiski konfis'kee contract, a kontrakto kontrahk'toh cost, insurance kosto, asekuro kaj kost'o, ahseh-koor'o and freight (c.i.f.) frajto kahy frah'y-toh cost price kostprezo kost-preh'zo credit kredito krehdee'toh creditor kreditoro kreditohr'o custom-house doganejo doganeh'yo customs, the la dogano la dogah'no clearing-house doganesplorejo dogahn'esploreh'yo customs duties doganimpostoj dogahn'impos'toy damage difekto difekt'o damages (law) kompensajxo kompehn-sah'zho debenture shares obligaciaj akcioj obligaht-see'ahy ahkt-see'oy debit debeto debeh'toh debt sxuldo shool'doh debtor sxuldanto shool-dahn'toh deliver, to liveri liveh'ree delivered free liverita afrankite livehree'tah afrahnkee'teh demurrage pago pro malfruigxo pah'go pro mahlfroo-ee'jo department fako fah'ko director, manager direktoro direktohr'o discount; to diskonto; diskonti diskon'toh; diskon'tee dividend dividendo dividehn'doh dock and harbour dok- kaj dohk- kahy dues haven-impostoj havehn'-impos'toy double entry, by per duobla enskribo per doo-oh'bla enskree'bo draft trato trah'toh draw upon, to trati (iun) trah'tee (ee'oon) drawee tratato tratah'toh drawer tratanto tratahn'toh duty, export eksportimposto eksport'impost'oh , import importimposto import'impost'oh duty-free senimposte sen-impost'eh enclosed entenata entehnah'ta enclosure, an enmetajxo enmeh-tah'zho endorse, to gxiri jee'ree endorsee gxirato jeerah'toh endorsement gxiro jeer'o endorser gxiranto jeerahn'toh exchange, an intersxangxo intehr-shahn'jo (place) borso bohr'so (difference) agxio ahjee'oh excise akcizo ahk-tsee'zo exports eksportoj ekspor'toy firm, a firmo feer'mo forwarding eksped-o, -ado[8] ekspeh'-doh, -dah'doh free on board afranke sur sxipon afrahn'keh soor (f.o.b.) sheep'ohn freightage frajta prezo frahy'tah preh'zo guarantee, a garantio garahntee'o imports importoj impohr'toy insolvent nesolventa nehsolvehn'ta insurance policy asekura poliso ahsehkoor'ah polee'so premium asekura premio ahsehkoor'ah prehmee'oh insure, to asekuri ahsehkoo'ree introduction prezento prehzehn'toh , letter of prezenta letero prehzehn'ta leteh'ro invest, to (money) plasi plah'see letter of advice avizletero ahveez'leteh'ro liabilities pasivo, sxuldaro pahsee'vo, shool-dah'ro liable to duty impostebla imposteh'blah load, to sxargxi shahr'jee loss malprofito mahl-profee'toh manifest, a manifesto mah-nifeh'sto marine insurance marasekuro mahr'ahseh-koo'ro market komercejo komehrt-seh'yo foreign market eksterlanda vendado ekstehrlahn'da vendah'doh home market enlanda vendado enlahn'da vendah'doh London market Londona vendado londoh'na vendah'doh market-day vendeja tago vendeh'yah ta'go market dues vendejaj impostoj vendeh'yahy impos'toy market price vendeja prezo vendeh'yah preh'zo not negotiable nenegocebla neh-nehgoht-seh'blah offer for sale, to elmeti al vendo elmeh'tee al vehn'doh office oficejo ofitseh'yo order, to (goods) mendi mehn'dee packing pakado pahkah'doh partner partisto pahrtist'o payable pagebla pa-geh'blah port of delivery livera haveno livehr'ah haveh'no preference shares preferencaj akcioj prefehrent'sahy ahk-tsee'oy prepaid afrankita afrahn-kee'ta price prezo preh'zo price-list prezaro prehzahr'o quarantine kvaranteno kvarahn-teh'no quotation (of prezpropono prehz'prohpo'no price) rate of interest procento prohtsehn'toh receipt kvitanco kvitahnt'so receiver likvidisto likvee-dist'o register, to registri reh-ghees'tree registered tonnage registra tonajxo reh-ghees'tra tonah'zho registration registr-o, -ado reh-ghees'-tro, -trah'doh representative reprezentanto reprehzen-tahn'toh rent luprezo loo-preh'zo retail (adj. & pomalgrand-a, -e po-malgrahn'-da, -deh adv.) salesman, seller vendisto vehndist'o selling price vendoprezo vehn'doh-preh'zo settling days pagtagoj pahg-tah'goy shareholder akciulo ahk-tsee-oo'lo shares akcioj ahk-tsee'oy ship, to ensxipigi enshipee'ghee shippers ekspedistoj ekspeh-dis'toy shipping charges sxargxadaj elspezoj shahrja'dahy elspeh'zoy shop-assistant komizo komee'zo solvent solventa solvehn'ta stevedore stivisto steevist'o stow, to (cargo) stivi stee'vee telegraphic telegrafa adreso telehgrah'fah ahdreh'so address towing charges trensxipaj pagoj trehn-shee'pahy pahgoy trade, commerce komerc-o, -ado komehrt'-so, -sah'doh transaction negoco nehgoht'so traveller, komerca vojagxisto komehrt'sah commercial vo-yah-jist'o underwriter asekurinto ahseh-koorin'toh unloading malsxargx-o, -ado mahlshahr'-jo, -jah'doh visa, to vizi vee'zee warehouse magazeno mah-gazeh'no weight, gross kuntara pezo koon-tah'ra peh'zo , net sentara pezo sehn-tah'ra peh'zo wharf uxarfo wahr'fo wharfage uxarfpago wahrf-pah'go wholesale pogrand-a, -e po-grahn'-da, -deh winding-up likvido likvee'doh

30. Post, Telegraph and Telephone. (La Posxto, la Telegrafo, kaj la Telefono.)

(For Conversations see section 64.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Collection kolekto kolek'toh contents enhavo ehnhah'vo counterfoil kontrauxfolio kon'trahw-folee'oh customs dogandeklaro dogahn'dehklar'o declaration delivery livero livehr'o description priskribo pree-skree'bo despatch note depesxo dehpeh'sho excess postage afrankeksceso afrahnk'eks-tseh'so letter post letera posxto leteh'ra posh'toh letter-scales leterpesilo letehr'pehsee'lo mail, the la kuriero la kooree-ehr'o money order posxtmandato posht-mandah'toh (foreign) eksterlanda eks-terlahn'da newspaper wrapper banderolo bahn-dero'lo parcel paketo pahkeh'toh post paketposxto pahkeht-posh'toh pillar-box leterkesto letehr-kest'o post, the la posxto la pohsh-toh postage paid afrankita afrahnkee'tah postal order posxtmandato enlanda posht-mahndah'toh en-lahn'da post-card posxtkarto pohsht-kahr'toh post-office posxtoficejo posht-ofeet-seh'yo postman leterportisto letehr'pohrtist'o postmaster posxtestro pohsh-tehs'tro re-address, to readresi reh-ahdreh'see register, to registri reh-ghees'tree reply paid respondafrankita respond'afrahn-kee'ta stamps posxtmarkoj posht-mahr'koy telegram telegramo teleh-grah'mo telegraph, to telegrafi teleh-grah'fee form telegrama folio teleh-grah'ma folee'oh messenger telegramportisto telehgrahm'pohrtist'o office telegrafejo teleh-grafeh'yo telephone telefono teleh-fo'no call office telefonejo teleh-foneh'yo number telefona numero teleh-fo'na noomehr'o ring up, to telefoni teleh-fo'nee to be called for posxtrestante posht-restahn'teh value, insured asekurita valoro ahsekooree'ta vahlohr'o weigh, to pesi peh'see weight, a pezilo pehzee'lo (of anything) pezo peh'zo , over tro peza tro peh'zah

31. Correspondence. (Korespondado.)

(For Conversations see section 65.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Address adreso ah-dreh'so blotting-paper sorba papero sohr'ba pa-pehr'o date dato da'toh , to dat-i, -umi dah'-tee, -too'mee envelope koverto ko-vehr'toh fasten, close, to fermi fehr'mee immediate tuja too'yah ink inko een'ko inkstand inkujo een-koo'yo letter letero letehr'o letter-box leterkesto leh-tehr-kest'o note noto no'toh note-paper leterpapero letehr'pa-pehr'o packet paketo pah-keht'o pen plumo ploo'mo , fountain fontoplumo fon'toh-ploo'mo penholder plumingo ploom-een'go penknife trancxileto trahn-chee-leh'toh pencil krajono krah-yo'no quire kajero kah-yeh'ro ream rismo rees'mo seal, a sigelo see-gheh'lo seal, to sigeli see-gheh'lee sealing-wax sigelvakso see-ghehl-vahk'so sheet folio fo-lee'o signature subskribo soob-skree'bo urgent urgxa oorr'jah writing la skribo la skree'bo materials skribilaro skree-bee-lah'ro

32. The Cardinal Numbers. (La Fundamentaj Numeraloj.)

(For Grammatical Notes see section "Cardinal Numbers".)

0 Nulo (nool'oh) 17 dek sep 79 sepdek naux 1 unu (oo'noo) 18 dek ok 80 okdek 2 du (doo) 19 dek naux 90 nauxdek 3 tri (tree) 20 dudek 100 cent (tsehnt) 4 kvar (kvahr) 21 dudek unu 101 cent unu 5 kvin (kvin) 22 dudek du 102 cent du 6 ses (sehss) 23 dudek tri 200 du cent (doot'sehnt) 7 sep (sehp) 24 dudek kvar 300 tricent 8 ok (ohk) 30 tridek 400 kvarcent 9 naux (nahw) 35 tridek kvin 500 kvincent 10 dek (dehk) 40 kvardek 600 sescent 11 dek unu 46 kvardek ses 700 sepcent 12 dek du 50 kvindek 800 okcent 13 dek tri 57 kvindek sep 900 nauxcent 14 dek kvar 60 sesdek 1,000 mil (meel) 15 dek kvin 68 sesdek ok 16 dek ses 70 sepdek

2,679 dumil sescent sepdek naux. 3,000 trimil. 10,000 dek mil. 20,000 dudek mil. 389,345 tricent okdek nauxmil tricent kvardek kvin. 1,000,000 (unu) miliono [(oo'noo) meeleeoh'no]. 4,000,000 kvar milionoj.

1908 ... Mil nauxcent ok.

NOTE.—Observe that the cardinal numbers are grouped together (without hyphens) in thousands, hundreds, tens and units. Thus, 548 is kvincent kvardek ok, not kvincent-kvardek-ok, and 17 dek sep, not dek-sep.

