When reduced to a fine powder, by the addition of a little spirit of wine and friction, it is very useful as a local stimulant to indolent ulcers, especially when they discharge a foul kind of matter; a pinch is taken between the finger and thumb, and sprinkled into the ulcer, which is then dressed as usual.
When dissolved in oil of turpentine, a few drops placed in a hollow tooth and covered with jeweller's wool, or scraped lint, give almost instant relief to toothache. Used internally, it is apt to excite nausea, and even vomiting, especially when given in the solid form.
As a stimulant it is of great service in all low fevers, malignant measles, malignant sore throat, and confluent small-pox; and when combined with opium and bark, it is extremely useful in checking the progress of malignant ulcers, and gangrene.
As a narcotic it is very useful, because it allays pain and irritation, without increasing the pulse very much.
When powdered and sprinkled upon the surface of a blister, it prevents the cantharides acting in a peculiar and painful manner upon the bladder.
Combined with senna, it increases its purgative properties; and it is also used to correct the nausea produced by squills, and the irritating effects of drastic purgatives and mezereon.
Dose, from four grains to half a scruple, repeated at short intervals when used in small doses, and long intervals when employed in large doses.
Doses of the various preparations.—Camphor mixture, from half an ounce to three ounces; compound tincture of camphor (paregoric elixir), from fifteen minims to two drachms.
Caution.—When given in an overdose it acts as a poison, producing vomiting, giddiness, delirium, convulsions, and sometimes death. Opium is the best antidote for camphor, whether in excess or taken as a poison. Mode of exhibition.—It may be rubbed up with almond emulsion, or mucilage, or the yolk of eggs, and by this means suspended in water, or combined with chloroform as a mixture, in which form it is a valuable stimulant in cholera and other diseases. (See Mixtures, 556-564).
Ether is a diffusible stimulant, narcotic and antispasmodic.
696. Sulphuric Ether
Sulphuric Ether is used externally both as a stimulant and a refrigerant. In the former case its evaporation is prevented by covering a rag moistened with it with oiled silk, in order to relieve headache; and in the latter case it is allowed to evaporate, and thus produce coldness: hence it is applied over scalded surfaces by means of rags dipped in it.
As a local application, it has been found to afford almost instant relief in earache, when combined with almond oil, and dropped into the ear.
It is used internally as a stimulant and narcotic in low fevers and cases of great exhaustion.
Dose, from fifteen minims to half a drachm, repeated at short intervals, as its effects soon pass off. Give in a little camphor julep, or water.
697. Nitric Ether
Nitric Ether is a refrigerant, diuretic, and antispasmodic, well known as "sweet spirit of nitre."
Used externally, its evaporation relieves headache, and it is sometimes applied to burns. It is used internally to relieve nausea, flatulence, and thirst in fevers; also as a diuretic.
Dose, from ten minims to one drachm. The smaller dose taken in a little warm water or gruel is useful as a sudorific in cases of cold and chill, to induce and promote the proper action of the skin which has been checked. If a larger dose be taken, it acts as a diuretic and not as a sudorific, and so fails to produce the desired effect.
[TO-DAY, HIS FOOD IS DRESSED IN DAINTY FORMS.]
698. Compound Spirit of Sulphuric Ether
Compound Spirit of Sulphuric Ether is a very useful stimulant, narcotic, and antispasmodic.
Used internally in cases of great exhaustion, attended with irritability.
Dose, from half a drachm to two drachms, in camphor julep. When combined with laudanum, it prevents the nauseating effects of the opium, and acts more beneficially as a narcotic.
699. The Hop
The Hop is a narcotic, tonic, and diuretic; it reduces the frequency of the pulse, and does not affect the head, like most anodynes.
Used externally, it acts as an anodyne and discutient, and is useful as a fomentation for painful tumours, rheumatic pains in the joints, and severe contusions. A pillow stuffed with hops acts as a narcotic. When the powder is mixed with lard, it acts as an anodyne dressing in painful ulcers.
Dose, of the extract, from five grains to one scruple; of the tincture, from half a drachm to two drachms; of the powder, from three! grains to one scruple; of the infusion, half an ounce to one and a half ounce.
Opium is a stimulant, narcotic, and anodyne.
Used externally it acts almost as well as when taken into the stomach, and without affecting the head or causing nausea. Applied to irritable ulcers in the form of tincture, it promotes their cure, and allays pain. Cloths dipped in a strong solution, and applied over painful bruises, tumours, or inflamed joints, allay pain. A small piece of solid opium stuffed into a hollow tooth relieves toothache. A weak solution of opium forms a valuable collyrium in ophthalmia. Two drops of the wine of opium dropped into the eye acts as an excellent stimulant in bloodshot eye; or after long-continued inflammation, it is useful in strengthening the eye. Applied as a liniment, in combination with ammonia and oil, or with camphorated spirit, it relieves muscular pain. When combined with oil of turpentine, it is useful as a liniment in spasmodic colic.
Used internally, it acts as a very powerful stimulant: then as a sedative, and finally as an anodyne and narcotic, allaying pain in the most extraordinary manner, by acting directly upon the nervous system. In acute rheumatism it is a most excellent medicine when combined with calomel and tartrate of antimony; but its exhibition requires the judicious care of a medical man.
Doses of the various preparations.—. Confection of opium, from five grains to half a drachm; extract of opium, from one to five grains (this is a valuable form, as it does not produce so much after derangement of the nervous system as solid opium); pills of soap and opium, from five to ten grains; compound ipecacuanha powder ("Dover's Powder"), from ten to fifteen grains; compound kino powder, from five to fifteen grains; wine of opium, from ten minims to one drachm. Caution.—Opium is a powerful poison when taken in too large a quantity (See POISONS, pars. 1340-1367), and thus should be used with extreme caution. It is on this account that we have omitted some of its preparations. The best antidote for opium is camphor.
Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of overcoming the spasms of the muscles, or allaying any severe pain which is not attended by inflammation. The class includes a great many, but the most safe and serviceable are ammonia, assafoetida, galbanum, valerian, bark, ether, camphor, opium, and chloroform; with the minerals, oxide of zinc and calomel.
Ammonia, or Sal Volatile, is an antispasmodic antacid, stimulant and diaphoretic.
Used externally, combined with oil, it forms a cheap and useful liniment, but it should be dissolved in proof spirit before the oil is added. One part of this salt, and three parts of extract of belladonna, mixed and spread upon leather, makes an excellent plaster for relieving rheumatic pains. As a local stimulant it is well known, as regards its effects in hysterics, faintness, and lassitude, when applied to the nose, as common smelling salts.
It is used internally as an adjunct to infusion of gentian in dyspepsia or indigestion, and in moderate doses in gout.
Dose, from five to fifteen grains. Caution.—Overdoses act as a narcotic and irritant poison.
[TO-MORROW, IS HIMSELF A FEAST FOR WORMS.]
703. Bicarbonate of Ammonia
Bicarbonate of Ammonia is used internally the same as sal volatile.
Dose, from six to twelve grains. It is frequently combined with Epsom salts.
704. Solution of Sesoquicarbonate of Ammonia,
Solution of Sesoquicarbonate of Ammonia, used the same as sal volatile.
Dose, from half a drachm to one drachm, combined with some milky fluid, like almond emulsion.
Asafoetida is an antispasmodic, expectorant, excitant, and anthelmintic.
Used internally, it is extremely useful in dyspepsia, flatulent colic, hysteria, and nervous diseases; and where there are no inflammatory symptoms, it is an excellent remedy in hooping cough and asthma.
Used locally as an enema, it is useful in flatulent colic, and convulsions that come on through teething.
Doses of various preparations.—Solid gum, from five to ten grains as pills; mixture, from half an ounce to one ounce; tincture, from fifteen minims to one drachm; ammoniated tincture, from twenty minims to one drachm.
Caution.—Never give this drug when inflammation exists.
Galbanum is stimulant, antispasmodic, expectorant, and deobstruent.
Used externally, it assists in dispelling tumours when spread upon indolent leather as a plaster, and is useful in weakness of the legs from rickets, being applied as a plaster to the loins.
Employed internally, it is useful in chronic or old-standing rheumatism and hysteria.
Doses of preparations.—Of the gum, from ten to fifteen grains as pills; tincture, from fifteen minims to one drachm. It may be made into an emulsion with mucilage and water.
Valerian is a powerful antispasmodic, tonic, and excitant, acting chiefly on the nervous centres.
Used internally, it is employed in hysteria, nervous languors, and spasmodic complaints generally. It is useful in low fevers.
Doses of various preparations.—Powder, from ten grains to half a drachm, three or four times a day; tincture, from two to four drachms; ammoniated tincture, from one to two drachms; infusion, from two to three ounces, or more.
708. Peruvian Bark
Bark, or, as it is commonly called, Peruvian bark, is an antispasmodic, tonic, astringent, and stomachic.
Used externally, it is an excellent detergent for foul ulcers, and those that heal slowly.
Used internally, it is particularly valuable in intermittent fever or ague, malignant measles, dysentery, diarrhoea, intermittent rheumatism, St. Vitus's dance, indigestion, nervous affections, malignant sore throat, and erysipelas; its use being indicated in all cases of debility.
