[PHOSPHORUS WAS DISCOVERED IN 1677.]
148. Valse Cellarius.
The gentleman takes the lady's left hand with his right, moving one bar to the left by glissade, and two hops on his left foot, while the lady does the same to the right, on her right foot; at the second bar they repeat the same with the other foot—this is repeated for sixteen bars; they then waltz sixteen bars, glissade and two hops, taking care to occupy the time of two bars to get quite round. The gentleman now takes both hands of the lady, and makes the grand square—moving three bars to his left—at the fourth bar making two beats while turning the angle; his right foot is now moved forward to the other angle three bars—at the fourth, beat again while turning the angle; the same repeated for sixteen bars—the lady having her right foot forward when the gentleman has his left toot forward; the waltz is again repeated; after which several other steps are introduced, but which must needs be seen to be understood.
149. Circular Waltz.
The dancers form a circle, then promenade during the introduction—all waltz sixteen bars—set, holding partner's right hand, and turn—waltz thirty-two bars—rest, and turn partners slowly—face partner and chassez to the right and left—pirouette lady twice with the right hand, all waltz sixteen bars—set and turn—all form a circle, still retaining the lady by the right hand, and move round to the left, sixteen bars—waltz for finale.
150. Polka Waltzes.
The couples take hold of hands as in the usual waltz.
First Waltz. The gentleman hops the left foot well forward, then hack; and glissades half round. He then hops the right foot forward and back, and glissades the other half round. The lady performs the same steps, beginning with the right foot.
Second. The gentleman, hopping, strikes the left heel three times against the right heel, and then jumps half round on the left foot; he then strikes the right heel three times against the left, and jumps on the right foot, completing the circle. The lady does the same steps with reverse feet.
Third. The gentleman raises up the left foot, steps it lightly on the ground forward, then strikes the right heel smartly twice, and glissades half round. The same is then done with the other foot. The lady begins with the right foot.
151. Valse a Deux Temps.
This waltz contains, like the common waltz, three times, but differently divided. The first time consists of a gliding step; the second a chassez, including two times in one. A chassez is performed by bringing one leg near the other, then moving it forward, backward, right, left, and round. The gentleman begins by sliding to the left with his left foot, then performing a chassez towards the left with his right foot without turning at all during the first two times. He then slides backwards with his right leg, turning half round; after which he puts his left leg behind, to perform a chassez forward, turning then half round for the second time. The lady waltzes in the same manner, except that the first time she slides to the right with the right foot, and also performs the chassez on the right, and continues the same as the gentleman, except that she slides backwards with her right foot when the gentleman slides with his left foot to the left; and when the gentleman slides with his right foot backwards, she slides with the left foot to the left. To perform this waltz gracefully, care must be taken to avoid jumping, but merely to slide, and keep the knees slightly bent.
[AVERAGE WEIGHT OF MAN'S BRAIN, 3-1/2LBS, WOMAN'S 2LBS. 11OZ.]
152. Circassian Circle.
The company is arranged in couples round the room—the ladies being placed on the right of the gentlemen,—after which, the first and second couples lead off the dance.
Figure. Eight and left, set and turn partners—ladies' chain, waltz.
At the conclusion, the first couple with fourth, and the second with the third couple, recommence the figure,—and so on until they go completely round the circle, when the dance is concluded.
In the polka there an but two principal steps, all others belong to fancy dances, and much mischief and inconvenience is likely to arise from their improper introduction into the ball-room.
First step. The gentleman raises the left foot slightly behind the right, the right foot is then hopped with, and the left brought forward with a glissade. The lady commences with the right, jumps on the left, and glissades with the right. The gentleman during his step has hold of the lady's left hand with his right.
Second step. The gentleman lightly hops the left foot forward on the heel, then hops on the toe, bringing the left foot slightly behind the right. He then glissades with the left foot forward; the same is then done, commencing with the right foot. The lady dances the same step, only beginning with the right foot.
There are a variety of other steps of a fancy character, but they can only be understood with the aid of a master, and even when well studied, must be introduced with care. The polka should be danced with grace and elegance, eschewing all outre and ungainly steps and gestures, taking care that the leg is not lifted too high, and that the dance is not commenced in too abrupt a manner. Any number of couples may stand up, and it is the privilege of the gentleman to form what figure he pleases, and vary it as often as his fancy and taste may dictate.
First Figure. Four or eight bars are devoted to setting forwards and backwards, turning from and towards your partner, making a slight hop at the commencement of each set, and holding your partner's left hand; you then perform the same step (forwards) all round the room.
Second Figure. The gentleman faces his partner, and does the same step backwards all round the room, the lady following with the opposite foot, and doing the step forwards.
Third Figure. The same as the second figure, only reversed, the lady stepping backwards, and the gentleman forwards, always going the same way round the room.
Fourth Figure. The same step as figures two and three, but turning as in a waltz.
[MAN'S HEART BEATS 92,160 TIMES IN A DAY.]
154. The Gorlitza
is similar to the polka, the figures being waltzed through.
155. The Schottische.
The gentleman holds the lady precisely as in the polka. Beginning with the left foot, he slides it forward, then brings up the right foot to the place of the left, slides the left foot forward, and springs or hops on this foot. This movement is repeated to the right. He begins with the right foot, slides it forward, brings up the left foot to the place of the right foot, slides the right foot forward again, and hops upon it. The gentleman springs twice on the left foot, turning half round; twice on the right foot; twice encore on the left foot, turning half round; and again twice on the right foot, turning half round. Beginning again, he proceeds as before. The lady begins with the right foot, and her step is the same in principle as the gentleman's. Vary, by a reverse turn; or by going in a straight line round the room. Double, if you like, each part, by giving four bars to the first part, and four bars to the second part. The time may be stated as precisely the same as in the polka; but let it not be forgotten that La Schottische ought to be danced much slower.
156. Country Dances. Sir Roger de Coverley.
First lady and bottom gentleman advance to centre, salute, and retire; first gentleman and bottom lady, same. First lady and bottom gentleman advance to centre, turn, and retire; first gentleman and bottom lady the same. Ladies promenade, turning off to the right down the room, and back to places, while gentlemen do the same, turning to the left; top couple remain at bottom; repeat to the end of dance.
157. La Polka Country Dances.
All form two lines, ladies on the right, gentlemen on the left.
Figure. Top lady and second gentleman heel and toe (polka step) across to each other's place—second lady and top gentleman the same. Top lady and second gentleman retire back to places—second lady and top gentleman the same. Two couples polka step down the middle and back again—two first couples polka waltz. First couple repeat with the third couple, then with fourth, and so on to the end of dance.
158. The Highland Reel.
This dance is performed by the company arranged in parties of three, along the room in the following manner: a lady between two gentlemen, in double rows. All advance and retire—each lady then performs the reel with the gentleman on her right hand, and retires with the opposite gentleman to places—hands three round and back again—all six advance and retire—then lead through to the next trio, and continue the figure to the end of the room. Adopt the Highland step, and music of three-four time.
159. Terms used to Describe the Movements of Dances.
Balancez.—Set to partners.
Chaine Anglaise.—The top and bottom couples right and left.
Chaine Anglaise double.—The right and left double.
Chaine des Dames.—The ladies' chain.
Chaine des Dames double.—The ladies' chain double, which is performed by all the ladies commencing at the same time.
Chassez.—Move to the right and left.
Chassez croisez.—Gentlemen change places with partners, and back again.
Demie Chaine Anglaise.—The four opposite persons half right and left.
Demie Promenade.—All eight half promenade.
Dos-a-dos.—The two opposite persons pass round each other.
Demie Moulinet.—The ladies all advance to the centre, giving hands, and return to places.
La Grande Chaine.—All eight chassez quite round, giving alternately right and left hands to partners, beginning with the right.
Le Grand Rond.—All join hands and advance and retire twice.
Pas d'Allemande.—The gentlemen turn the partners under their arms.
Traversez.—The two opposite persons change places.
Vis-a-vis.—The opposite partner.
[THE HUMAN BODY HAS 240 BONES.]
160. Scandal—Live it down.
Should envious tongues some malice frame, To soil and tarnish your good name, Live it down!
Grow not disheartened; 'tis the lot Of all men, whether good or not: Live it down!
*Him not in answer, but be calm; For silence yields a rapid balm: Live it down!
Go not among your friends and say, Evil hath fallen on my way: Live it down!
Far better thus yourself alone To suffer, than with friends bemoan The trouble that is all your own: Live it down!
What though men evil call your good! So CHRIST Himself, misunderstood, Was nailed unto a cross of wood! And now shall you for lesser pain, Your inmost soul for ever stain, By rendering evil back again? Live it down!
161. Errors in Speaking.
There are several kinds of errors in speaking. The most objectionable of them are those in which words are employed that are unsuitable to convey the meaning intended. Thus, a person wishing to express his intention of going to a given place, says, "I propose going," when, in fact, he purposes going. The following affords an amusing illustration of this class of error:—A venerable matron was speaking of her son, who, she said, was quite stage-struck. "In fact," remarked the old lady, "he is going to a premature performance this evening!" Considering that most amateur performances are premature, it cannot be said that this word was altogether misapplied; though, evidently, the maternal intention was to convey quite another meaning.
162. Other Errors
arise from the substitution of sounds similar to the words which should be employed; that is, spurious words instead of genuine ones. Thus, some people say "renumerative," when they mean "remunerative." A nurse, recommending her mistress to have a perambulator for her child, advised her to purchase a preamputator!