33. Ordinal Numerals. (La Ordaj Numeraloj.)

(For Grammatical Notes see section "Ordinal Numbers".)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - First unua oonoo'ah second dua doo'ah third tria tree'ah fourth kvara kvah'rah fifth kvina kvee'nah sixth sesa seh'sah seventh sepa seh'pah eighth oka oh'kah ninth nauxa nah'wah tenth deka deh'kah eleventh dek-unua dehk-oonoo'ah twelfth dek-dua dehkdoo'ah thirteenth dek-tria dehktree'ah fourteenth dek-kvara dehk-kvah'rah fifteenth dek-kvina dehk-kvee'nah sixteenth dek-sesa dehkseh'sah seventeenth dek-sepa dehkseh'pah eighteenth dek-oka dehk-oh'kah nineteenth dek-nauxa dehknah'wah twentieth dudeka doodeh'kah twenty-first dudek-unua doo'dehk-oonoo'ah twenty-second dudek-dua doo'dehk-doo'ah twenty-third dudek-tria doo'dehk-tree'ah twenty-fourth dudek-kvara doo'dehk-kvah'rah twenty-fifth dudek-kvina doo'dehk-kvee'nah thirtieth trideka treedeh'kah thirty-second tridek-dua treedehk-doo'ah fortieth kvardeka kvahrdeh'kah fiftieth kvindeka kvindeh'kah sixtieth sesdeka sehsdeh'kah seventieth sepdeka sehpdeh'kah eightieth okdeka ohkdeh'kah ninetieth nauxdeka nahw-deh'kah hundredth centa tsehn'tah hundred and first cent-unua tsehnt-oonoo'ah two hundred and ducent-kvindek-dua doot'sehnt-kvin'dehk- fifty-second doo'ah thousandth mila mee'lah

34. Collective and Fractional Numbers. (Kolektivaj kaj Nombronaj Numeraloj.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - All cxiom (da) chee'ohm (dah) couple, a paro pah'ro double duobla doo-oh'blah doubly duoble doo-oh'bleh dozen, a dekduo dehk-doo'oh fifth, a kvinono kvee-no'no firstly unue oonoo'eh gross, a cent kvardek kvar tsehnt kvahr'dehk kvahr half-a-dozen duondekduo doo-ohn'dehkdoo'oh once unufoje oo'noo-fo'yeh one by one unuope oonoo-oh'peh one-half unu duono oo'noo doo-oh'no pair, a paro pah'ro part, portion parto pahr'to quarter, fourth kvarono kvahro'no part score, a dudeko doodeh'ko secondly due doo'eh single unuopa oonoo-oh'pah singly unuope oonoo-oh'peh third, a triono tree-oh'no thirdly trie tree'eh threefold trioble tree-oh'bleh three-quarters tri kvaronoj tree kvahro'noy three-sevenths tri seponoj tree sehpoh'noy twice dufoje, dufojojn doo-fo'yeh, doo fo'yoyn two by two duope doo-oh'peh two-sixths du sesonoj doo seh-so'noy whole, the la tuto la too'toh

35. Adjectives. (Adjektivoj.)

(For Grammatical Notes see section "The Adjective".)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Able (capable) kapabla kah-pah'blah bad, wicked malbona mahl-bo'nah beautiful, bela beh'la handsome beloved amata ahmah'tah bitter maldolcxa mahl-dohl'chah blind blinda bleen'dah blunt malakra mahl-ah'krah bold kuragxema koorah-jeh'ma brave brava brah'vah bright hela heh'la broad, wide largxa lar'jah careful zorgema zorgeh'ma careless senzorga sen-zor'ga certain certa tsehr'tah cheap malkara mahl-kah'ra clean pura poo'rah clear klara klah'ra clever lerta lehr'tah cold malvarma mahl-vahr'ma comfortable komforta kohm-fohr'tah corpulent korpulenta korpoolehn'tah costly multekosta mool'teh-kohs'tah damp malseka mahl-seh'ka dangerous dangxera dahn-jeh'rah dark malluma mahl-loo'ma deaf surda soor'dah dear kara kah'ra deep profunda pro-foon'dah different malsama mahl-sah'ma dirty malpura mahl-poo'rah disagreeable malagrabla mahl-ahgrah'blah dry seka seh'ka dull (of weather) malklara mahl-klah'rah dusty polva pohl'vah early frua froo'ah easy facila faht-see'lah empty malplena mahl-pleh'na every cxiu chee'oo false malvera mahl-vehr'ah fashionable lauxmoda lahw-mo'dah fat (stout) dikkorpa deek-kor'pa few malmultaj mahl-mool'tahy fine (excellent) bonega boneh'gah (in quality) delikata dehlee-kah'tah fit (for) tauxga tahw'gah flat plata plah'tah foolish malsagxa mahl-sah'jah fortunate bonsxanca bohn-shahnt'sah free libera libeh'ra frequent ofta off'tah fresh fresxa freh'shah front antauxa ahntah'wah full plena pleh'nah gay gaja gah'yah general, usual kutima kootee'ma gentle, polite gxentila jentee'la good bona boh'nah grand grandioza grahndee-oh'zah great granda grahn'dah happy felicxa fehlee'chah hard malmola mahl-mo'la heavy peza peh'zah high alta ahl'tah honest honesta honeh'stah hot varmega vahrmeh'ga hungry malsata mahl-sah'tah ill (unwell) malsana mahl-sah'nah important grava grah'va interesting interesa inteh-reh'sah just justa yoos'tah kind bonkora bohn-ko'ra lame lama lah'ma large, vast largxa lahr'jah last lasta lah'stah late malfrua mahl-froo'ah light luma loo'ma little, small malgranda mahl-grahn'dah long longa lohn'gah loose ne fiksita neh fiksee'tah low (in place) malalta mahl-ahl'tah many multaj mool'tahy mild milda meel'dah muddy kota ko'tah narrow mallargxa mahl-lahr'jah natural natura nahtoor'ah new nova no'vah nice, tasty bongusta bohn-goo'stah old (not new) malnova mahl-no'vah open malfermita mahl-fehrmee'tah patient pacienca paht-see-ent'sah pleasant agrabla ahgrah'blah poor (not rich) malricxa mahl-ree'chah poor (to be kompatinda kompah-teen'dah pitied) possible ebla eh'blah pretty beleta beh-leh'tah private privata pree-vah'tah probable probabla probah'blah proud fiera fee-eh'rah public publika pooblee'ka pure, clean pura poo'rah quick, swift rapida rahpee'dah quiet kvieta kvee-eh'tah rich ricxa ree'chah right prava prah-vah (correct) gxusta joo'stah ripe matura mahtoo'rah rough (not smooth) malglata mahl-glah'tah round ronda rohn'dah rude malgxentila mahl-jenteela sacred, holy sankta sahnk'tah sad malgxoja mahl-joya safe, secure sekura seh-koo'rah sharp akra ah'krah short mallonga mahl-lohn'ga silent silenta seelehn'tah simple simpla seem'plah slow malrapida mahl-rahpee'dah smooth glata glah'tah soft mola mo'lah sound, reliable fidinda feedeen'dah sour acideca ahtsee-deht'sah square kvadrata kvah-drah'tah straight rekta rehk'tah strange (curious) stranga strahn'gah strong forta fohr'tah stupid, dull stulta stool'tah sufficient suficxa soofee'chah sweet dolcxa dohl'chah tall altkreska ahlt-krehs'kah tender (loving) amplena ahm-pleh'nah thick dika dee'kah thin maldika mahl-dee'ka thirsty soifanta so-eefahn'tah tough koherema ko-hehreh'mah true vera veh'rah ugly malbela mahl-beh'la unsettled necerta neht-sehr'tah (weather) useful utila ootee'la usual kutima kootee'ma valuable multvalora mooltvahlo'ra various diversa deevehr'sah warm varma vahr'ma weak malforta mahl-fohr'ta wet malseka mahl-seh'kah whole tuta too'tah willing volonta volohn'tah wise sagxa sah'jah wrong malprava mahl-prah'vah young juna yoo'nah

36. Verbs.

(For Grammatical Notes see section "The Verb".)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - To accept akcepti ahk-tsehp'tee " admire admiri ahdmeer'ee " answer, reply respondi rehspohn'dee " approve aprobi ahpro'bee " arrive alveni ahl-veh'nee " ascend supreniri soo'preh-neer'ee " ask demandi dehman'dee " attract, draw altiri ahl-teer'ee " awake, intr. vekigxi vehkee'jee " be esti eh'stee " be hungry malsati mahl-sah'tee " be ignorant of nescii nehst-see'ee " be mistaken trompigxi trohmpee'jee " be quiet, silent silenti seelehn'tee " be thirsty soifi so-ee'fee " beat bati bah'tee " begin, tr. komenci kohment'see " believe kredi kreh'dee " blame mallauxdi mahl-lahw'dee " boil, intr.; boli; boligi bo'lee; bo-lee'ghee , tr. " borrow pruntepreni proon'teh-preh'nee " bring alporti ahl-por'tee " build konstrui konstroo'ee " button butonumi bootonoo'mee " buy acxeti ahcheh'tee " carry porti pohr'tee " catch cold malvarmumi mahl-vahrmoo'mee " chat babili bahbee'lee " climb grimpi grim'pee " compare kompari kohmpah'ree " consent konsenti konsehn'tee " continue, dauxri dahw'ree intr. " cook kuiri koo-ee'ree " cough tusi too'see " cover kovri ko'vree " dance danci dahnt'see " decide decidi deht-see'dee " deny nei neh'ee " depart, go away foriri for-eer'ee " descend malsupreniri mahl-sooprehn-eer'ee " desire, wish deziri deh-zeer'ee (for) " dine cxefmangxi chehf-mahn'jee " do, make fari fah'ree " doubt dubi doo'bee " draw, pull tiri teer'ee " dream songxi sohn'jee " drink trinki trin'kee " dress vesti veh'stee " dwell, live logxi lo'jee " eat mangxi mahn'jee " exchange intersxangxi intehr-shahn'jee " excuse ekskuzi ekskoo'zee " explain komprenigi kompreh-nee'ghee " fall fali fah'lee " feel (by touch) palpi pahl'pee " feel (in mind) senti sehn'tee " find trovi tro'vee " finish, tr. fini fee'nee " follow sekvi sehk'vee " forget forgesi fohr-gheh'see " gather kolekti ko-lehk'tee " get akiri ahkee'ree " get up levigxi lehvee'jee " give doni doh'nee " go iri eer'ee " go in eniri ehneer'ee " go out eliri ehleer'ee " grow kreski kreh'skee " guide gvidi gvee'dee " hate malami mahlah'mee " have havi hah'vee " hear auxdi ahw'dee " hesitate heziti heh-zee'tee " hide kasxi kah'shee " hope esperi espehr'ee " imagine imagi imah'ghee " ignore ignori ignoh'ree " intend intenci intehnt'see " introduce (one) prezenti prehzehn'tee (a thing) enkonduki ehnkon-doo'kee " joke sxerci shehrt'see " jump salti sahl'tee " know scii stsee'ee " laugh ridi ree'dee " learn lerni lehr'nee " lend pruntedoni proon'teh-doh'nee " lie down kusxigxi koo-shee'jee " live (be alive) vivi vee'vee " look for sercxi sehr'chee " lose perdi pehr'dee " love ami ah'mee " marry, intr. edzigxi ehdzee'-jee (of a man) (of a woman) edzinigxi ehdzee-nee'jee " meet renkonti rehn-kon'tee " mention aludi ahloo'dee " need, want bezoni behzoh'nee " object oponi opoh'nee " obtain obteni obteh'nee " offend ofendi ofehn'dee " offer proponi pro-po'nee " open malfermi mahl-fehr'mee " order (goods) mendi mehn'dee " order, command ordoni ohrdoh'nee " pack up paki pah'kee " paint pentri pehn'tree " pay; repay pagi; repagi pah'ghee; reh-pah'ghee " plant planti plahn'tee " play ludi loo'dee " plough plugi ploo'ghee " pluck, pick desxiri deh-sheer'ee " praise lauxdi lahw'dee " prove pruvi proo'vee " read legi leh'ghee " reap rikolti reekohl'tee " reckon, count kalkuli kahl-koo'lee " receive ricevi reetseh'vee " refuse rifuzi ree-foo'zee " regret bedauxri behdahw'ree " remember memori meh-mohr'ee " repeat ripeti reepeh'tee " rest ripozi reepo'zee " return, come reveni rehveh'nee back (go back) reiri reh-eer'ee (give back) redoni reh-doh'nee " ring, tr. sonorigi so-no-ree'ghee " roast rosti roh'stee " run kuri koor'ee " say, tell diri dee'ree " search for sercxi sehr'chee " see vidi vee'dee " sell vendi vehn'dee " serve servi sehr'vee " sew, stitch kudri koo'dree " shave razi rah'zee " shine brili bree'lee " show montri mohn'tree " sign (letter, subskribi soob-skree'bee etc.) " sit down sidigxi seedee'jee " sleep dormi dohr'mee " sneeze terni tehr'nee " sow (seed) semi seh'mee " speak paroli pahro'lee " spoil, tr. difekti deefehk'tee " steal sxteli shteh'lee " study studi stoo'dee " swear jxuri zhoor'ee " take preni preh'nee " take off depreni deh-preh'nee " take a walk promeni pro-meh'nee " taste, tr. gustumi goostoo'mee " tell (a tale) rakonti rahkon'tee " thank danki dahn'kee " think pensi pehn'see " throw jxeti zheh'tee " touch tusxi too'shee " translate traduki trahdoo'kee " travel vojagxi vo-yah'jee " unbutton malbutonumi mahl-bootohnoo'mee " unpack malpaki mahl-pah'kee " wash lavi lah'vee " weep plori plo'ree " weigh, tr.; pesi; pezi peh'see; peh'zee , int. " will, be willing voli vo'lee " work labori lah-boh'ree " wrap up envolvi ehn-vol'vee " write skribi skree'bee " yield, give way cedi tseh'dee