Doses of its preparations.—Powder, from five grains to two drachms, mixed in wine, water, milk, syrup, or solution of liquorice; infusion, from one to three ounces; decoction, from one to three ounces; tincture and compound tincture, each from one to three drachms.
Caution.—If it causes oppression at the stomach, combine it with an aromatic; if it causes vomiting, give it in wine or soda water; if it purges, give opium; and if it constipates give rhubarb.
709. Sulphuric Ether
Sulphuric Ether is given internally as an antispasmodic in difficult breathing and spasmodic asthma; also in hysteria, cramp of the stomach, hiccough, locked jaw, and cholera. It is useful in checking sea-sickness.
Dose, from twenty minims to one drachm.
Caution.—An overdose produces apoplectic symptoms.
[TO-DAY HE'S CLAD IN GAUDY, RICH ARRAY]
710. Camphor (2)
Camphor is given internally as an antispasmodic in hysteria, cramp in the stomach, flatulent colic, and St. Vitus's dance.
Dose, from two to twenty grains.
711. Opium (2)
Opium is employed internally in spasmodic affections, such as cholera, spasmodic asthma, hooping cough, flatulent colic, and St. Vitus's dance.
Dose, from one-sixth of a grain to two grains of the solid opium, according to the disease.
712. Oxide of Zinc
Oxide of Zinc is an antispasmodic, astringent, and tonic.
Used externally, as an ointment, it forms an excellent astringent in affections of the eyelids, arising from relaxation; or as a powder, it is an excellent detergent for unhealthy ulcers.
Used internally, it has proved efficacious in St. Vitus's dance, and some other spasmodic affections.
Dose, from one to six grains twice a day.
Calomel is an antispasmodic, alterative deobstruent, purgative, and errhine.
Used internally, combined with opium, it acts as an antispasmodic in locked jaw, cholera, and many other spasmodic affections. As an alterative and deobstruent, it has been found useful in leprosy and itch, when combined with antimonials and guaiacum, and in enlargement of the liver and glandular affections. It acts beneficially in dropsies, by producing watery motions. In typhus it is of great benefit when combined with antimonials; and it may be given as a purgative in almost any disease, provided there is not any inflammation of the bowels, irritability of the system, or great debility.
Dose, as a deobstruent and alterative, from one to five grains, daily; as a cathartic, from five to fifteen grains; to produce ptyalism, or salivation, from one to two grains, in a pill, with a quarter of a grain of opium, night and morning.
Caution.—When taking calomel, exposure to cold or dampness should be guarded against, as such an imprudence would bring out an eruption of the skin, attended with fever. When this does occur, leave off the calomel, and give bark, wine, and purgatives; take a warm bath twice a day, and powder the surface of the body with powdered starch.
Tonics are given to improve the tone of the system, and restore the natural energies and general strength of the body. They consist of bark, quassia, gentian, camomile, wormwood, and angostura bark.
Quassia is a simple tonic, and can be used with safety by any one, as it does not increase the animal heat, or quicken the circulation.
Used internally, in the form of infusion, it has been found of great benefit in indigestion and nervous irritability, and is useful after bilious fevers and diarrhoea.
Dose, of the infusion, from one and a half to two ounces, three times a day.
Gentian is an excellent tonic and stomachic; but when given in large doses, it acts as an aperient.
It is used internally in all cases of general debility, and when combined with bark is used in intermittent fevers. It has also been employed in indigestion, and it is sometimes used, combined with sal volatile, in that disease; but, at other times alone, in the form of infusion. After diarrhoea, it proves a useful tonic. Its infusion is sometimes applied externally to foul ulcers.
Dose, of the infusion, one and a half to two ounces; of the tincture, one to four drachms; of the extract, from ten to thirty grains.
The flowers of the camomile are tonic, slightly anodyne, antispasmodic, and emetic.
They are used externally as fomentations, in colic, faceache, and tumours, and to unhealthy ulcers.
They are used internally in the form of infusion, with carbonate of soda, ginger, and other stomachic remedies, in dyspepsia, flatulent colic, debility following dysentery and gout. Warm infusion of the flowers acts as an emetic; and the powdered flowers are sometimes combined with opium or kino, and given in intermittent fevers.
Dose, of the powdered flowers, from ten grains to one drachm, twice or thrice a day; of the infusion, from one to two ounces, as a tonic, three times a day: and from six ounces to one pint as an emetic; of the extract, from five to twenty grains.
[TO-MORROW, SHROUDED FOR A BED OF CLAY.]
Wormwood is a tonic and anthelmintic.
It is used externally as a discutient and antiseptic.
It is used internally in long-standing cases of dyspepsia, in the form of infusion, with or without aromatics. It has also been used in intermittents.
Dose, of the infusion, from one to two ounces, three times a day; of the powder, from one to two scruples.
719. Angostura Bark
Angostura Bark, or Cusparia, is a tonic and stimulant. It expels flatulence, increases the appetite, and produces a grateful warmth in the stomach.
It is used internally in intermittent fevers, dyspepsia, hysteria, and all cases of debility, where a stimulating tonic is desirable, particularly after bilious diarrhoea.
Dose, of the powder, from ten to fifteen grains, combined with cinnamon powder, magnesia, or rhubarb; of the extract, from three to ten grains; of the infusion, from one to two ounces.
Caution.—This drug should never be given in inflammatory diseases or hectic fever.
Astringents are medicines given for the purpose of diminishing excessive discharges, and to act indirectly as tonics. This class includes catechu, kino, oak bark, log wood, rose leaves, chalk, and white vitriol.
Catechu is a most valuable astringent.
It is used externally, when powdered, to promote the contraction of flabby ulcers. As a local astringent it is useful in relaxed uvula, a small piece being dissolved in the mouth; small, spotty ulcerations of the mouth and throat, and bleeding gums, and for these two affections it is used in the form of infusion to wash the parts.
It is given internally in diarrhoea, dysentery, and hemorrhage from the bowels.
Dose, of the infusion, from one to three ounces; of the tincture, from one to four drachms; of the powder, from ten to thirty grains.
Caution.—It must not be given with soda or any alkali; nor metallic salts, albumen, or gelatine, as its property is destroyed by this combination.
Kino is a powerful astringent.
It is used externally to ulcers, to give tone to them when flabby, and discharging foul and thin matter.
It is used internally in the same diseases as catechu.
Dose, of the powder, from ten to fifteen grains; of the tincture, from one to two drachms; of the compound powder, from ten to twenty grains; of the infusion, from a half to one and a half ounce.
Caution.—Kino is used in combination with calomel, when salivation is intended, to prevent, by its astringency, the action of the calomel on the bowels, and thereby insure its affecting the constitution.— (See CATECHU [para. 721]).
723. Oak Bark
Oak Bark is an astringent and tonic.
It is used externally in the form of decoction, to restrain bleeding from lacerated surfaces. As a local astringent, it is used in the form of decoction, as a gargle in sore throat and relaxed uvula.
It is used internally in the same diseases as catechu, and when combined with aromatics and bitters, in intermittent fevers.
Dose of the powder, from fifteen to thirty grains; of the decoction, from two to eight drachms.
Logwood is not a very satisfactory astringent.
It is used internally in diarrhoea, the last stage of dysentery, and a lax state of the intestines.
Dose, of the extract, from ten grains to one drachm; of the decoction from one to three ounces, three or four times a day.
725. Rose Leaves
Rose Leaves are stringent and tonic.
They are used internally in spitting of blood, hemorrhage from the stomach, intestines, &c., as a gargle for sore throat, and for the night sweats of consumption. The infusion is frequently used as a tonic with diluted sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), after low fevers, or in combination with Epsom salts and sulphuric acid in certain states of the bowels.
Dose of infusion, from two to four ounces.
[TO-DAY, ENJOYS HIS HALLS, BUILT TO HIS MIND.]
Chalk, when prepared by washing, becomes an astringent as well as antacid.
It is used internally in diarrhoea, in the form of mixture, and externally as an application to burns, scalds, and excoriations.
Dose of the mixture, from one to two ounces.
727. White Vitriol
White Vitriol, or Sulphate of Zinc, is an astringent, tonic, and emetic.
It is used externally as a collyrium for ophthalmia (See DOMESTIC PHARMACOPEIA, par. 475 et seq.), and as a detergent for scrofulous ulcers, in the proportion of three grains of the salt to one ounce of water.
It is used internally in indigestion, and many other diseases; but it should not be given unless ordered by a medical man, as it is a poison.
728. Local Stimulants.
Local stimulants comprise emetics, cathartics, diuretics, diaphoretics, expectorants, sialogogues, errhines, and epispastics.
Emetics are medicines given for the purpose of causing vomiting, as in cases of poisoning. They consist of ipecacuanha, camomile, antimony, copper, zinc, and several others.
Ipecacuanha is an emetic, diaphoretic, and expectorant.
It is used internally to excite vomiting, in doses of from ten to twenty grains of the powder, or one to one and a half ounce of the infusion, every half hour until vomiting takes place. To make it act well and easily, the patient should drink half pints of warm water after each dose of the infusion. As a diaphoretic, it should be given in doses of three grains, mixed with some soft substance, such as crumbs of bread, and repeated every four hours.
Dose of the wine, from twenty minims to one drachm as a diaphoretic, and from one drachm to one and a half ounces as an emetic.
