Moderation in eating and drinking, short hours of labour and study, regularity in exercise, recreation, and rest, cleanliness, equanimity of temper and equality of temperature,—these are the great essentials to that which surpasses all wealth, health of mind and body.
926. Principle of Homoeopathy.
As homoeopathy is now practised so widely and, indeed, preferred to the older system in many families, the Domestic Pharmacopoeia could scarcely lay claim to be considered complete without a brief mention of the principal remedies used and recommended by homoeopathic practitioners, and the disorders for which these remedies are specially applicable. The principle of homoeopathy is set forth in the Latin words "similia similibus curantur," the meaning of which is "likes are cured by likes."
The meaning of this is simply that the homoeopathist in order to cure a disease, administers a medicine which would produce in a perfectly healthy subject, symptoms like, but not identical with or the same as, the symptoms to counteract which the medicine is given. The homoeopathic practitioner, therefore, first makes himself thoroughly acquainted with the symptoms that are exhibited by the sufferer; having ascertained these, in order to neutralize them and restore the state of the patient's health to a state of equilibrium, so to speak, he administers preparations that would produce symptoms of a like character in persons in good health.
It is not said, be it remembered, that the drug can produce in a healthy person the disease from which the patient is suffering: it is only advanced by homoeopathists that the drug given has the power of producing in a person in health, symptoms similar to those of the disease under which the patient is languishing, and that the correct mode of treatment is to counteract the disease symptoms by the artificial production of similar symptoms by medicinal means, or in other words, to suit the medicine to the disorder, by a previously acquired knowledge of the effects of the drug, by experiment on a healthy person.
Allopathy is the name given to the older treatment of disorders, and the name is obtained from the fact, that the drugs given, do not produce symptoms corresponding to those of the disease for whose relief they are administered as in homoeopathy. The introduction of the term is contemporary with homoeopathy itself. It was merely given to define briefly the distinction that exists between the rival modes of treatment, and it has been accepted and adopted by all medical men who have no faith in homoeopathy, and the treatment that its followers prescribe.
[DEEP RIVERS FLOW WITH SILENT MAJESTY.]
Allopathic treatment is said to be experimental, while Homeopathic treatment is based on certainty, resulting from experience. The allopathist tries various drugs, and if one medicine or one combination of drugs fails, tries another; but the homoeopathist administers only such medicaments as may be indicated by the symptoms of the patient. If two drugs are given, as is frequently, and perhaps generally, the case, it is because the symptoms exhibited are of such a character that they cannot be produced in a healthy person by the action of one and the same drug, and, consequently cannot be counteracted or neutralized by the action of a single drug.
929. Homoeopathic Medicines
Homoeopathic medicines are given in the form of globules or tinctures, the latter being generally preferred by homeopathic practitioners. When contrasted with the doses of drugs given by allopathists, the small doses administered by homoeopathists must at first sight appear wholly in adequate to the purpose for which they are given; but homoeopathists, whose dilution and trituration diffuse the drug given throughout the vehicle in which it is administered, argue that by this extension of its surface the active power of the drug is greatly increased; and that there is reason in this argument is shown by the fact that large doses of certain drugs administered for certain purposes will pass through the system without in any way affecting those organs, which will be acted on most powerfully by the very same drugs when administered in much smaller doses. Thus a small dose of sweet spirit of nitre will act on the skin and promote perspiration, but a large dose will act as a diuretic only, and exert no influence on the skin.
930. Treatment of Ailments by Homoeopathy.
Great stress is laid by homeopathists on attention to diet, but not so much so in the present day as when the system was first introduced. The reader will find a list of articles of food that may and may not be taken in par. 961. For complete direction on this point, and on diseases and their treatment and remedies, he must be referred to works on this subject by Dr. Richard Epps and others. All that can be done here is to give briefly a few of the more common ailments "that flesh is heir to," with the symptoms by which they are indicated, and the medicines by which they may be alleviated and eventually cured.
Asthma, an ailment which should be referred in all cases to the medical practitioner.
Symptoms. Difficulty of breathing, with cough, either spasmodic and without expectoration, or accompanied with much expectoration.
Medicines. Aconitum napellus, especially with congestion or slight spitting of blood; Antimonium tartaricum for wheezing and rattling in the chest; Arsenicum for chronic asthma; ipecacuanha; Nux vomica.
932. Bilious Attacks
Bilious attacks, if attended with diarrhoea and copious evacuations of a bright yellow colour.
Medicines. Bryonia, if arising from sedentary occupations, or from eating and drinking too freely; or Nux vomica and Mercurius in alternation, the former correcting constipation and the latter nausea, fulness at the pit of the stomach, and a foul tongue.
Symptoms. Catarrh accompanied with fever, expectoration dark, thick, and sometimes streaked with blood; urine dark, thick, and scanty.
Medicines. Aconitum napellus, especially in earlier stages; Bryonia for pain in coughing and difficulty of breathing; Antimonium tartaricum, loose cough with much expectoration and a feeling of, and tendency to, suffocation; Ipecacuanha, accumulation of phlegm in bronchial tubes and for children.
[SHALLOW BROOKS ARE NOISY.]
934. Bruises and Wounds.
For all bruises, black eyes, etc., apply Arnica lotion; for slight wounds, after washing well with cold water, apply Arnica plaster; to stop bleeding when ordinary means fail, and for larger wounds, apply concentrated tincture of Calendula.
935. Cold in the Head or Catarrh.
Symptoms. Feverish feeling generally, and especially about the head, eyes, and nose, running from, and obstruction of, nose; soreness and irritation of the throat and bronchial tubes.
Medicines. Aconitum napellus for feverish symptoms; Belladonna for sore throat and headache with inclination to cough; Mercurius for running from nose and sneezing; Nux vomica for stoppage of nostrils; Chamomilla for children and women, for whom Pulsatilla is also useful in such cases.
Symptoms. Irritation and itching of the skin, which assumes a bluish red colour.
Medicines. Arnica montana, taken internally or used as outward application, unless the chilblain be broken, when arsenicum should be used. If the swelling and irritation do not yield to these remedies use Belladona and Rhus toxicodendron.
i. Bilious or English cholera.
Symptoms. Nausea, proceeding to vomiting, griping of the bowels, watery and offensive evacuations, in which much bile is present, accompanied with weakness and depression.
Medicines. Bryonia, with ipecacuanha at commencement of attack.
ii. Malignant or Asiatic cholera.
Symptoms as in English cholera, but in a more aggravated form, followed by what is called the "cold stage," marked by great severity of griping pain in the stomach, accompanied with frequent and copious watery evacuations, and presently with cramps in all parts of the body; after which the extremities become chilled, the pulse scarcely discernible, the result of which is stupor and ultimately death.
Medicines. Camphor, in the form of tincture, in frequent doses, until the sufferer begins to feel warmth returning to the body, and perspiration ensues. In the later stages, Cuprum and Veratrum.
938. Tincture of Camphor
Tincture of camphor is one of the most useful of the homoeopathic remedies in all cases of colic, diarrhoea, etc. In ordinary cases fifteen drops on sugar may be taken every quarter of an hour until the pain is allayed. In more aggravated cases, and in cases of cholera, a few drops may be taken at intervals of from two to five minutes. A dose of fifteen drops of camphor on sugar tends to counteract a chill if taken soon after premonitory symptoms show themselves, and act as a prophylactic against cold.
939. Colic or Stomach-Ache.
This disorder is indicated by griping pains in the bowels, which sometimes extends upwards into and over the region of the chest. Sometimes the pain is attended with vomiting and cold perspiration. A warm bath is useful, and hot flannels, or a jar or bottle filled with hot water should be applied to the abdomen.
Medicines. Aconitum napellus, especially when the abdomen is tender to the touch, and the patient is feverish; Belladonna for severe griping and spasmodic pains; Bryonia for bilious colic and diarrhoea; Chamomilla for children.
Women are more subject than men to this confined state of the bowels, which will, in many cases yield to exercise, plain nutritious diet, with vegetables and cooked fruit, and but little bread, and an enema of milk and water, or thin gruel if it is some time since there has been any action of the bowels.
Medicines. Bryonia, especially for rheumatic patients, and disturbed state of the stomach; Nux vomica, for persons of sedentary habits, especially males; Pulsatilla, for women; Sulphur, for constipation that is habitual or of long continuance.
For convulsions arising from whatever cause, a warm bath is desirable, and a milk and water enema, if the child's bowels are confined.
Medicines. Belladonna and Chamomilla, if the convulsions are caused by teething, with Aconitum napellus if the little patient be feverish; Aconitum napellus, Cina, and Belladonna, for convulsions caused by worms; Aconite and Coffoea, when they arise from fright; Ipecacuanha and Nux vomica, when they have been caused by repletion, or food that is difficult of digestion.
For this disorder, a light farinaceous diet is desirable, with plenty of out-door exercise and constant use of the sponging-bath.
Medicines. Aconitum napellus, for a hard, dry, hacking cough; Antimonium, for cough with wheezing and difficulty of expectoration; Belladonna, for spasmodic cough, with tickling in the throat, or sore throat; Bryonia, for hard, dry cough, with expectorations streaked with blood; ipecacuanha, for children.
As this disorder frequently and quickly terminates fatally, recourse should be had to a duly qualified practitioner as soon as possible. The disease lies chiefly in the larynx and bronchial tubes, and is easily recognisable by the sharp, barking sound of the cough. A warm bath and mustard poultice will often tend to give relief.
Medicines. Aconitum napellus, in the earlier stages of the disorder, and spongia and Hepar sulphuris, in the more advanced stages, the latter medicine being desirable when the cough is not so violent and the breathing easier.
The medicines to be used in this disorder are those which are mentioned under colic and bilious attacks.
Dysentery is somewhat similar to diarrhoea, but the symptoms are more aggravated in character, and the evacuations are chiefly mucus streaked with blood. As a local remedy hot flannels or a stone jar filled with hot water and wrapped in flannel, should be applied to the abdomen.
Medicines. Colocynthis and Mercurius in alternation.