37. Adverbs, Conjunctions & Prepositions. (Adverboj, Konjunkcioj kaj Prepozicioj.)

(For Grammatical Notes see the elementary grammar.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - About (nearly) proksimume prokseemoo'meh about (concerning) pri pree above super soo'pehr above all antaux cxio ahn'tahw chee'oh absolutely absolute ahbsoloo'teh according to laux lah'w across trans trahnss afresh denove dehno'veh after, next to post pohst afterwards poste pohss'teh again ree reh'eh against kontraux kohn'trahw all (of) cxiom (da) chee'ohm (dah) all at once, subite soobee'teh suddenly almost preskaux preh'skahw alone, solely sole so'leh aloud lauxte lahw'teh already jam yahm also, too, besides ankaux ahn'kahw although kvankam kvahn'kahm altogether, quite tute too'teh always cxiam chee'ahm and kaj kah'y anywhere kie ajn kee'eh ah'yn around, round cxirkaux cheer'kahw about as...as tiel...kiel... tee'ehl...kee'ehl... as much, as many tiom tee'ohm as much as tiom kiom tee'ohm kee'ohm as soon as, tuj kiam too'y kee'ahm immediately at cxe cheh at first unue oonoo'eh at last fine fee'neh at least almenaux ahl-meh'nahw at [the] most pleje pleh'yeh at once tuj tooy' at present nune noo'neh badly malbone mahlbo'neh because cxar chahr before antaux ahn'tahw behind post pohst below, under, sub soob beneath besides, beyond krom krohm better pli bone plee bo'neh between, among(st) inter een'tehr beyond preter preh'tehr briefly, shortly mallonge mahl-lohn'geh but sed sehd by the side of apud, flanke de ah'pood, flahn'keh deh by turns lauxvice lahw-veet'seh close to apud ah'pood consequently sekve sehk'veh daily cxiutage chee-ootah'gheh doubtless sendube sehndoo'beh down (direction) malsupren mahlsoo'prehn down (position) malsupre mahlsoo'preh during dum doom early, betimes frue froo'eh either...or aux...aux ahw...ahw elsewhere aliloke ahleelo'keh enough (of) suficxe (da) soofee'cheh (dah) even if ecx se ehch seh everywhere cxie chee'eh exactly precize preht-see'zeh exceedingly treege treh-eh'geh except, prep. escepte est-sehp'teh far, distant malproksime mahl-proksee'meh for, conj. cxar chahr for, prep. por pohr formerly antauxe ahntah'weh from de deh full of plena de pleh'nah deh fully plene pleh'neh hardly apenaux ahpeh'nahw here cxi tie, tie cxi chee tee'eh, tee'eh chee herewith cxi-kune chee-koo'neh how, like kiel kee'ehl how much? kiom? kee'ohm? however tamen tah'mehn immediately tuj too'y in en ehn in every way cxiel chee'ehl in front, before antauxe ahntah'weh in future en la estonteco ehn lah estohn-teht'so in spite of malgraux mahl'grahw in the midst of meze de meh'zeh deh indeed vere veh'reh inside interne de, en intehr'neh deh, ehn instead of anstataux ahnstaht'ahw late malfrue mahl-froo'eh less malpli mahl'plee little (of) malmulte (da) mahl-mool'teh (dah) little by little iom post iom ee'ohm pohst ee'ohm more pli plee more or less pli malpli plee mahl'plee the more...the ju pli...des pli yoo plee...dehs plee more much, very tre treh mutually reciproke reht'see-pro'keh near; to proksime; de prohksee'meh; deh neither...nor nek...nek nehk...nehk never neniam neh-nee'ahm nevertheless tamen tah'mehn not ne neh not at all tute ne too'teh neh notwithstanding malgraux (tio) mahl'grahw (tee'oh) not yet ankoraux ne ahnkoh'rahw neh now nun noon nowadays nuntempe, hodiaux noon-tehm'peh, hoh-dee'ahw nowhere nenie neh-nee'eh of de; da (after deh; dah numerals) of course kompreneble kompreh-neh'bleh often ofte off'teh on, upon sur soor on account of pro pro on no account nenial neh-nee'ahl on the contrary kontrauxe kontrah'weh on the left maldekstre mahl-dek'streh on the right dekstre dehk'streh only nur noor opposite kontrauxe kontrah'weh or aux ahw otherwise alie ahlee'eh outside, out of ekster eks'tehr over super soo'pehr perhaps eble eh'bleh presently, soon baldaux bahl'dahw previously antauxe ahntah'weh purposely intence intehnt'seh quickly rapide rahpee'deh rather, preferably prefere prehfeh'reh rather, somewhat iom ee'ohm save, excepting escepte ehst-sehp'teh scarcely apenaux ahpeh'nahw seldom, rarely malofte mahl-off'teh since, prep. de deh , conj. cxar chahr (the time when) de l' tempo kiam dehl tehm'po kee'ahm so, thus tiel tee'ehl so much tiom tee'ohm somehow iel ee'ehl something io ee'oh sometimes kelkafoje kehl'kah-fo'yeh soon baldaux bahl'dahw suddenly subite soo-bee'teh that, conj. ke keh that is tio estas (abbr., tee'oh es'tahss t.e.) then tiam tee'ahm then, conj. do doh thence de tie deh tee'eh there tie tee'eh through tra trah through (by means per pehr of) till, until gxis jeess to al ahl together kune koo'neh too much, too tro tro towards al, en la direkto de ahl, ehn lah deerehk'toh deh unexpectedly neatendite neh-ahtehndee'teh unless se...ne seh...neh until gxis jeess up, upwards supren soo'prehn up above supre soo'preh weekly cxiusemajne chee'oo-sehmah'y-neh well bone bo'neh when kiam kee'ahm whence? de kie? deh kee'eh? where? kie? kee'eh? wherever kie ajn kee'eh ahyn' whether, if cxu choo while, whilst dum doom why? kial? kee'ehl? willingly volonte volohn'teh wisely sagxe sah'jeh with kun koon within interne intehr'neh without sen sehn yearly cxiujare chee'oo-yah'reh yet, as yet ankoraux ahnkoh'rahw



ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR.

The Article.

The DEFINITE ARTICLE the is in Esperanto represented by la. Like the article in English, la does not vary with the number or gender of the noun before which it is placed; e.g., la briko, the brick; la brikoj, the bricks; la patro, the father; la patrinoj, the mothers.

The INDEFINITE ARTICLE a is not expressed in Esperanto. Thus, "filo" is son or a son.

The Noun.

In Esperanto every noun in the singular ends in *o*. Thus: viro, a man; la libro, the book. The plural is formed from the singular by adding the termination *-j*. Thus: viroj, men; la libroj, the books.

In order to allow each nation to construct its sentences in the order to which it is accustomed, every noun in Esperanto has two forms or "cases," (1) the NOMINATIVE, or unchanged form, and (2) the ACCUSATIVE, which is formed from the nominative by adding the termination *-n*. This is merely to distinguish between subject and object. The accusative form is also used to indicate motion towards, etc.

The Adjective.

All adjectives end in the nominative singular in *a*. They may be placed either before or after the noun. As in the case of the noun, the plural is formed by adding the termination *-j*, and the accusative is formed by adding *-n* to the nominative. The adjective agrees in number and case with the noun which it qualifies. Ex.:—

Blua libro (or libro blua), a blue book; bluaj libroj, blue books. La viro legas bluan libron. The man reads a blue book. La viroj legas bluajn librojn. The men are reading blue books.

Thanks to the accusative case, one might say without loss of clearness: Bluan libron legas la viro, or la viro bluan libron legas, or bluan libron la viro legas, etc.

Degrees of Comparison.

There are three degrees of comparison, as in English:

The POSITIVE, as bona, good; bela, beautiful; granda, big, great.

The COMPARATIVE is formed by placing pli (more) or malpli (less) before the positive, thus: bona, good—pli bona, better; bela, beautiful—malpli bela, less beautiful. The comparison may be heightened by using multe (much), thus: multe pli (or malpli) bela.

Than is translated by ol, thus: pli (or malpli) bela ol..., more (or less) beautiful than...

The SUPERLATIVE degree is formed by using plej (most) with the positive; as bela, beautiful—plej bela, most beautiful.

Of with a superlative is translated by the preposition el (out of). La plej granda el cxiuj, the greatest of all.

The more...the more, the less...the less, are translated by means of the particles ju and des. Thus: Ju pli oni studas, des pli oni lernas, the more one studies, the more one learns. Ju pli mi kun li parolas, des malpli mi lin estimas, the more I speak to him, the less I esteem him.

Cardinal Numbers.

The CARDINAL NUMBERS may be used as nouns, by the addition of the ending *-o*. Thus, unuo, a unit; trio, a trio; dekduo, a dozen; dudeko, a score; cento, a hundred; milo, a thousand. Note that miliono is ALWAYS used as a noun.

When a number or any other word is used as a noun of quantity, the noun which follows it must be preceded by the quantitative preposition *da*:—Dekduo da ovoj, a dozen eggs; milo da soldatoj, a thousand soldiers (one might of course also say dek du ovoj, mil soldatoj); du metroj da drapo, two metres of cloth; tri funtoj da sukero, three pounds of sugar.

Ordinal Numbers.

The ORDINAL NUMBERS are formed by adding the adjectival ending *-a* to the Cardinals. In Compound Ordinal Numbers, the groups of hundreds, tens, units, etc., are joined by hyphens, and the ending *-a* is added to the unit numeral. Thus: unu, one—unua, first; tria, third; dek-unua, eleventh; tridek-sepa, thirty-seventh; kvarcent-sesdek-dua, 462nd, and so on. Written in figures these would be 1a, 3a, 11a, 37a, 462a. The Ordinals are of course inflected like adjectives. (See section "The Adjective".)

Fractions

FRACTIONALS are formed by adding the suffix *-on* (plus the endings *o*, *a*, or *e* as required) to the Cardinal Numbers. Thus: unu duono, one-half; tri kvaronoj, three-quarters; dek sep dek-nauxonoj, 17/19; dudek tri kvarmil-kvincent-tridek-nauxonoj, 23/4539. Duone vera (or duonvera), half-true. Tri-kvaronoj da funto (or trikvaronfuntoj), 3/4 lb. Duono da funto (or duonfunto), 1/2 lb.

Multiples, Collectives, and Distributives.

MULTIPLE Numbers are formed from the Cardinals by adding the suffix *-obl*, with the requisite grammatical ending *o*, *a*, or *e*. Thus: duobla, double; duoblo, a double; duoble, doubly; tridekoble, thirty-fold; sesoble naux estas (or faras) kvindek kvar, six nines are fifty-four; duoble du estas kvar, twice two are four.

COLLECTIVE Numerals are formed by the addition of the suffix *-op* (plus the grammatical termination required). Thus: duope, two at a time, two together; nauxope, nine at a time; ili venadis dekope, they came in tens; dumilopa tacxmento, a detachment two thousand strong.

DISTRIBUTIVES are shown by the preposition po, meaning at the rate of. Thus: li acxetis por cxiu infano po ses pomoj, he bought six apples for each child; li ricevas po dek sxilingoj por cxiu tago, he gets ten shillings a day; la vagonaro veturas po sesdek mejloj en cxiu horo (or cxiuhore), the train travels at (the rate of) sixty miles an hour, etc.

The Pronoun.

The PERSONAL PRONOUNS are, in the nominative: Mi, I; vi, you (sing. and pl.); ni, we; li, he; sxi, she; gxi, it; ili, they.

The archaic English thou may be translated by ci.

The Accusative case of the personal pronouns is formed like that of nouns and adjectives, by adding *-n*. Thus: Min, me; vin, you; nin, us; lin, him; sxin, her; gxin, it; ilin, them.

The REFLEXIVE PRONOUN of the 3rd person is si (accusative sin), standing for himself, herself, itself, one's-self, or themselves, as the case may be. There is no special reflexive form for the pronouns of the 1st and 2nd person, I, we, and you.

The INDEFINITE PERSONAL PRONOUN is oni (= the French on)—one, people, they, you. Ex.: Li amas sin, he loves himself; sxi amas sin, she loves herself; gxi montras sin, it shows itself; ili diras al si, they say to themselves; oni vidas sin, one sees one's-self; mi lavas min, I wash myself; vi lauxdas vin, you praise yourself.

Possessive Adjectives or Pronouns.

By adding the adjectival ending *-a* to the personal pronouns, the POSSESSIVE Adjectives and Pronouns are obtained. Thus: Mia, my, mine; cia, thy, thine; via, your, yours; nia, our, ours; lia, his; sxia, her, hers; gxia, its; sia (reflexive), his, her(s), its, their(s), one's.