Caution.—Do not give more than the doses named above, because, although a safe emetic, yet it is an acrid narcotic poison.
Mustard is too well known to require describing. It is an emetic, diuretic, stimulant, and rubefacient.
It is used externally as a poultice. Mustard poultices are made of the powder, bread crumbs, and water; or of one part of mustard to two of flour; or, especially for children, of linseed meal, mixed with a little of the powder, or having some of the powder slightly sprinkled on the surface. Sometimes a little vinegar is added under the idea that it increases the strength of the poultice, but this is not necessary. In all cases where a stimulant is required, such as sore throats, rheumatic pains in the joints, cholera, cramps in the extremities, diarrhoea, and many other diseases. When applied it should not he left on too long, as it is apt to cause ulceration of the part. From ten to thirty minutes is quite long enough.
When used internally as an emetic, a large teaspoonful mixed with a tumbler of warm water generally operates quickly and safely, frequently when other emetics have failed. In dropsy it is sometimes given in the form of whey, which is made by boiling half an ounce of the bruised seeds in a pint of milk, and straining off the curd.
From three to four ounces of this is to be taken for a dose three times a day.
Cathartics are divided into laxatives and purgatives. Manna, tamarinds, castor oil, sulphur, and magnesia are laxatives; senna, rhubarb, jalap, colocynth, buckthorn, aloes, cream of tartar, scammony, calomel, Epsom salts, Glauber's salts, sulphate of potash, and Venice turpentine are purgatives.
Manna is a very gentle laxative, and therefore used for children and delicate persons.
Dose for children, from one to two drachms; and for adults, from one to two ounces, combined with rhubarb and cinnamon water.
Tamarinds are generally laxative and refrigerant. As it is agreeable, this medicine will generally be eaten by children when they will not take other medicines.
Dose, from half to one ounce. As a refrigerant beverage in fevers it is extremely grateful.
[TO-MORROW, IN A COFFIN IS CONFINED.]
735. Castor Oil
Castor Oil is a most valuable medicine, as it generally operates quickly and mildly.
It is used externally, combined with citron ointment, as a topical application in common leprosy.
It is used internally as an ordinary purgative for infants, as a laxative for adults, and in diarrhoea and dysentery. In colic it is very useful and safe; and also after delivery.
Dose for infants, from forty drops to two drachms; for adults, from half an ounce to one and a half ounces.
Sublimed sulphur is laxative and diaphoretic.
It is used externally in skin diseases, especially itch, both in the form of ointment and as a vapour bath.
It is used internally in hemorrhoids, combined with magnesia, as a laxative for children, and as a diaphoretic in rheumatism.
Dose, from one scruple to two drachms, mixed in milk or with treacle. When combined with an equal proportion of cream of tartar, it acts as a purgative.
Calcined magnesia possesses the same properties as the carbonate.
Dose, from ten to thirty grains, in milk or water.
Carbonate of magnesia is an antacid and laxative, and is very useful for children when teething, and for heartburn in adults.
Dose, from a half to two drachms, in water or milk.
Fluid Magnesia is a useful preparation by whose use is avoided the grittiness that is inseparable from magnesia when taken in the form of powder.
Senna is a purgative, but is apt to gripe when given alone; therefore it is combined with some aromatic, such as cloves or ginger, and the infusion should be made with cold instead of hot water. It usually acts in about four hours, but its action should be assisted by drinking warm fluids.
Dose, of the confection, commonly called "lenitive electuary," from one to three or four drachma at bedtime; of the infusion, from one to two ounces; of the tincture, irom one to two drachms; of the syrup (used for children), from one drachm to one ounce.
Caution.—Do not give senna, in any form except confection, in hemorrhoids, and never in irritability of the intestines.
Rhubarb is a purgative, astringent and stomachic.
It is used externally in the form of powder to ulcers, to promote a healthy action.
It is given internally in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, and a debilitated state of the bowels. Combined with a mild preparation of calomel, it forms an excellent purgative for children.
Dose, of the infusion, from one to two ounces; of the powder, from one scruple to half a drachm as a purgative, and from six to ten grains as a stomachic; of the tincture and compound tincture, from one to four drachms; of the compound pill, from ten to twenty grains.
Jalap is a powerful cathartic and hydrogogue, and is therefore apt to gripe.
Dose, of the powder, from ten to thirty grains, combined with a drop or two of aromatic oil; of the compound powder, from fifteen to forty grains; of the tincture, from one to three drachms; of the extract, from ten to twenty grains. The watery extract is better than the alcoholic.
Colocynth is a powerful drastic cathartic, and should never be given alone, unless ordered by a medical man, as its action is too violent for some constitutions.
Dose, of the extract, from five to fifteen grains; of the compound extract, from five to fifteen grains; of the compound colocynth pill, the best of all its preparations, from ten to twenty grains.
Buckthorn is a brisk purgative for children in the form of syrup.
Dose of the syrup, from one to six drachms.
Aloes is a purgative and cathartic in large, and tonic in smaller doses.
Dose, of powder, from two to ten grains, combined with soap, bitter extracts, or other purgative medicines, and given in the form of pills; of the compound pill, from five to twenty grains; of the pill of aloes and myrrh from five to twenty grains; of the tincture, from four drachms to one ounce; of the compound tincture, from one to four drachms; of the extract, from six to ten grains; of the compound decoction, from four drachms to two ounces.
[TO-DAY, HE FLOATS ON HONOUR'S LOFTY WAVE.]
744. Cream of Tartar
Cream of Tartar is a purgative and refrigerant.
It is used internally in dropsy, especially of the belly, in doses of from one scruple to one drachm. As a refrigerant drink it is dissolved in hot water, and sweetened with sugar, and is used in febrile diseases, care being taken not to allow it to rest too much upon the bowels.
Dose, as a purgative, from two to four drachms, as a hydrogogue, from four to six drachms, mixed with honey or treacle.
Caution.—Its use should be followed by tonics, especially gentian and angostura.
Scammony is a drastic purgative, generally acting quickly and powerfully; sometimes producing nausea, and even vomiting, and being very apt to gripe.
It is used internally, to produce watery evacuations in dropsy, to remove intestinal worms, and correct the slimy motions of children.
Dose, of the powder, from five to sixteen grains, given in liquorice water, treacle, or honey; of the confection, from twenty to thirty grains.
Caution.—Do not give it in an irritable or inflamed state of the bowels.
746. Epsom Salts
Epsom Salts is a purgative and diuretic. This medicine generally operates quickly, and therefore is extremely useful in acute diseases. It is found to be beneficial in dyspepsia when combined with infusion of gentian and a little ginger. It forms an excellent enema with olive oil.
Dose, from a half to two ounces, dissolved in warm tea or water. Infusion of roses partially covers its taste and assists its action.
Note, that with regard to Epsom salts, the larger in reason is the amount of water in which they are taken, the smaller the dose of salts required: thus, half an ounce properly dissolved may be made a strong dose. The action and efficacy of Epsom salts may be greatly increased by adding one grain of tartar emetic to a dose of salts.
747. Glauber's Salt
Glauber's Salt is a very good purgative.
Dose, from a half to two ounces, dissolved in warm water.
748. Sulphate of Potash
Sulphate of Potash is a cathartic and deobstruent. It is used internally, combined with aloes or rhubarb, in obstructions of the bowels, and is an excellent saline purgative in dyspepsia and jaundice.
Dose, from ten grains to one drachm.
749. Venice Turpentine
Venice Turpentine is cathartic, diuretic, stimulant, and anthelmintic.
It is used externally as a rubefacient, and is given internally in flatulent colic, in tapeworm, rheumatism, and other diseases.
Dose, as a diuretic, from ten grains to one drachm; as a cathartic, from ten to twelve drachms; as an anthelmintic, from one to two ounces every eight hours, till the worm be ejected.
Diuretics are medicines which promote an increased secretion of urine. They consist of nitre, acetate of potassa, squills, juniper, oil of turpentine, and others, vegetable and mineral.
Nitre is a diuretic and refrigerant.
It is used externally as a detergent when dissolved in water, and as a lotion to inflamed and painful rheumatic joints.
It is given internally in doses of from ten grains to half a drachm, or even one drachm; in spitting blood it is given in one drachm doses with great benefit. It is beneficial in sore throat, a few grains being allowed to dissolve in the mouth.
752. Acetate of Potassa
Acetate of Potassa is diuretic and cathartic.
It is given internally as a diuretic, in combination with infusion of quassia; in dropsy, in doses of from one scruple to one drachm, every three or four hours.
Dose, as a cathartic, from two to three drachms.
Squills is diuretic and expectorant when given in small doses; and emetic and purgative when given in large doses.
It is used internally in dropsy, in combination with calomel and opium; in asthma, with ammoniacum; in catarrh, in the form of oxymel.
Dose, of the dried bulb powdered, from one to two grains every six hours; of the compound pill, from ten to fifteen grains; of the tincture, from ten minims to half a drachm; of the oxymel, from a half to two drachms; of the vinegar, from twenty minims to two drachms.
[TO-MORROW, LEAVES HIS TITLE FOR A GRAVE.]
Juniper is diuretic and stomachic.
It is given internally in dropsy.
Dose, of the infusion, from two to three ounces every four hours, of the oil, from one to five minims.