163. Other Errors (2)
are occasioned by imperfect knowledge of the English grammar: thus, many people say, "Between you and I," instead of "Between you and me." And there are numerous other departures from the rules of grammar, which will be pointed out hereafter.
164. By the Misuse of the Adjective:
"What beautiful butter!" "What a nice landscape!" They should say, "What a beautiful landscape!" "What nice butter!" Again, errors are frequently occasioned by the following causes:
165. By the Mispronunciation of Words.
Many persons say pronounciation instead of pronunciation; others say pro-nun'-she-a-shun, instead of pro-nun-ce-a-shun.
166. By the Misdivision of Words and syllables.
This defect makes the words an ambassador sound like a nam-bassador, or an adder like a nadder.
167. By Imperfect Enunciation,
as when a person says hebben for heaven, ebber for ever, jocholate for chocolate, &c.
168. By the Use of Provincialisms,
or words retained from various dialects, of which we give the following examples:
169. Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Suffolk, &c.
Foyne, twoyne, for fine, twine; ineet for night; a-mon for man; poo for pull.
170. Cumberland, Scotland, &c.
Cuil, bluid, for cool, blood; spwort, seworn, whoam, for sport, scorn, home; a-theere for there; e-reed, seeven, for red, seven; bleedin' for bleeding; hawf for half; saumon for salmon.
171. Devonshire, Cornwall, &c.
F-vind for find; fet for fetch; wid for with; zee for see; tudder for the other; drash, droo, for thrash, and through; gewse for goose, &c.
172. Essex, London, &c.
V-wiew for view; vent for went; vite for white; ven for when; vot for what. Londoners are also prone to say Toosday for Tuesday; noomerous for numerous; noospaper for newspaper, &c.
[THE MUSICAL SCALE WAS INVENTED IN 1022.]
173. Hereford, &c.:
Clom for climb; hove for heave; puck for pick; rep for reap; sled for sledge.
174. Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Lancashire, &c.
Housen for houses; a-ioyne for lane; mon for man; thik for this; brig for bridge; thack, pick, for thatch, pitch.
175. Yorkshire, &c.
Foyt for foot; foight for fight; o-noite, foil, coil, hoil, for note, foal, coal, hole; loyne for lane; o-nooin, gooise, fooil, tooil, for noon, goose, fool, tool; spwort, scworn, whoam, for sport, scorn, home; g-yet for gate.
176. Examples of Provincial Dialects.
The following will be found very amusing:
177. The Cornish Schoolboy.
An ould man found, one day, a young gentleman's portmantle, as he were a going to es dennar; he took'd et en and gived et to es wife, and said, "Mally, here's a roul of lither, look, see, I suppoase some poor ould shoemaker or other have los'en; tak'en, and put'en a top of the teaster of tha bed; he'll be glad to hab'en agin sum day, I dear say." The ould man, Jan, that was es neame, went to es work as before. Mally then opened the portmantle, and found en et three hunderd pounds. Soon after thes, the ould man not being very well, Mally said, "Jan, I'ave saaved away a little money, by the bye, and as thee caan't read or write, thee shu'st go to scool" (he were then nigh threescore and ten). He went but a very short time, and comed hoam one day and said, "Mally, I waint go to scool no more, 'caase the childer do be laffen at me: they can tell their letters, and I caan't tell my A, B, C, and I wud rayther go to work agen." "Do as thee wool," ses Mally. Jan had not been out many days, afore Vhe young gentleman came by that lost the portmantle, and said, "Well, my ould man, did'ee see or hear tell o' sich a thing as a portmantle?" "Port-mantle, sar, was't that un, sumthing like thickey?" (pointing to one behind es saddle). "I vound one the t'other day zackly like that." "Where es, et?" "Come along, I carr'd'en and gov'en to my ould 'ooman, Mally; thee sha't av'en, nevr vear.—Mally, where es that roul of lither I broft en tould thee to put en a top o' the teaster of the bed, afore I go'd to scool?" "Drat thee emperance," said the young gentleman; "thee art bewattled; that were afore I were born." So he druv'd off, and left all the three hunderd pounds with Jan and Mally.
Men an' women is like so monny cards, played wi' be two oppoanents, Time an' Eternity: Time gets a gam' noo an' then, and hez t' pleasure o' keepin' his cards for a bit, bud Eternity's be far t'better hand, an' proves, day be day, an' hoor be hoor, 'at he's winnin incalcalably fast.—"Hoo sweet, hoo varry sweet is life!" as t' fiee said when he wur stuck i' treacle!
179. Effect of Provincialisms
Persons bred in these localities, and in Ireland and Scotland, retain more or less of their provincialisms; and, therefore, when they move into other districts, they become conspicuous for their peculiarities of speech. Often they appear vulgar and uneducated, when they are not so. It is, therefore, desirable for all persons to approach the recognised standard of correctness as nearly as possible.
180. Correction of Errors in Speaking.
To correct these errors by a systematic course of study would involve a closer application than most persons could afford, and require more space than we can devote to the subject. We will therefore give numerous Rules and Hints, in a concise and simple form, which will be of great assistance to inquirers. These Rules and Hints will be founded upon the authority of scholars, the usages of the bar, the pulpit, and the senate, and the authority of societies formed for the purpose of collecting and diffusing knowledge pertaining to the language of this country.
[A SALMON NAS BEEN KNOWN TO PRODUCE 10,000,000 EGGS.]
181. Rules and Hints for Correct Speaking.
1. Who and whom are used in relation to persons, and which in relation to things. But it was once common to say, "the man which." This should now be avoided. It is now usual to say, "Our Father who art in heaven," instead of "which art in heaven."
2. Whose is, however, sometimes applied to things as well as to persons. We may therefore say, "The country whose inhabitants are free." Grammarians differ in opinion upon this subject, but general usage justifies the rule.
3. Thou is employed in solemn discourse, and you in common language. Ye (plural) is also used in serious addresses, and you in familiar language.
4. The uses of the word It are various, and very perplexing to the uneducated. It is not only used to imply persons, but things, and even, ideas, and therefore, in speaking or writing, its assistance is constantly required. The perplexity respecting this word arises from the fact that in using it in the construction of a long sentence, sufficient care is not taken to ensure that when it is employed it really points out or refers to the object intended. For instance, "It was raining when John set out in his cart to go to the market, and he was delayed so long that it was over before he arrived." Now what is to be understood by this sentence? Was the rain over? or the market? Either or both might be inferred from the construction of the sentence, which, therefore, should be written thus:—"It was raining when John set out in his cart to go to the market, and he was delayed so long that the market was over before he arrived."
5. Rule.—After writing a sentence always look through it, and see that wherever the word It is employed, it refers to or carries the mind back to the object which it is intended to point out.
6. The general distinction between This and That may be thus defined: this denotes an object present or near, in time or place, that something which is absent.
7. These refers, in the same manner, to present objects, while those refers to things that are remote.
8. Who changes, under certain conditions, into whose and whom. But that and which always remain the same.
9. That may be applied to nouns or subjects of all sorts; as, the girl that went to school, the dog that bit me, the ship that went to London, the opinion that he entertains.
10. The misuse of these pronouns gives rise to more errors in speaking and writing than any other cause.
11. When you wish to distinguish between two or more persons, say, "Which is the happy man?"—not who—"Which of those ladies do you admire?"
12. Instead of "Who do you think him to be?"—say, "Whom do you think him to be?"
13. Whom should I see?
14. To whom do you speak?
15. Who said so?
16. Who gave it to you?
17. Of whom did you procure them?
18. Who was he?
19. Who do men say that I am?
20. Whom do they represent me to be? 
21. In many instances in which who is used as an interrogative, it does not become whom; as "Who do you speak to?" "Who do you expect?" "Who is she married to?" "Who is this reserved for?" "Who was it made by?" Such sentences are found in the writings of our best authors, and it would be presumptuous to consider them as ungrammatical. If the word whom should be preferred, then it would be best to say, "For whom is this reserved?" &c.
22. Instead of "After which hour," say "After that hour."
23. Self should never be added to his, their, mine, or thine.
24. Each is used to denote every individual of a number.
25. Every denotes all the individuals of a number.
26. Either and or denote an alternative: "I will take either road, at your pleasure;" "I will take this or that."
27. Neither means not either; and nor means not the other.
28. Either is sometimes used for each—"Two thieves were crucified, on either side one."
29. "Let each esteem others as good as themselves," should be, "Let each esteem others as good as himself."
30. "There are bodies each of which are so small," should be, "each of which is so small."
31. Do not use double superlatives, such as most straightest, most highest, most finest.
32. The term worser has gone out of use; but lesser is still retained.
33. The use of such words as chiefest, extremest, &c., has become obsolete, because they do not give any superior force to the meanings of the primary words, chief, extreme, &c.
34. Such expressions as more impossible, more indispensable, more universal, more uncontrollable, more unlimited, &c., are objectionable, as they really enfeeble the meaning which it is the object of the speaker or writer to strengthen. For instance, impossible gains no strength by rendering it more impossible. This class of error is common with persons who say, "A great large house," "A great big animal," "A little small foot," "A tiny little hand."
35. Here, there, and where, originally denoting place, may now, by common consent, he used to denote other meanings; such as, "There I agree with you," "Where we differ," "We find pain where we expected pleasure," "Here you mistake me."
36. Hence, whence, and thence, denoting departure, &c., may be used without the word from. The idea of from is included in the word whence—therefore it is unnecessary to say "From whence."