NOTE the following use of sia. In English the sentence, "He saw his friend with his brother," is not clear. Does it mean that he saw his friend (1) with his friend's brother, or (2) with his own brother? In Esperanto, the use of sia makes the meaning quite clear; (1) would be: Li vidis sian amikon kun LIA frato, and (2) would be: Li vidis sian amikon kun SIA frato.

The word mem, meaning -self or -selves, may be added to a personal pronoun to give emphasis. Thus: Konu vin mem, know thyself; li iris mem, he went himself; li mem, himself; li parolis al si mem, he spoke to himself.

Like other adjectives, possessives agree in case and number with the noun to which they refer. Ex.:

lia libro, his book; liaj libroj, his books; sxi havas lian, kaj li havas sxian, she has his, and he has hers; liaj estas la plej bonaj libroj, his are the best books; mi preferas miajn, I prefer mine; li preferas siajn, he prefers his; ili preferas siajn, they prefer theirs.

Demonstrative Adjective or Pronoun.

The DEMONSTRATIVE Adjective and Pronoun "that" is rendered in Esperanto by the word tiu (acc. tiun); plural tiuj (acc. tiujn), those. The addition (either before or after) of the particle cxi to the singular and plural respectively, gives this and these. Ex.:

Tiu viro, that man. Tiu estas mia, that (one) is mine. Mi elektas tiun, I choose that (one). Mi preferas tiun cxi (or cxi tiujn), I prefer this (one). Tiuj cxi (or cxi tiuj) estas miaj, these are mine. Mi portos tiujn cxi, I will carry these.

Interrogative Pronouns.

Kiu?—who, which? Plural, kiuj? Kio?—what? Kies?—whose? Al kiu?—to whom? Kiun?—whom? (acc.), kiujn? (acc. plu.). Ex.:

Kiu estas tiu?—who is that? Kiun vi deziras vidi?—whom do you desire to see? Kiuj foriris?—which (ones) went away? Kiujn vi vidis?—which ones did you see?

Kiu is also used with ADJECTIVAL meaning. Thus: Kiu libro estas via?—which book is yours? Kiun libron vi preferas?—which book do you prefer? Kiuj domoj apartenas al vi?—which houses belong to you? Kiujn stratojn vi konas?—which streets do you know? Kio estas tio?—what is that? Kion li volas?—what does he want?

The English -ever is translated by ajn. For example: Kiu ajn li estas, ne parolu al li, whoever he be, do not speak to him. Kies ajn, whosesoever. Kiu(j)n ajn, whomever.

Relative Pronouns.

The Relative Pronouns are identical with the Interrogative: Kiu(j), who, that, which, kiu(j)n, whom, that, which. Ex.:

La libro, kiun vi legas, the book (which) you are reading. Tiu, kiu parolis al vi, the one who spoke to you. La personoj, kiujn li konas, the persons (whom) he knows. Tio, kion li diras, ne estas vera, what he says is not true. La arbo, kies supron vi vidas, the tree whose top you can see.

Indefinite Pronouns.

iu (acc. iun), anyone, someone or other; ies, anyone's, someone's; iuj (acc. iujn), any persons, some persons or other; io (acc. ion), anything, something.

cxiu (acc. cxiun), everyone, each; cxies, everyone's, everybody's, each one's; cxiuj (acc. cxiujn), everybody, all; cxio (acc. cxion), everything, all.

neniu (acc. neniun), no one, nobody; nenies, no one's, nobody's; nenio (acc. nenion), nothing, not anything.

NOTE.—Iu, cxiu, and neniu are also used with nouns. Thus: Kiun libron vi deziras? Which book do you desire? Iun ajn libron. Any book. Iu homo, any man, some man or other. Cxiu bona patro amas siajn infanojn, every good father loves his children. Cxiuj liaj amikoj (or cxiu lia amiko), all his friends, every friend of his. Mi renkontis neniun amikon, I met no friend.

Other PRONOMINAL WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS are:

multaj(n), many; multo(n), much; malmultaj(n), malmulte da..., a few. Ex.: malmultaj personoj, few persons; malmulte da scio, little knowledge.

kelkajn, some, several; kelke da..., some. Ex.: kelkaj personoj, some persons, several persons; kelke da libroj, some (quantity of) books.

alia(n), another, other; aliaj(n), others. Ex.: ili parolis unu al alia, they spoke to one another; ni parolis unu al la alia, we spoke to each other; unu aux la alia tauxgos, either (one or the other) will do; nek unu nek la alia konvenas, neither (one nor the other) is suitable.

ambaux (invariable), both. Ex.: ambaux venis, both came; mi konas ambaux fratojn, I know both brothers; mi vidis ilin ambaux, I saw both of them; mi sxatas ambaux, I like both.

The Verb.

Tenses.

The VERB in Esperanto has three main Tenses—the Present, Past, and Future. These are denoted by means of the verbal endings *-as*, *-is*, and *-os*. Thus, from the root vid, see, are formed:

Present. Past. Future. mi vidas, I see mi vidis, I saw mi vidos, I shall see

Moods.

Every Esperanto verb has three Moods—the Conditional, the Imperative, and the Infinitive, which are formed respectively by means of the endings *-us*, *-u*, and *-i*. Thus:

Conditional. Imperative. Infinitive. mi vidus, I should see vidu, see! vidi, to see

The CONDITIONAL Mood is used to express supposition; the three Tenses, on the other hand, are used to express facts or actual happenings. (For examples, see section "Conjunctions".)

The IMPERATIVE Mood is used to express an order, desire, wish, will, etc. (See section "Use of Imperative".) Used with the personal pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons, this mood corresponds to the English let, used as an expression of a wish. Thus: mi pensu, let me think; li venu morgaux, let him come to-morrow; ili parolu, let them speak.

NOTE that let sometimes means to allow, to give leave, in which case the verb lasi is used. Thus: let (allow) him come, lasu lin veni; leave it there, lasu gxin tie.

The Imperative may be used interrogatively to translate the English shall, with an idea of wish or desire. Thus:

What shall I give you? Kion mi donu al vi? What shall we do to-day? Kion ni faru hodiaux?

What will he do? would of course be simply Kion li faros?—for there is here no question of desire or wish, but merely a question of future action.

The INFINITIVE Mood is used to express the mere idea of the verb, without any limit of person or number, and corresponds to the English to before the verb. Thus: kuri, to run; paroli, to speak.

NOTE.—In Esperanto, as is largely the case in English, the mood and tense endings of the verb do not vary according to person or number. For instance: mi vidas, I see, li vidas, he sees; also ni vidis, we saw, ili vidis, they saw; vi vidos, you will see; oni vidos, one will see; sxi vidus, she would see, vi vidus, you would see.

Participles.

There are in Esperanto six participles, three active and three passive, corresponding to three tenses. They are formed in the ACTIVE by means of the endings *-ant*, *-int*, and *-ont*, and in the PASSIVE by means of the endings *-at*, *-it*, *-ot*, with the addition of the adjectival termination *-a*. Thus:

ACTIVE. Present. Past. Future. vidanta, seeing vidinta, having-seen vidonta, about-to-see

PASSIVE. vidata, vidita, vidota, (being) seen (having-been) seen (about-to-be) seen

The PARTICIPLES may be used either as Nouns, Adjectives, or Adverbs, the terminations *-o*, *-a*, *-e* being added to the participial endings as required. When used as nouns or adjectives, they of course take the sign of the Plural (*-j*) and of the Accusative (*-n*) when the construction of the sentence so requires. Ex.:

(1) ACTIVE. En la venonta jaro, in the coming year. La parolanto, the speaker. La auxskultantoj, the audience (lit., listeners). Mi vidis lin skribantan, I saw him writing. Li foriris kurante, he went off at a run. Li revenis ne vidinte sian amikon, he returned without having seen his friend.

(2) PASSIVE. La ekzamenato, the examinee. La mortigitoj kaj vunditoj, the killed and wounded. Estimata sinjoro, dear (lit., esteemed) sir. Frapote, li sin defendis, about to be struck, he defended himself. Mi auxdis tiun himnon kantatan, I heard that hymn sung.

Compound Tenses.

The COMPOUND TENSES are formed by means of the auxiliary verb *esti*, to be. Thus, by the combination of the participles with the six tenses and moods, we obtain thirty-six compound tenses, enabling us to express with the utmost precision any time-relation whatsoever. We have in all:

li estas, or estis, or estos { vidanta or vidata or estus, or estu, or esti { vidinta or vidita { vidonta or vidota

The use of the participles is very easy when once one grasps the fact that the auxiliary esti serves to denote the particular division of time, or the particular manner, of the occurrence of the action denoted by the participle. Ex.:

Li estis skribanta, kiam mi vidis lin, he was writing when I saw him. Li estis fininta, kiam mia amiko alvenis, he had finished (lit., was having finished) when my friend arrived. Mi estis tuj forironta, kiam vi aperis, I was just about to go out when you appeared. Li estas nunmomente parolanta, he is speaking at this very moment. Li estas mortonta, he is about to die. Li estus jam foririnta, he would have already departed (lit., would be already gone away).

The word by after a Passive is translated by the preposition *de*. Thus: The wood was being chopped by the boy, la ligno estis hakata de la knabo. He has been seen by all, li estas vidita de cxiuj.

NOTE.—The COMPOUND TENSES should not be used if the SIMPLE TENSES suffice to show the meaning clearly. Thus, I have seen him is more neatly expressed by mi jam vidis lin than by mi estas vidinta lin. Li jam foriris might stand for either he had gone or he has gone, according to circumstances, and the context would clearly show which was meant. Li parolas is generally quite right for he is speaking. Li estas parolanta should be used only when it is particularly intended to show that he is actually engaged in the act of speaking.

The Adverb.

In Esperanto, ADVERBS are denoted by the ending *-e*, and may be placed in any position, either before or after the verb. Thus: bela, beautiful—bele, beautifully; vera, true—vere, truly. Li parolas sagxe, he speaks wisely. Li rapide kuras, he runs quickly.

Adverbial Numbers.

ADVERBIAL NUMBERS are formed by adding *-e* to the Cardinals. Thus: unue (1e), firstly; trie (3e), thirdly; sepe (7e), etc.

The Preposition.

In English, one preposition often has many different meanings. In Esperanto, on the contrary, every preposition, with the exception of the word je, has one precise and fixed meaning.

The preposition *je* is the only one in Esperanto without a definite meaning. It sometimes happens that one wishes to use a preposition of some sort or other, but is uncertain just which preposition will precisely express the idea. In such cases je is used. Thus: He laughed at me, li ridis je mi; full of water, plena je akvo; six metres long, longa je ses metroj; fear of him, timo je li, etc.

Je should not be abused. Its too frequent use is a mark of the beginner in the language.

Use of Accusative.

When there is no ambiguity to be feared, the preposition je, and even other prepositions, are often omitted in Esperanto; and the word to which the preposition, if expressed, would have referred is put into the accusative. Thus, instead of saying li ridas je mi (he is laughing at me), one might say li ridas min; similarly, du metrojn alta would stand for alta je du metroj. Gxi kostis je tri sxilingoj is more usually expressed: gxi kostis tri sxilingojn. Mi restis tie dum kvin horoj (I stayed there for five hours) could be: mi restis tie kvin horojn; and so on.

Certain prepositions, viz., antaux, before, cxe, at, en, in, sub, under, sur, on, kontraux, against, super, over, and trans, across, are often used to denote movement towards, whereas of themselves they only express rest at. In order to make it quite clear whether motion or rest is intended, use is made of the accusative. Thus: li promenis en la urbo, he took a walk in the city; but li promenis en la urbon, he took a walk into the city. Li kuris antaux mi, he ran (along) before or in front of me; but li pasxis antaux min, he stepped in front of me; and so on.

ADVERBS are sometimes used with prepositional force. Thus: proksime de la domo, near the house; dekstre de la arbo, on the right of the tree, etc.

The Conjunction.

A full list of CONJUNCTIONS will be found on section 37. The following constructions should be noted:

Tenses after Ke (that).

Mi vidis, ke sxi ploras, I saw (that) she was crying. Mi sciis, ke li venos, I knew that he would come. Mi sciis, ke li jam alvenis, I knew (that) he had already arrived. Li diris, ke se li estus tiel granda, kiel mi, li facile farus tion, he said that if he were as tall as I, he would easily do that.

Note that in Esperanto the verb is put in the exact time or tense used by the speaker. Thus: mi ne sciis, cxu li venos, I did not know whether he would (lit., will) come; ili ne diris, cxu ili vin renkontis, they did not say whether they had met you.