755. Oil of Turpentine
Oil of Turpentine is a diuretic, anthelmintic, and rubefacient.
It is used externally in flatulent colic, sprinkled over flannels dipped in hot water and wrung out dry.
It is used internally in the same diseases as Venice turpentine.
Dose, from five minims to two drachms.
Diaphoretics are medicines given to increase the secretion from the skin by sweating. They comprise acetate of ammonia, calomel, antimony, opium, camphor, sarsaparilla.
757. Solution of Acetate of Ammonia
Solution of Acetate of Ammonia is a most useful diaphoretic.
It is used externally as a discutient, as a lotion to inflamed milk-breasts, as an eye-wash, and a lotion in scald head.
It is given internally to promote perspiration in febrile diseases, which it does most effectually, especially when combined with camphor mixture. This is the article so frequently met with in prescriptions, and called spirits of mindercrus.
Dose, from a half to one and a half ounces every three or four hours.
758. Antimony.—Tartar emetic
Tartar emetic is diaphoretic, emetic, expectorant, alterative, and rubefacient.
It is used externally as an irritant in white swellings and deep-seated inflammations, in the form of an ointment.
It is given internally in pleurisy, bilious fevers, and many other diseases, but its exhibition requires the skill of a medical man, to watch its effects.
Dose, from one-sixth of a grain to four grains.
Caution.—It is a poison, and therefore requires great care in its administration.
759. Antimonial Powder
Antimonial Powder is a diaphoretic, emetic, and alterative.
It is given internally, in febrile diseases, to produce determination to the skin, and is useful in rheumatism, when combined with opium or calomel.
Dose, from three to ten grains every four hours, taking plenty of warm fluids between each dose.
Sarsiparilla is diaphoretic, alterative, diuretic, and tonic.
It is given internally in cutaneous diseases, old-standing rheumatism, scrofula, and debility.
Dose, of the decoction, from four to eight ounces; of the compound decoction, from four to eight ounces; of the extract, from five grains to one drachm.
Expectorants are medicines given to promote the secretion from the windpipe, &c. They consist of antimony, ipecacuanha, squills, ammoniacum, and tolu.
Ammoniacum is an expectorant, antispasmodic, diuretic, and deobstruent.
It is used externally as a discutient, and is given internally, with great benefit in asthma, hysteria, and chronic catarrh.
Dose, from ten to twenty grains.
Tolu is an excellent expectorant, when there are no inflammatory symptoms.
It is given internally in asthma and chronic catarrh.
Dose, of the balsam, from five to thirty grains, combined with mucilage and suspended in water; of the tincture, from a half to one drachm; of the syrup, from a half to four drachms.
These are given to increase the flow of saliva or spittle. They consist of ginger and calomel, pellitory of Spain, tobacco, the acids, and some others.
Ginger ia a sialogogue, carminative, and stimulant.
It is used internally in flatulent colic, dyspepsia, and to prevent the griping of medicines. When chewed, it acts as a sialogogue, and is therefore useful in relaxed uvula.
Dose, from ten to twenty grains of the powder; of the tincture, from ten minims to one drachm.
[TO-DAY, HIS BEAUTEOUS VISAGE WE EXTOL.]
766. Epispastics and Rubefacients.
These are remedies which are applied to blister and cause redness of the surface. They consist of cantharides, ammonia, Burgundy pitch, and mustard.
767. Cantharides, or Spanish flies
Cantharides, or Spanish flies, when used internally, are diuretic and stimulant; and epispastic and rubefacient when applied externally.
Mode of application.—A portion of the blistering plaster is spread with the thumb upon brown paper, linen, or leather, to the size required; its surface then slightly moistened with olive oil and sprinkled with camphor, and the plaster applied by a light bandage: or it is spread on adhesive plaster, and attached to the skin by the adhesive margin of the plaster.
Caution.—If a blister is to be applied to the head, shave it at least ten hours before it is put on; it is better to place a thin piece of gauze, wetted with vinegar, between the skin and the blister. If a distressing feeling be experienced about the bladder, give warm and copious draughts of linseed tea, milk, or decoction of quince seeds, and apply warm fomentations of milk and water to the blistered surface. The period required for a blister to remain on varies from eight to ten hours for adults, and from twenty minutes to two hours for children: as soon as it is removed, if the blister is not raised, apply a "spongio-piline" poultice, and it will then rise properly. When it is required to act as a rubefacient, the blister should remain on from one to three hours for adults, and from fifteen to forty minutes for children.
To dress a blister.—Cut the bag of cuticle containing the scrum at the lowest part, by snipping it with the scissors, so as to form an opening like this—V; and then apply a piece of calico, spread with spermaceti or some other dressing. Such is the ordinary method; but a much better and more expeditious plan, and one that prevents all pain and inconvenience in the healing, is, after cutting the blister as directed above, to immediately cover it with a warm bread and water poultice for about an hour and a half, and on the removal of the poultice to dust the raw surface with violet powder; apply a handkerchief to retain the powder, and lastly dust the part every two hours. It will be healed in twelve hours.
Caution.—Never attempt to take cantharides internally, except under the advice of a medical man, as it is a poison, and requires extreme caution in its use.
768. Burgundy Pitch
Burgundy Pitch is warmed and spread upon linen or leather, and applied over the chest in cases of catarrh, difficult breathing, and hooping cough; over the loins in debility or lumbago; and over any part that it is desirable to excite a mild degree of inflammation in.
769. Chemical Remedies.
These comprise refrigerants, antacids, antalkalies, and escharotics.
These are medicines given for the purpose of suppressing an unnatural heat of the body. They are Seville oranges, lemons, tamarinds, nitre, and cream of tartar.
771. Seville Oranges
Seville Oranges and sweet oranges are formed into a refrigerant beverage, which is extremely grateful in febrile diseases.
The rind is an agreeable mild tonic, carminative, and stomachic.
Dose, of the tincture, from one to four drachms; of the infusion, from one to two ounces.
[TO-MORROW, LOATHSOME IN THE SIGHT OF ALL.]
Lemons are used to form a refrigerant beverage, which is given to quench thirst in febrile and inflammatory diseases,
Lemon juice given with carbonate of potash (half an ounce of the juice to twenty grains of the salt), and taken while effervescing, allays vomiting; a tablespoonful, taken occasionally, allays hysterical palpitations of the heart, it is useful in scurvy caused by eating too much salt food, but requires to be taken with sugar.
The rind forms a nice mild tonic and stomachic in certain forms of dyspepsia.
Dose of the infusion (made the same as orange peel), from one to two ounces.
These are given to correct acidity in the system. They are soda, ammonia, chalk, and magnesia.
774. Soda, Carbonate of, and Sesquicarbonate of Soda
Soda, Carbonate of, and Sesquicarbonate of Soda, are antacids and deobstruents.
They are used internally in acidity of the stomach and dyspepsia.
Dose of both preparations, from 10 grains to half a drachm.
These are given to neutralize an alkaline state of the system. They are citric acid, lemon juice, and tartaric acid.
776. Citric Acid
Citric Acid is used to check profuse sweating, and as a substitute for lemon juice when it cannot be procured.
Dose, from ten to thirty grains.
777. Tartaric Acid
Tartaric Acid, when largely diluted, forms an excellent refrigerant beverage and antalkali. It enters into the composition of extemporaneous soda and Seidlitz waters.
Dose, from ten to thirty grains.
These are remedies used to destroy the vitality of a part. They comprise lunar caustic, bluestone, and solution of chloride of zinc.
779. Bluestone, or Sulphate of Copper
Bluestone, or Sulphate of Copper, is used in a solution of from four to fifteen grains to the ounce of water, and applied to foul and indolent ulcers, by means of rag dipped in it. It is rubbed in substance on fungous growths, warts, &c., to destroy them.
Caution.—It is a poison.
780. Lunar Caustic; or Nitrate of Silver
Lunar Caustic; or Nitrate of Silver, is an excellent remedy in erysipelas when applied in solution (one drachm of the salt to one ounce of water), which should be brushed all over the inflamed part, and for an inch beyond it. This blackens the skin, but it soon peels off. To destroy warts, proud flesh, and unhealthy edges of ulcers, &c., it is invaluable; and as an application to bed sores, pencilled over with a solution of the same strength, and in the same manner as for erysipelas.
Caution.—It is a poison.
781. Solution of Chloride of Zinc,
Solution of Chloride of Zinc, more commonly known as Sir William Burnett's "Disinfecting Fluid," is a valuable escharotic in destroying the parts of poisoned wounds, such as the bite of a mad dog. It is also very useful in restoring the hair after the scalp has been attacked with ringworm; but its use requires extreme caution, as it is a powerful escharotic. In itch, diluted (one part to thirty-two) with water, it appears to answer very well.
Caution.—It is a most powerful poison.
782. Mechanical Remedies.
These comprise anthelmintics, demulcents, diluents, and emollients.
These are medicines given for the purpose of expelling or destroying worms. They are cowhage, scammony, male fern root, calomel, gamboge, tin, and turpentine.
Cowhage is used to expel the round worm, which it does by wounding it with the fine prickles.
Dose of the confection, for a child three or four years old, a teaspoonful early, for three mornings, followed by a dose of castor oil. (See par 491.)