37. Hither, thither, and whither, denoting to a place, have generally been superseded by here, there, and where. But there is no good reason why they should not be employed. If, however, they are used, it is unnecessary to add the word to, because that is implied—"Whither are you going?" "Where are you going?" Each of these sentences is complete. To say, "Where are you going to?" is redundant.
38. Two negatives destroy each other, and produce an affirmative. "Nor did he not observe them," conveys the idea that he did observe them.
39. But negative assertions are allowable. "His manners are not unpolite," which implies that his manners are, in some degree, marked by politeness.
40. Instead of "I had rather walk," say "I would rather walk."
41. Instead of "I had better go," say "It were better that I should go."
42. Instead of "I doubt not but I shall be able to go," say "I doubt not that I shall be able to go."
43. Instead of "Let you and I," say "Let you and me."
44. Instead of "I am not so tall as him," say "I am not so tall as he."
45. When asked "Who is there?" do not answer "Me," but "I."
46. Instead of "For you and I," say "For you and me."
47. Instead of "Says I," say "I said."
48. Instead of "You are taller than me," say "You are taller than I."
49. Instead of "I ain't," or "I arn't," say "I am not."
50. Instead of "Whether I be present or no," say "Whether I be present or not."
51. For "Not that I know on," say "Not that I know."
52. Instead of "Was I to do so," say "Were I to do so."
53. Instead of "I would do the same if I was him," say "I would do the same if I were he."
54. Instead of "I had as lief go myself," say "I would as soon go myself," or "I would rather."
55. It is better to say "Bred and born," than "Born and bred."
56. It is better to say "Six weeks ago," than "Six weeks back."
57. It is better to say "Since which time," than "Since when."
58. It is better to say "I repeated it," than "I said so over again."
59. It is better to say "A physician," or "A surgeon," than "A medical man."
60. Instead of "He was too young to have suffered much," say "He was too young to suffer much."
61. Instead of "Less friends," say "Fewer friends." Less refers to quantity.
62. Instead of "A quantity of people," say "A number of people."
63. Instead of "He and they we know," say "Him and them."
64. Instead of "As far as I can see," say "So far as I can see."
65. Instead of "If I am not mistaken," say "If I mistake not."
66. Instead of "You are mistaken," say "You mistake."
67. Instead of "What beautiful tea!" say "What good tea!"
68. Instead of "What a nice prospect!" say "What a beautiful prospect!"
69. Instead of "A new pair of gloves," say "A pair of new gloves."
70. Instead of saying "He belongs to the house," say "The house belongs to him."
71. Instead of saying "Not no such thing," say "Not any such thing."
72. Instead of "I hope you'll think nothing on it," say "I hope you'll think nothing of it."
73. Instead of "Restore it back to me," say "Restore it to me."
74. Instead of "I suspect the veracity of his story," say "I doubt the truth of his story."
75. Instead of "I seldom or ever see him," say "I seldom see him."
76. Instead of "Rather warmish" or "A little warmish," say "Rather warm."
77. Instead of "I expected to have found him," say "I expected to find him."
78. Instead of "Shay," say "Chaise."
79. Instead of "He is a very rising person," say "He is rising rapidly."
80. Instead of "Who learns you music?" say "Who teaches you music?"
81. Instead of "I never sing whenever I can help it," say "I never sing when I can help it."
82. Instead of "Before I do that I must first ask leave," say "Before I do that I must ask leave."
83. Instead of "To get over the difficulty," say "To overcome the difficulty."
84. The phrase "get over" is in many cases misapplied, as, to "get over a person," to "get over a week," to "get over an opposition."
85. Instead of saying "The observation of the rule," say "The observance of the rule."
86. Instead of "A man of eighty years of age," say "A man eighty years old."
87. Instead of "Here lays his honoured head," say "Here lies his honoured head."
88. Instead of "He died from negligence," say "He died through neglect," or "in consequence of neglect."
89. Instead of "Apples are plenty," say "Apples are plentiful."
90. Instead of "The latter end of the year," say "The end, or the close of the year."
91. Instead of "The then government," say "The government of that age, or century, or year, or time."
92. Instead of "For ought I know," say "For aught I know."
93. Instead of "A couple of chairs," say "Two chairs."
94. Instead of "Two couples," say "Four persons."
95. But you may say "A married couple," or, "A married pair," or, "A couple of fowls," &c., in any case where one of each sex is to be understood.
96. Instead of "They are united together in the bonds of matrimony," say "They are united in matrimony," or, "They are married."
97. Instead of "We travel slow," say "We travel slowly."
98. Instead of "He plunged down into the river," say "He plunged into the river."
99. Instead of "He jumped from off of the scaffolding," say "He jumped off from the scaffolding."
100. Instead of "He came the last of all," say "He came the last."
101. Instead of "universal," with reference to things that have any limit, say "general;" "generally approved," instead of "universally approved;" "generally beloved," instead of "universally beloved."
102. Instead of "They ruined one another," say "They ruined each other."
103. Instead of "If in case I succeed," say "If I succeed."
104. Instead of "A large enough room," say "A room large enough."
105. Instead of "This villa to let," say "This villa to be let."
106. Instead of "I am slight in comparison to you," say "I am slight in comparison with you."
107. Instead of "I went for to see him," say "I went to see him."
108. Instead of "The cake is all eat up," say "The cake is all eaten."
109. Instead of "It is bad at the best," say "It is very bad."
110. Instead of "Handsome is as handsome does," say "Handsome is who handsome does."
111. Instead of "As I take it," say "As I see," or, "As I under stand it."
112. Instead of "The book fell on the floor," say "The book fell to the floor."
113. Instead of "His opinions are approved of by all," say "His opinions are approved by all."
114. Instead of "I will add one more argument," say "I will add one argument more," or "another argument."
115. Instead of "Captain Reilly was killed by a bullet," say "Captain Reilly was killed with a bullet."
116. Instead of "A sad curse is war," say "War is a sad curse."
117. Instead of "He stands six foot high," say "He measures six feet," or "His height is six feet."
118. Instead of "I go every now and then," say "I go often, or frequently."
119. Instead of "Who finds him in clothes," say "Who provides him with clothes."
120. Say "The first two," and "the last two," instead of "the two first," "the two last;" leave out all expletives, such as "of all," "first of all," "last of all," "best of all," &c., &c.
121. Instead of "His health was drank with enthusiasm," say "His health was drunk enthusiastically."
122. Instead of "Except I am prevented," say "Unless I am prevented."
123. Instead of "In its primary sense," say "In its primitive sense."
124. Instead of "It grieves me to see you," say "I am grieved to see you."
125. Instead of "Give me them papers," say "Give me those papers."
126. Instead of "Those papers I hold in my hand," say "These papers I hold in my hand."
127. Instead of "I could scarcely imagine but what," say "I could scarcely imagine but that."
128. Instead of "He was a man notorious for his benevolence," say "He was noted for his benevolence."
129. Instead of "She was a woman celebrated for her crimes," say "She was notorious on account of her crimes."
130. Instead of "What may your name be?" say "What is your name?"
131. Instead of "Bills are requested not to be stuck here," say "Billstickers are requested not to stick bills here."
132. Instead of "By smoking it often becomes habitual," say "By smoking often it becomes habitual."
133. Instead of "I lifted it up," say "I lifted it."
134. Instead of "It is equally of the same value," say "It is of the same value," or "equal value."
135. Instead of "I knew it previous to your telling me," say "I knew it previously to your telling me."
136. Instead of "You was out when I called," say "You were out when I called."
137. Instead of "I thought I should have won this game," say "I thought I should win this game."
138. Instead of "This much is certain," say "Thus much is certain," or, "So much is certain."
139. Instead of "He went away as it may be yesterday week," say "He went away yesterday week."
140. Instead of "He came the Saturday as it may be before the Monday," specify the Monday on which he came.
141. Instead of "Put your watch in your pocket," say "Put your watch into your pocket."
142. Instead of "He has got riches," say "He has riches."
143. Instead of "Will you set down?" say "Will you sit down?"
144. Instead of "The hen is setting," say "The hen is sitting."
145. Instead of "It is raining very hard," say "It is raining very fast."
146. Instead of "No thankee," say "No thank you."
147. Instead of "I cannot do it without farther means," say "I cannot do it without further means."
148. Instead of "No sooner but," or "No other but," say "than."
149. Instead of "Nobody else but her," say "Nobody but her."
150. Instead of "He fell down from the balloon," say "He fell from the balloon."
151. Instead of "He rose up from the ground," say "He rose from the ground."
152. Instead of "These kind of oranges are not good," say "This kind of oranges is not good."
153. Instead of "Somehow or another," say "Somehow or other."
154. Instead of "Undeniable references required," say "Unexceptionable references required."
155. Instead of "I cannot rise sufficient funds," say "I cannot raise sufficient funds."
156. Instead of "I cannot raise so early in the morning," say "I cannot rise so early in the morning."
157. Instead of "Well, I don't know," say "I don't know."
158. Instead of "Will I give you some more tea?" say "Shall I give you some more tea?"
159. Instead of "Oh dear, what will I do?" say "Oh dear, what shall I do?"
160. Instead of "I think indifferent of it," say "I think indifferently of it."
161. Instead of "I will send it conformable to your orders," say "I will send it conformably to your orders."
162. Instead of "Give me a few broth," say "Give me some broth."
163. Instead of "Her said it was hers," say "She said it was hers."
164. Instead of "To be given away gratis," say "To be given away."
165. Instead of "Will you enter in?" say "Will you enter?"
166. Instead of "This three days or more," say "These three days or more."
167. Instead of "He is a bad grammarian," say "He is not a grammarian."
168. Instead of "We accuse him for," say "We accuse him of."
169. Instead of "We acquit him from," say "We acquit him of."
170. Instead of "I am averse from that," say "I am averse to that."
171. Instead of "I confide on you," say "I confide in you."
172. Instead of "I differ with you," say "I differ from you."
173. Instead of "As soon as ever," say "As soon as."
174. Instead of "The very best" or "The very worst," say "The best or the worst."
175. Instead of "A winter's morning," say "A winter morning," or "A wintry morning."
176. Instead of "Fine morning, this morning," say "This is a fine morning."
177. Instead of "How do you do?" say "How are you?"
178. Instead of "Not so well as I could wish," say "Not quite well."
179. Avoid such phrases as "No great shakes," "Nothing to boast of," "Down in my boots," "Suffering from the blues." All such sentences indicate vulgarity.