Use of Imperative.

After verbs expressing wish, intention, will, or desire, or command, the verb following is put in the IMPERATIVE MOOD. Thus: mi ordonas, ke li venu, I order that he come (him to come); mi tre deziris, ke li vivu, I very much wanted him to live; ili intencis, ke ni perdu, they intended us to lose. Here the actual expressions used were: li venu, li vivu, ili perdu.

Use of Conditional after Se.

Se vi tiel diris, vi malprave faris, if you spoke thus you did wrongly. Se vi tiel dirus, vi estus malprava, if you said (were to say) thus, you would be wrong. Se vi venos, vi vidos, if you (will) come, you will see.

Interjections.

The following are the principal INTERJECTIONS:

adiaux! adieu! farewell! ah! ah! antauxen! forward! atentu! look out! bis! encore! bone! good! certe! certainly! cxu ne? or cxu ne vere? is not that so? cxu vere? is that so? efektive! indeed! fi! fie! for! away! be off! ha! ha! halt! halt! he! hey! halloo! ho! oh! ho ve! alas! hontinde! shameful! jen! there! kompreneble! naturally! of course! ne! no! neeble! impossible! nu! well! rapide! quick! rapidu! hurry up!

Formation of Words.

In Esperanto, considerable use is made of prefixes and suffixes, every one of which has a clear, fixed meaning. Great economy of vocabulary is thus effected, one root-word in Esperanto sufficing, when modified by suitable affixes, to translate many English words. Many of the affixes are often met with as single words. In such cases the English translation is added after the various examples of the affix in question.

Prefixes.

*bo-* denotes RELATIONSHIP BY MARRIAGE: patro, father, bopatro, father-in-law; filo, son, bofilo, son-in-law.

*dis-* denotes SEPARATION: jxeti, to throw, disjxeti, to scatter, throw about; peli, to drive along, dispeli, to dispel, fali, to fall, disfali, to fall apart, fall to pieces.

*ek-* denotes a BEGINNING OF AN ACTION, a MOMENTARY ACTION: iri, to go, ekiri, to begin to go, to start; brili, to shine, ekbrili, to begin to shine, to flash.

*ge-* denotes the TWO SEXES TAKEN TOGETHER: patro, father, gepatroj, father and mother, parents; frato, brother, gefratoj, brother(s) and sister(s); Gesinjoroj B., Mr. and Mrs. B.

*mal-* denotes the OPPOSITE OF AN IDEA: bona, good, malbona, bad; sxati, to like, malsxati, to dislike; amiko, friend, malamiko, enemy; lauxta, loud, mallauxte, softly.—Malo, an opposite; male, on the contrary.

*pra-* is a prefix of RELATIONSHIP, corresponding to the English FORE-, GREAT-: patro, father, prapatro, forefather, ancestor; avo, grandfather; praavo, great-grandfather; nepo, grandson, pranepo, great-grandson.

*re-* denotes RETURN AND REPETITION: iri, to go, reiri, to go back, or to go again; repreni, to take back; revidi, to see again.—Ree, again.

Suffixes.

*-acx* denotes that a word is used in a BAD SENSE, with DISPARAGEMENT: domo, a house, domacxo, a hovel; ridi, to laugh, ridacxi, to sneer.

*-ad* denotes CONTINUATION OR DURATION of an action: paroli, to speak, paroladi, to make a speech; kanto, a song, kantado, singing; vojagxo, a voyage, vojagxado, travelling; rido, a laugh, ridado, laughter.

*-ajx* denotes some CONCRETE THING characterized by the idea contained in the root: bela, beautiful, belajxo, a beautiful thing; nutri, to feed, nourish, nutrajxo (or nutrantajxo), food; gxentila, polite, gxentilajxo, a polite act, act of politeness; bovo, ox, bovajxo, beef.—Ajxo, a thing.

*-an* denotes a PARTISAN OF, a MEMBER, an INHABITANT: Kristo, Christ, Kristano, a Christian; eklezio, a church, ekleziano, a churchman; Londonano, a Londoner.—Ano, a member.

*-ar* denotes a COLLECTION OF, a NUMBER OF: arbo, tree, arbaro, a forest; homo, a human being, homaro, mankind; vorto, a word, vortaro, a dictionary.—Aro, a collection, number, gathering.

*-cxj* added to the first two to five letters of a word, is used to denote MASCULINE DIMINUTIVES OF ENDEARMENT: Johano, John, Jocxjo, Jack; patro, father, pacxjo, papa, daddy.

*-ebl* denotes POSSIBILITY, and corresponds to the English suffixes -ABLE, -IBLE: kredi, to believe, kredebla, credible; videbla, visible; al, to, iri, to go, alirebla, accessible.

*-ec* denotes ABSTRACT IDEAS, QUALITIES and corresponds to the English suffixes -NESS, -SHIP, etc.: felicxa, happy, felicxeco, happiness; alta, high, alteco, height; regxo, king, regxeco, kingship.

*-eg* denotes AUGMENTATION, INTENSITY OF DEGREE: granda, big, great, grandega, enormous; bela, beautiful, belega, magnificent; sxtono, stone, sxtonego, rock; pafilo, a gun, pafilego, cannon.

*-ej* denotes a PLACE SPECIALLY SET APART FOR or allotted to: pregxi, to pray, pregxejo, church; mangxi, to eat, mangxejo, refectory; kuirejo, kitchen; enirejo, entrance; elirejo, exit.

*-em* denotes PROPENSITY, INCLINATION, DISPOSITION: paroli, to talk, parolema, talkative; mensogi, to lie, mensogema, untruthful.

*-er* denotes an ELEMENT OF, a UNIT, a GRAIN: polvo, dust, polvero, a grain of dust; fajrero, a spark; hajlero, hailstone; mono, money, monero, a coin.—Ero, particle, grain, element.

*-estr* denotes a CHIEF, LEADER, HEAD: regno, state; regnestro, head of the state, ruler; lernejo, school, lernejestro, head-master.—Estro, leader, chief; estraro, the authorities; estri, to act as chief.

*-id* denotes a DESCENDANT, OFFSPRING, YOUNG OF: bovo, ox, bovido, calf; sxafo, a sheep, sxafido, lamb; Izraelido, Israelite; la homidoj, the sons of man; Sro. Brown kaj la Brownidoj, Mr. Brown and the little Browns.—Ido, a descendant, child; idaro, descendants, offspring.

*-et* denotes DIMINUTION OF DEGREE (compare -eg above): bela, beautiful, beleta, pretty; venteto, breeze; ridi, to laugh, rideti, to smile; bona, good, boneta, fairly good, mediocre.—Eta, tiny.

*-ig* denotes a MAKING, RENDERING, CAUSING TO BE: granda, great, grandigi, to enlarge; venigi kuraciston, to send for (cause to come) a doctor; halti, to stop (intr.), haltigi, to stop (tr.); trancxigi al si la harojn, to get one's hair cut.—Igi, to make, render.

*-igx* denotes a BECOMING, GETTING, GROWING, BEING MADE: hela, bright, heligxi, to grow or become bright; rugxa, red, rugxigxi, to redden, blush; disigxi, to separate (intr.).—Igxi, to become.

With transitive verbs igx- is used to make intransitive verbs, thus: renversi, to overthrow, turn upside down, renversigxi, to turn (intr.) upside down, to get overthrown; fari, to make, farigxi, to become; perdigxi, to get lost; vidigxi, to be seen.

Used with intransitive verbs, igx- gives the idea of a becoming, a GRADUAL TRANSITION from one state to another: morti, to die, mortigxi, to become dead, to die away, to expire; sidi, to be seated, sidigxi, to become seated, to sit down.

NOTE that, since verbs in -igx are of necessity intransitive, their participles should only be used in the ACTIVE FORM. Thus: renversigx*inta*, having become overthrown, and not renversigx*ita*; perdigx*inta*, having become lost, not perdigx*ita*; and so on. One might of course simply say renversita, overthrown, and perdita, lost, though the meaning would in that case not be quite the same.

*-il* denotes an INSTRUMENT, TOOL, or MEANS: trancxi, to cut, trancxilo, a knife; filtri, to filter, filtrilo, a filter; teni, to hold, tenilo, a handle.—Ilo, tool, instrument; ilaro, set of tools.

*-ind* denotes WORTHINESS (English -WORTHY): lauxdi, to praise, lauxdinda, praiseworthy; vidinda, worth seeing, vidindajxoj, things worth seeing, sights.—Inda (je), worthy (of); indeco, worthiness.

*-ing* denotes the HOLDER OF A SINGLE OBJECT (compare -uj below): plumo, pen, plumingo, penholder; fingro, finger, fingringo, thimble; cigaringo, cigar-holder.—Ingo, a socket, holder.

*-in* denotes FEMININES: viro, a man, virino, a woman; patro, father, patrino, mother.—Ino, a female.

*-ist* denotes TRADE, OCCUPATION, PROFESSION: labori, to work, laboristo, workman; kuraci, to treat (medically), kuracisto, doctor.

*-nj* added to the first two to five letters of a word, is used to form FEMININE DIMINUTIVES OF ENDEARMENT (compare -cxj above): Johanino, Jane, Johanjo, Jenny; patrino, mother, panjo, mamma.

*-uj* denotes a RECEPTACLE which contains or bears a COLLECTION OR A QUANTITY of things or material (compare -ing above): mono, money, monujo, purse; inko, ink, inkujo, inkstand.—Ujo, a utensil case, bin.

The suffix -uj is also used to denote TREES bearing certain fruits: pomo, apple, pomujo, apple-tree; cxerizujo, cherry-tree; rozujo, rose-bush. The word arbo, however, is more frequently used in such cases: pomarbo, rozarbeto, etc.

-Uj is also used to denote the NAMES OF COUNTRIES: Anglo, Englishman, Anglujo, England; Franco, a Frenchman, Francujo, France. (See footnote 4.)

*-ul* denotes a BEING CHARACTERISED BY THE IDEA CONTAINED IN THE ROOT-WORD: bela, beautiful, belulino, a beautiful woman, a beauty; kulpo, blame, kulpulo, culprit; lauxdindulo, one worthy to be praised; bonulo, a good fellow; bonegulo, a jolly good fellow.

*-um* is an INDEFINITE SUFFIX, like the word je among the prepositions, Thus: pleni, to fill, plenumi, to fulfil (compare plenigi, to fill); kolo, neck, kolumo, collar; aero, air, aerumi, to air (a room, clothes, etc.).

[Words containing -um should be learnt as independent roots.]

Compound Words.

In Esperanto, any word can be combined with any other word or words to form a compound word. Considerable use is made of prepositions for this purpose. The requisite grammatical ending must of course be added in each case. The student should carefully study the following words, and also those given above, and endeavour to form words for himself.[9] Ability to form words readily is absolutely necessary to fluent speech or composition in the language. In the examples given below the component parts of the words are separated by a small stroke ('), but these are of course omitted in ordinary usage:

El'iri, to go out antaux'cxambro, antechamber pri'pensi, to think over, reflect upon preter'pasxi, to pass by per'labori, to earn (gain by working) per'forto, violence tra'vivi, to live through, experience supre'n'iri, to go up, ascend inter'rompi, to interrupt kun'veno, an assembly, meeting al'paroli, to address, accost inter'rilati, to relate one with another inter'rilatoj, inter-relations inter'nacia, international skrib(o)'tablo, writing-table dorm(o)'cxambro, bedroom naz'tuko, handkerchief ter'tremo, earthquake glit'iri, to skate glit'veturilo, a sleigh pied'ir'anto, a pedestrian bru'fermi, to slam facil'mova, agile, easy-moving hom'amo, philanthropy bon'far'anto, benefactor strat'lanterno, street-lamp bot'far'isto, bootmaker sam'profesi'anoj, members of the same profession cxio'potenca, all-powerful libr'amanto, a book-lover doktor'edzino, doctor's wife mon'akir'ilo, a means of getting money cxio'n'faranta, all-doing alt'anima, high-souled vivi'pova, capable of life ali'landulo, foreigner ali'maniere, in another way tiu'speca, of that kind

CORRELATIVE WORDS.