The mechanical anthelmintics are strictly confined to those agents which kill the worm in the body by piercing its cuticle with the sharp darts or spiculae of the cowhage hairs, or the fine metallic points of powdered tin (pulvis stanni). When these drops are employed, they should be given in honey or treacle for ten or fifteen days, and an aperient powder every fourth morning, to expel the killed worms.
[TO-DAY, HE HAS DELUSIVE DREAMS OF HEAVEN.]
785. Male Fern Root
Male Fern Root is a powerful anthelmintic, and an astringent. It is used to kill tapeworm.
Dose, three drachms of the powdered root mixed in a teacupful of water, to be taken in the morning while in bed, and followed by a brisk purgative two hours afterwards; or from a tablespoonful to a wineglassful, according to age, to be taken early in the morning. (See par 569).
Gamboge is a powerful drastic and anthelmintic.
It is used internally in dropsy, and for the expulsion of tapeworm; but its use requires caution, as it is an irritant poison.
Dose, from two to six grains, in the form of pills, combined with colocynth, soap, rhubarb, or bread-crumbs.
These are used to diminish irritation, and soften parts by protecting them with a viscid matter. They are tragacanth, linseed, marsh-mallow, mallow, liquorice, arrowroot, isinglass, suet, wax, and almonds.
Tragacanth is used to allay tickling cough, and lubricate abraded parts. It is usually given in the form of mucilage.
Dose, from ten grains to one drachm, or more.
Linseed is emollient and demulcent.
It is used externally, in the form of powder or "meal," as a poultice; and the oil, combined with lime water, is applied to burns and scalds.
It is used internally as an infusion in diarrhoea, dysentery, and irritation of the intestines after certain poisons, and in catarrh. The best form of linseed meal is that which is obtained from seed from which the oil has not been extracted.
Dose, of the infusion, as much as the patient pleases.
Marsh-Mallow is used internally in the same diseases as linseed.
The leaves are used externally as a fomentation, and the boiled roots are bruised and applied as an emollient poultice.
Dose, the same as for linseed.
Mallow is used externally as a fomentation and poultice in inflammation, and the infusion is used internally in dysentery, diseases of the kidneys, and the same diseases as marsh-mallow and linseed. It is also used as an enema.
Dose, same as for linseed and marsh-mallow.
Liquorice is an agreeable demulcent, and is given in the form of decoction in catarrh, and some forms of dyspepsia, and the extract is used in catarrh.
Dose, of the extract, from ten grains to one drachm; of the decoction, from two to four ounces.
793. Arrowroot etc.
Arrowroot, islinglass, almonds, suet, and wax, are too well known to require descriptions. (See par 487, for "Almond Confection" for preparations.)
These are chiefly watery compounds, such as weak tea, water, thin broth, gruel, weak infusions of balm, hore-hound, pennyroyal, ground ivy, mint, and sage.
These consist of unctuous remedies, such as cerates and ointments, and any materials that combine heat with moisture,—poultices of bread, bran, linseed meal, carrots, and turnips. (See par 809.)
796. Domestic Surgery.
This will comprise such hints and advice as will enable any one to act on an emergency, or in ordinary trivial accidents requiring simple treatment: and also to distinguish between serious and simple accidents, and the best means to adopt in all cases that are likely to fall under a person's notice.
These hints will be of the utmost value to heads of families, to emigrants, and to persons who are frequently called upon to attend the sick. We strongly recommend the Parent, Emigrant, and Nurse, to read over these directions occasionally,—to regard it as a duty to do so at least three or four times a year, so as to be prepared for emergencies whenever they may arise. When accidents occur, people are too excited to acquire immediately a knowledge of what they should do; and many lives have been lost for want of this knowledge.
Study, therefore, at moderate intervals, the Domestic Surgery, Treatment of Poisons, Rules for the Prevention of Accidents, How to Escape from Fires, the Domestic Pharmacopoeia, &c., which will he found in various pages of Enquire Within.
And let it be impressed upon your mind that THE INDEX will enable you to refer to anything you may require IN A MOMENT. Don't trouble to hunt through the pages; but when you wish to ENQUIRE WITHIN, remember that the INDEX is the knocker, by which the door of knowledge may be opened.
[TO-MORROW, CRIES TOO LATE TO BE FORGIVEN.]
These are substances usually applied to parts for the purpose of soothing, promoting their reunion when divided, protecting them from external injuries, absorbing discharges, protecting the surrounding parts, insuring cleanliness, and as a means of applying various medicines.
798. Certain Instruments
Certain Instruments are required for the application of dressings in domestic surgery, viz.—scissors, a pair of tweezers or simple forceps, a knife, needles and thread, a razor, a lancet, a piece of lunar caustic in a quill, and a sponge.
799. Materials for dressings.
These consist of lint, scraped linen, carded cotton, tow, ointment spread on calico, adhesive plaster, compresses, pads, bandages, poultices, old rags of linen or calico, and water.
The following rules should be attended to in applying dressings:
i. Always prepare the new dressing before removing the old one.
ii. Always have hot and cold water at hand, and a vessel to place the foul dressings in.
iii. Have one or more persons at hand ready to assist, and, to prevent confusion, tell each person what they are to do before you commence; thus, one is to wash out and hand the sponges, another to heat the adhesive plaster, or hand the bandages and dressings, and, if requisite, a third to support the limb, &c.
iv. Always stand on the outside of a limb to dress it.
v. Place the patient in as easy a position as possible, so as not to fatigue him.
vi. Arrange the bed after changing the dressings; but in some cases you will have to do so before the patient is placed on it.
vii. Never be in a hurry when applying dressings, do it quietly.
viii. When a patient requires moving from one bed to another, the best way is for one person to stand on each side of the patient, and each to place an arm behind his back, while he passes his arms over their necks, then let their other arms be passed under his thighs, and by holding each other's hands, the patient can be raised with ease, and removed to another bed. If the leg is injured, a third person should steady it; and if the arm, the same precaution should be adopted. Sometimes a stout sheet is passed under the patient, and by several people holding the sides, thy patient is lifted without any fatigue or much disturbance.
801. Lint, how made.
Lint, how made. This may be quickly made by nailing a piece of old linen on a board, and scraping its surface with a knife. It is used either alone or spread with ointment. Scraped lint is the fine filaments from ordinary lint, and is used to stimulate ulcers and absorb discharges; it is what the French call charpie.
802. Uses of Scraped Lint.
This is made into various shapes for particular purposes. When it is screwed up into a conical or wedge-like shape, it is called a tent, and is used to dilate fistulous openings, so as to allow the matter to escape freely; and to plug wounds, so as to promote the formation of a clot of blood, and thus arrest bleeding. When rolled into little balls, called boulettes, it is used for absorbing matter in cavities, or blood in wounds. Another useful form is made by rolling a mass of scraped lint into a long roll, and then tying it in the middle with a piece of thread; the middle is then doubled and pushed into a deep-seated wound, so as to press upon the bleeding vessel, while the ends remain loose and assist in forming a clot; or it is used in deep-seated ulcers to absorb the matter and keep the edges apart. This form is called the bourdonnet. Another form is called the pelote, which is merely a ball of scraped lint tied up in a piece of linen rag, commonly called a dabber. This is used in the treatment of protrusion of the navel in children.
803. Carded Cotton
Carded Cotton is used as a dressing for superficial burns, and care should be taken to free it from specks, as flies are apt to lay their eggs there, and generate maggots.
Tow is chiefly employed as a padding for splints, as a compress, and also as an outer dressing where there is much discharge from a surface.
Ointments are spread on calicoes, lint, or even thin layers of tow, by means of a knife; they should not be spread too thick. Sometimes ointment is applied to discharging surfaces on a piece of linen, folded over on itself several times, and then cut at the corners with scissors, in order to make small holes in it. The matter discharged passes out freely through these holes, and is received in a layer of tow spread over the linen.
806. Adhesive Plaster
Adhesive Plaster is cut into strips, ranging in width, according to the nature of the wound, &c., but the usual width is about three-quarters of an inch. Isinglass plaster is not so irritating as diachylon, and is more easily removed.
Compresses are made of pieces of linen, calico, lint, or tow, doubled or cut into various shapes, according to the purposes for which they are required. They are used to confine dressings in their places, and to apply an equal pressure on parts. They should be free from darns, hems, and knots. Ordinary compresses are square, oblong, and triangular. Compresses are also graduated by placing square pieces of folded cloth on one another, so arranged that they decrease in size each time. They are used for keeping up pressure upon certain parts.
Pads are made by sewing tow inside pieces of linen, or folding linen and sewing the pieces together. They are used to keep off pressure from parts such as that caused by splints in fractures.
Poultices are usually made of linseed meal, oatmeal, or bread, either combined with water or other fluids; sometimes they are made of carrots, charcoal, potatoes, yeast, and linseed meal, mustard, &c., but the best and most economical kind of poultice is a fabric made of sponge and wool felted together, and backed by Indian rubber, called "spongio piline."
The method of using this poultice is as follows:—A piece of the material of the required form and size is cut off, and the edges are pared or bevelled off with a pair of scissors, so that the caoutchouc may come in contact with the surrounding skin, in order to prevent evaporation of the fluid used; for, as it only forms the vehicle, the various poultices generally used can be employed with much less expenditure of time and money, and increased cleanliness.