180. Instead of "No one cannot prevail upon him," say "No one can prevail upon him."
181. Instead of "No one hasn't called," say "No one has called."
182. Avoid such phrases as "If I was you," or even, "If I were you." Better say, "I advise you how to act."
183. Instead of "You have a right to pay me," say "It is right that you should pay me."
184. Instead of "I am going on a tour," say "I am about to take a tour," or "going."
185. Instead of "I am going over the bridge," say "I am going across the bridge."
186. Instead of "He is coming here," say "He is coming hither."
187. Instead of "He lives opposite the square," say "He lives opposite to the square."
188. Instead of "He belongs to the Reform Club," say "He is a member of the Reform Club."
189. Avoid such phrases as "I am up to you," "I'll be down upon you," "Cut," or "Mizzle."
190. Instead of "I should just think I could," say "I think I can."
191. Instead of "There has been a good deal," say "There has been much."
192. Instead of "Following up a principle," say "Guided by a principle."
193. Instead of "Your obedient, humble servant," say "Your obedient," or, "Your humble servant."
194. Instead of saying "The effort you are making for meeting the bill," say "The effort you are making to meet the bill."
195. Instead of saying "It shall be submitted to investigation and inquiry," say "It shall be submitted to investigation," or "to inquiry."
196. Dispense with the phrase "Conceal from themselves the fact;" it suggests a gross anomaly.
197. Never say "Pure and unadulterated," because the phrase embodies a repetition.
198. Instead of saying "Adequate for," say "Adequate to."
199. Instead of saying "A surplus over and above," say "A surplus."
200. Instead of saying "A lasting and permanent peace," say "A permanent peace."
201. Instead of saying "I left you behind at London," say "I left you behind me at London."
202. Instead of saying "Has been followed by immediate dismissal," say "Was followed by immediate dismissal."
203. Instead of saying "Charlotte was met with Thomas," say "Charlotte was met by Thomas." But if Charlotte and Thomas were walking together, "Charlotte and Thomas were met by," &c.
204. Instead of "It is strange that no author should never have written," say "It is strange that no author should ever have written."
205. Instead of "I won't never write," say "I will never write."
206. To say "Do not give him no more of your money," is equivalent to saying "Give him some of your money." Say "Do not give him any of your money."
207. Instead of saying "They are not what nature designed them," say "They are not what nature designed them to be."
208. Instead of "By this means," say "By these means."
209. Instead of saying "A beautiful seat and gardens," say "A beautiful seat and its gardens."
210. Instead of "All that was wanting," say "All that was wanted."
211. Instead of saying "I had not the pleasure of hearing his sentiments when I wrote that letter," say "I had not the pleasure of having heard," &c.
212. Instead of "The quality of the apples were good," say "The quality of the apples was good."
213. Instead of "The want of learning, courage, and energy are more visible," say "Is more visible."
214. Instead of "We are conversant about it," say "We are conversant with it."
215. Instead of "We called at William," say "We called on William."
216. Instead of "We die for want," say "We die of want."
217. Instead of "He died by fever," say "He died of fever."
218. Instead of "I enjoy bad health," say "My health is not good."
219. Instead of "Either of the three," say "Any one of the three."
220. Instead of "Better nor that," say "Better than that."
221. Instead of "We often think on you," say "We often think of you."
222. Instead of "Though he came, I did not see him," say "Though he came, yet I did not see him."
223. Instead of "Mine is so good as yours," say "Mine is as good as yours."
224. Instead of "He was remarkable handsome," say "He was remarkably handsome."
225. Instead of "Smoke ascends up the chimney," I say "Smoke ascends the chimney."
226. Instead of "You will some day be convinced," say "You will one day be convinced."
227. Instead of saying "Because I don't choose to," say "Because I would rather not."
228. Instead of "Because why?" say "Why?"
229. Instead of "That there boy," say "That boy."
230. Instead of "Direct your letter to me," say "Address your letter to me."
231. Instead of "The horse is not much worth," say "The horse is not worth much."
232. Instead of "The subject-matter of debate," say "The subject of debate."
233. Instead of saying "When he was come back," say "When he had come back."
234. Instead of saying "His health has been shook," say "His health has been shaken."
235. Instead of "It was spoke in my presence," say "It was spoken in my presence."
236. Instead of "Very right," or "Very wrong," say "Right," or "Wrong."
237. Instead of "The mortgager paid him the money," say "The mortgagee paid him the money." The mortgagee lends; the mortgager borrows.
238. Instead of "This town is not as large as we thought," say "This town is not so large as we thought."
239. Instead of "I took you to be another person," say "I mistook you for another person."
240. Instead of "On either side of the river," say "On each side of the river."
241. Instead of "There's fifty," say "There are fifty."
242. Instead of "The best of the two," say "The better of the two."
243. Instead of "My clothes have become too small for me," say "I have grown too stout for my clothes."
244. Instead of "Is Lord Lytton in?" say "Is Lord Lytton within?"
245. Instead of "Two spoonsful of physic," say "Two spoonfuls of physic."
246. Instead of "He must not do it." say "He need not do it."
247. Instead of "She said, says she," say "She said."
248. Avoid such phrases as "I said, says I," "Thinks I to myself, thinks I," &c.
249. Instead of "I don't think so," say "I think not."
250. Instead of "He was in eminent danger," say "He was in imminent danger."
251. Instead of "The weather is hot," say "The weather is very warm."
252. Instead of "I sweat," say "I perspire."
253. Instead of "I only want two shillings," say "I want only two shillings."
254. Instead of "Whatsomever," always take care to say "Whatever," or "Whatsoever."
255. Avoid such exclamations as "God bless me!" "God deliver me!" "By God!" "By Gor'!" "My Lor'!" "Upon my soul," &c., which are vulgar on the one hand, and savour of impiety on the other, for:
256. "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain."
[Footnote 1: Persons who wish to become well acquainted with the principles of 'English Grammar' by an easy process, are recommended to procure "The Useful Grammar," price 3d., published by Houlston and Sons.]
[SOME FEMALE SPIDERS PRODUCE 2,000 EGGS.]
Accent is a particular stress or force of the voice upon certain syllables or words. This mark ' in printing denotes the syllable upon which the stress or force of the voice should he placed.
[THERE ARE 9,000 CELLS IN A SQUARE FOOT OF HONEYCOMB.]
183. A Word may have more than One Accent.
Take as an instance aspiration. In uttering this word we give a marked emphasis of the voice upon the first and third syllables, and therefore those syllables are said to be accented. The first of these accents is less distinguishable than the second, upon which we dwell longer, therefore the second accent in point of order is called the primary, or chief accent of the word.
[A COW CONSUMES 100 LBS. OF GREEN FOOD DAILY.]
184. When the full Accent falls on a Vowel,
that vowel should have a long sound, as in vo'cal; but when I it, falls on or after a consonant, the preceding vowel has a short sound, as in hab'it.
[2,300 SILKWORMS PRODUCE 1LB OF SILK.]
185. To obtain a Good Knowledge of Pronunciation,
it is advisable for the reader to listen to the examples given by good speakers, and by educated persons. We learn the pronunciation of words, to a great extent, by imitation, just as birds acquire the notes of other birds which may be near them.
[A QUEEN BEE PRODUCES 100,000 EGGS IN A SEASON.]
186. Double Meaning.
But it will be very important to bear in mind that there are many words having a double meaning or application, and that the difference of meaning is indicated by the difference of the accent. Among these words, nouns are distinguished from verbs by this means: nouns are mostly accented on the first syllable, and verbs on the last.
[A COW YIELDS 168 LBS. OF BUTTER PER ANNUM.]
187. Noun signifies Name;
Nouns are the names of persons and things, as well as of things not material and palpable, but of which we have a conception and knowledge, such as courage, firmness, goodness, strength; and verbs express actions, movements, &c. If the word used signifies that anything has been done, or is being done, or is, or is to be done, then that word is a verb.
[IT WOULD TAKE 27,600 SPIDERS TO PRODUCE 1 LB. OF WEB.]
188. Examples of the above.
Thus when we say that anything is "an in'sult," that word is a noun, and is accented on the first syllable; but when we say he did it "to insult' another person," the word insult' implies acting, and becomes a verb, and should be accented on the last syllable. The effect is, that, in speaking, you should employ a different pronunciation in the use of the same word, when uttering such sentences as these:—"What an in'sult!" "Do you mean to insult' me?" In the first sentence the stress of voice must be laid upon the first syllable, in', and in the latter case upon the second syllable, sult'.