INDEFINITE Interrog. Rel. Demonstrative Distributive Negative K T CX NEN QUALITY - - - IA KIA TIA CXIA NENIA Some (kind of) What (sort That sort of Each kind of No (kind Any (kind of) of)? Such (a) Every (kind of) of) REASON - - IAL KIAL TIAL CXIAL NENIAL For some For what For that For every For no reason. For reason? Why? reason reason. On reason. On any reason Therefore every account no account TIME - - IAM KIAM TIAM CXIAM NENIAM At some time At what time? At that time At all times At no time Sometimes, When? Then Always, each Never ever time PLACE - - - IE KIE TIE CXIE NENIE At any place At what place? In that place At each place At no place Somewhere Where? There Everywhere Nowhere MANNER - - IEL KIEL TIEL CXIEL NENIEL In some way In what way? In that way In every way In no way anyhow How? Like, as So, thus, as In each way Nohow POSSESSION - - IES KIES TIES CXIES NENIES Somebody's Whose? That one's Everyone's Nobody's Anybody's What person's? That person's Each one's No one's THING - - - IO KIO TIO CXIO NENIO Something What (thing)? That (thing) All Nothing Anything Everything Nought QUANTITY - - IOM KIOM TIOM CXIOM NENIOM Some How much? So much All None A little What Quantity? That quantity The whole quantity INDIVIDUALITY - - - IU KIU TIU CXIU NENIU Anyone What person? That one Everyone, Nobody every No one



CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES AND SENTENCES.

38. Useful and Necessary Expressions. (Utilaj kaj Necesaj Esprimoj.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Do you speak Cxu vi parolas angle? choo vee pahro'lahss English? ahn'gleh? I do not speak Mi ne parolas angle. mee neh pahro'lahss English. ahn'gleh Is there anyone Cxu estas cxi tie iu, choo eh'stahss chee here who speaks kiu parolas tee'eh ee'oo, kee'oo Esperanto? Esperante? pahro'lahss espehrahn'teh? How long have you Dum kiom da tempo vi doom kee'ohm dah learnt? lernadis? tehm'po vi lehrnah'deess? A short time only Dum nur mallonga doom noor mahl-lohn'gah tempo tehmpo You have a good Vi havas bonan vee ha'vahss boh'nahn accent akcenton ahk-tsehn'ton I find the Mi trovas la mee tro'vahss lah pronunciation elparoladon tre ehl-parolah'dohn treh very easy facila faht-see'lah If you please Se placxas seh plah'chahss Thank you; thanks! Mi dankas; dankon! mee dahn'kahss; dahn'kohn! I thank you Mi dankas vin mee dahn'kahss veen Much obliged Vi estas tre kompleza vee eh'stahss treh kohmpleh'zah Have the goodness Havu la bonecon hah'voo lah bo-neht'sohn Yes, sir Jes, sinjoro yehss, seen-yoh'roh Yes, miss Jes, frauxlino yehss, frahw-lee'no No, madam Ne, sinjorino neh, seen-yoh-ree'no Allow me Permesu (min) pehrmeh'soo (meen) Bring me Alportu al mi ahlpohr'too ahl mee Do you understand? Cxu vi komprenas? choo vee kohmpreh'nahss? I do not Mi ne komprenas mee neh kohm-preh'nahss understand I understand Mi komprenas mee kohm-preh'nahss Give me Donu al mi doh'noo ahl mee Send me Sendu al mi sehn'doo ahl mee Tell me Diru al mi deer'oo ahl mee Will you kindly Cxu vi afable dirus al choo vee ahfah'bleh tell me? mi? deer'ooss ahl mee? What do you say? Kion vi diras? kee'ohn vee deer'ahss? I beg your pardon Mi petas vian mee peh'tahss vee'ahn pardonon pahrdoh'nohn Speak louder Parolu pli lauxte pa-ro'loo plee lah'w-teh What did you ask? Kion vi demandis? kee'ohn vee deh-mahn'deess? What does it Kion tio signifas? kee'ohn tee'oh signify? signee'fahss? It is nothing (Gxi) estas nenio (jee) eh'stahss neh-nee'o It is all the same Estas por mi ehstahss pohr mee to me indiferente indifehrehn'teh Never mind Ne zorgu pri tio neh zor'goo pree tee'oh What is the Kio estas? kee'oh eh'stahss? matter? Nothing Nenio nehnee'oh It is all a Estas pura eraro eh'stahss poor'ah mistake ehrahr'oh What is it about? Pri kio estas? pree kee'oh eh'stahss? What is to be Kion fari? kee'ohn fahr'ee? done? I haven't a notion Mi tute ne scias mee too'teh neh stsee'ahs That depends Tio dependas tee'oh dehpehn'dahss I don't believe it Mi ne kredas gxin mee neh kred'ahss jeen Of course Kompreneble kohmpreh-neh'bleh On the contrary Kontrauxe kohntrah'weh Once for all Unu fojon por cxiam oonoo foyohn por chee'ahm After all Kiam cxio estas kee'ahm chee'oh konsiderita eh'stahss kohn-seedeh-ree'tah That is of no Tio ne estas grava tee'oh neh eh'stahss consequence grah'vah The other day La alian tagon lah ahlee'ahn tah'gohn At the end of a Post unu jaro post oo'noo yah'ro year Between ourselves Inter ni in'tehr nee Everybody knows Cxiu scias chee'oo stsee'ahss I remember it Mi memoras tion mee meh-mohr'ahss tee'ohn All at once Subite soobee'teh Sooner or later Frue aux malfrue froo'eh ahw mahlfroo'eh Ever so little Tre tre malmulte treh treh mahl-mool'teh You are joking Vi sxercas vee shehrt'sahss You are right Vi estas prava vee eh'stahss pra'vah Leave me alone Lasu min trankvila lahsoo meen trahnkvee'lah Don't be angry Ne koleru neh ko-lehr'oo So much the more Tiom pli tee'ohm plee For want of time Pro manko de tempo pro mahn'ko deh tehm'po Take this Prenu tion preh'noo tee'ohn Make haste! Rapidu! rahpee'doo! Come along! Venu! veh'noo! Take care! Zorge! zohr'gheh! Look out! Atentu! ahtehn'too! Listen! Auxskultu! ahw-skool'too! Come in! Eniru! ehneer'oo! (Come) here! (Venu) tien cxi! (veh'noo) tee'ehn chee! Go away! Foriru! for-eer'oo! This way Tien cxi tee'ehn chee That way Tien tee'ehn Too soon Tro frue tro froo'eh Too late Tro malfrue tro mahl-froo'eh Who is it calls Kiu min vokas? kee'oo meen vo'kahss? me? What do you want? Kion vi volas? kee'ohn vee vo'lahss? Would you kindly? Cxu vi afable...? choo vee ahfah'bleh...? Do your best Faru vian eblon fahroo vee'ahn eh'blohn It only depends Tio dependas nur de tee'oh dehpehn'dahss upon you vi noor deh vee With all my heart Kun mia tuta koro koon mee'ah too'tah kohr'oh I am going to town Mi iras urbon mee eer'ahss oor'bohn Are we going Cxu ni ien iras? choo nee ee'ehn anywhere? eer'ahss? Where have you De kie vi venis? deh kee'eh vee come from? veh'neess? Don't go away Ne foriru neh for-eer'oo I shall go home Mi iros hejmen mee eer'ohss heh'y-mehn He has come back Li revenis lee rehveh'neess He has just come Li jxus eniris lee zhooss ehneer'eess in On horseback Surcxevale soor-chehvah'leh From top to bottom De supre gxis deh soo'preh jees malsupre mahl-soo'preh Upstairs Supre soo'preh Downstairs Malsupre mahl-soo'preh In some way or Iel ee'ehl other In the meantime Intertempe in'tehr-tehm'peh First of all Unue oonoo'eh That is just like Jen ja via maniero! yehn yah vee'ah you! mah-nee-ehr'oh! It is not my fault Mi ne estas kulpa pri mee neh eh'stahss tio kool'pah pree tee'oh That is what vexes Jen kio min kolerigas yehn kee'oh meen me kol-ehree'gahss Don't imagine Ne imagu (al vi), neh imah'goo (ahl vee), that... ke... keh... What good is it? Kion (gxi) utilas? kee'ohn jee ootee'lahss? Where was I? Kie mi estis? kee'eh mee eh'steess? As for me Pri mi mem pree mee mehm He began to laugh Li komencis ridi lee komehnt'seess ree'dee I cannot see any Mi ne plu povas vidi mee neh ploo po'vahss longer vee'dee Three are enough Tri suficxas por mi tree soofee'chahss pohr for me mee One is as good as Unu estas tiel bona, oo'noo eh'stahss the other kiel la alia tee'ehl bo'nah, kee'ehl la ah-lee'ah Will you give me? Cxu vi donos al mi? choo vee doh'nohss ahl mee? Everything Post plena post pleh'nah considered konsiderado konsid-eh-rah'doh I can do without Gxi ne estas nepre jee neh eh'stahss it necesa neh'preh nehtseh'sah I have been told Oni diris al mi o'nee deer'eess ahl mee I have come to Mi venis por diri al mee veh'neess por tell you vi deer'ee ahl vee I am sure of it Mi estas certa pri mee eh'stahss tsehr'tah tio pree tee'oh I don't think much Mi ne multe sxatas mee neh mool'teh of it gxin shah'tahss jeen I have nothing to Mi havas nenion por mee hah'vahss say against it diri kontraux gxi nehnee'ohn pohr deeree kohn-trahw jee As much as I can Tiom, kiom mi povas tee'ohm, kee'ohm mee po'vahss I like being here Mi sxatas esti tie mee shah'tahss eh'stee cxi tee'eh chee That comes to the Tio estas la sama tee'oh eh'stahss la same thing afero sahmah ahfeh'ro It answers the Gxi tauxgas por la jee tah'w-gahss pohr la purpose celo tseh'lo I value it very Mi tre alte taksas mee treh ahl'teh much gxin tahk'sahss jeen I cannot do it Mi ne povas fari gxin mee neh po'vahss fahr'ee jeen I am used to it Mi kutimas tion mee kootee'mahss tee'ohn

39. Expressions of Emotion, etc. (Esprimoj de Emocio, k.t.p.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - What is it? Kio estas? kee'oh eh'stahss? Is it possible? Cxu (estas) eble? choo (eh'stahss) eh'bleh? Indeed! Cxu vere! choo vehr'eh! That is impossible Tio estas neebla tee'oh eh'stahss neh-eh'blah That cannot be Tio ne povas esti tee'oh neh po'vahss eh'stee I am sorry for it Mi bedauxras tion mee behdahw'rahss tee'ohn You surprise me Vi surprizas min vee soorpree'zahss min Oh, it's nothing! Oh, estas nenio! oh, eh'stahss nehnee'oh! I am quite vexed Mi estas efektive mee eh'stahss about it kolera pri gxi ehfektee'veh ko-lehr'ah pree jee How vexing! Kiel malagrable! kee'ehl mahlah-grah'bleh! I am sorry Mi tre bedauxras mee treh beh-dah'w-rahss What a pity! Kiel domagxe! kee'ehl domah'jeh! It is a sad thing Malgxoje estas mahl-jo'yeh eh'stahss I am very glad Mi tre gxojas mee treh jo'yahss It gives me much Tio faras al mi multe tee'oh fah'rahss ahl pleasure da plezuro mee mool'teh dah pleh-zoor'oh How beautiful! Kiel bela! kee'ehl beh'lah! What a shame! Kia honto! kee'ah hohn'toh! How could you do Kiel vi povis tiel kee'ehl vee po'veess so? fari? tee'ehl fah'ree? I am ashamed of Mi hontas pri vi mee hohn'tahss pree vee you For shame! Hontinde! hohnteen'deh! You are very much Vi estas tre kulpa vee eh'stahss treh to blame kool'pa Don't apologise Ne petu pardonon neh peh'too pahr-dohn'ohn I beg (your) Mi petas (vian) mee peh'tahss (vee'ahn) pardon pardonon pahr-doh'nohn Pray don't mention Ne parolu pri tio, mi neh pahro'loo pree it petas tee'oh, mee peh'tahss

40. Enquiries. (Demandoj.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Will you Cxu vi afable...? choo vee ahfah'bleh...? kindly...? Do you understand Cxu vi min komprenas? choo vee meen me? kohm-preh'nahss? Do you hear me? Cxu vi auxdas min? choo vee ah'w-dahss meen? What is that? Kio estas tio? kee'oh eh'stahss tee'oh? What do you mean? Kion vi volas diri? kee'ohn vee vo'lahss deer'ee? Are you sure? Cxu vi estas certa? choo vee eh'stahss tsehr'tah? Can I speak to Cxu mi povas paroli al choo mee po'vahss (see) Mr. A.? (vidi) Sinjoro(n) pah-ro'lee ahl A.? (vee'dee) seen-yohr'oh(n) A.? When does he Kiam li revenos? kee'ahm lee return? rehveh'nohss? Where is...? Kie estas...? kee'eh eh'stahss...? What do you call Kiel vi nomas tion? kee'ehl vee no'mahss that? tee'ohn? What does that Kion tio signifas? kee'ohn tee'oh mean? signee'fahss? What is that for? Por kio estas tio? pohr kee'oh eh'stahss tee'oh? Who is that? Kiu estas tiu? kee'oo eh'stahss tee'oo? Who is there? Kiu estas tie? kee'oo eh'stahss tee'eh? Is that Mr. A.? Cxu tiu estas Sinjoro choo tee'oo eh'stahss A.? seenyohr'oh A.? Which is the way Kiu estas la vojo kee'oo eh'stahss la to...? al...? vo'yo ahl...? How can I get Kiel mi povas iri kee'ehl mee po'vahss to...? al...? eer'ee ahl...? Is there a Cxu estas veturilo? choo ehstahss conveyance? veh-toor-ee'lo?