Dyspepsia or Indigestion arises from weakness of the digestive organs.
Symptoms. Chief among these are habitual costiveness, heartburn and nausea, disinclination to eat, listlessness and weakness, accompanied with fatigue after walking, &c., restlessness and disturbed sleep at night, bad taste in the mouth, with white tongue, especially in the morning, accompanied at times with fulness in the region of the stomach, and flatulence which causes disturbance of the heart.
The causes of indigestion are too numerous to be mentioned here, but they may be inferred when it is said that scrupulous attention must be paid to diet (see par. 961); that meals should be taken at regular and not too long intervals; that warm drinks, stimulants, and tobacco should be avoided; that early and regular hours should be kept, with a cold or chilled sponge bath every morning; and that measures should be taken to obtain a fair amount of exercise, and to provide suitable occupation for both body and mind during the day.
Medicines. Arnica montana for persons who are nervous and irritable, and suffer much from headache; Bryonia for persons who are bilious and subject to rheumatism, and those who are listless, disinclined to eat, and have an unpleasant bitter taste in the mouth; Hepar sulphuris for chronic indigestion and costiveness, attended with tendency to vomit in the morning; Mercurius in cases of flatulence, combined with costiveness; Nux vomica for indigestion that makes itself felt from 2 a.m. to 4 a.m., or thereabouts, with loss of appetite and nausea in the morning, and for persons with a tendency to piles, and those who are engaged in sedentary occupations; Pulsatilla for women generally, and Chamomilla for children.
For all fevers of a serious character, such as scarlet fever, typhus fever, typhoid fever, gastric fever, intermittent fever, or ague, &c., it is better to send at once for a medical man. In cases of ordinary fever, indicated by alternate flushes and shivering, a hot dry skin, rapid pulse, and dry foul tongue, the patient should have a warm bath, take but little nourishment, and drink cold water.
Medicine. Aconitum napellus.
[AND FAITH BE OUR STAFF.]
This disorder, which arises from, and is a symptom of, indigestion, frequently affects respiration, and causes disturbance and quickened action of the heart. The patient should pay attention to diet, as for dyspepsia.
Medicines. China and Nux vomica; Pulsatilla for women, and Chamomilla for children. See DYSPEPSIA (946).
This disorder proceeds from so many various causes, which require different treatment, that it is wiser to apply at once to a regular homoeopathic practitioner, and especially in headache of frequent occurrence.
Medicines. Nux vomica when headache is caused by indigestion; Pulsatilla being useful for women; Belladonna and Ignatia, for sick headache; Aconitum napellus and Arsenicum for nervous headache.
For this unpleasant sensation of heat, arising from the stomach, accompanied by a bitter taste, and sometimes by nausea, Nux vomica is a good medicine. Pulsatilla may be taken by women.
See DYSPEPSIA (946).
This complaint, which seldom attacks adults, is indicated in its early stage by the usual accompaniments and signs of a severe cold in the head—namely, sneezing, running from the nose and eyelids, which are swollen. The sufferer also coughs, does not care to eat, and feels sick and restless. About four days after the first appearance of these premonitory symptoms, a red rash comes out over the face, neck, and body, which dies away, and finally disappears in about five days. The patient should be kept warm, and remain in one room during the continuance of the disorder, and especially while the rash is out, lest, through exposure to cold in any way, the rash may be checked and driven inwards.
Medicines. Aconitum napellus, and Pulsatilla, which are sufficient for all ordinary cases. If there be much fever, Belladonna; and if the rash be driven in by a chill, Bryonia.
This disorder is sometimes consequent on measles. It is indicated by the swelling of the glands under the ears and lower jaw. It is far more painful than dangerous. Fomenting with warm water is useful.
Medicines. Mercurius generally; Belladonna may be used when mumps follow an attack of measles.
This rash, so called because in appearance it resembles the swelling and redness caused by the sting of a nettle, is generally produced by a disordered state of the stomach.
Medicines. Aconitum napellus, Nux vomica, or Pulsatilla, in ordinary cases; Arsenicum is useful if there be much fever; Belladonna if the rash is accompanied with headache.
The ordinary homoeopathic remedies for this painful complaint are Nux vomica and Sulphur.
Apply to the part affected a lotion formed of one part of tincture of Arnica to two of water. For persons who cannot use Arnica, in consequence of the irritation produced by it, a lotion of tincture of Calendula may be used in the proportion of one part of the tincture to four of water.
Infants and very young children frequently experience much pain in the mouth during dentition, and especially when the tooth is making its way through the gum. The child is often feverish, the mouth and gums hot and tender, and the face flushed. There is also much running from the mouth, and the bowels are disturbed, being in some cases confined, and in others relaxed, approaching to diarrhoea.
Medicines. These are Aconitum napellus, in ordinary cases; Nux vomica, when the bowels are confined; Chamomilla, when the bowels are relaxed; Mercurius, if the relaxed state of the bowels has deepened into diarrhoea; Belladonna, if there be symptoms of disturbance of the brain.
This disease is sometimes of long duration, for if it shows itself in the autumn or winter months, the little patient will frequently retain the cough until May or even June, when it disappears with the return of warmer weather. Change of air when practicable is desirable, especially when the cough has been of long continuance.
In this cough there are three stages. In the first the symptoms are those of an ordinary cold in the head and cough. In the second the cough becomes hard, dry and rapid, and the inhalation of the air, after or during the paroxysm of coughing produces the peculiar sound from which the disease is named. In the final stage the cough occurs at longer intervals, and the paroxysms are less violent and ultimately disappear. In this stage the disease is subject to fluctuation, the cough again increasing in frequency of occurrence and intensity if the patient has been unduly exposed to cold or damp, or if the weather is very changeable.
Children suffering from whooping-cough should have a light nourishing diet and only go out when the weather is mild and warm.
Medicines. Aconitum napellus in the very commencement of the disorder, followed by Ipecacuanha and Nux vomica when the second stage is just approaching and during its continuance. These medicines may be continued if necessary during the third stage.
The presence of worms is indicated by irritation of the membrane of the nose, causing the child to thrust its finger into the nostrils; by irritation of the lower part of the body; by thinness, excessive appetite and restlessness in sleep. Children suffering from worms should eat meat freely and not take so much bread, vegetables, and farinaceous food as children generally do. They should have as much exercise as possible in the open air, and be sponged with cold water every morning. The worms that mostly trouble children are the thread worms, which are present chiefly in the lower portion of the intestines, and the round worm.
Medicines, &c. Administer an injection of weak salt-and-water, and give Aconitum napellus, to be followed by Ignatia and Sulphur in the order in which they are here given. These are the usual remedies for thread worms. For round worms, whose presence in the stomach is indicated by great thinness, sickness and discomfort, and pain in the stomach, Aconitum napellus, Cina, Ignatia and Sulphur are given.
960. Extent of Doses in Homoeopathy.
Homoeopathic medicines are given in the form of globules, pilules, or tincture, the last-named being generally preferred. The average doses for adults are from half a drop to one drop of the tincture given in a tablespoonful of water, from two to four pilules, or from three to six globules. In using the tincture it is usual to measure out a few tablespoonfuls of water and to add to it a certain number of drops regulated by the quantity of water that is used. For children medicine is mixed at the same strength, but a less quantity is given. The proper quantity for a dose is always given in books and manuals for the homoeopathic treatment of disease. Small cases of the principal medicines used in homoeopathy can be procured from most chemists, and with each case a little book showing the symptoms and treatment of all ordinary complaints is usually given.
961. Diet in Homoeopathy.
The articles of food that are chiefly recommended when attention to diet is necessary are stale bread, beef, mutton, poultry, fresh game, fish, chiefly cod and flat fish, avoiding mackerel, &c., eggs and oysters. Rice, sago, tapioca, and arrowroot are permitted, as are also potatoes, carrots, turnips, broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, French beans, and broad beans. Water, milk, cocoa, and chocolate may be drunk. It is desirable to avoid all things that are not specified in the foregoing list. Ripe fruit may be eaten, but unripe fruit, unless cooked should be scrupulously avoided.
962. Signs of the Weather.
If the dew lies plentifully on the grass after a fair day, it is a sign of another fair day. If not, and there is no wind, rain must follow. A red evening portends fine weather; but if the redness spread too far upwards from the horizon in the evening, and especially in the morning, it foretells wind or rain, or both.
964. Colour of Sky.
When the sky, in rainy weather, is tinged with sea green, the rain will increase; if with deep blue, it will be showery.
Previous to much rain falling, the clouds grow bigger, and increase very fast, especially before thunder. When the clouds are formed like fleeces, but dense in the middle and bright towards the edges, with the sky bright, they are signs of a frost, with hail, snow, or rain. If clouds form high in air, in thin white trains like locks of wool, they portend wind, and probably rain. When a general cloudiness covers the sky, and small black fragments of clouds fly underneath, they are a sure sign of rain, and probably will be lasting. Two currents of clouds always portend rain, and, in summer, thunder.
966. Heavenly Bodies
A haziness in the air, which dims the sun's light, and makes the orb appear whitish, or ill-defined—or at night, if the moon and stars grow dim, and a ring encircles the former, rain will follow. If the sun's rays appear like Moses' horns—if white at setting, or shorn of his rays, or if he goes down into a bank of clouds in the horizon, bad weather is to be expected. If the moon looks pale and dim, we expect rain; if red, wind; and if of her natural colour, with a clear sky, fair weather. If the moon is rainy throughout, it will clear at the change, and, perhaps, the rain return a few days after. If fair throughout, and rain at the change, the fair weather will probably return on the fourth or fifth day.
967. Weather Precautions.
If the weather appears doubtful, always take the precaution of having an umbrella when you go out, as you thereby avoid the chance of getting wet—or encroaching under a friend's umbrella.—or being under the necessity of borrowing one, which involves the trouble of returning it, and possibly puts the lender to inconvenience.