189. Meaning varied by Accentuation.
A list of nearly all the words that are liable to this variation is given in the following page. It will be noticed that those in the first column, having the accent on the first syllable, are mostly nouns; and that those in the second column, which have the accent on the second and final syllable, are mostly verbs:
Noun, &c. Verb, &c. Noun, &c. Verb, &c. Noun, &c. Verb, &c. - Ab'ject abject' Con'trast contrast' In'lay inlay' Ab'sent absent' Con'verse converse' In'sult insult' Ab'stract abstract' Con'vert convert' Ob'ject object' Ac'cent accent' Con'vict convict' Out'leap outleap' Affix affix' Con'voy convoy' Per'fect perfect' As'pect aspect' De'crease decrease' Per'fume perfume' At'tribute attribute' Des'cant descant' Per'mit permit' Aug'ment augment' Des'ert desert' Pre'fix prefix' Au'gust august' De'tail detail' Pre'mise premise' Bom'bard bombard' Di'gest digest' Pre'sage presage' Col'league colleague' Dis'cord discord' Pres'ent present' Col'lect collect' Dis'count discount' Prod'uce produce' Com'ment comment' Ef'flux efflux' Proj'ect project' Com'pact compact' Es'cort escort' Prot'est protest' Com'plot complot' Es'say essay' Reb'el rebel' Com'port comport' Ex'ile exile' Rec'ord record' Com'pound compound' Ex'port export' Ref'use refuse' Com'press compress' Ex'tract extract' Re'tail retail' Con'cert concert' Fer'ment ferment' Sub'ject subject' Con'crete concrete' Fore'cast forecast' Su'pine supine' Con'duct conduct' Fore'taste foretaste' Sur'vey survey' Con fine confine' Fre'quent frequent' Tor'ment torment' Con'flict conflict' Im'part impart' Tra'ject traject' Con'serve conserve' Im'port import' Trans'fer transfer' Con'sort consort' Im'press impress' Trans'port transport' Con'test contest' Im'print imprint' Un'dress undress' Con'text context' In'cense incense' Up'cast upcast' Con'tract contract' In'crease increase' Up'start upstart'
Cement' is an Exception to the above rule, and should always be accented on the last syllable. So also the word Consols'.
191. Hints to "Cockney Speakers."
The most objectionable error of the Cockney, that of substituting the v for the w, and vice versa, is, we believe, pretty generally abandoned. Such sentences as "Are you going to Vest Vickkam?" "This is wery good weal," &c., were too intolerable to be retained. Moreover, there has been a very able schoolmaster at work during the past forty years. This schoolmaster is no other than the loquacious Mr. Punch, from whose works we quote a few admirable exercises:
i. Low Cockney.—"Seen that party lately?" "What! the party with the wooden leg, as come with—" "No, no—not that party. The party, you know, as—" "Oh! ah! I know the party you mean, now." "Well, a party told me as he can't agree with that other party, and he says that if another party can't be found to make it all square, he shall look out for a party as will."—(And so on for half an hour.)
ii. Police.—"Lor, Soosan, how's a feller to eat meat such weather as this! Now, a bit o' pickled salmon and cowcumber, or a lobster salid, might do."
iii. Cockney Yachtsman.—(Example of affectation.) Scene: the Regatta Ball.—"I say, Tom, what's that little craft with the black velvet flying at the fore, close under the lee scuppers of the man-of-war?" "Why, from her fore-and-aft rig, and the cut of her mainsail, I should say she's down from the port of London; but I'll signal the commodore to come and introduce us!"
iv. Omnibus Driver.—Old acquaintance. "'Ave a drop, Bill?" Driver. "Why, yer see, Jim, this 'ere young hoss has only been in 'arness once afore, and he's such a beggar to bolt, ten to one if I leave 'im he'll be a-runnin' hoff, and a smashin' into suthun. Howsoever—here—(handing reins to a timid passenger)—lay hold, sir, I'LL CHANCE IT!"
v. Costermonger (to extremely genteel person).—"I say, guv'ner, give us a hist with this 'ere bilin' o' greens!" (A large hamper of market stuff.)
vi. Genteel Cockney (by the seaside).—Blanche. "How grand, how solemn, dear Frederick, this is! I really think the ocean is more beautiful under this aspect than under any other!" Frederick.—"H'm—ah! Per-waps. By the way, Blanche, there's a fella shwimping. S'pose we ask him if he can get us some pwawns for breakfast to-mowaw mawning?"
vii. Stuck-up Cockney.—(Small Swell enters a tailor's shop.) "A—Brown, A—want some more coats!" Snip. "Yes, sir. Thank you, sir. How many would you please to want?" Small Swell. "A—let me see; A—ll have eight. A—no, I'll have nine; and look here! A—shall want some trousers." Snip. "Yes, sir, thank you, sir. How many would you like?" Small Swell.—"A—don't know exactly. S'pose we say twenty-four pairs; and look here! Show me some patterns that won't be worn by any snobs!"
viii. Cockney Flunkey,—(Country Footman meekly inquires of London Footman)—"Pray, sir, what do you think of our town? A nice place, ain't it" London Footman (condescendingly). "Vell, Joseph, I likes your town well enough. It's clean: your streets are hairy; and you have lots of rewins. But I don't like your champagne, it's all gewsberry!"
ix Cockney Cabby (with politeness).—"Beg pardon, sir; please don't smoke in the keb. sir; ladies do complain o' the 'bacca uncommon. Better let me smoke it for yer outside, sir!"
x. Military Cockney.—Lieutenant Blazer (of the Plungers).—"Gwood gwacious! Here's a howible go! The ifan [? word not legible] v's going to gwow a moustache! Cornet Huffey (whose face is whiskerless). "Yaw don't mean that! Wall! there's only one alternative for us. We must shave!"
xi. Juvenile Low Cockney.—"Jack; Whereabouts is Amstid-am?" Jack. "Well, I can't say exackerley, but I know it's somewhere near 'Ampstid-'eath!"
xii. Cockney Domestic.—Servant girl—"Well, mam—Heverythink considered, I'm afraid you won't suit me. I've always bin brought up genteel: and I couldn't go nowheres where there ain't no footman kep'."
xiii. Another.—Lady. "Wish to leave! why, I thought, Thompson, you were very comfortable with me!" Thompson (who is extremely refined). "Ho yes, mum! I don't find no fault with you, mum—nor yet with master—but the truth his, mum—the hother servants is so orrid vulgar and hignorant, and speaks so hungrammaticai, that I reely cannot live in the same 'ouse with 'em—and I should like to go this day month, if so be has it won't illconvenience you!"
xiv. Cockney "Waiter.—"'Am, sir? Yessir? Don't take anything with your 'am, do you, sir?" Gentleman. "Yes, I do; I take the letter H!"
xv. Cockney Hairdresser.—"They say, sir, the cholera is in the Hair, sir!" Gent (very uneasy). "Indeed! Ahem! Then I hope you're very particular about the brushes you use." Hairdresser. "Oh, I see you don't nunderstand me, sir; I don't mean the 'air of the 'ed, but the hair hof the hatmosphere?"
xvi. Cockney Sweep (seated upon a donkey).—"Fitch us out another penn'orth o' strawberry hice, with a dollop o' lemon water in it."
xvii. Feminine Cookney (by the sea-side.)—"Oh, Harriet, dear, put on your hat and let us thee the stheamboat come in. The thea is tho rough!—and the people will be tho abthurdly thick!"
[ALUM FIRST DISCOVERED A.D. 1300.]
Londoners who desire to correct the defects of their utterance cannot do better than to exercise themselves frequently upon those words respecting which they have been in error.
193. Hints for the Correction of the Irish Brogue.
According to the directions given by Mr. B. H. Smart, an Irishman wishing to throw off the brogue of his mother country should avoid hurling out his words with a superfluous quantity of breath. It is not broadher and widher that he should say, but the d, and every other consonant, should be neatly delivered by the tongue, with as little riot, clattering, or breathing as possible. Next let him drop the roughness or rolling of the r in all places but the beginning of syllables; he must not say stor-rum and far-rum, but let the word be heard in one smooth syllable. He should exercise himself until he can convert plaze into please, planty into plenty, Jasus into Jesus, and so on. He should modulate his sentences, so as to avoid directing his accent all in one manner—from the acute to the grave. Keeping his ear on the watch for good examples, and exercising himself frequently upon them, he may become master of a greatly improved utterance.
[TEA FIRST USED IN ENGLAND A.D. 1698.]
194. Hints for Correcting the Scotch Brogue.
The same authority remarks that as an Irishman uses the closing accent of the voice too much, so a Scotchman has the contrary habit, and is continually drawling his tones from the grave to the acute, with an effect which, to southern ears, is suspensive in character. The smooth guttural r is as little heard in Scotland as in Ireland, the trilled r taking its place. The substitution of the former instead of the latter must be a matter of practice. The peculiar sound of the u, which in the north so of ten borders on the French u, must be compared with the several sounds of the letter as they are heard in the south; and the long quality which a Scotchman is apt to give to the vowels that ought to be essentially short, must he clipped. In fact, aural observation and lingual exercise are the only sure means to the end; so that a Scotchman going to a well for a bucket of water, and finding a countryman bathing therein, would not exclaim, "Hey, Colin, dinna ye ken the water's for drink, and nae for bathin'?"