41. Public Notices. (Publikaj Avizoj.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Apartments to let Luebla apartamento loo-eh'blah apart-ah-mehn'toh Dogs not admitted Hundoj malpermesataj hoon'doy mahlpehrmehsah'tahy Entrance; exit Enirejo; elirejo ehneereh'yo; eleereh'yoh. Fire alarm Fajravertilo fire-ahvehr-tee'lo Free library Senpaga biblioteko sehnpah'gah beebleeoh-teh'ko Furnished rooms Meblitaj cxambroj mehblee'tahy chahm'broy Knock; ring Frapu; sonorigu frah'poo; so-nohree'goo No admittance Eniro estas ehneer'oh eh'stahss malpermesata mahlpehr-mehsah'tah No road Trairo malpermesata trah-eer'oh mahlpehr-mehsah'tah Keep off the grass Ne iru sur la herbo neh eer'oo soor lah hehr'boh Refreshments Bufedo boo-feh'doh No smoking allowed Estas malpermesate estahss fumi mahlpehr-meh-sah'teh foo'mee Notice Avizo ahvee'zo Please do not Oni volu ne tusxi oh'nee vo'loo neh touch too'shee Please wipe your Oni estas petata visxi ohnee ehstahss feet la piedojn pehtah'tah, vee'shee lah pee-eh'doyn Private Privata pree-vah'tah Pull; push Tiru; pusxu teer'oo; poo'shoo Road closed Vojo fermita vo'yo fehrmee'tah Unfurnished rooms Senmeblaj cxambroj sen-meh'blahy to let chahm'broy Warning; caution Averto; atentu ahvehr'toh; ahtehn'too Danger(ous) Dangxero dahn-jehr'oh

42. Travelling: By Railway. (Veturado: per la Fervojo.)

(For Vocabulary see section 19.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - To the...station Al la...stacio ahl lah...staht-see'oh Get my luggage; Alportu miajn ahlpohr'too mee'ahyn here is the pakajxojn; jen la pakah'zhoyn; yehn lah ticket bileto beeleh'toh Here is my luggage Jen miaj pakajxoj yehn mee'ahy pakah'zhoy Take it to the Portu ilin al la pohr'too eeleen ahl la cloakroom deponejo dehponeh'yo I wish to register Mi deziras registri mee dehzeer'ahss my luggage miajn pakajxojn reh-ghis'tree for... al... mee'ahyn pakah'zhoyn ahl... The luggage is La pakajxoj estas lah pakah'zhoy ehstahss overweight preter la pezo preh'tehr lah peh'zo permesata pehr-mehsah'tah Where is the Kie estas la fervoja kee'eh eh'stahss lah railway-station? stacio? fehrvo'yah staht-see'oh? booking-office? biletejo? beeleh-teh'yo? enquiry office? informejo? infohrmeh'yo? ladies' atendejo de l' ahtehn-deh'yo dehl waiting-room? sinjorinoj? seenyohree'noy? refreshment bufedo? boofeh'doh? room? lavatory necesejo? neht-sehseh'yo? (w.c.)? train for...? vagonaro al...? vahgo-nah'roh ahl...? Are you going by Cxu vi veturos per la choo vee vehtoor'ohss the express? ekspreso? pehr la ekspreh'so? When does the Kiam ekveturos la kee'ahm ekvehtoor'ohss train start? vagonaro? lah vahgo-nahr'oh? Show me the Montru al mi la mohn'troo ahl mee la timetable horlibron hohr-lee'brohn Can I book through Cxu mi povas havi choo mee po'vahss to...? bileton rekte al...? hah'vee beeleh'tohn rek'teh ahl...? I want a Mi deziras unuaklasan mee dehzeer'ahss first-class bileton al... oon-oo'ah-klah'sahn (ticket) to... bee-leh'tohn ahl... Second return, Duaklasan iro-reiran, doo'ah-klah'sahn Paris Parizo eer'o-reh-eer'ahn, pahree'zo Two third singles, Du triaklasajn doo tree'ah-klah'sahyn Rome irbiletojn, Romo eer-beeleh'toyn, ro'mo One-and-a-half Unu kaj duonon oonoo kahy doo-oh'nohn What is the fare Kiom kostas la veturo kee'ohm ko'stahss la to Bonn? al Bonno? vehtoor'oh ahl bonno? What class, sir? Kiu klaso, sinjoro? kee'oh klah'so, seen-yohr'oh? How much is it? Kiom estas? kee'ohm eh'stahss? We want a sleeping Ni deziras dormkupeon nee dehzeer'ahss carriage dorm-koopeh'ohn a corridor koridoran vagonon koridor'ahn carriage vahgo'nohn a carriage for kupeon rezervitan koopeh'ohn ladies al sinjorinoj rehzehrvee'tahn ahl seenyoree'noy a smoking kupeon por koopeh'ohn pohr compartment fumantoj foo-mahn'toy a non-smoking kupeon por koopeh'ohn pohr compartment nefumantoj neh-foomahn'toy platform peronbiletojn pehrohn'beeleh'toyn tickets Is this the train Cxu tiu cxi estas la choo tee'oo chee for...? vagonaro por...? eh'stahss lah vahgonahr'o pohr...? Do I change Cxu mi devos choo mee deh'vohss anywhere on the vagonsxangxi dum la vah-gohn-shahn'jee journey? veturo? doom la vehtoor'o? Where must I Kie mi devas kee'eh mee deh'vahss change for...? vagonsxangxi por...? vahgohn-shahn'jee por...? Is this seat Cxu tiu cxi loko estas choo tee'oo chee lo'ko engaged? okupita? eh'stahss okoopee'tah? There is no room Ne estas loko neh eh'stahss lo'ko The train is just La vagonaro tuj la vahgo-nahr'o too'y going to start ekveturos ehk-veh-toor'ohss Call the guard Alvoku la konduktoron ahlvo'koo lah kondooktohr'ohn Open the window Malfermu la fenestron mahlfehr'moo la fehneh'strohn Close the door Fermu la pordon fehr'moo la pohr'dohn Here is a station Jen estas stacio yehn eh'stahss stahtsee'oh Do we stop here? Cxu ni haltas cxi choo nee hahl'tahss tie? chee tee'eh? Do we get out Cxu ni devas tie cxi choo nee deh'vahss here? elvagonigxi? tee'eh chee ehlvahgonee'jee? Do we change Cxu ni devas choo nee deh'vahss carriages here? vagonsxangxi cxi vahgohn'shahn-jee tie? chee tee'eh? How long do we Dum kiom da tempo ni doom kee'ohm dah stop here? haltos cxi tie? tehm'po nee hahl'tohss chee tee'eh? Give up your Donu vian bileton doh'noo vee'ahn ticket beeleh'tohn Here it is! Jen! yehn! My luggage is lost Miaj pakajxoj estas mee'ahy pakah'zhoy perditaj ehstahss pehrdee'tahy Take your seats! Envagonigxu! ehnvahgonee'joo! Change for...! Vagonsxangxu por...! vahgohn'shahnjoo por...! All change! Cxiuj elvagonigxu! chee'oohy ehlvah-gonee'joo! Show your tickets Montru viajn biletojn mohntroo vee'ahyn beeleh'toyn All tickets must Cxiu devas montri sian chee'oo dehvahss be shown bileton mohntree see'ahn beeleh'tohn Tickets, please La biletojn mi petas la beeleh'toyn, mee pehtahss

43. Travelling: By Steamer. (Veturado: per Vaporsxipo.)

(For Vocabulary see section 20.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Is this the boat Cxu tiu cxi estas la choo tee'oo chee for...? sxipo por...? eh'stahss la shee'po por...? Where is this boat Kien iras cxi tiu kee'ehn eer'ahss chee going? sxipo? tee'oo shee'po? When do we start? Kiam ni ekveturos? kee'ahm nee ehkvehtoor'ohss? When shall we Kiam ni alvenos? kee'ahm nee arrive? ahl-veh'nohss? Time is up Estas la horo eh'stass la hohr'o Where is your Kie estas viaj kee'eh eh'stahss luggage? pakajxoj? vee'ahy pakah'zhoy? Look for my things Sercxu miajn ajxojn sehr'choo mee'ahyn ah'zhoyn There is another Estas ankoraux unu eh'stahss ahnkohr'ahw trunk kofro oo'noo ko'fro Let us go down Ni malsupreniru en la nee mahlsoo'prehneer'oo into the cabin kajuton ehn la kahyoo'tohn Where is my berth? Kie estas mia kee'eh eh'stahss mee'ah dormujo? dohr-moo'yo? I want a cabin to Mi deziras kajuton por mee dehzeer'ahss myself mi sola kahyoo'tohn por mee so'la Is the sea smooth? Cxu la maro estas choo la mah'ro ehstahss trankvila? trahnk-vee'la? The sea is rough La maro estas la mah'ro estahss maltrankvila mahltrahnk-vee'la It is blowing a Ventegas vehnteh'gahss gale I feel sick Mi sentas nauxzon mee sehn'tahss nahw'zohn Can you get me Cxu vi povas havigi al choo vee povahss some tea? mi iom da teo? havee'ghee ahl mee ee'ohm dah teh'oh? Call the Alvoku la servistinon ahlvo'koo la stewardess sehrvistee'nohn Where is the Kie estas la kee'eh eh'stahss la steward? provizisto? proveezist'o? Where are we now? Kie ni estas nun? kee'eh nee eh'stahss noon? We are nearly Ni preskaux alvenis nee preh'skahw there ahlveh'nees Passengers are La pasagxeroj estas la pahsah-jehr'oy requested to petataj, ne restadi eh'stahss keep clear of sur la pasponteto pehtah'tahy, neh the gangway rehstah'dee soor la pahss'pohnteh'toh

44. At the Custom House. (Cxe la Doganejo.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Come to the Venu al la doganejo veh'noo ahl la custom-house doh-gahneh'yo The custom-house La doganisto lah doh-gahnist'oh officer Have you your Cxu vi havas vian choo vee ha'vahss passport? pasporton? veeahn pahsport'ohn? Will you examine Cxu vi vizitos tiun choo vee veezee'tohs this trunk? cxi kofron? tee'oon chee ko'frohn? Here are the keys Jen la sxlosiloj yehn la shlo-see'loy Open it Malfermu gxin mahl-fehr'moo jeen Unlock this box Malfermu tiun cxi mahl-fehr'moo tee'oo skatolon chee skahtoh'lohn Can I remove it? Cxu mi povas nun choo mee po'vahss noon forporti gxin? forport'ee jeen? Have you anything Cxu vi havas ion choo vee hah'vahss to declare? deklarindan? ee'ohn dehklarin'dahn? I have nothing Mi havas nenion mee hah'vahss liable to duty deklarindan nehnee'ohn dehklarin'dahn Have you any Cxu vi havas tabakon choo vee ha'vahss tobacco or aux cigarojn? tahbah'kohn ahw cigars? tsee-gah'royn? I have a few Mi havas kelkajn mee ha'vahss kehl'kahyn cigars cigarojn tsee-gah'royn Those are free Pri tiuj vi ne devas pree tee'ooy vee neh pagi deh'vahss pah'ghee Is that all? Cxu tio estas cxio? choo tee'oh eh'stahss chee'oh? What is the duty? Kiom estas la kee'ohm eh'stahss la imposto? impoh'sto? Is my luggage Cxu oni vizitis miajn choo oh'nee passed? pakajxojn? veezee'teess mee'ahyn pakah'zhoyn?