968. Leech Barometer.
Take an eight ounce phial and three-parts fill it with water, and place in it a healthy leech, changing the water in summer once a week, and in winter once in a fortnight, and it will most accurately prognosticate the weather. If the weather is to be fine, the leech lies motionless at the bottom of the glass, and coiled together in a spiral form; if rain may be expected, it will creep up to the top of its lodgings, and remain there till the weather is settled; if we are to have wind, it will move through its habitation with amazing swiftness, and seldom goes to rest till it begins to blow hard; if a remarkable storm of thunder and rain is to succeed, it will lodge for some days before almost continually out of the water, and discover great uneasiness in violent throes and convulsive-like motions; in frost as in clear summer-like weather it lies constantly at the bottom; and in snow as in rainy weather it pitches its dwelling in the very mouth of the phial. The top should be covered over with a piece of muslin.
969. The Chemical Barometer.
Take a long narrow bottle, such as an old-fashioned Eau-de-Cologne bottle, and put into it two and a half drachms of camphor, and eleven drachms of spirit of wine; when the camphor is dissolved, which it will readily do by slight agitation, add the following mixture:—Take water, nine drachms; nitrate of potash (saltpetre), thirty-eight grains; and muriate of ammonia (sal ammoniae), thirty-eight grains. Dissolve these salts in the water prior to mixing with the camphorated spirit; then shake the whole well together. Cork the bottle well, and wax the top, but afterwards make a very small aperture in the cork with a red-hot needle. The bottle may then be hung up, or placed in any stationary position. By observing the different appearances which the materials assume, as the weather changes, it becomes an excellent prognosticator of a coming storm or of fine weather.
970. Signification of Names.
971. Christian Names of Men.
Aaron, Hebrew, a mountain, or lofty. Abel, Hebrew, vanity. Abraham, Hebrew, the father of many. Absalom, Hebrew, the father of peace. Adam, Hebrew, red earth. Adolphus, Saxon, happiness and help. Adrian, Latin, one who helps. Alan, Celtic, harmony; or Slavonic, a hound. Albert, Saxon, all bright. Alexander, Greek, a helper of men. Alfred, Saxon, all peace. Alonzo, form of Alphonso, q.v. Alphonso, German, ready or willing. Ambrose, Greek, immortal. Amos, Hebrew, a burden. Andrew, Greek, courageous. Anthony, Latin, flourishing. Archibald, German, a bold observer. Arnold, German, a maintainer of honour. Arthur, British, a strong man. Augustus,) Augustin,) Latin venerable, grand. Baldwin, German, a bold winner. Bardulph, German, a famous helper. Barnaby, Hebrew, a prophet's son. Bartholomew, Hebrew, the son of him who made the waters to rise. Beaumont, French, a pretty mount. Bede, Saxon, prayer. Benjamin, Hebrew, the son of a right hand. Bennet, Latin, blessed. Bernard, German, bear's heart. Bertram, German, fair, illustrious. Bertrand, German, bright raven. Boniface, Latin, a well-doer. Brian, French, having a thundering voice. Cadwallader, British, valiant in war. Caesar, Latin, adorned with hair. Caleb, Hebrew, a dog. Cecil, Latin, dim-sighted. Charles, German, noble-spirited. Christopher, Greek, bearing Christ. Clement, Latin, mild-tempered. Conrad, German, able counsel. Constantine, Latin, resolute. Cornelius, Latin, meaning uncertain. Crispin, Latin, having curled locks. Cuthbert, Saxon, known famously. Dan, Hebrew, judgment. Daniel, Hebrew, God is judge. David, Hebrew, well-beloved. Denis, Greek, belonging to the god of wine. Douglas, Gaelic, dark grey. Duncan, Saxon, brown chief. Dunstan, Saxon, most high. Edgar, Saxon, happy honour. Edmund, Saxon, happy peace. Edward, Saxon, happy keeper. Edwin, Saxon, happy conqueror. Egbert, Saxon, ever bright. Elijah, Hebrew, God the Lord. Elisha, Hebrew, the salvation of God. Emmanuel, Hebrew, God with us. Enoch, Hebrew, dedicated. Ephraim, Hebrew, fruitful. Erasmus, Greek, lovely, worthy to be loved. Ernest, Greek, earnest, serious. Esau, Hebrew, hairy. Eugene, Greek, nobly descended. Eustace, Greek, standing firm. Evan, or Ivan, British, the same as John. Everard, German, well reported. Ezekiel, Hebrew, the strength of God. Felix, Latin, happy. Ferdinand, German, pure peace. Fergus, Saxon, manly strength. Francis, German, free. Frederic, German, rich peace. Gabriel, Hebrew, the strength of God. Geoffrey, German, joyful. George, Greek, a husbandman. Gerard, Saxon, all towardliness. Gideon, Hebrew, a breaker. Gilbert, Saxon, bright as gold. Giles, Greek, a little goat. Godard, German, a godly disposition. Godfrey, German, God's peace. Godwin, German, victorious in God. Griffith, British, having great faith. Guy, French, a leader. Hannibal, Punic, a gracious lord. Harold, Saxon, a champion. Hector, Greek, a stout defender. Henry, German, a rich lord. Herbert, German, a bright lord. Hercules, Greek, the glory of Hera, or Juno. Hezekiah, Hebrew, cleaving to the Lord. Horace, Latin. } Horatio, Italian, } worthy to be beheld. Howel, British, sound or whole. Hubert, German, a bright colour. Hugh, Dutch, high, lofty. Humphrey, German, domestic peace. Ignatius, Latin, fiery. Ingram, German, of angelic purity. Isaac, Hebrew, laughter. Jabez, Hebrew, one who causes pain. Jacob, Hebrew, a supplanter. James or Jacques, beguiling. Joab, Hebrew, fatherhood. Job, Hebrew, sorrowing. Joel, Hebrew, acquiescing. John, Hebrew, the grace of the Lord. Jonah, Hebrew, a dove. Jonathan, Hebrew, the gift of the Lord. Joscelin, German, just. Joseph, Hebrew, addition. Joshua, Hebrew, a Saviour. Josiah/Josais, Hebrew, the fire of the Lord. Julius, Latin, soft-haired. Lambert, Saxon, a fair lamb. Lancelot, Spanish, a little lance. Laurence, Latin, crowned with laurels. Lazarus, Hebrew, destitute of help. Leonard, German, like a lion. Leopold, German, defending the people. Lewis / Louis, French, the defender of the people. Lionel, Latin, a little lion. Llewellin, British, like a lion. Llewellyn, Celtic, lightning. Lucius, Latin, shining. Luke, Greek, a wood or grove. Manfred, German, great peace. Mark, Latin, a hammer. Martin, Latin, martial. Matthew, Hebrew, a gift or present. Maurice, Latin, sprung of a Moor. Meredith, British, the roaring of the sea. Michael, Hebrew, who is like God? Morgan, British, a mariner. Moses, Hebrew, drawn out. Nathaniel, Hebrew, the gift of God. Neal, French, somewhat black. Nicholas, Greek, victorious over the people. Noel, French, belonging to one's nativity. Norman, French, one born in Normandy. Obadiah, Hebrew, the servant of the Lord. Oliver, Latin, an olive. Orlando, Italian, counsel for the land. Orson, Latin, a bear. Osmund, Saxon, house peace. Oswald, Saxon, ruler of a house. Owen, British, well-descended. Patrick, Latin, a nobleman. Paul, Latin, small, little. Paulinus, Latin, little Paul. Percival, French, a place in France. Percy, English, adaptation of "pierce eye". Peregrine, Latin, outlandish. Peter, Greek, a rock or stone. Philip, Greek, a lover of horses. Phineas, Hebrew, of bold countenance. Ralph, contracted from Randolph, or Randal, or Ranulph, Saxon, pure help. Raymond, German, quiet peace. Reuben, Hebrew, the son of vision. Reynold, German, a lover of purity. Richard, Saxon, powerful. Robert, German, famous in counsel. Roderick, German, rich in fame. Roger, German, strong counsel. Roland/Rowland German, counsel for the land. Rollo, form of Roland, q.v. Rufus, Latin, reddish. Samson, Hebrew, a little son. Samuel, Hebrew, heard by God. Saul, Hebrew, desired. Sebastian, Greek, to be reverenced. Seth, Hebrew, appointed. Silas, Latin, sylvan or living in the woods. Simeon, Hebrew, hearing. Simon, Hebrew, obedient. Solomon, Hebrew, peaceable. Stephen, Greek, a crown or garland. Swithin, Saxon, very high. Theobald, Saxon, bold over the people. Theodore, Greek, the gift of God. Theodosius, Greek, given of God. Theophilus, Greek, a lover of God. Thomas, Hebrew, a twin. Timothy, Greek, a fearer of God. Titus, Greek, meaning uncertain. Toby / Tobias, Hebrew, the goodness of the Lord. Valentine, Latin, powerful. Victor, Latin, conqueror. Vincent, Latin, conquering. Vivian, Latin, living. Walter, German, a conqueror. Walwin, German, a conqueror. Wilfred, Saxon, bold and peaceful. William, German, defending many. Zaccheus, Syriac, innocent. Zachary, Hebrew, remembering the Lord. Zebedee, Syriac, having an inheritance. Zechariah, Hebrew, remembered of the Lord. Zedekiah, Hebrew, the justice of the Lord.