195. Of Provincial Brogues
it is scarcely necessary to say much, as the foregoing advice applies to them. One militiaman exclaimed to another, "Jim, you hain't in step" "Bain't I?" exclaimed the other; "well, change yourn!" Whoever desires knowledge must strive for it. It must not be dispensed with after the fashion of Tummus and Jim, who held the following dialogue upon a vital question:—Tummus. "I zay, Jim, be you a purtectionist?" Jim. "E'as I be." Tummus. "Wall, I zay, Jim, what be purtection?" Jim. "Loa'r, Tummus, doan't 'ee knaw?" Tummus. "Naw, I doan't." Jim. "Wall, I doan't knaw as can tell 'ee, Tummus, vur I doan't exakerly knaw mysel'!"
196. Rules of Pronunciation.
i. C before a, o, and u, and in some other situations, is a close articulation, like k. Before e, i, and y, c is precisely equivalent to s in same, this; as in cedar, civil, cypress, capacity.
ii. E final indicates that the preceding vowel is long; as in hate, mete, sire, robe, lyre, abate, recede, invite, remote, intrude.
iii. E final indicates that c preceding has the sound of s; as in lace, lance; and that g preceding has the sound of j, as in charge, page, challenge.
iv. E final, in proper English words, never forms a syllable, and in the most-used words, in the terminating unaccented syllable it is silent. Thus, motive, genuine, examine, granite, are pronounced motiv, genuin, examin, granit.
v. E final, in a few words of foreign origin, forms a syllable; as syncope, simile.
vi. E final is silent after l in the following terminations,—ble, cle, dle, fle, gle, kle, ple, tle, zle; as in able, manacle, cradle, ruffle, mangle, wrinkle, supple, rattle, puzzle, which are pronounced a'bl, mana'cl, cra'dl, ruf'fl man'gl, wrin'kl, sup'pl, puz'zl.
vii. E is usually silent in the termination en; as in token, broken; pronounced tokn, brokn.
viii. OUS, in the termination of adjectives and their derivatives, is pronounced us; as in gracious, pious, pompously.
ix. CE, CI, TI before a vowel, have the sound of sh; as in cetaceous, gracious, motion, partial, ingratiate; pronounced cetashus, grashus, moshun, parshal, ingrashiate.
x. SI, after an accented vowel, is pronounced like zh; as in Ephesian, confusion; pronounced Ephezhan, confuzhon
xi. When CI or TI precede similar combinations, as in pronunciation, negotiation, they should be pronounced ze instead of she, to prevent a repetition of the latter syllable; as pronunceashon instead of pronunsheashon.
xii. GH, both in the middle and at the end of words ia silent; as in caught, bought, fright, nigh, sigh; pronounced caut, baut, frite, ni, si. In the following exceptions, however, gh are pronounced as f:—cough, chough, clough, enough, laugh, rough, slough, tough, trough.
xiii. When WH begins a word, the aspirate h precedes w in pronunciation; as in what, whiff, whale; pronounced hwat, hwiff, hwale, w having precisely the sound of oo, French ou. In the following words w is silent:—who, whom, whose, whoop, whole.
xiv. H after r has no sound or use; as in rheum, rhyme; pronounced reum, ryme.
xv. H should be sounded in the middle of words; as in forehead, abhor, behold, exhaust, inhabit, unhorse.
xvi. H should always be sounded except in the following words:—heir, herb, honest, honour, hospital, hostler, hour, humour, and humble, and all their derivatives,—such as humorously, derived from humour.
xvii. K and G are silent before n; as know, gnaw; pronounced no, naw.
xviii. W before r is silent; as in wring, wreath; pronounced ring, reath.
xix. B after m is silent; as in dumb, numb; pronounced dum, num.
xx. L before k is silent; as in balk, walk, talk; pronounced bauk, wauk, tauk.
xxi. PH has the sound of f; as in philosophy; pronounced filosofy.
xxii. NG has two sounds, one as in anger, the other as in fin-ger. **
xxiii. N after m, and closing a syllable, is silent; as in hymn, condemn.
xxiv. P before s and t is mute; as in psalm, pseudo, ptarmigan; pronounced sarm, sudo, tarmigan.
xxv. R, has two sounds, one strong and vibrating, as at the beginning of words and syllables, such as robber, reckon, error; the other as at the terminations of words, or when succeeded by a consonant, as farmer, morn.
xxvi. Before the letter R, there is a slight sound of e between the vowel and the consonant. Thus, bare, parent, apparent, mere, mire, more, pure, pyre, are pronounced nearly baer, paerent, appaerent, me-er,mier, moer,puer, pyer. This pronunciation proceeds from the peculiar articulation of r, and it occasions a slight change of the sound of a, which can only be learned by the ear.
xxvii. There are other rules of pronunciation affecting the combinations of vowels, &c.; but as they are more difficult to describe, and as they do not relate to errors which are commonly prevalent, we shall content ourselves with giving examples of them in the following list of words. When, a syllable in any word in this list is printed in italics [like this], the accent or stress of voice should be laid on that syllable.
[AUCTIONS COMMENCED IN BRITAIN IN A.D. 1779.]
197. Proper Pronunciations of Words often Wrongly Pronounced.
Again, usually pronounced a-gen, not as spelled.
Alien, a-li-en not ale-yen.
Apostle, as a-pos'l, without the t.
Arch, artch in compounds of our own language, as in archbishop, archduke; but ark in words derived from the Greek, as archaic, ar-ka-ik; archaeology, ar-ke-ol-o-gy; archangel, ark-ain-gel; archetype, ar-ke-type; archiepiscopal, ar-ke-e-pis-co-pal; archipelago, ar-ke-pel-a-go; ar-chives, ar-kivz, &c.
Asparagus as spelled, not asparagrass.
Aunt, ant, not aunt.
Awkward, awk-wurd, not awk-urd.
Because, be-cawz, not ba-cos
Beloved, as a verb, be-luvd; as an adjective, be-luv-ed. Blessed, cursed, &c., are subject to the same rule.
Beneath, with the th in breath, not with the th in breathe.
Biog'raphy, as spelled, not beography.
Buoy, boy, not bwoy.
Canal', as spelled, not ca-nel.
Catch, as spelled, not ketch.
Chemistry, kem'-is-tre, not kim-is-tre.
Corps, kor: the plural corps is pronounced korz.
Covetous, cuv-e-tus, not cov-e-tus.
Courtesy (politeness), cur-te-sey.
Courtesy (a lowering of the body), curt-sey.
Cresses, as spelled, not cree-ses.
Cu'riosity, cu-re-os-e-ty, not curosity.
Cushion, coosh-un, not coosh-in.
Daunt, dawnt, not dant or darnt, as some erroneously pronounce it.
Design and desist have the sound of s, not of z.
Desire should have the sound of z.
Despatch, de-spatch, not dis-patch.
Dew, due, not doo.
Diamond, as spelled, not dimond.
Diploma, de-plo-ma, not dip-lo-ma.
Diplomacy, de-plo-ma-cy, not dip-lo-ma-cy.
Direct, de-reckt, not di-rect.
Divers (several), di-verz; but diverse (different), di-verse.
Dome, as spelled, not doom.
Drought, drowt, not drawt.
Duke, as spelled, not dook.
Dynasty, dyn-as-te, not dy-nas-ty.
Edict, e-dickt, not ed-ickt.
E'en and e'er, een and air.
Egotism, eg-o-tizm, not e-go-tism.
Either, e-ther or i-ther.
Engine, en-jin, not in-jin.
Ensign, en-sign; ensigncy, en-sin-se.
Epistle, without the t.
Epoch, e-pock, not ep-ock.
Equinox, e-qui-nox, not eck-wi-nox.
Europe, U-rope, not U-rup. Euro-pean not Eu-ro-pean.
Every, ev-er-y, not ev-ry.
Executor, egz-ec-utor, not with the sound of x.
Extraordinary, as spelled, not ex-tror—di ner-i, or ex-traordinary, nor extrornarey
February, as spelled, not Febuary.
Finance, fe-nance, not finance.
Foundling, as spelled, not fond-ling.
Garden, gar-dn, not gar-den, nor gard-ing.
Gauntlet, gawnt-let, not gant-let.
Geography, as spelled, not jography, or gehography.
Geometry, as spelled, not jom-etry.
Haunt, hawnt, not hant.
Height, hite, not highth.
Heinous, hay-nuss, not hee-nus.
Highland, hi-land, not hee-land.
Horizon, ho-ri-zn, not hor-i-zon.
Housewife, pronounced in the ordinary way when it means the mistress of a house who is a good manager, but huz-wif, when it means a small case for needles.
Hymeneal, hy-men-e-al, not hy-menal.
Instead, in-sted, not instid.
Isolate -so-late; not iz-o-late, nor is-olate.
Jalap, jal-ap, not jolup.
January, as spelled, not Jenuary nor Janewary.
Leave, as spelled, not leaf.
Legend lej-end, not le-gend.
Lieutenant, lef-ten-ant, not leu-ten-ant.
Many, men-ney, not man-ny.
Marchioness, mar-shun-ess, not as spelled.
Massacre, mas-sa-ker, not mas-sa-cre.
Mattress, as spelled, not mat-trass.
Matron, ma-trun, not mat-ron.
Medicine, med-e-cin, not med-cin.
Minute (sixty seconds), min-it.
Minute (small), mi-nute.
Miscellany, mis-cel-lany, not mis-cellany.
Mischievous, mis-chiv-us, not mis-cheev-us.