For example,—a vinegar poultice is made by moistening the fabric with distilled vinegar; an alum poultice, by using a strong solution of alum; a charcoal poultice, by sprinkling powdered charcoal on the moistened surface of the material; a yeast poultice, by using warmed yeast, and moistening the fabric with hot water, which is to be well squeezed out previous to the absorption of the yeast; a beer poultice, by employing warm porter-dregs or strong beer as the fluid; and a carrot poultice, by using the expressed and evaporated liquor of boiled carrots.
Spongio-piline costs about one farthing a square inch, and may be obtained of the chemist. As a fomentation it is most invaluable, and by moistening the material with compound camphor liniment or hartshorn, it acts the same as a mustard poultice.
[TO-MORROW, DIES IN ANGUISH AND DESPAIR.]
810. Mustard Poultices.
These may be made of the mustard powder alone, or in combination with bread crumbs, or linseed meal. When mustard only is used, the powder should be moistened with water, and the paste thus produced spread on a piece of linen, and covered with muslin to intervene between the mustard and the skin. When mixed with linseed the powder and the meal may be incorporated before water is added, or the meal may be moistened and spread on linen for application, and the mustard be then strewn on the surface, more or less thickly according to the age of the patient. Rigollot's Mustard leaves, which can be procured from any chemist, are now much used in the place of mustard poultices. They only require wetting before application, and are both clean and economical.
Bandages are strips of calico, linen, flannel, muslin, elastic webbing, bunting, or some other substance, of various lengths, and from one to six inches wide, free from hems or darns, soft and unglazed. They are better after they have been washed. Their uses are to retain dressings, apparatus, or parts of the body in their proper positions, support the soft parts, and maintain equal pressure.
812. Simple and Compound Bandages.
Bandages are simple and compound; the former are simple slips rolled up tightly like a roll of ribbon. There is also another simple kind, which is rolled from both ends—this is called a double-headed bandage. The compound bandages are formed of many pieces.
813. Bandages for Different Parts of the Body.
Bandages for the Head should be two inches wide and five yards long; for the neck, two inches wide, and three yards long; for the arm, two inches wide, and seven yards long; for the leg, two inches and a half wide and seven yards long; for the thigh three inches wide, and eight yards long; and for the body, four or six inches wide and ten or twelve yards long.
814. To Apply a Single-Headed Bandage,
To apply a single-headed bandage, lay the outside of the end near to the part to be bandaged, and hold the roll between the little, ring and middle fingers, and the palm of the left hand, using the thumb and forefinger of the same hand to guide it, and the right hand to keep it firm, and pass the bandage partly round the leg towards the left hand. It is sometimes necessary to reverse this order, and therefore it is well to be able to use both hands.
Particular parts require a different method of applying bandages, and therefore it is necessary to describe the most useful separately; and there are different ways of putting on the same bandage, which consist in the manner the folds or turns are made. For example, the circular bandage is formed by horizontal turns, each of which overlaps the one made before it; the spiral consists of spiral turns; the oblique follows a course oblique or slanting to the centre of the limb; and the recurrent folds back again to the part whence it started.
815. Circular Bandages
Circular bandages are used for the neck, to retain dressings on any part of it, or for blisters, setons, &c.; for the head, to keep dressings on the forehead or any part contained within a circle passing round the head; for the arm, previous to bleeding; for the leg, above the knee; and for the fingers, &c.
816. To Confine the Ends of Bandages
To confine the ends of bandages some persons use pins, others slit the end for a short distance, and tie the two strips into a knot, and some use a strip of adhesive plaster. Always place the point of a pin in such a position that it cannot prick the patient, or the person dressing the limb, or be liable to be drawn out by using the limb; therefore, as a general rule, turn the head of the pin from the free end of the bandage, of towards the upper part of the limb. The best mode is to sew the bandage on. A few stitches will hold it more securely than pins can.
[LITTLE DEEDS ARE LIKE LITTLE SEEDS.]
817. The Oblique Bandage
The oblique bandage is generally used for arms and legs, to retain dressings.
818. The Spiral Bandage
The Spiral Bandage is generally applied to the trunk and extremities, but is apt to fall off even when very carefully applied; therefore the recurrent bandage, which folds back again, is generally used.
819. The Recurrent Bandage
The recurrent bandage is the best kind of bandage that we can employ for general purposes. The method of putting it on the leg is as follows:—Apply the end of the bandage that is free, with the outside of it next the skin, and hold this end with the finger and thumb of the left hand, while some one supports the heel of the patient; then with the right hand pass the bandage over the piece you are holding, and keep it crossed thus, until you can place your right forefinger upon the spot where it crosses the other bandage, where it must be kept firm. Now hold the roll of the bandage in your left hand, with the palm turned upwards, and taking care to keep that part of the bandage between your right forefinger, and the roll in your left hand, quite slack; turn your left hand over, and bring the bandage down upon the leg; then pass the roll under the leg towards your right hand, and repeat this until the leg is bandaged up to the knee, taking care not to drag the bandage at any time during the process of bandaging. When you arrive at the knee, pass the bandage round the leg in circles just below the knee, and pin it as usual.
Bandaging is very easy, and if you once see any one apply a bandage properly, and attend to these rules, there will not be any difficulty; but bear one thing in mind, without which you will never put on a bandage even decently; and that is, never to drag or pull at a bandage, but make the turns while it is slack, and you have your right forefinger placed upon the point where it is to be folded down. When a limb is properly bandaged, the folds should run in a line corresponding to the shin-bone. Use, to retain dressings, and for varicose veins.
820. A Bandage for the Chest
A bandage for the chest is always placed upon the patient in a sitting posture; and it may be put on in circles, or spirally. Use, in fractures of the ribs, to retain dressings, and after severe contusions.
821. A Bandage for the Belly
A bandage for the belly is placed on the patient as directed for the chest, carrying it spirally from above downwards. Use, to compress belly after dropsy, or retain dressings.
822. Bandaging the Hand.
The hand is bandaged by crossing the bandage over the back of the hand Use, to retain dressings.
823. Different Bandages for the Head.
For the head, a bandage may be circular, or spiral, or both; in the latter case, commence by placing one circular turn just over the ears; then bring down from left to right, and round the head again, so as to alternate a spiral with a circular turn. Use, to retain dressings on the head or over the eye; but this form soon gets slack. The circular bandage is the best, crossing it over both eyes.
824. For the Foot.
Place the end just above the outer ankle, and make two circular turns, to prevent its slipping: then bring it down from the inside of the foot over the instep towards the outer part; pass it under the sole of the foot, and upwards and inward over the instep towards the inner ankle, then round the ankle and repeat again. Use, to retain dressings to the instep, heel, or ankle.
825. For the Leg and Foot
For the leg and foot, commence and proceed as directed in the preceding paragraph; then continue if up the leg as ordered in the Recurrent Bandage.
As it sometimes happens that it is necessary to apply a bandage at once, and the materials are not at hand it is desirable to know how to substitute something else that any one may apply with ease. This can be readily done with handkerchiefs.
[THEY GROW TO FLOWERS, OR TO WEEDS.]
Any ordinary handkerchief will do; but a square of linen folded into various shapes answers better. The shapes generally required are as follows:—The triangle, the long square, the cravat, and the cord.
828. The Triangular Handkerchief
The triangular handkerchief is made by folding it from corner to corner. Use, as a bandage for the head.
Application.—Place the base round the head, and the short part hanging down behind, then tie the long ends over it.
829. The Long Square
The long square is made by folding the handkerchief in three. Use, as a bandage to the ribs, belly, &c. If one handkerchief is not long enough, sew two together.
830. The Cravat
The cravat is folded as usual with cravats. Use, as a bandage for the head, arms, legs, feet, neck, &c.
831. The Cord
The cord is used to compress vessels, when a knot is made in it, and placed over the vessel to be compressed. It is merely a handkerchief twisted in its diagonal.
832. Multiple Handkerchiefs.
Two or more handkerchiefs must sometimes be applied, as in a broken collar-bone, or when it is necessary to keep dressings under the arm. The bandage is applied by knotting the opposite comers of one handkerchief together, and passing the left arm through it, then passing another handkerchief under the right arm, and tying it. By this means we can brace the shoulders well back, and the handkerchief will press firmly over the broken collar-bone: besides, this form of bandage does not readily slip or get slack, but it requires to be combined with the sling, in order to keep the arm steady.
833. For an Inflamed Breast
For an inflamed breast that requires support, or dressings to be kept to it, pass one corner over the shoulder, bring the body of it over the breast, and pass it upwards and backwards under the arm of that side, and tie the opposite corners together.
834. An Excellent Sling
An excellent sling is formed by placing one handkerchief around the neck, and knotting opposite corners ever the breast bone, then placing the other in triangle under the arm, to be supported with the base near to the hand; tie the ends over the handkerchief, and pin the top to the other part, after passing it around the elbow.
When a person receives a severe contusion of the leg or foot, or breaks his leg, or has painful ulcers over the leg, or is unable from some cause to bear the pressure of the bedclothes, it is advisable to know how to keep them from hurting the leg. This may be done by bending up a fire-guard, or placing a chair, resting upon the edge of its back and front of the seat, over the leg, or putting a box on each side of it, and placing a plank ever them; but the best way is to make a cradle, as it is called. This is done by getting three pieces of wood, and three pieces of iron wire, and passing the wire or hoop through the wood. This can be placed to any height, and is very useful in all cases where pressure cannot be borne. Wooden hoops cut in halves answer better than the wire.