972. Christian Names of Women.
Ada, _German_, same as Edith, _q.v._ Adela, _German_, same as Adeline, _q.v._ Adelaide, _German_, same as Adeline, _q.v._ Adeline, _German_, a princess. Agatha, _Greek_, good. Agnes, _German_, chaste. Alethea, _Greek_, the truth. Althea, _Greek_, hunting. Alice / Alicia, German_, noble. Alma, _Latin_, benignant. Amabel, _Latin_, loveable. Amy / Amelia, _French_, a beloved. Angelina, _Greek_, lovely, angelic. Anna / Anne, _Hebrew_, gracious. Arabella, _Latin_, a fair altar. Aureola, _Latin_, like gold. Aurora, _Latin_, morning brightness. Barbara, _Latin_, foreign or strange. Beatrice, _Latin_, making happy. Bella, _Italian_, beautiful. Benedicta, _Latin_, blessed. Bernice, _Greek_, bringing victory. Bertha, _Greek_, bright or famous. Bessie, short form of Elizabeth, _q.v._ Blanche, _French_, fair. Bona, _Latin_, good. Bridget, _Irish_, shining bright. Camilla, _Latin_, attendant at a sacrifice. Carlotta, _Italian_, same as Charlotte, _q.v._ Caroline, _feminine of_ Carolus, _the Latin of_ Charles, noble-spirited. Cassandra, _Greek_, a reformer of men. Catherine, _Greek_, pure or clean. Cecilia, _Latin_, from Cecil. Charity, _Greek_, love, bounty. Charlotte, _French_, all noble. Chloe, _Greek_, a green herb. Christiana, _Greek_, belonging to Christ. Cicely, a corruption of Cecilia, _q.v._ Clara, _Latin_, clear or bright. Clarissa, _Latin_, clear or bright. Constance, _Latin_, constant. Dagmar, _German_, joy of the Danes. Deborah, _Hebrew_, a bee. Diana, _Greek_, Jupiter's daughter. Dorcas, _Greek_, a wild roe. Dorothea/Dorothy, _Greek_, the gift of God. Edith, _Saxon_, happiness. Eleanor, _Saxon_, all fruitful. Eliza/Elizabeth, _Hebrew_, the oath of God. Ellen, another form of Helen, _q.v._ Emily, corrupted from Amelia. Emma, _German_, a nurse. Esther/Hesther, _Hebrew_, secret. Eudoia, _Greek_, prospering in the way. Eudora, _Greek_, good gift. Eudosia, _Greek_, good gift or well-given. Eugenia, _French_, well-born. Eunice, _Greek_, fair victory. Eva / Eve, _Hebrew_, causing life. Fanny, _diminutive of_ Frances, _q.v._ Fenella, _Greek_, bright to look on. Flora, _Latin_, flowers. Florence, _Latin_, blooming, flourishing. Frances, _German_, free. Gertrude, _German_, all truth. Grace, _Latin_, favour. Hagar, _Hebrew_, a stranger. Hadassah, _Hebrew_, form of Esther, _q.v._ Hannah, _Hebrew_, gracious. Harriet, _German_, head of the house. Helen / Helena, _Greek_, alluring. Henrietta, _fem. and dim_. of Henry, _q.v._ Hephzibah, _Hebrew_, my delight is in her. Hilda, _German_, warrior maiden. Honora, _Latin_, honourable, Huldah, _Hebrew_, a weazel. Isabella, _Spanish_, fair Eliza. Jane / Jeanne, _feminine of_ John, _q.v._ Janet / Jeannette, little Jane. Jemima, _Hebrew_, a dove. Joan, _Hebrew, fem. of_ John, _q.v._ Joanna or Johanna, _form of_ Joan, _q.v._ Joyce, _French_, pleasant. Judith, _Hebrew_, praising. Julia / Juliana, _feminine of_ Julian, _q.v._ Katharine, _form of_ Catherine, _q.v._ Keturah, _Hebrew_, incense. Keziah, _Hebrew_, cassia. Laura, _Latin_, a laurel. Lavinia, _Latin_, of Latium. Letitia, _Latin_, joy of gladness. Lilian / Lily, _Latin_, a lily. Lois, _Greek_, better. Louisa, _German, fem. of_ Louis, _q.v._ Lucretia, _Latin_, a chaste Roman lady. Lucy, _Latin, feminine of_ Lucius. Lydia, _Greek_, descended from Lud, Mabel, _Latin_, lovely or loveable. Madeline, _form of_ Magdalen, q.v. Magdalen, _Syriac_, magnificent. Margaret, _Greek_, a pearl. Maria / Marie, _forms of_ Mary, q.v. Martha, _Hebrew_, bitterness. Mary, _Hebrew_, bitter. Matilda, _German_, a lady of honour. Maud, _German, form of_ Matilda, q.v. May, _Latin_, month of May, or _dim. of_ Mary, q.v. Mercy, _English_, compassion. Mildred, _Saxon_, speaking mild, Minnie, _dim. of_ Margaret, q.v. Naomi, _Hebrew_, alluring. Nest, _British, the same as_ Agnes, Nicola, _Greek, feminine of_ Nicholas. Olive / Olivia, _Latin_, an olive. Olympic, _Greek_, heavenly. Ophelia, _Greek_, a serpent. Parnell / Petronilla, little Peter. Patience, _Latin_, bearing patiently. Paulina, _Latin, feminine of_ Paulinus. Penelope, _Greek_, a weaver. Persis, _Greek_, destroying. Philadelphia, _Greek_, brotherly love. Philippa, _Greek, feminine of_ Philip. Phoebe, _Greek_, the light of life. Phyllis, _Greek_, a green bough. Polly, _variation of_ Molly, _dim. of_ Mary, q.v. Priscilla, _Latin_, somewhat old. Prudence, _Latin_, discretion. Pysche, _Greek_, the soul. Rachel, _Hebrew_, a lamb. Rebecca, _Hebrew_, fat or plump. Rhoda, _Greek_, a rose. Rosa / Rose, _Latin_, a rose. Rosalie / Rosaline, _Latin_, little rose. Rosalind, _Latin_, beautiful as a rose. Rosabella, _Italian_, a fair rose. Rosamond, _Saxon_, rose of peace. Roxana, _Persian_, dawn of day. Ruth, _Hebrew_, trembling, or beauty. Sabina, _Latin_, sprung from the Sabines Salome, _Hebrew_, perfect. Sapphira, _Greek_, like a sapphire stone. Sarah, _Hebrew_, a princess. Selina, _Greek_, the moon. Sibylla, _Greek_, the counsel of God. Sophia, _Greek_, wisdom. Sophronia, _Greek_, of a sound mind. Susan / Susanna _Hebrew_, a lily. Tabitha, _Syriac_, a roe. Temperance, _Latin_, moderation. Theodosia, _Greek_, given by God. Tryphena, _Greek_, delicate. Tryphosa, _Greek_, delicious. Victoria, _Latin_, victory. Vida, _Erse, feminine of_ David. Ursula, _Latin_, a she bear. Walburga, _Saxon_, gracious. Winifred, _Saxon_, winning peace. Zenobia, _Greek_, the life of Jupiter.
[NOR BREAK THE TIES OF FRIENDSHIP NEEDLESSLY.]
973. Hints on the Barometer.
974. Why does a Barometer indicate the Pressure of the Atmosphere?
Because it consists of a tube containing quicksilver, closed at one end and open at the other, so that the pressure of air upon the open end balances the weight of the column of mercury (quicksilver); and when the pressure of the air upon the open surface of the mercury increases or decreases, the mercury rises or falls in response thereto.
975. Why is a Barometer called also a "Weather Glass"?
Because changes in the weather are generally preceded by alterations in the atmospheric pressure. But we cannot perceive those changes as they gradually occur; the alteration in the height of the column of mercury, therefore, enables us to know that atmospheric changes are taking place, and by observation we are enabled to determine certain rules by which the state of the weather may be foretold with considerable probability.
976. Why docs the Hand of the Weather Dial change its Position when the Column of Mercury rises or falls?
Because a weight which floats upon the open surface of the mercury is attached to a string, having a nearly equal weight at the other extremity; the string is laid over a revolving pivot, to which the hand is fixed, and the friction of the string turns the hand as the mercury rises or falls.
977. Why does Tapping the Face of the Barometer sometimes cause the Hand to Move?
Because the weight on the surface of the mercury frequently leans against the side of the tube, and does not move freely. And, also, the mercury clings to the sides of the tube by capillary attraction; therefore, tapping on the face of the barometer sets the weight free, and overcomes the attraction which impedes the rise or fall of the mercury.
978. Why does the Fall of the Barometer denote the Approach of Rain?
Because it shows that as the air cannot support the full weight of the column of mercury, the atmosphere must be thin with watery vapours.
979. Why does the Rise of the Barometer denote the Approach of Fine Weather?
Because the external air, becoming dense, and free from highly elastic vapours, presses with increased force upon the mercury upon which the weight floats; that weight, therefore, sinks in the short tube as the mercury rises in the long one, and in sinking, turns the hand to Change, Fair, &e.
980. When does the Barometer stand highest?
When there is a duration of frost, or when north-easterly winds prevail.
981. Why does the Barometer stand highest at these Times?
Because the atmosphere is exceedingly dry and dense, and fully balances the weight of the column of mercury.
982. When does the Barometer stand lowest?
When a thaw follows a long frost, or when south-west winds prevail.
983. Why does the Barometer stand lowest at these Times?
Because much moisture exists in the air, by which it is rendered less dense and heavy. 
[Footnote 1: From "The Reason Why—General Science, containing 1,400 Reasons for things generally believed but imperfectly understood." London: Houlston and Sons.]
984. Cheap Fuel
One bushel of small coal or sawdust, or both mixed together, two bushels of sand, one bushel and a half of clay. Let these be mixed together with common water, like ordinary mortar; the more they are stirred and mixed together the better; then make them into balls, or, with a small mould, in the shape of bricks, pile them in a dry place, and use when hard and sufficiently dry. A fire cannot be lighted with them, but when the fire is lighted, put two or three on behind with some coals in front, and the fire will be found to last longer than if made up in the ordinary way.
985. Economy of Fuel.
There is no part of domestic economy which everybody professes to understand better than the management of a fire, and yet there is no branch in the household arrangement where there is a greater proportional and unnecessary waste than arises from ignorance and mismanagement in this article.
986. The Use of the Poker.
The use of the poker should be confined to two particular points—the opening of a dying fire, so as to admit the free passage of the air into it, and sometimes, but not always, through it; or else, drawing together the remains of a half-burned fire, so as to concentrate the heat, whilst the parts still ignited are opened to the atmosphere.
987. The Use of Bellows (1).
When using a pair of bellows to a fire only partially ignited, or partially extinguished, blow, at first, not into the part that is still alight, but into the dead coals close to it, so that the air may partly extend to the burning coal.