Ne'er, for never, nare.
Neighbourhood, nay-bur-hood, not nay-burwood.
Nephew, nev-u, not nefu.
New, nu, not noo.
Notable (worthy of notice), no-tu-bl.
Oblige, as spelled, not obleege.
Oblique, ob-leek, not o-blike.
Odorous, o-der-us, not od-ur-us.
Of, ov, except when compounded with the here, and where, which should be pronounced here-of, there-of, and where-of.
Off, as spelt, not awf.
Organization, or-gan-i-za-shun, not or-ga-ne-za-shun.
Ostrich, os-tr'ch, not os-tridge.
Pageant, paj-ent, not pa-jant.
Parent. pare-ent, not par-ent.
Partisan, par-te-zan, not par-te-zan, nor par—ti-zan.
Patent, pa-tent, not pat-ent.
Physiognomy, as fiz-i-ognomy, not phy-sionnomy.
Pincers, pin-cerz, not pinch-erz.
Plaintiff, as spelled, not plan-tiff.
Pour, pore, not so as to rhyme with our.
Precedent (an example), pres-e-dent; pre-ce-dent (going before in point of time, previous, former), is the pronunciation of the adjective.
Prologue, pro-log, not prol-og.
Quadrille, ka-dril, not quod-ril.
Quay, key, not as spelled.
Radish, as spelled, not red-ish.
Raillery, rail'-er-y, or ral-er y, not as spelled.
Rather, rar-ther, not ray-ther.
Respite, res-pit, not as spelled.
Rout (a party; and to rout), should be pronounced rowt. Route (a road), root.
Saunter, saun-ter, not sarn-ter or san-ter.
Sausage, saw-sage not sos-sidge, nor sassage.
Schedule, shed-ule, not shed-dle.
Seamstress is pronounced seem-stress, but semp-stress, as the word is now commonly spelt, is pronounced sem-stress.
Sewer, soo-er or su-er, not shore, nor shure.
Shire, as spelled, when uttered as a single word, but shortened into shir in composition.
Shone, shon, not shun, nor as spelled.
Solecism, sol-e-cizm, not sole-cizm.
Soot as spelled, not sut.
Sovereign, sov-er-in, not suv-er-in.
Specious, spe-shus, not spesh-us.
Stone (weight), as spelled, not stun.
Synod, sin-od, not sy-nod.
Tenure, ten-ure, not te-nure.
Tenet, ten-et, not te-net.
Than, as spelled, not thun.
Tremor, trem-ur, not tre-mor.
Twelfth, should have the th sounded.
Umbrella, as spelled, not um-ber-el-la.
Vase, vaiz or varz, not vawze.
Was, woz, not wuz.
Weary, weer-i, not wary.
Were, wer, not ware.
Wont, wunt, not as spelled.
Wrath, rawth, not rath: as an adjective it is spelled wroth, and pronounced with the vowel sound shorter, as wrath-ful, &c.
Yacht, yot, not yat.
Yeast, as spelled, not yest.
Zenith, zen-ith, not ze-nith.
Zoology should have both o's sounded,as zo-ol-o-gy, not zoo-lo-gy
Note.—The tendency of all good elocutionists is to pronounce as nearly in accordance with the spelling as possible.
—ace not iss, as furnace, not furniss.
—age, not idge, as cabbage, courage, postage, village.
—ain, ane, not in, as certain, certane, not certin.
—ate, not it, as moderate, not moderit.
—ect, not ec, as aspect, not aspec; subject, not subjec.
—ed, not id, or ud, as wicked, not wickid, or wickud.
—el, not l, model, not modl; novel,not novl.
—en, not n, as sudden, not suddn.—Burden, burthen, garden, lengthen, seven, strengthen, often, and a few others,have the e silent.
—ence, not unce, as influence, not influ-unce.
—es, not is, as pleases, not pleasis.
—ile should be pronounced il, as fertil, not fertile, in all words except chamomile (cam), exile, gentile, infantile, reconcile and senile, which should be pronounce ile.
—in, not n, as Latin, not Latn.
—nd, not n, as husband, not husban, thousand, not thousan.
—ness, not niss, as carefulness, not careful niss.
—ng, not n, as singing, not singin; speaking, not speakin.
—ngth, not nth, as strength, not strenth.
—son, the o should be silent; as in treason; tre-zn, not tre-son.
—tal, not tle, as capi_tal_, not capi_tle; _me_tal, not met_tle;_ mor_tal_, not mor_tle_; periodi_cal_; not periodi_cle_.
—xt, not x, as next, not nex.
[PUBLICATION OF BANNS OF MARRIAGE COMMENCED A.D.1210.]
Punctuation teaches the method of placing Points, in written or printed matter, in such a manner as to indicate the pauses which would be made by the author if he were communicating his thoughts orally instead of by written signs.
[SILK FIRST BROUGHT FROM INDIA A.D. 274.]
199. Writing and Printing
are substitutes for oral communication; and correct punctuation is essential to convey the meaning intended, and to give due force to such passages as the author may wish to impress upon the mind of the person to whom they are being communicated.
[WINES WERE FIRST MADE IN BRITAIN A.D. 276.]
200. The Points are as follows:
Comma , Semicolon ; Colon : Period, or Full Point . Apostrophe ' Hyphen - Note of Interrogation ? Note of Exclamation ! Parenthesis ( ) Asterisk, or Star *
As these are all the points required in simple epistolary composition, we will confine our explanations to the rules which should govern the use of them.
201. The Other Points,
the paragraph the section Sec. the dagger [can not be shown in a .txt file] the double dagger [ditto] the parallel the bracket [ ] and some others.
These, however, are quite unnecessary, except for elaborate works, in which they are chiefly used for notes or marginal references. The rule —is sometimes used as a substitute for the bracket or parenthesis.
The Comma , denotes the shortest pause; the semicolon ; a little longer pause than the comma; the colon : a little longer pause than the semicolon; the period . or full point the longest pause.
203. The Relative Duration
of these pauses is described as:
Comma While you count One. Semicolon " " " Two. Colon " " " Three. Period " " " Four.
This, however, is not an infallible rule, because the duration of the pauses should be regulated by the degree of rapidity with which the matter is being read. In slow reading the duration of the pauses should be increased.
204. The Other Points
are rather indications of expression, and of meaning and connection, than of pauses, and therefore we will notice them separately.
205. The Misplacing
of even so slight a point, or pause, as the comma, will often alter the meaning of a sentence. The contract made for lighting the town of Liverpool, during the year 1819, was thrown void by the misplacing of a comma in the advertisements, thus:
"The lamps at present are about 4,050, and have in general two spouts each, composed of not less than twenty threads of cotton."
The contractor would have proceeded to furnish each lamp with the said twenty threads, but this being but half the usual quantity, the commissioners discovered that the difference arose from the comma following instead of preceding the word each. The parties agreed to annul the contract, and a new one was ordered.
206. Without Punctuation.
The Following Sentence shows how difficult it is to read without the aid of the points used as pauses:
Death waits not for storm nor sunshine within a dwelling in one of the upper streets respectable in appearance and furnished with such conveniences as distinguish the habitations of those who rank among the higher clashes of society a man of middle age lay on his last bed momently awaiting the final summons all that the most skillful medical attendance all that love warm as the glow that even an angel's bosom could do had been done by day and night for many long weeks had ministering spirits such as a devoted wife and loving children are done all within their power to ward off the blow but there he lay his raven hair smoothed off from his noble brow his dark eyes lighted with unnatural brightness and contrasting strongly with the pallid hue which marked him as an expectant of the dread messenger.
[COALS FIRST BROUGHT TO LONDON A.D. 1357.]
207. With Punctuation.
The same sentence, properly pointed, and with capital letters placed; after full-points, according to the adopted rule, may be easily read and understood:
Death waits not for storm nor sunshine. Within a dwelling in one of the upper streets, respectable in appearance, and furnished with such conveniences as distinguish the habitations of those who rank among the higher classes of society, a man of middle age lay on his last bed, momently awaiting the final summons. All that the most skilful medical attendance—all that love, warm as the glow that fires an angel's bosom, could do, had been done; by day and night, for many long weeks, had ministering spirits, such as a devoted wife; and loving children are, done all within their power to ward off the blow. But there he lay, his raven hair smoothed off from his noble brow, his dark eyes lighted with unnatural brightness, and contrasting strongly with the pallid hue which marked him as an expectant of the dread messenger.
208. The Apostrophe '
is used to indicate the combining of two words in one,—as John's book, instead of John, his book; or to show the omission of parts of words, as Glo'ster, for Gloucester—tho' for though. These abbreviations should be avoided as much as possible. Cobbett says the apostrophe "ought to be called the mark of laziness and vulgarity." The first use, however, of which we gave an example, is a necessary and proper one.
209. The Hyphen, or conjoiner -
is used to unite words which, though they are separate and distinct, have so close a connection as almost to become one word, as water-rat, wind-mill, &c. It is also used in writing and printing, at the end of a line, to show where a word is divided and continued in the next line. Look down the ends of the lines in this column, and you will notice the hyphen in several places.
210. The Note of Interrogation ?
indicates that the sentence to which it is put asks a question; as, "What is the meaning of that assertion? What am I to do?"
211. The Note of Exclamation or of admiration !
indicates surprise, pleasure, or sorrow; as "Oh! Ah! Goodness! Beautiful! I am astonished! Woe is me!"