45. Arrival. (Alveno.)

(For Vocabulary see section 19.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Call a cab Venigu fiakron vehnee'goo feeah'krohn Closed, open Fermitan, malfermitan fehrmee'tahn, mahl- I want a hansom Mi bezonas duradan mee behzo'nahss fiakron doo-rah'dahn feeah'krohn Get me a Venigu kvarradan vehnee'goo four-wheeler fiakron kvar-rah'dahn feeah'krohn Cab, sir? Veturilon, sinjoro? vehtooree'lohn, seenyo'ro? Put my luggage in Metu miajn pakajxojn meh'too mee'ahyn the cab en la fiakron pak-ah'zhoyn ehn la fee-ah'krohn Where do you want Kien vi deziras iri, kee'ehn vee to go, sir? sinjoro? dehzeer'ahss eer'ee, seen-yo'ro? Drive me to... Veturigu min al... vehtoo-ree'goo min ahl... Driver, what is Veturigisto, po kiom vehtooreeg-ist'o, po the fare by the kostas la veturo laux kee-ohm ko'stahss la journey? distanco? vehtoor'o lahw distahntso? By the hour? Lauxhore? lahw-ho'reh? Drive quickly Veturigu rapide vehtooree'goo rahpee'deh Drive slower pli malrapide plee mahlrahpee'deh Stop! Go on! Haltu! Dauxrigu! hahl'too! dahwree'goo!

46. 'Bus and Tram. (Omnibuso kaj Tramveturilo.)

(For Vocabulary see section 19.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Where can I get a Kie mi povas trafi kee'eh mee po'vahss 'bus to...? omnibuson al...? trah'fee omnee-boo'sohn ahl...? Is there a 'bus Cxu oni povas omnibuse choo o'nee po'vahss to...? veturi al...? omnee-boo'seh vehtoor'ee ahl...? We will take a Ni iros omnibuse nee eer'ohss 'bus omneeboo'seh The tram station La tramstacio la trahm'staht-see'oh Cars stop here Tramveturiloj haltas trahm'vehtoo-ree'loy cxi tie hahl'tahss chee tee'eh Does this car go Cxu tiu cxi veturilo choo tee'oo chee to...? iras al...? vehtoo-ree'lo eer'ahss ahl...? No, the next one Ne, la sekvonta neh, la sehkvohn'tah Wait till the car Atendu, gxis la ahtehn'doo, jees la stops veturilo haltos vehtoo-ree'lo hahltohss Do you pass...? Cxu vi choo vee preterveturas...? preh'tehr-veh- too'rahss...? Put me down at... Lasu min eligxi lah'soo meen ehlee'jee cxe... cheh... Give me a ticket Donu al mi bileton doh'noo ahl mee beeleh'tohn Any more fares? Cxu cxiuj pagis? choo chee'ooy pah'gheess? Tickets, please La biletojn, mi petas la beeleh'toyn, mee peh-tahss Outside only Nur ekstere noor eksteh'reh Full inside Plena interne pleh'nah intehr'neh

47. Hotel and Rooms. (Hotelo kaj Cxambroj.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Which is the best Kiu estas la plej bona kee'oo ehstahss la hotel? hotelo? plehy' bo'nah hoteh'lo? Furnished Meblita apartamento mehblee'tah apartments ahpartahmehn'toh Apartments to let Luebla apartamento loo-eh'blah ahpartahmehn'toh Unfurnished house Nemeblita domo nehmeh-blee'tah dohmo Can I see your Cxu mi povas vidi choo mee po'vahss rooms? viajn cxambrojn? vee'dee vee'ahyn chahm'broyn? Let me see the Montru al mi la mohn'troo ahl mee la room cxambron chahm'brohn What rooms do you Kiujn cxambrojn vi kee'ooyn chahm'broyn want? bezonas? vee beh-zo'nahss? I want a bedroom Mi bezonas mee behzo'nahss and sitting-room dormocxambron kaj dor'mo-chahm'brohn salonon kahy saloh'nohn What is the price Kioma estas la prezo kee'ohma eh'stahss la of this room? de tiu cxambro? preh'zo deh tee'oo chahm'bro? What do you Kiom vi postulas? kee'ohm vee charge? postoo'lahss? I want a cheaper Mi deziras pli mee dehzeer'ahss plee one malkaran mahl-kah'rahn That is too dear Tio estas tro kara tee'oh eh'stahss tro kah'rah Have you a Cxu vi havas dulitan choo vee hah'vahss double-bedded cxambron? doolee'tahn room? chahm'brohn? Are the beds Cxu la litoj estas choo la lee'toy well-aired? bone aerumitaj? eh'stahss bo'neh ah-ehroomee'tahy? We will take these Ni luos cxi tiujn nee loo'ohss chee rooms cxambrojn tee'ooyn chahm'broyn How long do you Dum kiom da tempo vi doom kee'ohm dah want them for? ilin bezonos? tehm'po vee ee'leen behzo'nohss? We shall stay a Ni restos dum unu nee reh'stohss doom week semajno oo'noo sehmahy'no Are our rooms Cxu niaj cxambroj choo nee'ahy chahm'broy ready? estas pretaj? ehstahss prehtahy? Let us have supper Volu pretigu tuj nian vo'loo preh-tee'goo at once vespermangxon tooy nee'ahn vespehrmahn'john Have you a table Cxu vi havas komunan choo vee hah'vahss d'hote? mangxotablon? komoo'nahn mahn'joh-tah'blohn? Are there any Cxu estas leteroj por choo eh'stahss letters for me? mi? lehtehr'oy pohr mee? Can I have a warm Cxu mi povas havi choo mee po'vahss bath? varman banon? ha'vee vahrmahn bahnohn? Give me the key of Donu al mi la doh'noo ahl mee la my room sxlosilon de mia shlosee'lohn deh cxambro mee'ah chahm'bro Bring me some warm Alportu al mi varman ahlport'oo ahl mee water akvon vahrmahn ahk'vohn Where is the w.c.? Kie estas la kee'eh ehstahss la necesejo? nehtsehseh'yo? Take my luggage Portu miajn pakajxojn port'oo mee'ahyn down malsupren pakah'zhoyn mahl-soo'prehn Give me a candle Donu al mi kandelon doh'noo ahl mee kahndeh'lohn I have no matches Mi ne havas alumetojn mee neh hah'vahss ahloomeh'toyn Call me at seven Veku min je la sepa veh'koo min yeh la sehpah We leave early Ni foriros frue nee foreer'ohss froo'eh to-morrow morgauxmatene mor'gahw-mahteh'neh morning My bill, please La kalkulon, mi petas la kahlkoo'lohn, mee peh'tahss

48. Breakfast. (Matenmangxo.)

(For Vocabularies see sections 4-6 & 14-15.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - Is breakfast Cxu la matenmangxo choo la mahtehn-mahn'jo ready? estas preta? eh'stahss preh'tah? Breakfast is ready La matenmangxo estas la mahtehn-mahn'jo preta eh'stahss preh'tah Is the tea made? Cxu la teo estas choo la teh'oh farita? eh'stahss fahree'tah? Is the coffee Cxu la kafo estas choo la kah'fo strong enough? suficxe forta? eh'stahss soofee'cheh fort'ah? We want more cups Ni bezonas pluajn nee behzo'nahss tasojn ploo'ahyn tah'soyn Take some more Prenu iom plu da preh'noo ee'ohm ploo sugar sukero dah sookeh'ro A piece of toast Peco de rostita pano peht'so deh ro-stee'tah pa'noh Do you drink tea Cxu vi trinkas teon choo vee trin'kahss or coffee? aux kafon? tehohn ahw kah'fohn? Cold meat Malvarma viando mahl-vahr'ma vee-ahn'doh Will you take an Cxu vi mangxos ovon? choo vee mahn'johss egg? o'vohn? A rasher of bacon Trancxo de lardo trahn'cho deh lahr'doh These eggs are Cxi tiuj ovoj estas chee tee'ooy o-voy hard malmolaj eh'stahss mahl-mo'lahy Pass me the butter Transdonu al mi la trahns-doh'noo ahl mee buteron la bootehr'ohn Give me the salt Donu al mi la salon doh'noo ahl mee la sahlon Some rolls Kelke da bulkoj kehl'keh dah bool'koy This butter is not Tiu cxi butero ne tee'oo chee bootehr'oh fresh estas fresxa neh ehstahss freh'shah Bring some more... Alportu iom plu da... ahlport'oo ee'ohm ploo dah... Do you take milk Cxu vi deziras lakton choo vee dehzeer'ahss and sugar? kaj sukeron? lahk'tohn kahy sookehr'ohn? No sugar, thank Ne sukeron, mi dankas neh sookehr'ohn, mee you dahn'kahss Coffee without Kafo sen lakto kah'fo sehn lahk'toh milk Coffee with milk Kafo kun lakto kah'fo koon lahk'toh A little more Iom plu da fisxo? ee'ohm ploo dah fish? fee'sho? Yes, please Jes, mi petas yehss, mee peh'tahss Nothing more Nenion plu nehnee'ohn ploo

49. Dinner. (Cxefmangxo.)

(For Vocabularies see sections 4-6 & 14-15.)

English. Esperanto. Pronunciation. - - What time is Je kioma horo estas la yeh kee-oh'ma ho'ro dinner? cxefmangxo? eh-stahss la chehfmahn'jo? When do you dine? Je kioma horo vi yeh kee-oh'ma ho'ro vee cxefmangxas? chehfmahn'jahss? We shall dine at Ni cxefmangxos je la nee chehfmahn'johss yeh six o'clock sesa la seh'sah Give me (show me) Donu (montru) al mi la doh'noo (mohn'troo) ahl the bill-of-fare mangxokarton mee la mahn'jo-kar'tohn Waiter! Kelnero! kelnehr'oh! What have you Kion vi havas preta? kee'ohn vee hah'vahss ready? preh'tah? Have you any roast Cxu vi havas rostitan choo vee hah'vahss beef? bovajxon? ro-stee'than bovah'zhohn? Are you hungry? Cxu vi malsatas? choo vee mahlsah'tahss? I am hungry Mi malsatas mee mahlsah'tahss Are you thirsty? Cxu vi soifas? choo vee so-ee'fahss? I am very thirsty Mi tre soifas mee treh so-ee'fahss What will you Kion vi mangxos? kee'ohn vee mahnjohss? take? What shall I help Kion mi donu al vi? kee'ohn mee dohnoo ahl you to? vee? What soup will you Kian supon vi volas? kee'ahn soo'pohn vee have? vo'lahss? Will you take some Cxu vi prenos iom da choo vee preh'nohss soup? supo? ee'ohm da soo'po? Well done; under Elkuirita; ne ehlkoo-eeree'tah; neh done elkuirita ehlkoo-eeree'tah Here are spinach Jen spinako kaj yehn speenah'ko kahy and broccoli brokolio brokohlee'oh Help yourself Servu vin sehr'voo veen It is excellent Gxi estas bonega jee eh'stahss bo-neh'gah What fish have Kiajn fisxojn vi kee'ahyn fee'shoyn vee you? havas? hah'vahss? Fried soles Frititaj soleoj fritee'tahy so-leh'oy Will you take some Cxu vi deziras iom choo vee dehzeer'ahss more? plu? ee'ohm ploo? No, thank you Ne, mi dankas neh, mee dahn'kahss Change the plates Sxangxu la telerojn shahnjoo la tehlehr'oyn Give me a clean Donu al mi puran doh'noo ahl mee fork forkon poor'ahn fohr'kohn A clean knife Pura trancxilo poorah trahnchee'lo Bring me a glass Alportu al mi glason ahlport'oo ahl mee of water da akvo glah'sohn dah ahk'vo Give me something Donu al mi ion por doh'noo ahl mee ee'ohn to drink trinki pohr trin'kee A bottle of wine Botelo da vino bo-teh'lo dah vee'no What wines will Kiajn vinojn vi kee'ahyn vee'noyn vee you have? deziras? dehzeer'ahss? Here is the list Jen la listo yehn la leest'oh This wine is flat Tiu cxi vino tee'oo chee vee'no sengustigxis sehn-goost-ee'jees What do I owe? Kiom mi sxuldas? kee'ohm mee shool'dahss? What is the Kiom estas? kee'ohm eh'stahss? charge?

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