988. The Use of Bellows (2).
After a few blasts blow into the burning fuel, directing the stream partly towards the dead coal, when it will be found that the ignition will extend much more rapidly than under the common method of blowing furiously into the flame at random.
989. Ordering Coals.
If the consumer, instead of ordering a large supply of coals at once, will at first content himself with a sample, he may with very little trouble ascertain who will deal fairly with him; and, if he wisely pays ready money, he will be independent of his coal merchant; a situation which few families, even in genteel life, can boast of.
990. The Truest Economy (1).
To deal for ready money only in all the departments of domestic arrangement, is the truest economy. This truth cannot be repeated too often.
991. The Truest Economy (2).
Ready money will always command the best and cheapest of every article of consumption, if expended with judgment; and the dealer, who intends to act fairly, will always prefer it.
992. Cash vs. Credit (1).
Trust not him who seems more anxious to give credit than to receive cash.
993. Cash vs. Credit (2).
The former hopes to secure custom by having a hold upon you in his books, and continues always to make up for his advance, either by an advanced price, or an inferior article, whilst the latter knows that your custom can only be secured by fair dealing.
994. Buy at Proper Seasons.
There is, likewise, another consideration, as far as economy is concerned, which is not only to buy with ready money, but to buy at proper seasons; for there is with every article a cheap season and a dear one; and with none more than coals, insomuch that the master of a family who fills his coal cellar in the middle of the summer, rather than the beginning of the winter, will find it filled at far less expense than it would otherwise cost him.
It is now necessary to remind our readers that chimneys often smoke, and that coals are often wasted by throwing too much fuel at once upon a fire.
996. Preventing Waste.
To prove this it is only necessary to remove the superfluous coal from the top of the grate, when the smoking instantly ceases; as to the waste, that evidently proceeds from the injudicious use of the poker, which not only throws a great portion of the small coals among the cinders, but often extinguishes the fire it was intended to foster.
997. The "Parson's" or Front Fire Grate.
The construction of most of the grates of the present day tends very much to a great consumption of fuel without a proportionate increase in the heat of the room. The "Parson's" grate was suggested by the late Mr. Mechi, of Tiptree Hall, Kelvedon, Essex, in order to obtain increased heat from less fuel. Speaking of this grate, Mr. Mechi says:
"The tested gain by the use of this grate is an increase of 15 degrees of temperature, with a saving of one-third in fuel. I believe that there are several millions of grates on the wrong principle, hurrying the heat up the chimney instead of into the room, and thus causing an in-draught of cold air. This is especially the case with strong drawing registers. No part of a grate should be of iron, except the thin front bars; for iron is a conductor away of heat, but fire-bricks are not so."
The principle of the grate is thus explained by a writer in 'The Field', who says:
"If any of your readers are troubled with smoky fires and cold rooms, allow me to recommend them to follow Mr. Mechi's plan, as I have done. Remove the front and bottom bars from any ordinary grate; then lay on the hearth, under where the bars were, a large fire tile, three inches thick, cut to fit properly, and projecting about an inch further out than the old upright bars. Then get made by the blacksmith a straight hurdle, twelve inches deep, having ten bars, to fit into the slots which held the old bars, and allow it to take its bearing upon the projecting fire-brick. The bars should be round, of five-eighth inch rod, excepting the top and bottom, which are better flat, about 1-1/4 in. broad. My dining-room grate was thus altered at a total cost of eighteen shillings two years ago, the result being that a smoky chimney is cured, and that the room is always at a really comfortable temperature, with a smaller consumption of coal than before. The whole of the radiation is into the room, with perfect slow combustion."
998. Oil Lighting.
Whenever oil, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, is used for the purpose of artificial light, it should be kept free from all exposure to atmospheric air; as it is apt to absorb considerable quantities of oxygen. If animal oil is very coarse or tenacious, a very small quantity of oil of turpentine may be added.
999. Improving Candles.
Candles improve by keeping a few months. If wax candles become discoloured or soiled, they may be restored by rubbing them over with a clean flannel slightly dipped in spirits of wine.
1000. Lighting Candles.
In lighting candles always hold the match to the side of the wick, and not over the top of it, as is generally done.
1001. Night Lights.
Field's and Child's night lights are generally known and are easily obtainable. But under circumstances where they cannot be procured, the waste of candles may be thus applied. Make a fine cotton, and wax it with white wax. Then cut into the requisite lengths. Melt the grease and pour into pill boxes, previously either fixing the cotton in the centre, or dropping it in just before the grease sets. If a little white wax be melted with the grease, all the better. In this manner, the ends and drippings of candles may be used up. When set to burn, place in a saucer, with sufficient water to rise to the extent of the 16th of an inch around the base of the night light.
1002. Revolving Ovens.
These ovens may be easily made by any tin-man. They are not now manufactured for sale, which is to be regretted, on account of their obvious utility. When suspended in front of any ordinary fire by means of a bottle-jack or a common worsted string, the Revolving Oven will bake bread, cakes, pies, &c., in a much more equal and perfect manner than either a side oven or an American oven, without depriving the room of the heat and comfort of the fire. Before an ordinary fire, in any room in the house, it will bake a four-pound loaf in an hour and twenty minutes. It also bakes pastry remarkably well, and all the care it requires is merely to give it a look now and then to see that it keeps turning.
The bottom of the oven, is made in the form of two saucers, the lower one of which is inverted, while the other stands on it in the ordinary position. A rim, from 1 in. to 2 in. in height, is fixed round the eage of the upper saucer, but a little within it, and over this rim fits a cylinder with a top, slightly domed, which also resembles a saucer turned upside-down. In the centre of the top is a circular ventilator, through which steam, generated in baking, can escape, and the ventilator is covered by a domed plate, as large as the top of the oven. This acts as a radiator to reflect heat on the top of the oven, and is furnished with a knob, by which the cylinder that covers the article to be baked may be removed, in order to view the progress of the baking. Two strong wires project from the bottom on either side, terminating in loops or eyes for the reception of the hooks of a handle, by which the entire apparatus may be suspended in front of the fire.
[Footnote 1: An illustration of this oven is given in the "Dictionary of Daily Wants," under the word "Oven." This work is published by Messrs. Houlston and Sons, Paternoster-square, E.C.]
1003. Yeast (1).
Boil, say on Monday morning, two ounces of the best hops in four quarts of water for half an hour; strain it, and let the liquor cool to new-milk warmth; then put in a small handful of salt, and half a pound of sugar; beat up one pound of the best flour with some of the liquor, and then mix well all together. On Wednesday add three pounds of potatoes, boiled, and then mashed, to stand till Thursday; then strain it and put it into bottles, and it is ready for use. It must be stirred frequently while it is making, and kept near the fire. Before using, shake the bottle up well. It will keep in a cool place for two months, and is best at the latter part of the time. This yeast ferments spontaneously, not requiring the aid of other yeast; and if care be taken to let it ferment well in the earthen bowl in which it is made, you may cork it up tight when bottled. The quantity above given will fill four seltzer-water bottles.
[NEVER SPEND YOUR MONEY BEFORE YOU HAVE IT.]
1004. Yeast (2).
The following is an excellent recipe for making yeast:—For 14 lbs. of flour (but a greater quantity does not require so much in proportion),—into two quarts of water put a quarter of an ounce of hops, two potatoes sliced, and a tablespoonful of malt or sugar; boil for twenty minutes, strain through a sieve, let the liquor stand till new-milk warm, then add the quickening; let it stand in a large jar or jug till sufficiently risen; first put into an earthen bottle from a pint to two quarts of the yeast, according to the size of the baking, for a future quickening. Let it stand uncorked an hour or two, and put into a cool place till wanted for a fresh baking. Put the remainder of it, and two quarts of warm water, to half or more of the flour; stir well, let it stand to rise, knead up with the rest of the flour, put it into or upon tins, and let it stand to rise. Then bake in a moderately quick oven. For a first quickening a little German yeast will do.
1005. Economical Yeast.
Boil one pound of good flour, a quarter of a pound of brown sugar, and a little salt, in two gallons of water, for one hour. When milk-warm, bottle it, and cork it close. It will be fit for use in twenty-four hours. One pint of this yeast will make eighteen pounds of bread.
1006. Pure and Cheap Bread.
Whole meal bread may be made by any one who possesses a small hand mill that will grind about twenty pounds of wheat at a time. This bread is far more nutritious than ordinary bread made from flour from which the bran has been entirely separated. The meal thus obtained may be used for puddings, &c. There are mills which grind and dress the wheat at one operation. Such mills may be obtained at any ironmonger's. The saving in the cost of bread amounts to nearly one-third, which would soon cover the cost of the mill, and effect a most important saving, besides promoting health, by avoiding the evil effects of adulterated flour.
1007. Home-made Bread.
To one quartern of flour (three pounds and a half), add a dessertspoonful of salt, and mix them well; mix about two tablespoonfuls of good fresh yeast with half a pint of water a little warm, but not hot; make a hole with your hand in the middle of the flour, but not quite touching the bottom of the pan; pour the water and yeast into this hole, and stir it with a spoon till you have made a thin batter; sprinkle this over with flour, cover the pan over with a dry cloth, and let it stand in a warm room for an hour; not near the fire, except in cold weather, and then not too close; then add a pint of water a little warm, and knead the whole well together, till the dough comes clean through the hand (some flour will require a little more water; but in this, experience must be your guide); let it stand again for about a quarter of an hour, and then bake at pleasure.
1008. Indian Corn Flour and Wheaten Bread.
The peculiarity of this bread consists in its being composed in part of Indian corn flour, which will be seen by the following analysis by the late Professor Johnston, to be much richer in gluten and fatty matter than the flour of wheat, to which circumstance it owes its highly nutritive character:
English Fine Indian Corn Wheaten Flour. Flour. Water 16 14 Gluten 10 12 Fat 2 8 Starch, &c. 72 66 —- —- Total 100 100
Take of Indian corn flour seven pounds, pour upon it four quarts of boiling water, stirring it all the time; let it stand till about new-milk warm, then mix it with fourteen pounds of fine wheaten flour, to which a quarter of a pound of salt has been previously added. Make a depression on the surface of this mixture, and pour into it two quarts of yeast, which should be thickened to the consistence of cream with some of the flour; let it stand all night; on the following morning the whole should be well kneaded, and allowed to stand for three hours; then divide it into loaves, which are better baked in tins, in which they should stand for half an hour, then bake. Thirty-two pounds of wholesome, nutritive, and very agreeable bread will be the result. It is of importance that the flour of Indian corn should be procured, as Indian corn meal is that which is commonly met with at the shops, and the coarseness of the husk in the meal might to some persons be prejudicial.