Sometimes, when an expression of strong surprise or pleasure is intended, two notes of this character are employed, thus!!
212. The Parenthesis ( )
is used to prevent confusion by the introduction to a sentence of a passage not necessary to the sense thereof. "I am going to meet Mr. Smith (though I am not an admirer of him) on Wednesday next." It is better, however, as a rule, not to employ parenthetical sentences.
213. The Asterisk, or Star *
may be employed to refer from the text to a note of explanation at the foot of a column, or at the end of a letter. [***] Three stars are sometimes used to call particular attention to a paragraph.
[PAPER MADE OF COTTON RAGS A.D. 1000.]
214. Hints upon Spelling
The following rules will be found of great assistance in writing, because they relate to a class of words about the spelling of which doubt and hesitation are frequently felt:
i. All words of one syllable ending in l, with a single vowel before it, have double l at the close; as, mill, sell.
ii. All words of one syllable ending in l, with a double vowel before it, have one l only at the close: as, mail, sail.
iii. Words of one syllable ending in l, when compounded, retain but one l each; as, fulfil, skilful.
iv. Words of more than one syllable ending in l have one l only at the close; as, delightful, faithful; except befall, downfall, recall, unwell, &c.
v. All derivatives from words ending in l have one l only; as, equality, from equal; fulness, from full; except they end in er or ly; as, mill, miller; full, fully.
vi. All participles in ing from verbs ending in e lose the e final; as have, having; amuse, amusing; unless they come from verbs ending in double e, and then they retain, both; as, see, seeing; agree, agreeing.
vii. All adverbs in ly and nouns in ment retain the e final of the primitives; as, brave, bravely; refine, refinement; except acknowledgment, judgment, &c.
viii. All derivatives from words ending in er retain the e before the r; as, refer, reference; except hindrance, from hinder; remembrance from remember; disastrous from disaster; monstrous from monster; wondrous from wonder; cumbrous from cumber, &c.
ix. Compound words, if both end not in i, retain their primitive parts entire; as, millstone, changeable, graceless; except always, also, deplorable, although, almost, admirable, &c.
x. All words of one syllable ending in a consonant, with a single vowel before it, double that consonant in derivatives; as, sin, sinner; ship, shipping; big, bigger; glad, gladder, &c.
xi. Words of one syllable ending in a consonant, with a double vowel before it, do not double the consonant in derivatives: as, sleep, sleepy; troop, troopers.
xii. All words of more than one syllable ending in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, and accented on the last syllable, double that consonant in derivatives; as, commit, committee; compel, compelled; appal, appalling; distil, distiller.
xiii. Nouns of one syllable ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y into ies in the plural; and verbs ending in y, preceded by a consonant, change y into ies in the third person singular of the present tense, and into ied in the past tense and past participle, as, fly, flies; I apply, he applies; we reply, we replied, or have replied. If the y be preceded by a vowel, this rule is not applicable; as key, keys; I play, he plays; we have enjoyed ourselves.
xiv. Compound words whose primitives end in y change y into i; as, beauty, Beautiful; lovely, loveliness.
215. H or no H? That is the Question.
Few things point so directly to the want of cultivation as the misuse of the letter H by persons in conversation. We hesitate to assert that this common defect in speaking indicates the absence of education—for, to our surprise, we have heard even educated persons frequently commit this common, and vulgar error. Now, for the purpose of assisting those who desire to improve their mode of speaking, we intend to tell a little story about our next door neighbour, Mrs. Alexander Hitching,—or, as she frequently styled herself, with an air of conscious dignity, Mrs. HALEXANDER 'ITCHING. Her husband was a post-captain of some distinction, seldom at home, and therefore Mrs. A. H. (or, as she rendered it, Mrs. H. I.) felt it incumbent upon herself to represent her own dignity, and the dignity of her husband also. Well, this Mrs. Hitching was a next-door neighbour of ours—a most agreeable lady in many respects, middle aged, good looking, uncommonly fond of talking, of active, almost of fussy habits, very good tempered and good natured, but with a most unpleasant habit of misusing the letter H to such a degree that our sensitive nerves have often been shocked when in her society. But we must beg the reader, if Mrs. H. should be an acquaintance of his, not to breathe a word of our having written this account of her—or there would be no limit to her "hindignation." And, as her family is very numerous, it will be necessary to keep the matter as quiet as can be, for it will scarcely be possible to mention the subject anywhere, without "'orrifying" some of her relations, and instigating them to make Mrs. H. become our "henemy," instead of remaining, as we wish her to do, our intimate friend.
One morning, Mrs. H. called upon me, and asked me to take a walk, saying that it was her hobject to look out for an 'ouse, as her lease had nearly terminated; and as she had often heard her dear 'Itching say that he would like to settle in the neighbourhood of 'Ampstead 'Eath, she should like me to assist her by my judgment in the choice of a residence.
"I shall he most happy to accompany you," I said.
"I knew you would," said she; "and I am sure a hour or two in your society will give me pleasure. It's so long since we've 'ad a gossip. Besides which, I want a change of hair."
I glanced at her peruke, and for a moment laboured under the idea that she intended to call at her hairdresser's; but I soon recollected.
"I suppose we had better take the homnibus," she remarked, "and we can get out at the foot of the 'ill."
I assented, and in a few minutes we were in the street, in the line of the omnibus, and one of those vehicles soon appearing—
"Will you 'ail it?" inquired she.
So I hailed it at once, and we got in. Now Mrs. H. was so fond of talking that the presence of strangers never restrained her—a fact which I have often had occasion to regret. She was no sooner within the omnibus than she began remarking upon hinconveaience of such vehicles, because of their smallness, and the hinsolence of many of the conductors. She thought that the proprietors ought only to 'ire men upon whose civility they could depend. Then she launched out into larger topics—said she thought that the Hemperor of Haustria—(here I endeavoured to interrupt her by asking whether she had any idea of the part of Hampstead she would like; but she would complete her remarks by saying)—must be as 'appy as the days are long, now that the Hempress had presented him with a hare to the throne! (Some of the passengers smiled, and turning round, looked out of the windows.)
I much wished for our arrival at the spot where we should alight, for she commenced a story about an 'andsome young nephew of hers, who was a distinguished hofficer of the harmy. This was suggested to her, no doubt, by the presence in the omnibus of a fine-looking young fellow with a moustache. She said that at present her nephew was stationed in hireland; but he expected soon to be hordered to South Hafrica.
The gentleman with the moustache seemed much amused, and smilingly asked her whether her nephew was at all hambitious? I saw that he (the gentleman with the moustache) was jesting, and I would have given anything to have been released from the unpleasant predicament I was in. But what was more annoyance when Mrs. H. proceeded to say to this youth, whose face was radiant with humour, that it was the 'ight of her nephew's hambition to serve his country in the hour of need; and then she proceeded to ask her fellow-traveller his opinion, of the hupshot of the war—remarking that she 'oped it would soon be hover!
At this moment I felt so nervous that I pulled out my handkerchief, and endeavoured to create a diversion by making a loud nasal noise, and remarking that I thought the wind very cold, when an accident happened which took us all by surprise: one of the large wheels of the minibus dropped off, and all the passeigers were jostled down into a corner but, fortunately without serious injury. Mrs. H., however, happening to be under three or four persons, raised a loud cry for "'elp! 'elp!" She was speedily got out, when she assured us that she was not 'urt; but she was in such a state of hagitation that she wished to be taken to a chemist's shop, to get some haromatic vinegar, or some Hoe de Cologne! The chemist was exceedingly polite to her, for which she said she could never express her hobligations—an assertion which seemed to me to be literally true. It was some time before she resumed her accustomed freedom of conversation; but as we ascended the hill she explained to me that she should like to take the house as tenant from 'ear to 'ear!—but she thought landlords would hobject to such an agreement, as when they got a good tenant they liked to 'old 'im as long as they could. She expressed an opinion that 'Amstead must be very 'ealthy, because it was so 'igh hup.
We soon reached the summit of the hill, and turned through a lane which led towards the Heath, and in which villas and cottages were smiling on each side. "Now, there's a helegant little place!" she exclaimed, "just suited to my hideas—about height rooms and a horiel hover the hentrance." But it was not to let—so we passed on.
Presently, she saw something likely to suit her, and as there was a bill in the window, "To be let—Enquire Within," she gave a loud rat-a-tat-tat at the door.
The servant opened it.
"I see this 'ouse is to let."
"Yes, ma'am, it is; will you walk in?"
"'Ow many rooms are there?"
"Eleven, ma'am; but if you will step in, mistress will speak to you."
A very graceful lady made her appearance at the parlour door, and invited us to step in. I felt exceedingly nervous, for I at once perceived that the lady of the house spoke with that accuracy and taste which is one of the best indications of refinement.
"The house is to let—and a very pleasant residence we have found it."
"'Ave you hoccupied it long?"
"Our family has resided here for more than nine years."
"Then, I suppose, your lease 'as run hout!"
"No! we have it for five years longer: but my brother, who is a clergyman, has been appointed to a living in Yorkshire, and for his sake, and for the pleasure of his society, we desire to remove."
"Well—there's nothing like keeping families together for the sake of 'appiness. Now there's my poor dear 'Itching" [There she paused, as if somewhat affected, and some young ladies who were in the room drew their heads together, and appeared to consult about their needlework; but I saw, by dimples upon their cheeks, which they could not conceal, that they were smiling], "'e's 'itherto been hat 'ome so seldom, that I've 'ardly hever known what 'appiness his."