836. When a Person Breaks his Leg
When a person breaks his leg, and splints cannot he had directly, get bunches of straw or twigs, roll them up in handkerchiefs, and placing one on each side of the leg or arm, bind another handkerchief firmly around them; or make a long bag about three inches in diameter, or even more, of coarse linen duck, or carpet, and stuff this full of bran, sawdust, or sand, sew up the end, and use this the same as the twigs. It forms an excellent extemporaneous splint. Another good plan is to get a hat-box made of chip, and cut it into suitable lengths; or for want of all these, take some bones out of a pair of stays, and run them through a stout piece of rug, protecting the leg with a fold of rug, linen, &c. A still better splint or set of splints can be extemporized by cutting a sheet of thick pasteboard into proper sized slips, then passing each piece through a basin of hot water to soften it. It is then applied to the fractured limb like an ordinary splint, when it hardens as it dries, taking the exact shape of the part to which it is applied.
[GOOD-NATURE COLLECTS HONEY FROM EVERY HERB.]
837. Applying Dry Warmth.
When dry warmth is required to be applied to any part of the body, fry a flour pancake and lay it over the part; or warm some sand and place in the patient's socks, and lay it to the part; salt put into a paper bag does as well; or warm water put into a stone jar, and rolled up in flannel.
838. Minor Operations.
Bleeding is sometimes necessary at once in certain accidents, such as concussion, and therefore it is well to know how to do this. First of all, bind up the arm above the elbow with a piece of bandage or a handkerchief pretty firmly, then place your finger over one of the veins at the bend of the arm, and feel if there is any pulsation; if there is, try another vein, and if it does not pulsate or beat, choose that one. Now rub the arm from the wrist towards the elbow, place the left thumb upon the vein, and hold the lancet as you would a pen, and nearly at right angles to the vein, taking care to prevent its going in too far, by keeping the thumb near to the point, and resting the hand upon the little finger. Now place the point of the lancet on the vein, push it suddenly inwards, depress the elbow, and raise the hand upwards and outwards, so as to cut obliquely across the vein.
When sufficient blood is drawn off, which is known by feeling the pulse at the wrist, and near the thumb, bandage the arm. If the pulse feel like a piece of cord, more blood should be taken away, but if it is soft, and can be easily pressed, the bleeding should be stopped. When you bandage the arm, place a piece of lint over the opening made by the lancet, and pass a bandage lightly but firmly around the arm, so as to cross it over the bend of the elbow, in form of a figure 8.
840. Dry Cupping
Dry cupping is performed by throwing a piece of paper dipped into spirit of wine, and ignited, into a wineglass, and placing it over the part, such as the neck, temples, &c. It thus draws the flesh into the glass, and causes a determination of blood to the part, which is useful in headache, and many other complaints. This is an excellent method of extracting the poison from wounds made by adders, mad dogs, fish, &c.
841. Ordinary Cupping
Ordinary Cupping is performed the same as dry cupping, with this exception, that the part is scarified or scratched with a lancet, so as to cause the blood to flow; or by the application of a scarificator, which makes by one action from seven to twenty-one light superficial cuts. Then the glass is placed over it again with the lighted paper in it, and when sufficient blood has been taken away, the parts are then sponged, and a piece of sticking plaster placed over them.
842. Leeches and their Application.
The leech used for medical purposes is called the hirudo medicinalis to distinguish it from other varieties, such as the horse-leech and the Lisbon leech. It varies from two to four inches in length, and is of a blackish brown colour, marked on the back with six yellow spots, and edged with a yellow line on each side. Formerly leeches were supplied by Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and other fenny countries, but latterly most of the leeches are procured from France, where they are now becoming scarce.
843. When Leeches are Applied
When leeches are applied to a part, it should be thoroughly freed from down or hair by shaving, and all liniments, &c., carefully and effectually cleaned away by washing. If the leech is hungry it will soon bite, but sometimes great difficulty is experienced in getting them to fasten. When this is the case, roll the leech into a little porter, or moisten the surface with a little blood, or milk, or sugar and water. Leeches may be applied by holding them over the part with a piece of linen cloth, or by means of an inverted glass, under which they must be placed.
844. When applied to the Gums
When applied to the gums, care should be taken to use a leech glass, as they are apt to creep down the patient's throat: a large swan's quill will answer the purpose of a leech glass. When leeches are gorged they will drop off themselves; never tear them off from a person, but just dip the point of a moistened finger into some salt and touch them with it.
[ILL-NATURE SUCKS POISON FROM THE SWEETEST FLOWER.]
845. Quantity Removed.
Leeches are supposed to abstract about two drachms of blood, or six leeches draw about an ounce; but this is independent of the bleeding after they have come off, and more blood generally flows then than during the time they are sucking. The total amount of blood drawn and subsequently lost by each leech-bite, is nearly half an ounce.
846. After Leeches Come Away,
After leeches come away, encourage the bleeding by flannels dipped in hot water and wrung out dry, and then apply a warm spongiopiline poultice. If the bleeding is not to be encouraged, cover the bites with a rag dipped in olive oil, or spread with spermaceti ointment, having previously sponged the parts clean.
847. When Bleeding Continues
When bleeding continues from leech-bites, and it is desirable to stop it, apply pressure with the fingers over the part, or dip a rag in a strong solution of alum and lay over them, or use the tincture of sesquichloride of iron, or apply a leaf of matico to them, placing the under surface of the leaf next to the skin, or touch each bite with a finely-pointed piece of lunar caustic, or lay a piece of lint soaked in the extract of lead over the bites; and if all these tried in succession fail, pass a fine needle through a fold of the skin so as to include the bite, and twist a piece of thread round it. Be sure never to allow any one to go to sleep with leech-bites bleeding, without watching them carefully; and never apply too many to children; or place them where their bites can be compressed if necessary. In other words, never apply leeches to children except over a bone.
848. After Leeches have been Used
After leeches have been used they should be placed in water containing sixteen per cent. of salt, which facilitates the removal of the blood they contain; and they should afterwards be placed one by one in warm water, and the blood forced out by gentle pressure. The leeches should then be thrown into fresh water, which is to be renewed every twenty-four hours: they may then be re-applied after an interval of eight or ten days, and be disgorged a second time. The best plan, however, is to empty the leech by drawing the thumb and forefinger of the right hand along its body from the tail to the mouth, the leech being firmly held at the sucker extremity by the fingers of the left hand. By this means, with a few minutes' rest between each application, the same leech may be used four or five times in succession.
849. If a Leech be Accidentally Swallowed,
If a leech be accidentally swallowed, or by any means should get into the body, employ an emetic, or enema of salt and water.
Scarification is useful in severe contusions, and inflammation of parts. It is performed by scratching or slightly cutting through the skin with a lancet, holding the lancet as you would a pen when you are ruling lines on paper.
851. Terms used to express the Properties of Medicines.
Absorbents are medicines which destroy acidity in the stomach and bowels, such as magnesia, prepared chalk, &c.
Alteratives are medicines which restore health to the constitution, without producing any sensible effect, such as sarsaparilla, sulphur, &c.
Analeptics are medicines that restore the strength which has been lost by sickness, such as gentian, bark, &c.
Anodynes are medicines which relieve pain, and they are divided into three kinds, sedatives, hypnotics, and narcotics (see these terms); camphor is anodyne as well as narcotic.
Antacids are medicines which destroy acidity, such as lime, magnesia, soda, &c.
[ONE WATCH SET RIGHT WILL DO TO SET MANY BY.]
Antalkalies are medicines given to neutralize alkalies in the system, such as citric, nitric, and sulphuric, acids, &c.
Anthelmintics are medicines used to expel and destroy worms from the stomach and intestines, such as turpentine, cowhage, male fern, &c.
Antibilious are medicines which are useful in bilious affections, such as calomel, &c.
Antirheumatics are medicines used for the cure of rheumatism, such as colchicum, iodide of potash, &c.
Antiscorbutics are medicines against scurvy, such as citric acid, &c.
Antiseptics are substances used to correct putrefaction, such as bark, camphor, charcoal, vinegar, and creosote.
Antispasmodics are medicines which possess the power of overcoming spasms of the muscles, or allaying severe pain from any cause unconnected with inflammation, such as valerian, ammonia, opium, and camphor.
Aperients are medicines which move the bowels gently, such as rhubarb, manna, and grey powder.
Aromatics are cordial, spicy, and agreeably-flavoured, medicines, such as cardamoms, cinnamon, &c.
Astringents are medicines which contract the fibres of the body, diminish excessive discharges, and act indirectly as tonics, such as oak bark, galls, &c.
Attenuants are medicines which are supposed to thin the blood, such as ammoniated iron, &c.
Balsamics are medicines of a soothing kind, such as tolu, Peruvian balsam, &c.
Carminatives are medicines which allay pain in the stomach and bowels, and expel flatulence, such as aniseed water, &c.
Cathartics are strong purgative medicines, such as jalap, &c.
Cordials are exhilarating and warming medicines, such as aromatic confection, &c.