[NEVER TROUBLE ANOTHER FOR WHAT YOU CAN DO YOURSELF.]
1009. To make Bread with German Yeast.
To one quartern of flour add a dessertspoonful of salt as before; dissolve one ounce of dried German yeast in about three tablespoonfuls of cold water, add to this one pint and a half of water a little warm, and pour the whole into the flour; knead it well immediately, and let it stand as before directed for one hour: then bake at pleasure. It will not hurt if you make up a peck of flour at once, and bake three or four loaves in succession, provided you do not keep the dough too warm. German yeast may be obtained at almost any corn-chandler's in the metropolis and suburbs. In winter it will keep good for a week in a dry place, and in summer it should be kept in cold water, and the water changed every day. Wheat meal requires a little more yeast than fine flour, or a longer time to stand in the dough for rising.
1010. Unfermented Bread.
Three pounds wheat meal, or four pounds of white flour, two heaped tablespoonfuls of baking powder, a tablespoonful of salt, and about two and a half pints of lukewarm water, or just sufficient to bring the flour to a proper consistence for bread-making; water about a quart. The way of making is as follows:
First mix the baking powder, the salt, and about three fourths of the flour well together by rubbing in a pan; then pour the water over the flour, and mix well by stirring. Then add most of the remainder of the flour, and work up the dough with the hand to the required consistence, which is indicated by the smoothness of the dough, and its not sticking to the hands or the sides of the pan when kneaded. The rest of the flour must then be added to stiffen the dough, which may then be placed in tins or formed by the hand into any shape that may be preferred and placed on flat tins for baking.
The tins should be well floured. Put the loaves at once into a well-heated oven. After they have been in the oven about a quarter of an hour open the ventilator to slacken the heat and allow the steam to escape. In an hour the process of baking will be completed. Bread made in this way keeps moist longer than bread made with yeast, and is far more sweet and digestible. This is especially recommended to persons who suffer from indigestion, who will find the brown bread invaluable.
1011. Baking Powders and Egg Powders.
These useful preparations are now much used in making bread and pastry of all kinds, and have the merit of being both cheap and wholesome. They may be procured of all grocers and oilmen. The basis of all baking powders consists of carbonate of soda and tartaric acid or cream of tartar, and egg powders are made of the same materials, with a little harmless colouring matter such as turmeric. By the action of these substances, carbonic acid is generated in the dough, which causes it to rise in the same manner as the so-called "aerated bread" made on Dr. Dauglish's system, by which carbonic acid is forced into the dough before baking.
[NEVER PUT OFF TILL TO-MORROW WHAT YOU CAN DO TO-DAY.]
1012. How to Use Baking Powder, &c.
Baking powder may be used instead of yeast in making all kinds of bread, cake, teacakes, &c., and for biscuits and pastry, either without or in combination with butter, suet, &c. Bread, &c., made with baking powder is never placed before the fire to rise as when made with yeast, but the dough may be shaped and put into the oven as soon as it is made. The chief points to bear in remembrance are that in making bread two teaspoonfuls of baking powder should be used to every pound of flour, but for pastry, cakes, buns, &c., three teaspoonfuls should be used. The ingredients should always be thoroughly incorporated by mixing; the tins on which or in which the dough is placed to bake should be well floured, and not greased; and the oven should always be very hot, so that the baking may be effected as rapidly as possible.
1013. Bread (Cheap and Excellent).
Simmer slowly, over a gentle fire, a pound of rice in three quarts of water, till the rice has become perfectly soft, and the water is either evaporated or imbibed by the rice: let it become cool, but not cold, and mix it completely with four pounds of flour; add to it some salt, and about four tablespoonfuls of yeast. Knead it very thoroughly, for on this depends whether or not your good materials produce a superior article. Next let it rise well before the fire, make it up into loaves with a little of the flour—which, for that purpose, you must reserve from your four pounds—and bake it rather long. This is an exceedingly good and cheap bread.
1014. Economical and Nourishing Bread.
Suffer the miller to remove from the flour only the coarse flake bran. Of this bran, boil five or six pounds in four and a half gallons of water; when the goodness is extracted from the bran,—during which time the liquor will waste half or three-quarters of a gallon,—strain it and let it cool. When it has cooled down to the temperature of new milk, mix it with fifty-six pounds of flour and as much salt and yeast as would be used for other bread; knead it exceedingly well; let it rise before the fire, and bake it in small loaves: small loaves are preferable to large ones, because they take the heat more equally. There are two advantages in making bread with bran water instead of plain water; the one being that there is considerable nourishment in bran, which is thus extracted and added to the bread; the other, that flour imbibes much more of bran water than it does of plain water; so much more, as to give in the bread produced almost a fifth in weight more than the quantity of flour made up with plain water would have done. These are important considerations to the poor. Fifty-six pounds of flour, made with plain water, would produce sixty-nine and a half pounds of bread; made with bran water, it will produce eighty-three and a half pounds.
1015. Use Bran-Water.
A great increase on Home-made Bread, even equal to one-fifth, may be produced by using bran water for kneading the dough. The proportion is three pounds of bran for every twenty-eight pounds of flour, to be boiled for an hour, and then strained through a hair sieve.
1016. Rye and Wheat Flour.
Rye and wheat flour, in equal quantities, make an excellent and economical bread.
1017. Potatoes in Bread.
Place in a large dish fifteen pounds of flour near the fire to warm; take five pounds of good potatoes, those of a mealy kind being preferable, peel and boil them as if for the table, mash them fine, and then mix with them as much cold water as will allow all except small lumps to pass through a coarse sieve into the flour, which will now be ready to receive them; add yeast, &c., and mix for bread in the usual way. This plan has been followed for some years: finding that bread made according to it is much superior to that made of flour only, and on this ground alone we recommend its adoption; but in addition to this, taking the high price of flour, and moderately low price of potatoes, here is a saving of over twenty per cent., which is surely an object worth attending to by those of limited means.
[ALL THINGS HAVE A BEGINNING, GOD EXCEPTED.]
1018. Use of Lime Water in making Bread.
It has lately been found that water saturated with lime produces in bread the same whiteness, softness, and capacity of retaining moisture, as results from the use of alum; while the former removes all acidity from the dough, and supplies an ingredient needed in the structure of the bones, but which is deficient in the cerealia. The best proportion to use is, five pounds of water saturated with lime, to every nineteen pounds of flour. No change is required in the process of baking. The lime most effectually coagulates the gluten, and the bread weighs well; bakers must therefore approve of its introduction, which is not injurious to the system, like alum, &c.
1019. Rice Bread.
Take one pound and a half of rice, and boil it gently over a slow fire in three quarts of water about five hours, stirring it, and afterwards beating it up into a smooth paste. Mix this, while warm, into two gallons or four pounds of flour, adding at the same time the usual quantity of yeast. Allow the dough to work a certain time near the fire, after which divide it into loaves, and it will be found, when baked, to produce twenty-eight or thirty pounds of excellent white bread.
1020. Apple Bread.
A very light, pleasant bread is made in France by a mixture of apples and flour, in the proportion of one of the former to two of the latter. The usual quantity of yeast is employed, as in making common bread, and is beaten with flour and warm pulp of the apples after they have boiled, and the dough is then considered as set; it is then put in a proper vessel, and allowed to rise for eight or twelve hours, and then baked in long loaves. Very little water is requisite: none, generally, if the apples are very fresh.
1021. Pulled Bread.
Take from the oven an ordinary loaf when it is about half baked, and with the fingers, while the bread is yet hot, dexterously pull the half-set dough into pieces of irregular shape, about the size of an egg. Don't attempt to smooth or flatten them—the rougher their shapes the better. Set upon tins, place in a very slow oven, and bake to a rich brown. This forms a deliciously crisp crust for cheese. If you do not bake at home, your baker will prepare it for you, if ordered. Pulled bread may be made in the revolving ovens. It is very nice with wine instead of biscuits.
1022. French Bread and Rolls.
Take a pint and a half of milk; make it quite warm; half a pint of small-beer yeast; add sufficient flour to make it as thick as batter; put it into a pan; cover it over, and keep it warm: when it has risen as high as it will, add a quarter of a pint of warm water, and half an ounce of salt,—mix them well together,—rub into a little flour two ounces of butter; then make your dough, not quite so stiff as for your bread; let it stand for three-quarters of an hour, and it will be ready to make into rolls, &c.:—let them stand till they have risen, and bake them in a quick oven.
Mix the salt with the flour. Make a deep hole in the middle. Stir the warm water into the yeast, and pour it into the hole in the flour. Stir it with a spoon just enough to make a thin batter, and sprinkle some flour over the top. Cover the pan, and set it in a warm place for several hours. When it is light, add half a pint more of lukewarm water, and make it, with a little more flour, into a dough. Knead it very well for ten minutes. Then divide it into small pieces, and knead each separately. Make them into round cakes or rolls. Cover them, and set them to rise about an hour and a half. Bake them, and, when done, let them remain in the oven, without the lid, for about ten minutes.
[GOD IS THE FIRST OF ALL.]
1024. Sally Lunn Tea Cakes.
Take one pint of milk quite warm, a quarter of a pint of thick small-beer yeast; put them into a pan with flour sufficient to make it as thick as batter,—cover it over, and let it stand till it has risen as high as it will, i. e., about two hours: add two ounces of lump sugar, dissolved in a quarter of a pint of warm milk, a quarter of a pound of butter rubbed into the flour very fine,—then make the dough the same as for French rolls, &c.; let it stand half an hour; then make up the cakes, and put them on tins:—when they have stood to rise, bake them in a quick oven. Care should be taken never to mix the yeast with water or milk too hot or too cold, as either extreme will destroy the fermentation. In summer it should he lukewarm,—in winter a little warmer,—and in very cold weather, warmer still. When it has first risen, if you are not prepared, it will not harm if it stand an hour.
1025. Cooking Instruments.
1026. The Gridiron.
The gridiron, though the simplest of cooking instruments, is by no means to be despised. In common with all cooking utensils the Gridiron should be kept scrupulously clean; and when it is used, the bars should be allowed to get warm before the meat is placed upon it, otherwise the parts crossed by the bars will be insufficiently dressed. The fire should be sharp, clear, and free from smoke. The heat soon forms a film upon the surface of the meat, by which the juices are retained. Chops and steaks should not be too thick nor too thin. From a half to three-quarters of an inch is the proper thickness. Avoid thrusting the fork into the meat, by which you release the juice. There is a description of gridiron in which the bars are grooved to catch the juice of the meat, but a much better invention is the upright gridiron, which is attached to the front of the grate, and has a pan at the bottom to catch the gravy. Kidneys, rashers, &c., dressed in this manner will he found delicious.
1027. The Frying-pan
The frying-pan is a noisy and a greasy servant, requiring much watchfulness. Like the Gridiron, the Frying-pan requires a clear but not a large fire, and the pan should be allowed to get thoroughly hot, and be well covered with fat, before meat is put into it. The excellence of frying very much depends upon the sweetness of the oil, butter, lard, or fat that may be employed. The Frying-pan is very useful in the warming of cold vegetables and other kinds of food, and in this respect may be considered a real friend of economy. All know the relish afforded by a pancake, to say nothing of eggs and bacon, and various kinds of fish, to which both the Saucepan and the Gridiron are quite unsuited, because they require that which is the essence of frying, boiling and browning in fat.
1028. The Spit.
The spit is a very ancient and very useful implement of cockery. Perhaps the process of roasting stands only second in the rank of excellence in cookery. The process is perfectly sound in its chemical effects upon the food, while the joint is kept so immediately under the eye of the cook, that it must be the fault of that functionary if it does not go to the table in the highest state of perfection. The process of roasting should be commenced very slowly, the meat being kept a good distance from the fire, and gradually brought forward, until it is thoroughly soaked within and browned without. The Spit has this advantage over the Oven, and especially over the common oven, that the meat retains its own flavour, not having to encounter the evaporation from fifty different dishes, and that the steam from its own substance passes entirely away, leaving the essence of the meat in its primest condition.
[VIRTUE IS THE FAIREST OF ALL.]
1029. The Meat Hook.
The meat hook has in the present day superseded the use of the Spit in middle class families. It is thrust into the meat, and the joint thereby suspended before the fire. For roasting in this manner the lintel of the mantel-piece is furnished with a brass or iron arm, turning on pivots in a plate fastened to the lintel, and notched along its upper edge. From this arm, which is turned back against the lintel when not in use, the meat is hung and turned by means of a bottle-jack or a skein of worsted, knotted in three or four places, which answers the purpose equally well, and may be replaced by a new one when required, at a merely nominal cost. Meat roasted in this manner should be turned occasionally, the hook being inserted first at one end and then at the other.
1030. The Dutch Oven.
The Dutch oven is of great utility for small dishes of various kinds, which the Spit would spoil by the magnitude of its operations, or the Oven destroy by the severity of its heat. It combines, in fact, the advantages of roasting and baking, and may be adopted for compound dishes, and for warming cold scraps: it is easily heated, and causes no material expenditure of fuel.
1031. The Saucepan.
When we come to speak of the Saucepan, we have to consider the claims of a very large, ancient, and useful family. There are large saucepans, dignified with the name of Boilers, and small saucepans, which come under the denomination of Stewpans. There are few kinds of meat or fish which the Saucepan will not receive, and dispose of in a satisfactory manner; and few vegetables for which it is not adapted.
When rightly used, it is a very economical servant, allowing nothing to be lost; that which escapes from the meat while in its charge forms broth, or may be made the basis of soups. Fat rises upon the surface of the water, and may be skimmed off; while in various stews it combines, in an eminent degree, what we may term the fragrance of cookery, and the piquancy of taste. The French are perfect masters of the use of the Stewpan. And we shall find that, as all cookery is but an aid to digestion, the operations of the Stewpan resemble the action of the stomach very closely. The stomach is a close sac, in which solids and fluids are mixed together, macerated in the gastric juice, and dissolved by the aid of heat and motion, occasioned by the continual contractions and relaxations of the coats of the stomach during the action of digestion. This is more closely resembled by the process of stewing than by any other of our culinary methods.
1032. Various Processes of Cooking.
1033. Utility of the Kitchen.
"In the hands of an expert cook," says Majendie, "alimentary substances are made almost entirely to change their nature, their form, consistence, odour, savour, colour, chemical composition, &c.; everything is so modified, that it is often impossible for the most exquisite sense of taste to recognise the substance which makes up the basis of certain dishes. The greatest utility of the kitchen consists in making the food agreeable to the senses, and rendering it easy of digestion."
1034. Theory of Cooking.
To some extent the claims of either process of cooking depend upon the taste of the individual. Some persons may esteem the peculiar flavour of fried meats, while others will prefer broils or stews. It is important, however, to understand the theory of each method of cooking, so that whichever may be adopted, may be done well. Bad cooking, though by a good method, is far inferior to good cooking by a bad method.
A sirloin of about fifteen pounds (if much more in weight the outside will be done too much before the inner side is sufficiently roasted), will require to be before the fire about three and a half or four hours. Take care to spit it evenly, that it may not be heavier on one side than the other; put a little clean dripping into the dripping pan (tie a sheet of paper over it to preserve the fat) baste it well as soon as it is put down, and every quarter of an hour all the time it is roasting, till the last half-hour; then take off the paper and make some gravy for it, stir the fire and make it clear; to brown and froth it, sprinkle a little salt over it, baste it with butter, and dredge it with flour; let it go a few minutes longer, till the froth rises, take it up, put it on the dish, &c. Garnish it with horseradish, scraped as fine as possible with a very sharp knife.
[VICE IS THE MOST HURTFUL OF ALL.]
1036. Yorkshire Pudding
A Yorkshire Pudding is an excellent accompaniment to roast beef.
1037. Ribs of Beef.
The first three ribs, of fifteen or twenty pounds, will take three hours, or three and a half; the fourth and fifth ribs will take as long, managed in the same way as the sirloin. Paper the fat and the thin part, or it will be done too much, before the thick part is done enough.
1038. Ribs of Beef boned and rolled.
Keep two or three ribs of beef till quite tender, take out the bones, and skewer the meat as round as possible, like a fillet of veal. Some cooks egg it, and sprinkle it with veal stuffing before rolling it. As the meat is in a solid mass, it will require more time at the fire than ribs of beef with the bones: a piece of ten or twelve pounds weight will not be well and thoroughly roasted in less than four and a half or five hours. For the first half-hour it should not be less than twelve inches from the fire, that it may get gradually warm to the centre; the last half-hour before it is finished, sprinkle a little salt over it, and, if you like, flour it, to froth it.
As beef requires a large sound fire, mutton must have a brisk and sharp one: if you wish to have mutton tender it should be hung as long as it will keep, and then good eight-tooth (i.e.,four years old) mutton, is as good eating as venison.
1040. The Leg, Haunch, and Saddle
The leg, haunch, and saddle, will be the better for being hung up in a cool airy place for four or five days, at least; in temperate weather, a week: in cold weather, ten days, A leg of eight pounds will take about two hours; let it be well basted.
1041. A Chine or Saddle.
i.e. the two loins, of ten or eleven pounds—two hours and a half. It is the business of the butcher to take off the skin and skewer it on again, to defend the meat from extreme heat, and preserve its succulence. If this is neglected, tie a sheet of paper over it; baste the strings you tie it on with directly, or they will burn. About a quarter of an hour before you think it will be done, take off the skin or paper, that it may get a pale brown colour, and then baste it, and flour it lightly to froth it.
1042. A Shoulder.
A shoulder, of seven pounds, an hour and three-quarters, or even two hours. If a spit is used, put it in close to the shank-bone, and run it along the blade-bone.
1043. A Loin of Mutton.
A loin of mutton, from an hour and a half to an hour and three-quarters. The most elegant way of carving this is to cut it lengthwise, as you do a saddle. A neck, about the same time as a loin. It must be carefully jointed to prevent any difficulty in carving.
1044. The Neck and Breast.
The neck and breast are, in small families, commonly roasted together. The cook will then crack the bones across the middle before they are put down to roast. If this is not done carefully, the joint is very troublesome to carve. Time for a breast, an hour and a quarter. The breast when eaten by itself is better stewed. It may be boned, rolled, and then roasted. A belly of pork is excellent in this way, when boned, stuffed, and roasted.
1045. A Haunch.
i.e., the leg and part of the loin of mutton. Send up two sauce-boats with it; one of rich-drawn mutton gravy, made without spice or herbs, and the other of sweet sauce. A haunch generally weighs about fifteen pounds, and requires about three hours and a half to roast it.
[THOUGHT IS THE MOST SWIFT OF ALL.]
1046. Mutton (Venison fashion).
Take a neck of good four or five-year-old Southdown wether mutton, cut long in the bones; let it hang in mild weather, at least a week. Two days before you dress it, take allspice and black pepper, ground and pounded fine, a quarter of an ounce each, rub them together and then rub your mutton well with this mixture twice a day. When you dress it, wash off the spice with warm water, and roast it in paste.
Veal requires particular care to roast it a nice brown. Let the fire be the same as for beef; a sound large fire for a large joint, and a brisker for a smaller; put it at some distance from the fire to soak thoroughly, and then draw it nearer to finish it brown. When first laid down it is to be basted; baste it again occasionally. When the veal is on the dish, pour over it half a pint of melted butter; if you have a little brown gravy by you, add that to the butter. With those joints which are not stuffed, send up forcemeat in balls, or rolled into sausages, as garnish to the dish, or fried pork sausages. Bacon is always eaten with veal.