Corroborants are medicines and food which increase the strength, such as iron, gentian, meat, and wine.
Demulcents correct acrimony, diminish irritation, and soften parts by covering their surfaces with a mild and viscid matter, such as linseed-tea, gum, mucilage, honey, and marsh-mallow.
Deobstruents are medicines which remove obstructions, such as iodide of potash, &c.
Detergents clean the surfaces over which they pass, such as soap, &c.
Diaphoretics produce perspiration, such as tartrate of antimony, James's powder, and camphor.
Digestives are remedies applied to ulcers or wounds, to promote the formation of matter, such as resin, ointments, warm poultices, &c.
Discutients possess the power of repelling or resolving tumours, such as galbanum, mercury, and iodine.
Diuretics act upon the kidneys and bladder, and increase the flow of urine, such as nitre, squills, cantharides, camphor, antimony, and juniper.
Drastics are violent purgatives, such as gamboge, &c.
Emetics produce vomiting, or the discharge of the contents of the stomach, such as mustard and hot water, tartar-emetic, ipecacuanha, sulphate of zinc, and sulphate of copper.
Emmenagogues are medicines which exercise a direct action on the uterus or womb, provoking the natural periodical secretion, such as castor, asafoetida, galbanum, iron, mercury, aloes, hellebore, savine, ergot of rye, juniper, and pennyroyal.
Emollients are remedies used externally to soften the parts they are applied to, such as spermaceti, palm oil, &c.
Epispastics are medicines which blister or cause effusion of serum under the cuticle, such as Spanish flies, Burgundy pitch, rosin, and galbanum.
Errhines are medicines which produce sneezing, such as tobacco, &c.
Escharotics are medicines which corrode or destroy the vitality of the part to which they are applied, such as lunar caustic, &c.
[ONE THAT GOES WRONG MAY MISLEAD A WHOLE NEIGHBOURHOOD.]
Expectorants are medicines which increase expectoration, or the discharge from the bronchial tubes, such as ipecacuanha, squills, opium, ammoniacum.
Febrifuges are remedies used in fevers, such as all the antimonials, bark, quinine, mineral acids, arsenic.
Hydragogues are medicines which have the effect of removing the fluid of dropsy, by producing watery evacuations, such as gamboge, calomel, &c.
Hypnotics are medicines that relieve pain by procuring sleep, such as hops, henbane, morphia, poppy.
Laxatives are medicines which cause the bowels to act rather more than natural, such as manna, &c.
Narcotics are medicines which cause sleep or stupor, and allay pain, such as opium, &c.
Nutrients are remedies that nourish the body, such as sugar, sago, &c.
Paregorics are medicines which actually assuage pain, such as compound tincture of camphor, henbane, hops, opium.
Prophylactics are remedies employed to prevent the attack of any particular disease, such as quinine, &c.
Purgatives are medicines that promote the evacuation of the bowels, such as senna, aloes, jalap, salts.
Refrigerants are medicines which suppress an unusual heat of the body, such as wood-sorrel, tamarind, &c.
Rubefacients are medicaments which cause redness of the skin, such as mustard, &c.
Sedatives are medicines which depress the nervous energy, and destroy sensation, so as to compose, such as foxglove. (See Paregorics.)
Sialogogues are medicines which promote the flow of saliva or spittle, such as salt, calomel, &c.
Soporifics are medicines which induce sleep, such as hops, &c.
Stimulants are remedies which increase the action of the heart and arteries, or the energy of the part to which they are applied, such as food, wine, spirits, ether, sassafras, which is an internal stimulant, and savine, which is an external one.
Stomachics restore the tone of the stomach, such as gentian, &c.
Styptics are medicines which constrict the surface of a part, and prevent the effusion of blood, such as kino, Friar's balsam, extract of lead, and ice.
Sudorifics promote profuse perspiration or sweating, such as ipecacuanha, antimony, James's powder, ammonia.
Tonics give general strength to the constitution, restore the natural energies, and improve the tone of the system, such as all the vegetable bitters, most of the minerals, also some kinds of food, wine, and beer.
Vesicants are medicines which blister, such as strong liquid ammonia, &c.
908. Special Rules for the Prevention of Cholera.
i. It is impossible to urge too strongly the necessity, in all cases of cholera, of instant recourse to medical aid, and also in every form and variety of indisposition; for all disorders are found to merge in the dominant disease.
ii. Let immediate Relief be sought under disorder of the bowels especially, however slight. The invasion of cholera may thus be readily prevented.
iii. Let every Impurity, animal and vegetable, be quickly removed to a distance from the habitation, such as slaughterhouses, pig-sties, cesspools, necessaries, and all other domestic nuisances.
iv. Let all Uncovered Drains be carefully and frequently cleansed.
v. Let the Grounds in and around the habitation be drained, so as effectually to carry off moisture of every kind.
vi. Let all Partitions he removed from within and without habitations, which unnecessarily impede ventilation.
vii. Let every Room be daily thrown open for the admission of fresh air; this should be done about noon, when the atmosphere is most likely to be dry.
viii. Let Dry Scrubbing be used in domestic cleansing in place of water cleansing.
ix. Let excessive Fatigue, and exposure to damp and cold, especially during the night, be avoided.
x. Let the Use of Cold Drinks and acid liquors, especially under fatigue, be avoided, or when the body is heated.
xi. Let the Use of Cold Acid Fruits and vegetables be avoided.
xii. Let Excess in the use of ardent and fermented liquors and tobacco be avoided.
xiii. Let a Poor Diet, and the use of impure water in cooking, or for drinking, be avoided.
xiv. Let the Wearing of wet and insufficient clothes be avoided.
xv. Let a Flannel or woollen belt be worn round the belly.
xvi. Let Personal Cleanliness be carefully observed.
xvii. Let every cause tending to depress the moral and physical energies be carefully avoided. Let exposure to extremes of heat and cold be avoided.
xviii. Let Crowding of persons within houses and apartments be avoided.
xix. Let Sleeping in low or damp rooms be avoided.
xx. Let Fires be kept up during the night in sleeping or adjoining apartments, the night being the period of most danger from attack, especially under exposure to cold or damp.
xxi. Let all Bedding and clothing be daily exposed during winter and spring to the fire, and in summer to the heat of the sun.
xxii. Let the Dead be buried in places remote from the habitations of the living. By the timely adoption of simple means such as these, cholera, or other epidemic, will be made to lose its venom.
[THE LOVELIEST BIRD HAS NO SONG.]
909. Rules for the Preservation of Health.
910. Fresh Air.
Pure atmospheric air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and a very small proportion of carbonic acid gas. Air once breathed has lost the chief part of its oxygen, and acquired a proportionate increase of carbonic acid gas.
Therefore, health requires that we breathe the same air once only.
911. Diet and Exercise.
The solid part of our Bodies is continually wasting, and requires to be repaired by fresh substances.
Therefore, food which is to repair the loss, should be taken with due regard to the exercise and waste of the body.
The fluid part of our bodies also wastes constantly; there is but one fluid in animals, which is water.
Therefore, water only is necessary, and no artifice can produce a better drink.
913. Proportion of Food and Drink.
The fluid of our bodies is to the solid in proportion as nine to one.
Therefore, a like proportion should prevail in the total amount of food taken.
Light exercises an important influence upon the growth and vigour of animals and plants.
Therefore, our dwellings should freely admit the solar rays.
915. Bad Odours.
Decomposing animal and vegetable substances yield various noxious gases which enter the lungs and corrupt the blood.
Therefore, all impurities should be kept away from our abodes, and every precaution be observed to secure a pure atmosphere.
Warmth is essential to all the bodily functions.
Therefore, an equal bodily temperature should be maintained by exercise, by clothing, or by fire.
917. Exercise and Clothing.
Exercise warms, invigorates and purifies the body; clothing preserves the warmth the body generates; fire imparts warmth externally.
Therefore, to obtain and preserve warmth, exercise and clothing are preferable to fire.
Fire consumes the Oxygen of the air, and produces noxious gases.
Therefore, the air is less pure in the presence of candles, gas, or coal fire, than otherwise, and the deterioration should be repaired by increased ventilation.
[SO THE LOVELIEST WOMAN MAY LACK VIRTUE.]
919. Clean Skin.
The skin is a highly-organized membrane, full of minute pores, cells, bloodvessels, and nerves; it imbibes moisture or throws it off, according to the state of the atmosphere and the temperature of the body. It also "breathes," as do the lungs (though less actively). All the internal organs sympathize with the skin.
Therefore, it should be repeatedly cleansed.
Late hours and anxious pursuits exhaust the nervous system, and produce disease and premature death.
Therefore, the hours of labour and study should be short.
921. Body and Mind.
Mental and bodily exercise are equally essential to the general health and happiness.
Therefore, labour and study should succeed each other.
Man will live most healthily upon simple solids and fluids, of which a sufficient but temperate quantity should be taken.
Therefore, over indulgence in strong drinks, tobacco, snuff, opium, and all mere indulgences, should be avoided.
923. Moderate Temperature.
Sudden alternations of heat and cold are dangerous (especially to the young and the aged).
Therefore, clothing, in quantity and quality, should be adapted to the alternations of night and day, and of the seasons; and drinking cold water when the body is hot, and hot tea and soups when cold, are productive of many evils.