1048. Fillet of Veal.
Fillet of veal of from twelve to sixteen pounds, will require from four to five hours at a good fire: make some stuffing or forcemeat, and put it under the flap, that there may be some left to eat cold, or to season a hash: brown it, and pour good melted butter over it. Garnish with thin slices of lemon, and cakes or balls of stuffing, or duck stuffing, or fried pork sausages, curry sauce, bacon, &c.
1049. A Loin.
A loin is the best part of the calf, and will take about three hours roasting. Paper the kidney fat, and the back: some cooks send it up on a toast, which is eaten with the kidney and the fat of this part, which is more delicate than any marrow, &c. If there is more of it than you think will be eaten with the veal, before you roast it cut it out, it will make an excellent suet pudding: take care to have your fire long enough to brown the ends.
1050. A Shoulder of Veal
A shoulder of veal, from three hours to three hours and a half: stuff it with the forcemeat ordered for the fillet of veal, in the under side.
Neck, best end, will take two hours. The scrag part is best made into a pie or broth. Breast, from an hour and a half to two hours. Let the caul remain till it is almost done, then take it off to brown the meat; baste, flour, and froth it.
1052. Veal Sweetbread.
Trim a fine sweetbread—it cannot be too fresh; parboil it for five minutes, and throw it into a basin of cold water; roast it plain, or beat up the yolk of an egg, and prepare some fine bread-crumbs. Or when the sweetbread is cold, dry it thoroughly in a cloth, run a lark spit or a skewer through it, and tie it on the ordinary spit; egg it with a paste brush, powder it well with bread-crumbs, and roast it. For sauce, put fried bread-crumbs round it, and melted butter with a little mushroom ketchup and lemon juice, or serve on buttered toast, garnished with egg sauce, or with gravy.
Lamb is a delicate, and commonly considered tender meat; but those who talk of tender lamb, while they are thinking of the age of the animal, forget that even a chicken must be kept a proper time after it has been killed, or it will be tough eating. To the usual accompaniments of roast meat, green mint sauce or a salad is commonly added: and some cooks, about five minutes before it is done, sprinkle it with a little minced parsley.
Grass-Lamb is in season from Easter to Michaelmas.
House-Lamb from Christmas to Lady-day.
When green mint cannot be got, mint vinegar is an acceptable substitute for it.
1057. Roasting a Hind-Quarter.
Hind-quarter of eight pounds will take from an hour and three-quarters to two hours; baste and froth it.
1058. Roasting a Fore-Quarter.
Fore-quarter of ten pounds, about two hours.
It is a pretty general Custom, when you take off the shoulder from the ribs, to rub them with a lump of butter, and then to squeeze a lemon or Seville orange over them, and sprinkle them with a little pepper and salt.
[HOPE IS THE MOST COMMON OF ALL.]
1060. Roasting a Leg.
Leg of five pounds, from an hour to an hour and a half.
1061. Roasting a Shoulder.
Shoulder, with a quick fire, an hour.
1062. Roasting Ribs.
Ribs, about an hour to an hour and a quarter; joint it nicely; crack the ribs across, and bend them up to make it easy for the carver.
1063. Roasting Loin, Neck or Breast.
Loin, an hour and a quarter. Neck an hour. Breast, three-quarters of an hour.
1064. Poultry, Game, &c.
H. M. A small capon, fowl, or chicken requires........... 0 26 A large fowl ....... 0 45 A capon, full size ........ 0 35 A goose ........... 1 0 Wild ducks, and grouse ..... 0 15 Pheasants, and turkey poults ... 0 20 A moderate sized turkey, stuffed . . 1 15 Partridges .......... 0 25 Quail .............. 0 10 A hare, or rabbit .....about 1 0 Leg of pork, 1/4 hour for each pound, and above that allowance .................. 0 20 Chine of pork, as for leg, and ... 0 20 A neck of mutton ....... 1 30 A haunch of venison . . . about 3 30
1065. Effectiveness of Roasting.
Roasting, by causing the contraction of the cellular substance which contains the fat, expels more fat than boiling. The free escape of watery particles in the form of vapour, so necessary to produce flavour, must be regulated by frequent basting with the fat which has exuded from the meat, combined with a little salt and water—otherwise the meat would burn, and become hard and tasteless. A brisk fire at first will, by charring the outside, prevent the heat from penetrating, and therefore should only be employed when the meat is half roasted.
1066. The Loss by Roasting (General).
The loss by roasting is said to vary from 14-3/8ths to nearly double that rate per cent. The average loss on roasting butcher's meat is 22 percent.: and on domestic poultry, 20-1/2.
1067. The Loss by Roasting (Specific).
The loss per cent, on roasting beef, viz., on sirloins and ribs together is 19-1/6 th; on mutton, viz., legs and shoulders together, 24-4/5 ths, on fore-quarters of lamb, 22-1/3 rd; on ducks, 27-1/5 th; on turkeys, 20-1/2; on geese, 19-1/2; on chickens, 14-3/5 ths. So that it will be seen by comparison with the percentage given of the loss by boiling, that roasting is not so economical; especially when we take into account that the loss of weight by boiling is not actual loss of economic materials, for we then possess the principal ingredients for soups; whereas, after roasting, the fat only remains. The average loss in boiling and and roasting together is 18 per cent. according to Donovan, and 28 per cent. according to Wallace—a difference that may be accounted for by supposing a difference in the fatness of the meat, duration and degree of heat, &c., employed.
This most simple of culinary processes is not often performed in perfection; it does not require quite so much nicety and attendance as roasting; to skim your pot well, and keep it really boiling, or rather, simmering, all the while—to know how long is required for doing the joint, &c., and to take it up at the critical moment when it is done enough—comprehends almost the whole art and mystery. This, however, demands a patient and perpetual vigilance, of which, unhappily, few persons are capable.
The cook must take especial care that the water really boils all the while she is cooking, or she will be deceived in the time; and make up a sufficient fire (a frugal cook will manage with much less fire for boiling than she uses for roasting) at first, to last all the time, without much mending or stirring, and thereby save much trouble. When the pot is coming to a boil, there will always, from the cleanest meat and clearest water, rise a scum to the top of it; proceeding partly from the foulness of the meat, and partly from the water: this must be carefully taken off, as soon as it rises. On this depends the good appearance of all boiled things—an essential matter.
When you have skimmed well, put in some cold water, which will throw up the rest of the scum. The oftener it is skimmed, and the clearer the surface of the water is kept, the cleaner will be the meat. If let alone, it soon boils down and sticks to the meat, which, instead of looking delicately white and nice, will have that coarse appearance we have too often to complain of, and the butcher and poulterer will be blamed for the carelessness of the cook, in not skimming her pot with due diligence.
Many put in milk, to make what they boil look white, but this does more harm than good; others wrap it up in a cloth; but these are needless precautions; if the scum be attentively removed, meat will have a much more delicate colour and finer flavour than it has when muffled up. This may give rather more trouble—but those we wish to excel in their art must only consider how the processes of it can be most perfectly performed: a cook who has a proper pride and pleasure in her business will make this her maxim and rule on all occasions.
Put your meat into cold water, in the proportion of about a quart of water to a pound of meat; it should be covered with water during the whole of the process of boiling, but not drowned in it; the less water, provided the meat be covered with it, the more savoury will be the meat, and the better will be the broth in every respect. The water should be heated gradually, according to the thickness, &c., of the article boiled; for instance, a leg of mutton of ten pounds weight should be placed over a moderate fire, which will gradually make the water hot without causing it to boil, for about forty minutes; if the water boils much sooner, the meat will be hardened, and shrink up as if it was scorched—by keeping the water a certain time heating without boiling, its fibres are dilated, and it yields a quantity of scum, which must be taken off as soon as it rises, for the reasons already mentioned.
"If a vessel containing water be placed over a steady fire, the water will grow continually hotter, till it reaches the limit of boiling; after which, the regular accessions of heat are wholly spent in converting it into steam: the water remains at the same pitch of temperature, however fiercely it boils. The only difference is, that with a strong fire it sooner comes to boil, and more quickly boils away, and is converted into steam."
Such are the opinions stated by Buchanan in his "Economy of Fuel." There was placed a thermometer in water in that state which cooks call gentle simmering—the heat was 212 deg., i.e., the same degree as the strongest boiling. Two mutton chops were covered with cold water, and one boiled fiercely, and the other simmered gently, for three-quarters of an hour; the flavour of the chop which was simmered was decidedly superior to that which was boiled; the liquor which boiled fast was in like proportion more savoury, and, when cold, had much more fat on its surface; this explains why quick boiling renders meat hard, &c.—because its juices are extracted in a greater degree.
[A SCRAPER AT THE DOOR KEEPS DIRT FROM THE FLOOR.]
1069. Time of Boiling.
Reckon the time from the water first coming to a boil. The old rule, of fifteen minutes to a pound of meat, is, perhaps, rather too little; the slower the meat boils, the tenderer, the plumper, and whiter it will be. For those who choose their food thoroughly cooked (which all will who have any regard for their stomachs), twenty minutes to a pound will not be found too much for gentle simmering by the side of the fire; allowing more or less time, according to the thickness of the joint and the coldness of the weather; always remembering, the slower it boils the better. Without some practice it is difficult to teach any art; and cooks seem to suppose they must be right, if they put meat into a pot, and set it over the fire for a certain time—making no allowance, whether it simmers without a bubble, or boils at a gallop.
[A LETTER-BOX SAVES MANY KNOCKS.]
1070. Before Boiling.
Fresh killed meat will take much longer time boiling than that which has been kept till it is what the butchers call ripe, and longer in cold than in warm weather. If it be frozen it must be thawed before boiling as before roasting; if it be fresh killed, it will be tough and hard, if you stew it ever so long, and ever so gently. In cold weather, the night before you dress it, bring it into a place of which the temperature is not less than forty-five degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer.