A game played by two or more persons, consisting of winning hazard only. Each player subscribes a certain stake to form a pool or gross sum, and at starting has three chances or lives. He is then provided with a marked or coloured ball, and the game proceeds thus:
The white ball is placed on the spot, and the red is played on to it from baulk. If the player pocket the white he receives the price of a life from the owner of the ball; but if he fail, the next player (yellow) plays on the red; and so on alternately till all have played, or till a ball is pocketed. When a ball is pocketed, the striker plays at the ball nearest his own, and goes on playing as long as he can score. The first player who loses his three lives can star: that is, he can purchase as many lives as are held by the lowest number remaining in the pool. The order of play is usually red upon white, yellow upon red, green upon yellow, brown upon green, blue upon brown, black upon blue, spot-white upon black, white upon spot-white; and this order is retained so long as all the original players remain in the game. When the number of players is reduced to two, they can, if they possess an equality of lives, as two each, or one each, divide the stake; or they may by agreement play out the game for the entire pool.
2586. Single Pool.
Single Pool is a game for two players, the white winning game, originally played with two balls, for a money stake upon each life.
2587. Nearest Ball Pool.
Nearest Ball Pool is the same as ordinary pool, except that the player, after taking a life, plays upon the ball nearest to the upper or outer side of the baulk; or, if his ball be in hand, upon the ball nearest the baulk semi-circle.
2588. Black Pool.
Black Pool is ordinary pool with the addition of a black ball, which is placed on the centre spot. When, after pocketing the ball proper to be played on, the black is struck into a pocket, each player pays the price of a life to the striker.
2589. Skittle Pool.
Skittle Pool is pool with three balls and twelve little skittles, placed in order round the table. A stake is determined on, and a price paid out of the pool for every skittle knocked over after striking a ball. An amusing game for a party of ladies and gentlemen.
2590. Penny Pot.
Penny Pot is pool without restriction as to the number of lives, played by any number of players, who pay a penny each to the taker of every life or winning hazard. For the scientific principles of billiards, and the full rules of the several games played on the billiard-table, the reader is referred to the excellent little shilling volume, "Billiards Made Easy," and the more elaborate treatise by Captain Crawley.
[Footnote 1: Billiards made Easy. With the scientific Principles of the Spot-stroke, and the Side-stroke, familiarly explained: By Winning Hazard. Illustrated by practical diagrams. With a chapter on Bagatelle: Houlston and Sons.]
2591. Boss; or the Fifteen Puzzle.
Apparently simple, this game is really difficult of solution, Fifteen cubes of wood, severally marked from I to 15, are placed indifferently in a box made to hold sixteen; thus:
- - 9 11 3 7 1 2 3 4 8 14 10 15 5 6 7 8 6 12 13 2 9 10 11 12 5 1 4 13 14 15 - -
The puzzle consists in sliding the cubes from square to square, without lifting them or removing them from the box, until they are placed in their natural order. It is easy enough to move the squares up to 12; but to get the last three into order is often a puzzle indeed. If the figures fall in either of the following positions—13, 15, 14; 14, 13, 15; or 15, 14, 13—the problem is unsolvable; it follows, therefore, that the last row must be either 14, 15, 13; or 15, 13, 14. If you get the cubes into either of these positions, you can easily bring them right; but if you cannot, the only way is to begin the game all over again. Several other ways are suggested. Cavendish (Mr. H. Jones) thinks he solves the puzzle by turning the box half round; but as this is only possible when the figures are on circular pieces of wood, his solution merely cuts the knot, instead of unravelling it.
2592. The Thirty-Four Puzzle.
This is an adaptation of tho old magic square, which amused the philosophers of old. A sketch of it appears in Albert Durer's painting of Melancholia. Sixteen discs or squares, numbered from 1 to 16, are placed indifferently on the table—or they may be in the fifteen box; and the puzzle is to so arrange them as to make the sum of the figures add up to 34, whether counted up, down, across or angularly. Here is the solution:
- - 1 15 14 4 1 8 13 12 12 6 7 9 14 11 2 7 8 10 11 5 4 5 16 9 13 3 2 16 15 10 3 6 - -
This is the simplest; but a more elaborate plan is to so arrange the figures that any form of the blocks will form a square sum of 34. See the annexed solution, which the ingenious in may still further complicate:
16 3 2 13 - 5 10 11 8 - 9 6 7 12 - 4 15 14 1
2593. Fox and Geese.
This old-fashioned game is played on a solitaire board. Seventeen geese occupy the upper part of the board lines, with the fox in the middle, thus:
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o + F + o o + + + + + + + + + + + + +
The object of the game is to confine the fox in a corner, so that he cannot move. The geese march forward in straight lines, not on the diagonals; and whenever a goose is on the spot next the fox, the latter can take him, as in draughts, by jumping over to the vacant spot beyond. The fox can move backwards, forwards, or sideways on the straight lines; but the geese must go forward, and are not allowed to retreat. Properly played, the geese must win; but when the number of geese is reduced to six, it is impossible for them to confine the fox.
There are several ways of playing the game, by placing the fox and geese in other positions, or by insisting on the fox catching all the geese. In the latter case, the fox chooses his own starting place. The game may also be played with eight geese and a fox.
Another way of playing this game is on an ordinary draughtboard, with four white men for the geese, and a black king for the fox. The geese can only move forward, but the fox moves either way. The object of the geese is to pen up the fox so that he cannot move; the object of the fox is to break through the line of defence. If the game be properly played, the geese must win. Place them on the draughtboard thus:
- O O O O - F - - - - - - -
The secret is to keep the geese in a line. The fox tries to prevent this, and if he can succeed in doubling the geese, or getting one to stand before the other, he is nearly sure to pass through them.
2594. The Royal Game of Goose.
In the old German game the figure of a goose is printed on a large sheet of paper, and divided into 63 squares or divisions. The object of the players,—any number of whom may join in the game—is to make 63 points by successive throws of two dice. A pool is made by equal contributions by the players, the first of whom gaining the required number wins. The players throw alternately and add each individual throw to that already made.
Each player's position is shown on the goose by a counter, a wafer, or any small article. Any number beyond 63 sends the thrower back as many points as he exceeds 63. Thus if he were 58, and by a 6 and 5 he threw eleven he would go forward 5 squares to 63, and back 6 squares from 63. In addition to this, certain numbers on the goose are barred; and if the player make them he is fined two counters, which are added to the pool. The numbered goose is sold at most toy shops, but a numbered draughtboard will serve as well.
2595. Troco or Lawn Billiards.
This is a game that may be played by any number of persons in a field or open space. The implements are wooden balls and long-handled cues at the ends of which are spoonlike ovals of iron. In the centre of the Troco ground is fixed a ring of iron, which moves freely on a pivot, the spike of the ring being driven into a piece of wood let into the ground. The wooden ball is lifted from the ground by means of the spoon-ended cue, and thrown towards the ring—the object of the player being to pass the ball through the ring; and he who succeeds in making any given number of points by fairly ringing his ball, or canoning against the other balls, wins the game.
Canons are made by the player striking two balls successively with his own ball fairly delivered from his spoon. Thus (says the most recent writer on the game) a clever player may make a large number of points—five, seven, or more at a stroke: two the first canon, two for a second canon, and three for the ring. This, however, is very seldom accomplished.
Considerable skill is required in throwing the ball, as the ring, turning freely on its pivot, twists round on being struck. To "make the ring," it is necessary, therefore, that the ball be thrown fairly through its centre. But in order to get nearer to it a judicious player will endeavour to make two or three canons, if the balls lie within a convenient distance and at a proper angle to each other. If the ball be thrown with sufficient force, it will glance off from the ball struck in a line corresponding to its first or original line of projection.
i. Troco may be played by two or more persons, each of whom is provided with a ball and a cue. When more than two play, sides are chosen, and the side which first makes the requisite number of points wins the game.
ii. The players stand in a circle, in the centre of which is set up the pivot-ring.
iii. Each player starts from any portion of the circle distant not less than four yards from the ring. The first player lifts his ball with the spoon-cue, and throws it towards the ring; each of the others taking his turn alternately—the balls remaining on the ground where they stop rolling.
iv. If the first player fail to "make his ring," the next goes on, who may either throw at the ring or at the ball in the circle.
v. Partners may assist each other in getting near the ring; but no player, at starting, may step within four yards of the ring.
vi. Two points are counted for every canon, and three for every fairly-made ring; and successive points are reckoned for any number of rings or canons.
vii. Each player goes on till he fails to canon or ring his ball; when the next plays; and so on, till the required number of points are made.
viii. One point is taken off the player's score for every foul stroke. Foul strokes are made by touching a ball with hand or person while it is in play; by playing with a wrong ball; by playing out of turn; by overturning the ring; and by making two or more steps while throwing the ball.
ix. Each player, after the start, must go on from the place at which his ball was left after the previous stroke.
x. All disputed points must be settled by the umpire, whose decision is final.
xi. No ball in-play must be removed from its position except by a stroke from another ball, and every ball is considered to be in-play while it is within the circle, which may be of any dimensions chosen by the players previous to the commencement of the game.
xii. Any player leaving a game before it is finished, loses it.
The game is played fifteen, twenty-one, or any other determined number of points. The balls should be perfectly round and smooth. They are generally made of boxwood or lignum vitae, and weigh about three to five lbs. each; the balls, cues, &c., are sold by most dealers in croquet implements.
2597. Habits of a Man of Business.
A sacred regard to the principles of justice forms the basis of every transaction, and regulates the conduct of the upright man of business. The following statements afford a bird's-eye view, as it were, of his habits, practice, and mode of procedure:
i. He is strict in keeping his engagements.
ii. He does nothing carelessly or in a hurry.
iii. He employs nobody to do what he can easily do himself.
iv. He keeps everything in its proper place.
v. He leaves nothing undone that ought to be done, and which circumstances permit him to do.
vi. He keeps his designs and business from the view of others.
vii. He is prompt and decisive with his customers, and does not over-trade his capital.
viii. He prefers short credits to long ones; and cash to credit at all times, either in buying or selling; and small profits in credit cases with little risk, to the chance of better gains with more hazard.
ix. He is clear and explicit in all his bargains.
x. He leaves nothing of consequence to memory which he can and ought to commit to writing.
xi. He keeps copies of all his important letters which he sends away, and has every letter, invoice, &c., belonging to his business, titled, classed, and put away.
xii. He never suffers his desk to be confused by many papers lying upon it.
xiii. He is always at the head of his business, well knowing that if he leaves it, it will leave him.
xiv. He holds it as a maxim that he whose credit is suspected is not one to be trusted.
xv. He is constantly examining his books, and sees through all his affairs as far as care and attention will enable him.
xvi. He balances regularly at stated times, and then makes out and transmits all his accounts current to his customers, both at home and abroad.
xvii. He avoids as much as possible all sorts of accommodation in money matters, and lawsuits where there is the least hazard.
xviii. He is economical in his expenditure, always living within his income.
xix. He keeps a memorandum-book in his pocket, in which he notes every particular relative to appointments, addresses, and petty cash matters.
xx. He is cautious how he becomes security for any person; and is generous when urged by motives of humanity.
Let a man act strictly to these habits—ever remembering that he hath no profits by his pains whom Providence doth not prosper—and success will attend his efforts.
2598. Taking a Shop or Place of Business.
If you are about to take a place of business, you will do well to consider the following remarks:
2599. Small Capitalists.
Let us take the case of a person who has no intimate knowledge of any particular trade, but having a very small capital, is about to embark it in the exchange of commodities for cash, in order to obtain an honest livelihood thereby. It is clear, that unless such a person starts with proper precaution and judgment, the capital will be expended without adequate results; rent and taxes will accumulate, the stock will lie dead or become deteriorated, and loss and ruin must follow. For the last absorption acting upon a small capital will soon dry up its source; and we need not picture the trouble that will arise when the mainspring of a tradesman's success abides by him no more.
2600. Larger Capitalists.
The case of the larger capitalist can scarcely be considered an exception to the same rule. For it is probable that the larger capitalist, upon commencing a business, would sink more of his funds in a larger stock—would incur liability to a heavier rent; and the attendant taxes, the wages of assistants and servants would be greater, and, therefore, if the return came not speedily, similar consequences must sooner or later ensue.
Large or small capitalists should, therefore, upon entering on a shopkeeping speculation, consider well the nature of the locality in which they propose to carry on trade, the number of the population, the habits and wants of the people, and the extent to which they are already supplied with the goods which the new adventurer proposes to offer them.
2602. New Neighbourhoods.
There is a tendency among small capitalists to rush into new neighbourhoods with the expectation of making an early connection. Low rents also serve as an attraction to these localities. General experience, however, tends to show that the early suburban shops seldom succeed. They are generally entered upon at the very earliest moment that the state of the locality will permit—often before the house is finished the shop is tenanted, and goods exposed for sale—even while the streets are unpaved, and while the roads are as rough and uneven as country lanes.
The consequence is, that as the few inhabitants of these localities have frequent communication with adjacent centres of business, they, as a matter of habit or of choice, supply their chief wants thereat; and the newly arrived shopkeeper has to depend principally for support upon the accidental forgetfulness of his neighbour, who omits to bring something from the cheaper and better market; or upon the changes of the weather, which may sometimes favour him by rendering a "trip to town" exceedingly undesirable.
"While the grass is growing the horse is starving;" and thus, while the new district is becoming peopled the funds of the small shopkeeper are gradually eaten up, and he puts up his shutters just at the time when a more cautious speculator steps in to profit by the connection already formed, and to take advantage of the new improved condition of the locality. It seems, therefore, desirable for the small capitalists rather to run the risk of a more expensive rent, in a well-peopled district, than to resort to places of slow and uncertain demand; for the welfare of the small shopkeeper depends entirely upon the frequency with which his limited stock is cleared out and replaced by fresh supplies.
But should the small capitalist still prefer opening in a suburban district, where competition is less severe, and rents and rates less burdensome, there are certain precautions which he will do well to observe. He should particularly guard against opening a shop to supply what may be termed the superfluities of life; for the inhabitants of new suburban districts are those who, like himself, have resorted to a cheap residence for the sake of economy. Or if this be not the case—if they are people of independent means, who prefer the "detached villa" to the town house, squeezed up on both sides, they have the means of riding and driving to town, and will prefer choosing articles of taste and luxury from the best marts, enriched by the finest display.
2605. Necessaries or Luxuries.
The suburban shopkeeper should, therefore, confine himself to supplying the necessaries of life. Hungry people dislike to fetch their bread from five miles off; and to bring vegetables from a long distance would evidently be a matter of considerable inconvenience. The baker, the butcher, the greengrocer, the beer retailer, &c., are those who find their trade first established in suburban localities. And not until these are doing well should the tailor, the shoemaker, the hatter, the draper, the hosier, and others, expect to find a return for their capital and reward for their labour.
In larger localities, where competition abounds, the small shopkeeper frequently outstrips his more powerful rival by one element of success, which may be added to any stock without cost, but cannot be withheld without loss. That element is civility. It has already been spoken of elsewhere, but must be enforced here, as aiding the little means of the small shopkeeper to a wonderful degree. A kind and obliging manner carries with it an indescribable charm. It must not be a manner which indicates a mean, grovelling time-serving spirit, but a plain, open, and agreeable demeanour, which seems to desire to oblige for the pleasure of doing so, and not for the sake of squeezing an extra penny out of a customer's pocket.
The sole reliance of the shopkeeper should be in the integrity of his transactions, and in the civility of his demeanour. He should make it the interest and the pleasure of the customer to come to his shop. If he does this, he will form the very best "connections," and so long as he continues this system of business, they will never desert him.
2608. Duties of a Shopkeeper.
He should cheerfully render his best labour and knowledge to serve those who approach his counter, and place confidence in his transactions; make himself alike to rich and poor, but never resort to mean subterfuge and deception to gain approbation and support. He should be frugal in his expenditure, that in deriving profits from trade, he may not trespass unduly upon the interest of others; he should so hold the balance between man and man that he should feel nothing to reprove his conscience when the day comes for him to repose from his labours and live upon the fruits of his industry. Let the public discover such a man, and they will flock around him for their own sakes.
2609. A Very Useful Book.
A very useful book, "The Handy Book of Shopkeeping, Shopkeeper's Guide"  (published at one shilling), enlarges upon these subjects in a very able manner, and gives most useful hints to people in every dapartment of trade.
[Footnote 1: Houlston and Sons, London.]
2610. Early Rising.
The difference between rising every morning at six and eight, in the course of forty years, amounts to 29,200 hours, or three years one hundred and twenty-one days and sixteen hours, which are equal to eight hours a day for exactly ten years So that rising at six will be the same as if ten years of life (a weighty consideration) were added, wherein we may command eight hours every day for the cultivation of our minds and the despatch of business.
i. The great philosopher, Dr. Franklin, inspired the mouthpiece of his own eloquence, "Poor Richard," with "many a gem of purest ray serene," encased in the homely garb of proverbial truisms. On the subject of frugality we cannot do better than take the worthy Mentor for our text, and from it address our remarks. A man may, if he knows not how to save as he gets, "keep his nose all his life to the grindstone, and die not worth a groat at last. A fat kitchen makes a lean will."
"Many estates are spent in getting, Since women for tea forsook spinning and knitting, And men for punch forsook hewing and splitting."
ii. If you would be wealthy, think of saving as well as of getting. The Indies have not made Spain rich, because her out-goes are greater than her in-comes.
iii. Away with your expensive follies, and you will not have so much cause to complain of hard times, heavy taxes, and chargeable families.
iv. "What maintains one vice would bring up two children."
v. You may think, perhaps, that a little tea, or superfluities now and then, diet a little more costly, clothes a little finer, and a little entertainment now and then, can be no great matter; but remember, "Many a little makes a mickle."
vi. Beware of little expenses: "A small leak will sink a great ship," as Poor Richard says; and again, "Who dainties love, shall beggars prove;" and moreover, "Fools make feasts and wise men eat them."
vii. Here you are all got together to this sale of fineries and nick-nacks. You call them goods; but if you do not take care they will prove evils to some of you. You expect they will be sold cheap, and perhaps they may, for less than they cost; but if you have no occasion for them they must be dear to you.
viii. Remember what Poor Richard says, "Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy necessaries."
ix. "At a great pennyworth, pause awhile." He means, perhaps, that the cheapness is apparent only, and not real; or the bargain, by straightening thee in thy business, may do thee more harm than good; for in another place he says, "Many have been ruined by buying good pennyworths."
x. "It is foolish to lay out money in the purchase of repentance;" and yet this folly is practised every day at auctions for want of minding the Almanack.
2612. Cash and Credit.
If you would get rich, don't deal in bill books. Credit is the "Tempter in a new shape." Buy goods on trust, and you will purchase a thousand articles that cash would never have dreamed of. A shilling in the hand looks larger than ten shillings seen through the perspective of a three months' bill. Cash is practical, while credit takes horribly to taste and romance. Let cash buy a dinner, and you will have a beef-steak flanked with onions. Send credit to market, and he will return with eight pairs of woodcocks and a peck of mushrooms. Credit believes in diamond pins and champagne suppers. Cash is more easily satisfied. Give him three meals a day, and he doesn't care much if two of them are made up of roasted potatoes and a little salt. Cash is a good adviser, while credit is a good fellow to be on visiting terms with. If you want double chins and contentment, do business with cash.
2613. Hints upon Money Matters.
Have a supply of change in hand—shillings, sixpences, halfpence. This will obviate the various inconveniences of keeping people at the door, sending out at unreasonable times, and running or calling after any inmate in the house, supposed to be better provided with "the needful." The tradespeople with whom you regularly deal will always give you extra change, when you are making purchases or paying bills; while those to whom you apply for it, on a sudden emergency, may neither be willing nor able to do so. Some housekeepers object to this arrangement, that, "as soon as five-pound notes or sovereigns are changed, they always seem to go, without their understanding how;" but to such persons I would humbly intimate, that this is rather the fault of their not getting understanding, than any inevitable consequence of getting change.
The fact is, that it is the necessity of parting with your money which obliges you to get the larger pieces changed, and not the circumstance of having smaller coin that necessitates your parting with your money, though it certainly facilitates your doing so when the necessity arrives. However, as it is easier to count a few sovereigns than many shillings, and loose money is most objectionable, it is well to put up reserve change in small collective packets, and to replenish the housekeeping purse from these daily or weekly, as may be most convenient.
[DEATH DOES NOT BLOW A TRUMPET.]
2614. Save Time and Trouble.
If Money for daily expenses has to pass through the hands of a servant, it is a time-and-trouble-saving plan to settle with her every night, and to make up her cash in hand to a certain similar sum. This will prevent such puzzling calculations as the following:
"Let me see: I gave you 10s. on Saturday, and 9d. the day before. Was it 9d.? No, it must have been 11d., for I gave you 1s., and you gave me 1d. out for the beggar; then there was 6s. 6d. on Monday, and 8d. you owed me from last money; and then the 1s. 6d. your master gave you for a parcel—you brought him 2d. back, and 3d-1/2. out of the butcher's bill; no—you had to give 3-1/2d. to the butcher, but you came to me for the 1/2d., and I had no coppers, so we still owe him the 1/2d.; by the way, don't forget to pay him the next time you go. Then there's the baker—no, I paid the baker myself, and I think the housemaid paid the butter-man; but you got in the cheese the day before, and I have a sort of recollection that I may possibly owe you for that, all but a few pence you must have had left of mine, that I told you to take from off the chimney-piece. Well, cook, I think that's nearly all! Now how do your accounts stand?"
This the poor cook, who is a cook, and not a conjuror, finds it no easy matter to discover; all that she is quite certain of is, that her disbursements have somewhat exceeded her receipts, and being an honest woman, though a poor one, she wishes to cheat neither her mistress nor herself; but what with her memory and her want of it, her involved payments, and different receipts; what she owed her mistress, and what her mistress owes her; what she got from her master, and what was partly settled by the housemaid; the balance from the butcher's bill, and the intricacies of the cheese account, the poor woman is perfectly bewildered.
She counts again and again; recapitulates her mistress's data and her own; sums upwards, backwards, and forwards, and endeavours to explain the differences between them; then, if she can read and write, she brings her slate to "explain the explanation," and the united calculations of maid and mistress, which are after all entirely unavailing to produce a more correct account, probably consume more time, and are expressed in more words, than would suffice to fill another volume like the present. Two minutes' daily reckoning from a regular sum in hand would do the business effectually, and prevent either party from being out of pocket or out of temper. Thus, for instance, the maid has her usual sum of five shillings to account for; she pays during the day, for:
s. d. Bread 1 9 Beer 0 6 Vegetables and fruit 0 10 Milk 0 4 Matches 0 1 Parcel 1 0 _ Total 4 6
This is easily reckoned, even by the unlearned; the mistress enters the items in her day-book, takes the remaining sixpence, and again gives her servant 5s., in convenient change, to be as readily accounted for on the succeeding day.
Home Truths for Home Peace; or, Muddle Defeated.
[TIME BRINGS EVERYTHING TO THOSE WHO CAN WAIT.]
2615. Don't Run in Debt.
"Don't run in debt;"—never mind, never mind If your clothes are faded and torn: Mend them up, make them do; it is better by far Than to have the heart weary and worn. Who'll love you the more for the shape of your hat, Or your ruff, or the tie of your shoe, The cut of your vest, or your boots, or cravat, If they know you're in debt for the new? There's no comfort, I tell you, in walking the street In fine clothes, if you know you're in debt, And feel that, perchance, you some tradesman may meet, Who will sneer—"They're not paid for yet." Good friends, let me beg of you, don't run in debt; If the chairs and the sofas are old, They will fit your back better than any new set, Unless they are paid for—with gold; If the house is too small, draw the closer together, Keep it warm with a hearty good-will; A big one unpaid for, in all kinds of weather, Will send to your warm heart a chill. Don't run in debt—now, dear girls, take a hint, if the fashions have changed since last season, Old Nature is out in the very same tint, And old Nature, we think, has some reason; But just say to your friend, that you cannot afford To spend time to keep up with the fashion; That your purse is too light and your honour too bright, To be tarnished with such silly passion. Men, don't run in debt—let your friends, if they can. Have fine houses, and feathers, and flowers: But, unless they are paid for, be more of a man Than to envy their sunshiny hours. If you've money to spare, I have nothing to say— Spend your silver and gold as you please; But mind you, the man who his bill has to pay Is the man who is never at ease. Kind husbands, don't run into debt any more; 'Twill fill your wives' cup full of sorrow To know that a neighbour may call at your door, With a claim you must settle to-morrow Oh! take my advice—it is good, it is true! But, lest you may some of you doubt it, I'll whisper a secret now, seeing 'tis you— I have tried it, and know all about it, The chain of a debtor is heavy and cold. Its links all corrosion and rust; Gild it o'er as you will, it is never of gold, Then spurn it aside with disgust.
2616. Carving, Ceremonies of the Table, &c.
A dinner-table should be well laid, well lighted, and always afford a little spare room. It is better to invite one friend less in number, than to destroy the comfort of the whole party.
2617. The Laying out of a Table.
The laying out of a table must greatly depend upon the nature of the dinner or supper, the taste of the host, the description of the company, and the appliances possessed. It would be useless, therefore, to lay down specific rules. The whiteness of the table-cloth, the clearness of glass, the polish of plate, and the judicious distribution of ornamental groups of fruits and flowers, are matters deserving the utmost attention.
2618. A Sideboard.
A sideboard will greatly relieve a crowded table, upon which may be placed many things incidental to the successive courses, until they are required.
A bill of fare or Menu at large dinner parties, where there are several courses, should be provided neatly inscribed upon small tablets, and distributed about the table, that the diners may know what there is to come.
Napkins should be folded neatly. The French method, which is very easy, of folding the napkin like a fan, placing it in a glass, and spreading out the upper part, is very pleasing. But the English method of folding is like a slipper, and placing the bread inside its folds is convenient as well as neat.
[AS THE VIRTUE IS IN THE TREE, SUCH IS THE FRUIT.]
Bread should be cut into thick squares, the last thing after the table is laid. If cut too early it becomes dry. A tray should he provided, in which there should be a further supply of bread, new, stale, and brown. For cheese, pulled bread should be provided.
Carving-knives should be "put in edge" before the dinner commences, for nothing irritates a good carver, or perplexes a bad one, more than a knife which refuses to perform its office; and there is nothing more annoying to the company than to see the carving-knife gliding to and fro over the steel while the dinner is getting cold, and their appetites are being exhausted by delay.
Joints that require carving should be set upon dishes sufficiently large. The space of the table may be economised by setting upon small dishes those things that do not require carving.
2624. The Carver.
The carver should have plenty of room, however closely the diners are compelled to sit together.
2625. The Vegetables.
The vegetables, if the table is very crowded, may be placed upon the sideboard, and handed round by those who wait upon the guests.
2626. Smaller Joints.
Geese, Turkeys, Poultry, Sucking-pigs, &c., should be CARVED BEFORE BEING SET ON TABLE; especially in those cases where the whole or the principal part of such dishes is likely to be consumed.
2627. Handing Round.
The carver should supply the plates, and the waiter hand them round, instead of putting the question to each guest as to which part he prefers, and then striving to serve him with it, to the prejudice of others present.
Ladies should be helped before gentlemen.
Waiters should present dishes on the left hand; so that the diner may help himself with his right.
Wine should be taken after the first course; and it will be found more convenient to let the waiter serve it, than to hand the decanters round, or to allow the guests to fill for themselves.
Waiters should be instructed to remove whatever articles upon the table are thrown into disuse by the progress of the dinner, as soon as they are at liberty.
Finger-glasses, or glass bowls, filled with water, slightly scented or not, as may be preferred, and slightly warm in winter, and iced in summer, should be handed round.
When the dessert is served, the wine should be set upon the table, and the decanters passed round by the company.
2634. Fried Fish.
Fried fish should be divided into suitable slices, before the fire, as soon as it leaves the frying-pan.
2635. Cod's Head and Shoulders.
The thick part of the back is best. It should be carved in unbroken slices, and each solid slice should be accompanied by a bit of the sound, from under the back-bone, or from the cheek, jaws, tongue, &c., of the head.
Hake, if sent to table, simply boiled, is served as cod. The better way of dressing hake is to cut it transversely to the length into slices about one inch in thickness. These should be fried and sent to table garnished with parsley.
Strike the fish-slice along the back-bone, which runs from head to tail, and then serve square slices from the thick part, accompanying each slice with some of the gelatinous skin of the fins and thin part, which may be raised by laying the fish-slice flat.
Brill is served in the same manner.
2639. John Dory.
John Dory is also served in the same way. This fish has a favourite piece on the cheek.
2640. Plaice and Flat-fish.
Plaice and flat-fish generally, are served in the same manner.
Soles, when large, may be served as turbot; but when small they should be sliced across.
Serve a slice of the thick with a smaller slice of the thin part. Keep the flakes of the thick part as unbroken as possible.
Mackerel should be served in pieces cut through the side when they are large. It small, they may be divided through the back-bone, and served in halves. The shoulder part is considered the best.
2644. Haddock and Gurnet.
Haddock and Gurnet are served as directed for mackerel.
Whiting are usually fried and curled; they should be cut in halves down the back, and served. The shoulder-part is best.
Eels are usually cut into several pieces, either for stewing or frying. The thick parts are considered best.
Trout, if small, are served whole; if large, they may be divided through the back-bone and served in halves. The same applies to perch and other smaller fresh-water fish.
2648. Pike and Jack.
Pike and Jack should be served in thick unbroken pieces taken from the side or shoulder of the fish accompanied by a piece of the stuffing with which these fish are usually filled.
The roes of mackerel, the sound of cod, the head of carp, the cheek of John Dory, the liver of cod, &c., are severally considered delicacies, though not by all persons.
2650. Saddle of Mutton.
Cut thin slices parallel with the back-bone; or slice it obliquely from the bone to the edge.
2651. Haunch of Mutton or Venison.
Make an incision across the knuckle-end, right into the bone, and set free the gravy. Then cut thin slices the whole length of the haunch. Serve pieces of fat with slices of lean.
2652. Rump or Sirloin of Beef.
The undercut, called the "fillet," is exceedingly tender, and some carvers will turn the joint and serve the fillet first, reserving the meat on the upper part to be eaten cold. From the upper part, whether hot or cold, the slices should be cut lengthways from top to bottom, so that the fat and lean may be distributed in fair proportions.
2653. Ribs of Beef.
Ribs of beef are carved in the same way as the sirloin; but there is no fillet.
2654. Round of Beef.
First cut away the irregular outside pieces, to obtain a good surface, and then serve thin and broad slices. Serve bits of the udder fat with the lean.
2655. Brisket of Beef.
Cut off the outside, and then serve long slices, cut the whole length of the bones.
2656. Shoulder of Mutton.
Make a cross incision on the fore-part of the shoulder, and serve slices from both sides of the incision; then cut slices lengthways along the shoulder-blade. Cut fat slices from the round corner. Another and more economical way, is to cut slices from the under part when first brought to table. The joint then presents a better appearance when cold.
2657. Leg of Mutton.
Make an incision across the centre, and serve from the knuckle-side, or the opposite, according to choice. The knuckle-side will be generally found well done, and the opposite side underdone, for those who prefer it.
2658. Loin of Mutton.
Cut down between the bones, into chops.
2659. Quarter of Lamb.
Lay the knife flat, and cut off the shoulder. The proper point for incision will be indicated by the position of the shoulder. A little lemon juice may be squeezed over the divided part, and a little Cayenne pepper, and the shoulder transferred to another dish, for the opposite end of the table. Next separate the brisket, or short bones, by cutting lengthways along the breast. Then serve from either part as desired.
[TRAVEL NORTH, OR SOUTH, OR EAST, OR WEST...]
2660. Loin of Veal.
Loin of veal may be cut across through the thick part; or slices may be taken in the direction of the bones. Serve pieces of kidney and fat with each plate.
2601. Fillet of Veal.
Fillet of veal is carved as a round of beef. The browned bits of the outside are esteemed, and should be shared among the company, with bits of fat, and of forcemeat from the centre.
2662. Breast of Veal.
Breast of veal should be divided by cutting the BRISKET, or soft bones, the same as the basket of lamb. When the sweetbread comes to table with the breast, a small piece should be served on each plate.
Sucking-pig should be sent to table in two halves, the head divided, and one half laid at each end of the dish. The shoulders and legs should be taken off by the obvious method of laying the knife under them, and lifting the joint out. They may be served whole, or divided. The ribs are easily divided, and are considered choice.
Tongues are cut across in tolerably thick slices.
2665. Calves' Heads.
Calves' heads are carved across the cheek, and pieces taken from any part that is come-at-able. The tongue and brain sauce are served separate.
2666. Knuckle of Veal.
Knuckle of veal is carved by cutting off the outside pieces, and then obtaining good slices, and apportioning the fat to the lean, adding bits of the sinew that lie around the joint.
2667. Leg of Pork.
Leg of pork is carved as a ham, but in thicker slices; when stuffed, the stuffing must be sought for under the skin at the large end.
2668. Loin of Pork.
Loin of pork is carved the same as a loin of mutton.
2669. Spare-rib of Pork.
Spare-rib of pork is carved by separating the chops, which should previously have been jointed. Cut as far as the joint, then return the knife to the point of the bones, and press over, to disclose the joint, which may then be relieved with the point of the knife.
Hams are cut in very thin slices from the knuckle to the blade.
Carve the breast in slices. Then take off the legs and wings.
Fix the fork firmly into the breast, then slip the knife under the legs, and lay it over and dis-joint; detach the wings in the same manner. Do the same on both sides, The smaller bones require a little practice, and it would be well to watch the operations of a good carver. When the merry-thought has been removed (which it may be by slipping the knife through at the point of the breast), and the neck-bones drawn out, the trunk may be turned over, and the knife thrust through the back-bone.
Partridges are best carved by cutting off the breast, and then dividing it. But for more economical carving, the wings may be cut with a small breast slice attached.
Woodcocks may be cut right through the centre, from head to tail. Serve with each portion a piece of the toast upon which they come to table.
Pigeons may be carved as woodcocks, or as partridges.
Snipes may be carved the same as woodcocks.
Cut slices from each side of the breast down, to the ribs; the legs may then be removed, and the thighs divided from the drumsticks, which are generally tough; but the pinions of the wing are very good, and the white part of the wing is preferred by many to the breast. The stuffing is usually put in the breast; but when truffles, mushrooms, or oysters are put into the body, an opening must be made into it by cutting through the apron.
The apron must be cut off in a circular direction, when a glass of port wine, mixed with a teaspoonful of mustard, may be poured into the body or not. Some of the stuffing should then be drawn out, and, the neck of the goose being turned a little towards the carver, the flesh of the breast should be sliced on each side of the bone. The wings may then be taken off, then the legs. The other parts are carved the same as a fowl.
[A MAN'S OWN HOSE IS STILL THE BEST.]
Ducks may be carved, when large, the same as geese; but when young, like chickens. The thigh joints, however, lie much closer into the trunk than those of fowls.
Hares should be placed with their heads to the left of the carver. Slices may be taken down the whole length of the back; the legs, which, next to the back, are considered the best eating, may then be taken off, and the flesh divided from or served upon them, after the small bones have been parted from the thighs. The shoulders, which are not much esteemed, though sometimes liked by sportsmen, may be taken off by passing the knife between the joint and the trunk. When a hare is young, the back is sometimes divided at the joints into three or four parts, after being freed from the ribs and under-skin.
Sufficient general instructions are here given to enable the carver, by observation and practice, to acquit himself well. The art of carving does not consist merely in dissecting the joints sent to table, but in the judicious and economical distribution of them, and the grace and neatness with which this distribution is effected. Every dish ahould be sent to table properly garnished (where needed), and the carver should preserve the neatness of the arrangement as much as possible.
The filaments from which stuffs of all kinds are fabricated are derived either from the animal or vegetable kingdom. We recognise the former by the property they possess of liberating ammonia on being treated with potash; while the latter afford a liquor having an acid reaction under the same treatment. The animal kingdom furnishes three varieties—silk, wool, and the furs, &c., of various animals; the vegetable kingdom also three—flax, hemp, and cotton: all of which require certain preliminary preparations to render them fit for the dyer, which do not come within our province, our space only admitting of a rapid glance at the production of the various colours.
2683. General Observations.
The various shades produced by colouring matters may be classed in one or other of the following groups:
1. Blues } 2. Reds } Simple. 3. Yellows }
4. Violets } 5. Orange colours } Binary. 6. Greens }
7. Compound colours } 8. Black } Ternary.
Some colours adhere at once to the stuff, and are called substantial colours; while others require that the material to be dyed should undergo some previous preparation in order to render it permanent. The substances used to fix the colouring matters are called mordants, which should possess four qualifications:
i. They should possess an equal affinity for the fibre of the material and the colouring matter.
ii. They should be incapable of injuring or destroying either by prolonged action,
iii. They should form, with the colour, a compound capable of resisting the action of air and water.
iv. They should be capable of readily conforming to the various operations of the dyer.
2684. The Mordants.
For the reasons just given, the acetate or tartrate of iron is preferable to the sulphate; and the acetate or tartrate of alumina to alum. For reds, yellows, green, and pinks, aluminous mordants are to be used. For blacks, browns, puces, and violets, the acetate or tartrate of iron must be employed. For scarlets, use a tin mordant, made by dissolving in strong nitric acid one-eighth of its weight of sal-ammoniac, then adding by degrees one-eighth of its weight of tin, and diluting the solution with one-fourth of its weight of water.
[CUNNING MEN'S CLOAKS SOMETIMES FALL.]
2685. Calico, Linen, and Muslin (Blue).
Blue.—Wash well to remove dressing, and dry; then dip in a strong solution of sulphate of indigo—partly saturated with potash—and hang up. Dry a piece to see if the colour is deep enough; if not dip again.
Saxon Blue.—Boil the article in alum, and then dip in a strong solution of chemical blue.
2686. Calico, Linen, and Muslin (Buff).
Buff.—Boil an ounce of anatto in three quarts of water, add two ounces of potash, stir well, and put in the calico while boiling, and stir well for five minutes; remove and plunge into cold pump water, hang up the articles without wringing, and when almost dry, fold.
2687. Calico, Linen, and Muslin (Pink).
Pink.—Immerse in the acetate of alumina mordant, and then in the colouring of a pink saucer.
2688. Calico, Linen, and Muslin (Green).
Green.—Boil the article in an alum mordant, and then in a solution of indigo mixed with any of the yellow dyes until the proper colour is obtained.
2689. Calico, Linen, and Muslin (Yellow).
i. Cut potato tops when in flower, and express the juice; steep articles in this for forty-eight hours.
ii. Dip in a strong solution of weld after boiling in an aluminous mordant. Turmeric, fustic, anatto, &c., will answer the same as weld.
2690. Cloth (Black).
Impregnate the material with the acetate of iron mordant, and then boil in a decoction of madder and logwood.
2691. Cloth (Madder Red).
Boil the cloth in a weak solution of pearlash—an ounce to a gallon of water,—wash, dry, and then steep in a decoction of bruised nutgalls. After drying it is to be steeped twice in dry alum water, then dried, and boiled in a decoction made of three quarters of a pound of madder to every pound of the article. It should then be taken out and dried, and steeped in a second bath in the same manner. When dyed, the articles should be washed in warm soap and water, to remove a dun-coloured matter given out by the madder.
2692. Cloth (Scarlet).
Three quarters of a pint of a tin mordant, made by dissolving three pounds of tin in sixty pounds of hydrochloric acid, is added to every pound of lac dye, and digested for six hours. To dye twenty-five pounds of cloth, a tin boiler of seventy-five gallons capacity should be filled nearly full with water, and a fire kindled under it. When the heat is 150 deg. Fahr., half a handful of bran and two ounces of tin mordant are to be thrown into it. The froth which arises is skimmed off, the liquor is made to boil, and two pounds and three quarters of lac dye, previously mixed with a pound and three quarters of the solvent, and fourteen ounces of the tin solvent, are added.
Immediately afterwards two pounds and three quarters of tartar, and a pound of ground sumach, both tied up in a linen bag, are to be added, and suspended in the bath for five minutes. The fire being withdrawn, five gallons of cold water and two pints and three quarters of tin mordant being poured into the bath, the cloth is immersed in it. The fire is then replaced, and the liquid made to boil rapidly for an hour, when the cloth is removed and washed in pure water.
2693. Cloth (Yellow).
Use No. ii. for calico. Quercitron and weld produce a solid yellow; fustic a very brilliant tint; while turmeric yields a less solid yellow.
2694. Feathers (Black).
Use the same as for cloth.
2695. Feathers (Blue).
Every shade may be given by indigo—or dip in silk dye.
2696. Feathers (Crimson).
Dip in acetate of alumina mordant, then in a boiling-hot decoction of Brazil-wood—and, last of all, pass through a bath of cudbear.
2697. Feathers (Pink, or Rose-colour).
Pink, or rose-colour, is given by safflower and lemon juice.
2698. Feathers (Deep Red).
Proceed as for crimson, omitting the cudbear bath.
[THE FAT MAN KNOWETH NOT WHAT THE LEAN THINK.]
2699. Feathers (Yellow).
Mordant with acetate of alumina, and dip in a bath of turmeric or weld.
2700. Hair (Black).
As the object in view is simply to dye the hair without tingeing the skin, the following will be found the best:—Take equal parts of litharge and lime; mix well, and form into a paste with water, if a black is desired; with milk if brown. Clean the head with a small tooth comb, and then well wash the hair with soda and water to free it from grease; then lay on the paste pretty thick, and cover the head with oilskin or a cabbage-leaf, after which go to bed. Next morning the powder should be carefully brushed away, and the hair oiled.
2701. Leather (Black).
Use No. iv. black stain (see par. 1430), and polish with oil.
2702. Gloves (Nankeen).
Steep saffron in boiling-hot soft water for about twelve hours; sew up the tops of the gloves, to prevent the dye staining the insides, wet them over with a sponge dipped in the liquid. A teacupful of dye will do a pair of gloves.
2703. Gloves (Purple).
Boil four ounces of logwood and two ounces of roche alum in three pints of soft water till half wasted; strain, and let it cool. Sew up the tops, go over the outsides with a brush or sponge twice; then rub off the loose dye with a coarse cloth. Beat up the white of an egg, and rub it over the leather with a sponge. Vinegar will remove the stain from the hands.
2704. Silk (Black).
The same as for cloth, but black dyeing is difficult.
2705. Silk (Blue).
i. Wash quite clean, rinse well, and then dip in a hot solution of sulphate of iron: after a short time take it out and rinse again. Have ready in another vessel a hot solution of prussiate of potash, to which a small quantity of sulphuric acid has been added. Dip the silk in this liquid; on removal rinse in clean water, and expose to the air to dry.
ii. Wash well, rinse, wring out, and then dip in the following:—Boil a pound of indigo, two pounds of woad, and three ounces of alum, in a gallon of water. When the silk is of a proper colour, remove, rinse, and dry.
2706. Silk (Carnation).
Boil two gallons of wheat and an ounce of alum in four gallons of water; strain through a fine sieve; dissolve half a pound more of alum and white tartar; add three pounds of madder, then put in the silk at a moderate heat.
2707. Silk (Crimson).
Take about a spoonful of cudbear, put it into a small pan, pour boiling water upon it; stir and let it stand a few minutes, then put in the silk, and turn it over in a short time, and when the colour is full enough, take it out; but if it should require more violet or crimson, add a spoonful or two of purple archil to some warm water; steep, and dry it within doors. It must be mangled, and ought to be pressed.
2708. Silk (Lilac).
For every pound of silk, take one and a half pounds of archil, mix it well with the liquor; make it boil for a quarter of an hour, dip the silk quickly, then let it cool, and wash it in river water, and a fine half violet, or lilac, more or less full, will be obtained.
2709. Silk (Madder Red).
Use the dye for cloth.
2710. Silk (Yellow).
Take clear wheat bran liquor fifteen pounds, in which dissolve three quarters of a pound of alum; boil the silk in this for two hours, and afterwards take half a pound of weld, and boil it till the colour is good. Nitre used with alum and water in the first boiling fixes the colour.
2711. Wool (Blue).
Boil in a decoction of logwood and sulphate or acetate of copper.
2712. Wool (Brown).
Steep in an infusion of green walnut-peels.
2713. Wool (Drab).
Impregnate with brown oxide of iron, and then dip in a bath of quercitron bark. It sumach is added, it will make the colour a dark brown.
[NO LOCK WILL HOLD GAINST KEYS OF GOLD.]
2714. Wool (Green).
First imbue with the blue, then with the yellow dye.
2715. Wool (Orange).
Dye first with the red dye for cloth, and then with a yellow.
2716. Wool (Red).
Take four and a half pounds of cream of tartar, four and a quarter pounds of alum; boil the wool gently for two hours; let it cool, and wash it on the following day in pure water.
Infuse twelve pounds of madder for half an hour with a pound of chloride of tin, in lukewarm water; filter through canvas, remove the dye from the canvas, and put it in the bath, which is to be heated to 100 deg. Fahr.; add two ounces of aluminous mordant, put the wool in, and raise to boiling heat.
Remove the wool, wash, and soak for a quarter of an hour in a solution of white soap in water.
2717. Wool (Yellow).
Dye with that used for calico, &c.
2718. Dyeing Bonnets.
Chip and straw bonnets or hats may be dyed black by boiling them three or four hours in a strong liquor of logwood, adding a little green copperas occasionally. Let the bonnets remain in the liquor all night, then take out to dry in the air. If the black is not satisfactory, dye again after drying. Rub inside and out with a sponge moistened in fine oil. Then block.
2719. To Dye Hair and Feathers Green.
Take of either verdigris or verditer one ounce; gum water, one pint; mix them well, and dip the hair or feathers into the mixture, shaking them well about.
2720. To Clean White Satin and Flowered Silks.
i. Mix sifted stale bread-crumbs with powder blue, and rub it thoroughly all over the article; then shake it well, and dust it with clean soft cloths. Afterwards, where there are any gold or silver flowers, take a piece of crimson ingrain velvet, rub the flowers with it, which will restore them to their original lustre.
ii. Pass them through a solution of fine hard soap of a moderate heat, drawing them through the hand; rinse in lukewarm water, dry, and finish by pinning out. Brush the flossy or bright side with a clean clothes-brush, the way of the nap. Finish them by dipping a sponge into a size, made by boiling isinglass in water, and rub the wrong side. Rinse out a second time, and brush, and dry near a fire in a warm room.
Silk may be treated in the same way, but not brushed.
2721. Cleaning Silk, Satins, Coloured Woollen Dresses, &c.
Four ounces of soft soap, four ounces of honey, the white of an egg, and a wineglassful of gin; mix well together, and scour the article with a rather hard brush thoroughly; afterwards rinse it in cold water, leave to drain, and iron whilst quite damp.
2722. To Clean Black Cloth Clothes.
Clean the garments well, then boil four ounces of logwood in a boiler or copper containing two or three gallons of water for half an hour; dip the clothes in warm water and squeeze dry, then put them into the copper and boil for half an hour. Take them out, and add three drachms of sulphate of iron; boil for half an hour, then take them out and hang them up for an hour or two; take them down, rinse them thrice in cold water, dry well, and rub with a soft brush which has had a few drops of olive oil applied to its surface. If the clothes are threadbare about the elbows, cuffs, &c., raise the nap with a teasel or half worn hatter's card, filled with flocks, and when sufficiently raised, lay the nap the right way with a hard brush.
2723. To Clean Furs.
Strip the fur articles of their stuffing and binding, and lay them as nearly as possible in a flat position They must then be subjected to a very brisk brushing, with a stiff clothes-brush; after this any moth-eaten parts must be cut out, and neatly replaced by new bits of fur to match.
Sable, chinchilla, squirrel, fitch, &c., should be treated as follows: Warm a quantity of new bran in a pan, taking care that it does not burn, to prevent which it must be actively stirred. When well warmed, rub it thoroughly into the fur with the hand. Repeat this two or three times: then shake the fur, and give it another sharp brushing until free from dust.
White furs, ermine, &c., may be cleaned as follows:—Lay the fur on a table, and rub it well with bran made moist with warm water; rub until quite dry, and afterwards with dry bran. The wet bran should be put on with flannel, and the dry with a piece of book muslin.
The light furs, in addition to the above, should be well rubbed with magnesia, or a piece of book muslin, after the bran process.
Furs are usually much improved by stretching, which may be managed as follows: To a pint of soft water add three ounces of salt, dissolve; with this solution, sponge the inside of the skin (taking care not to wet the fur) until it becomes thoroughly saturated; then lay it carefully on a board with the fur side downwards, in its natural position; then stretch as much as it will bear, and to the required shape, and fasten with small tacks. The drying may be accelerated by placing the skin a little distance from the fire or stove.
[GOLD IS NO BALM TO A WOUNDED SPIRIT.]
2724. Cleansing Feathers of their Animal Oil.
The following receipt gained a premium from the Society of Arts:—Take for every gallon of clean water one pound of quicklime, mix them well together, and when the undissolved lime is precipitated in fine powder, pour off the clean lime water for use. Put the feathers to be cleaned in another tub, and add to them a quantity of the clean lime water, sufficient to cover them about three inches when well immersed and stirred about therein. The feathers, when thoroughly moistened, will sink, and should remain in the lime water three or four days; after which the foul liquor should be separated from them, by laying them in a sieve.
The feathers should be afterwards well washed in clean water, and dried upon nets, the meshes of which may be about the fineness of cabbage nets. The feathers must be from time to time shaken on the nets, and, as they get dry, they will fall through the meshes, and must be collected for use. The admission of air will be serviceable in drying. The process will be completed in three weeks. When thus prepared, the feathers need only be beaten to get rid of the dust.
2725. To Clean White Ostrich Feathers.
Four ounces of white soap, cut small, dissolved in four pints of water, rather hot, in a large basin; make the solution into a lather, by beating it with birch rods, or wires. Introduce the feathers, and rub well with the hands for five or six minutes. After this soaping, wash in clean water, as hot as the hand can bear. Shake until dry.
2726. Cleaning Straw Bonnets.
They may be washed with soap and water, rinsed in clear water, and dried in the air. Then wash them over with white of egg well beaten, Remove the wire before washing. Old straw bonnets may be picked to pieces, and put together for children, the head parts being cut out.
2727. To Bleach a Faded Dress.
Wash it well in hot suds, and boil it until the colour seems to be gone, then wash, and rinse, and dry it in the sun; if still not quite white, repeat the boiling.
2728. Bleaching Straw Bonnets, &c.
Wash them in pure water, scrubbing them with a brush. Then put them into a box in which has been set a saucer of burning sulphur. Cover them up, so that the fumes may bleach them.
2729. Clothes Balls.
Take some fullers' earth, dried till it crumbles to powder: moisten it with the juice of lemon, add a small quantity of pearlash, work and knead carefully together till it forms a thick paste; make into balls, and dry them in the sun. Moisten the spot on clothes with water, then rub it with the ball. Wash out the spot with pure water.
[O HEART! BUT TRY IT ONCE;—'TIS EASY TO BE...]
2730. To Wash China Crepe Scarves, &c.
If the fabric be good, these articles of dress can be washed as frequently as may be required, and no diminution of their beauty will be discoverable, even when the various shades of green have been employed among other colours in the patterns. In cleaning them, make a strong lather of boiling water; suffer it to cool; when cold or nearly so, wash the scarf quickly and thoroughly, dip it immediately in cold hard water in which a little salt has been thrown (to preserve the colours), rinse, squeeze, and hang it out to dry in the open air; pin it at its extreme edge to the line, so that it may not in any part be folded together: the more rapidly it dries the clearer it will be.
2731. To Wash a White Lace Veil.
Put the veil into a strong lather of white soap and very clear water, and let it simmer slowly for a quarter of an hour; take it out and squeeze it well, but be sure not to rub it: rinse it twice in cold water, the second time with a drop or two of liquid blue. Have ready some very clear weak gum arabic water, or some thin starch, or rice water; pass the veil through it, and clear it by clapping; then stretch it out evenly, and pin it to dry on a linen cloth, making the edge as straight as possible, opening out all the scallops, and fastening each with pins. When dry, lay a piece of thin muslin smoothly over it, and iron it on the wrong side.
2732. Blond Lace.
Blond lace may be revived by breathing upon it, and shaking and flapping it. The use of the iron turns the lace yellow.
2733. Washing Bed Furniture, &c.
Before putting into the water, see that you shake off as much dust as possible, or you will greatly increase your labour. Use no soda, or pearlash, or the articles will lose their colour. Use soft water, not hot, but warm: have plenty of it. Rub with mottled soap. On wringing out the second liquor, dip each piece into cold hard water for finishing. Shake out well, and dry quickly. If starch is desired, it may be stirred into the rinsing water.
2734. Washing with Lime (1).
Half a pound of soap; half a pound of soda; quarter of a pound of quick-lime. Cut up the soap and dissolve it in half a gallon of boiling water; pour half a gallon of boiling water over the soda, and enough boiling water over the quick-lime to cover it. The lime must be quick and fresh; if quick, it will bubble up when the hot water is poured over it. Prepare each of these in separate vessels; put the dissolved lime and soda together, and boil them for twenty minutes; then pour them into a jar to settle.
2735. Washing with Lime (2).
After having made the Preparation, set aside the flannels and coloured articles, as they must not be washed in this way. They may be washed in the usual way while the others are boiling. The night before, the collars and wristbands of shirts, the feet of stockings, &c., should be rubbed well with soap and set to soak. In the morning pour ten gallons of water into the copper, and having strained the mixture of lime and soda well, taking great care not to disturb the settlings, put it, together with the soap, into the water, and make the whole boil before putting in the clothes.
A plate should be placed at the bottom of the copper, to prevent the clothes from burning. Boil each lot of clothes from half an hour to an hour, then rinse them well in cold blue water. When dry they will be beautifully white. The same water will do for three lots. Wash the finer things first.
2736. Washing. (Supremacy of Soapsuds over Lime).
To save your linen and your labour,—pour on half a pound of soda two quarts of boiling water, in an earthenware pan; take half a pound of soap, shred fine; put it into a saucepan with two quarts of cold water; stand it on a fire till it boils; and when perfectly dissolved and boiling, add it to the former. Mix it well, and let it stand till cold, when it will have the appearance of a strong jelly. Let your linen be soaked in water, the seams and any other soiled part rubbed in the usual way, and remain till the following morning. Get your copper ready, and add to the water about a pint basin full; when lukewarm put in your linen, and allow it to boil for twenty minutes. Rinse it in the usual way, and that is all which is necessary to get it clean, and to keep it in good colour. Housekeepers will find the above receipt invaluable.
[...BUT TO APPEAR SO, WHAT A STRAIN AND MISERY!]
2737. Hard Water.
When water is hard, and will not readily unite with soap, it will always be proper to boil it before use; which will be found sufficiently efficacious, if the hardness depends solely upon the impregnation of lime. Even exposure to the atmosphere will produce this effect in a great degree upon spring water so impregnated, leaving it much fitter for lavatory purposes.
In both cases the water ought to be carefully poured off from the sediment, as the neutralized lime, when freed from its extra quantity of carbonic acid, falls to the bottom by its own gravity. To economize the use of soap, put any quantity of pearlash into a large jar, covered from the dust, in a few days the alkali will become liquid, which must be diluted in double its quantity of soft water, with an equal quantity of new-slacked lime. Boil it half an hour, frequently stirring it; adding as much more hot water, and drawing off the liquor, when the residuum may be boiled afresh, and drained, until it ceases to feel acrid to the tongue.
2738. Washing Machines.
Much labour in washing has been saved by the introduction of washing machines, by which the toil of washing day, formerly so severe, has been much abridged. Suitable machines for washing, wringing, and mangling may be purchased at comparatively low prices of any of the makers of what is termed "labour-saving machinery," such as Kent, Bradford, Twelvetrees, &c. Preparations for softening water, and facilitating the process, exist in the Extract of Soap, and the various washing powders now to be purchased of most grocers and oil and colourmen. Cold water soap, too, has achieved considerable popularity, for by its use a lather can be quickly produced, even in the hardest water.
2739. Save Soap and Labour.
Soap and labour may he saved by dissolving alum and chalk in bran water, in which the linen ought to be boiled, then well rinsed out, and exposed to the usual process of bleaching.
2740. Hardly Any Soap.
Soap may be dispensed with, or nearly so, in the getting up of muslins and chintzes, which should always be treated agreeably to the Oriental manner; that is, to wash them in plain water, and then boil them in rice water; after which they ought not to be submitted to the operation of the smoothing iron, but rubbed smooth with a polished stone. This work, which is known as "calendering," is very heavy and laborious, and is done by men.
The economy which must result from these processes renders their consideration important to every family, in addition to which, we must state that the improvements in philosophy extend to the laundry as well as to the wash-house.
2742. Gum Arabic Starch.
Procure two ounces of fine white gum arabic, and pound it to powder. Next put it into a pitcher, and pour on it a pint or more of boiling water, according to the degree of strength you desire, and then, having covered it, let it set all night. In the morning, pour it carefully from the dregs into a clean bottle, cork it, and keep it for use. A tablespoonful of gum water stirred into a pint of starch that has been made in the usual manner will give to lawns (either white or printed) a look of newness to which nothing else can restore them after washing. It is also good (much diluted) for the white muslin and bobbinet.
[LIFE'S BUT A MEANS TO AN END...]
2743. Mildew out of Linen.
Rub the linen well with, soap; then scrape some fine chalk, and rub it also on the linen. Lay it on the grass. As it dries, wet it a little, and the mildew will come out with a second application.
2744. To Render Linen, &c., Incombustible.
All linen, cotton, muslins, &c., &c., when dipped in a solution of tungstate of soda or common alum, will become incombustible.
2745. Sweet Bags for Linen.
These may be composed of any mixtures of the following articles:—flowers, dried and pounded; powdered cloves, mace, nutmeg, cinnamon; leaves—dried and pounded—of mint, balm, dragon-wort, southernwood, ground-ivy, laurel, hyssop, sweet marjoram, origanum, rosemary; woods, such as cassia, juniper, rhodium, sandal-wood, and rosewood; roots of angelica, zedoary, orris; all the fragrant balsams—ambergris, musk, and civet. These latter should be carefully used on linen.
Rings which have stones in them should always be taken off the finger when the hands are washed, or they will become discoloured.
A series of papers were published in the Lancet and elsewhere a few years back on the subject of Adulteration. These brought about a parliamentary inquiry; the inquiry ended in demonstrating that nearly everything we ate and drank was adulterated—in many cases with ingredients very prejudicial to human health. The result of the inquiry was the passing of an Act of Parliament in 1875 for the purpose of putting a stop to this wholesale adulteration by making it a criminal offence. The Act is called the "Sale of Foods and Drugs Act," and the following are the most important clauses it contains:
"No person shall mix, colour, stain, or powder any article of food with any ingredient or material, so as to render the article injurious to health, with the intent that the same may be sold in that state, and no person shall sell such article under a penalty not exceeding L50."
"No person shall sell to the prejudice of the purchaser any article of food, or any drug which is not of the nature, substance, and quality of the article demanded under a penalty not exceeding L20."
The Act also provides for the appointment of public analysts for counties and boroughs. An Act passed in 1887 provides that all substances or compounds made to imitate butter shall be sold as Margarine, and all wrappers, &c., used in its sale must be plainly marked. These Acts are intended for the protection of the public; but we give below the names of a few of the chief articles of consumption that are liable to be adulterated, and when possible how to detect the adulteration, or the best mode of avoiding it.
The chief adulteration of bread is alum. This is added to give the bread a pure white colour, which is supposed to be an advantage, thus enabling the baker to use inferior or damaged flour. The presence of alum can be detected by soaking a piece of the bread in an ammoniaca tincture of logwood. If alum be present the bread will be turned blue, whereas pure bread will remain pink. Recent investigations have proved that the presence of alum is extremely injurious, especially to children, affecting the coats of the stomach and impairing the digestion.
Butter is made heavy by water, being beaten up with it. Cheap samples are sometimes adulterated with other fats and grease, which however require an experienced analyst to detect.
2750. Cayenne Pepper.
The cayenne of commerce is adulterated with brickdust, red wood dust, cochineal, vermilion, and red lead. The last two are highly injurious. These can be detected by any one possessing a good microscope. The best way to avoid the impurities is to purchase the capsicums or chilies, pounding them with a pestle and mortar, and rubbing through a sieve, in small quantities as required. The pepper is far better flavoured when fresh ground.
[...BEGINNING, MEAN AND END TO ALL THINGS—GOD.]
2751. Chocolate and Cocoa.
Those who prefer the pure cocoa can obtain the "nibs," or more properly "beans," and grind them. But many prefer the soluble cocoa, which is simply cocoa modified by admixture with less stimulating substances.
Coffee is adulterated with roasted beans, peas, and acorns; but chiefly with chicory. Having your own mill, buy the roasted beans; find out a respectable grocer, ascertain his roasting-days, and always buy from a fresh roast. If you like the flavour of chicory, purchase it separately, and add to taste. Chicory in small quantities is not injurious, but you need not pay the coffee price for it. Grind your coffee, and mix it with chicory for yourself.
Milk is "adulterated" by skimming off part of the cream, also by the addition of water.
Mustard is adulterated with flour and turmeric; as, however, mustard is usually sold in tins it is easy to obtain it pure, as under the Sale of Foods and Drugs Act, all that is mixed with flour and other flavourings has to be labelled as such on the outside of the package. Many prefer this mixture to the pure article.
Pepper is adulterated with inferior grain, husks of seeds, and even dust of a variety of descriptions. Having your pepper-mill, purchase the seed whole, and grind for yourself. You will then obtain the pure article at a moderate cost.
The most offensive of all adulterations are found in these savoury morsels. Horseflesh, diseased animals, and odds and ends of every description appear in the tempting guise of "sausages." To escape this evil, make your own sausages by the aid of the sausage machine, which will enable you to add many savoury morsels to the attractions of your table. The same machine may be used for chopping vegetables, which it will do to such perfection that they will perfectly dissolve in soups and stews, and afford most delicious made-dishes. And in this you will soon save the cost of the machine.
Tea is all examined now by the Customs' authorities before "duty" is allowed to be paid upon it; it is, therefore, practically pure. This was only done about a year ago.
This perhaps is more often adulterated than any other article of consumption. As a rule the water supplied by the companies to the large towns is exceedingly pure, that supplied by the London companies being analysed every month by a government official; but the adulteration chiefly rests with the consumer or householder, in not keeping the cisterns clean, dust, soot, and even dead mice, cockroaches, &c., being allowed to contaminate the water; also by permitting the overflow pipe to be connected with the soil pipe, or drain, whence the water absorbs poisonous gases. The overflow pipes should in all cases be entirely disconnected with, all drains, and the cisterns should, if possible have a cover. The cisterns should invariably be cleaned out thoroughly at least every three months.
In places where the water is drawn from wells great care should be taken that the well cannot be contaminated by any drain or cesspool leaking into it. Many cases of serious illness, notably diphtheria, have been traced to this cause. When there is the least reason to doubt the purity of the well all the water for drinking purposes should be boiled before using, and no time should be lost in having it examined by an experienced analyst. All water that is used for drinking should be first filtered through a reliable filter. Small glass filters for the table can now be obtained in every town for two or three shillings.
[GOOD WARE MAKES A QUICK MARKET.]
2759. Other Evils besides "Adulterations."
The butcher cannot adulterate the beef and the mutton, but he can send home short weight; and in casting up a bill, he can reckon the odd ounces at one penny each, instead of one halfpenny; and the baker, besides putting alum into the bread, to make it white and retain water, can send home deficient weight; the same with the grocer, the greengrocer, and the coal merchant; the publican can give short measure, and froth up the porter to fill the jug and disguise the shortness of quantity; and the draper can slip his scissors on the wrong side of his finger, and make a yard contain only thirty-three inches. We don't mean to say that they do this, nor do we mean to say that they don't. We argue, that people ought to possess the means of ascertaining who among shopkeepers are honest, and who are not; then the just would meet with justice, and the unjust would suffer for their own sins.
2760. Nutritious Proportions.
Bread contains eighty nutritious parts in 100; meal, thirty-four in 100; French beans, ninety-two in 100; common beans, eighty-nine in 100; peas, ninety-three in 100; lentils, ninety-four in 100; cabbages and turnips, the most aqueous of all the vegetables compared, produce only eight pounds of solid matter in 100 pounds; carrots and spinach produce fourteen in the same quantity; whilst 100 pounds of potatoes contain twenty-five pounds of dry substance. From a general estimate it results, that one pound of good bread is equal to two pounds and a half or three pounds of potatoes; that seventy-five pounds of bread and thirty of meat may be substituted for 300 pounds of potatoes. The other substances bear the followed proportions: four parts of cabbage to one of potatoes; three parts of turnips to one of potatoes; two parts of carrots and spinach to one of potatoes; and about three parts and a half of potatoes to one of rice, lentils, beans, French beans, and dry peas.
2761. Use of Fruit.
Instead of standing in any fear of a generous consumption of ripe fruits, we regard them as conducive to health. We have no patience in reading the endless rules to be observed in this particular department of physical comfort. No one ever lived longer or freer from disease by discarding the fruits of the land in which he finds a home. On the contrary, they are necessary to the preservation of health, and are therefore designed to make their appearance at the very time when the condition of the body, operated upon by deteriorating causes not always understood, requires their renovative influences.
Blackberries are very beneficial in cases of dysentery. The berries are healthful eating. Tea made of the roots and leaves is good; and syrup made from the berries excellent.
2763. Sloe Wine.
Sloe wine is useful in cases of diarrhoea, the astringent properties of this fruit tending to counteract relaxation of the bowels. It is made by steeping sloes in water, and letting them stand therein until a thick coating of mildew is formed on the surface. This is removed, and the liquor is then strained and bottled, and tightly corked down. Not more than from half a wine-glassful to a wine-glassful should be taken when required.
2764. Early Milk.
"Morning's Milk," says an eminent German philosopher, "commonly yields some hundredths more cream than the evening's at the same temperature. That milked at noon furnishes the least; it would therefore be of advantage, in making butter, &c., to employ the morning's milk, and keep the evening's for domestic use."
[OF ALL SMELLS, BREAD; OF ALL TASTES, SALT.]
2765. Lawn Tennis.
This fashionable and delightful game, suitable for both ladies and gentlemen, is generally played on a lawn or grass-plat by two, three, or four players, with balls and racquet bats. The object of the game is to strike a ball over a net and keep it in play backwards and forwards within certain limits. The court or ground may be of any size consistent with the lawn, the base lines being marked out by chalk, or tapes slightly pinned to the turf, which should be frequently mown and rolled. The mode of play may be seen from the following leading rules, which are now generally accepted by all players.
2766. Rules of Lawn Tennis.
i. The Court, for a single-handed game, should be 78 ft. long and 27 ft. wide, and for a double-handed game the same length, but 36 ft. wide, divided across the centre by a net attached to two upright posts. The net should be 3 ft. 6 in. high at the posts, and 3 ft. at the centre. At each end of the court, parallel with the net, are the base lines, whose extremities are connected by the side lines. The half-court line is halfway between the side lines and parallel with them. The service lines are 21 ft. from the net and parallel with it.
ii. The balls should be 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 2 oz. in weight.
iii. The players stand on opposite sides of the net. The player who first delivers the ball is called the server, the other the striker-out.
iv. At the end of each game the striker-out becomes server, and the server striker-out.
v. The server stands with one foot beyond the base line, and delivers the service from the right and left courts alternately.
vi. The balls served must, without touching the net, drop within the court nearest to the net, diagonally opposite to that from which the striker serves it.
vii. If the service be delivered from the wrong court it is a fault. It is also a fault if the server does not stand in the manner as stated above, or if the ball served drop in the net or beyond the service line, or if it drop out of court, or go in the wrong court.
viii. A fault must not be taken, that is, played back to the server.
ix. The striker-out may not volley the service. Volleying is striking the ball back before it has touched the ground.
x. The ball, having been returned, must be kept in play either by volleying it, or striking it back after the first bounce. A ball bouncing twice is out of play.
xi. If, in serving, the ball touch the net and go over into the proper court, it counts to neither server nor striker-out.
xii. The server scores if the striker-out volley the service, or fail to return the service in such a way that the ball would fall within the opponents' court.
xiii. Two consecutive faults count a stroke against the server.
xiv. If the ball when in play touch either player it scores a stroke for his opponent.
xv. The first stroke won by either player scores 15 to that player; the second, won by the same player, raises his score to 30, his third stroke to 40, and his fourth counts game. If, however, the players have both scored 40, it is called deuce, and the next stroke won by either is called advantage to the winner of it, and if he also win the following stroke he scorea game. Should he lose it the score returns to deuce. The player winning two consecutive strokes directly following a deuce scores game.
xvi. Whichever player first scores six games is considered to win the set.
2767. Three—Handed and Four-Handed Lawn Tennis.
i. The laws as given above apply equally to these games. The difference in the width of the court has been stated.
ii. In Four-handed Tennis the players deliver the service in turns: thus supposing A and B are partners opposed to C and D; A serves in the first game, C in the second, B serves in the third, and D in the fourth, and so on.
iii. In Three-handed Tennis the single player serves in each alternate game.
iv. No player may return a service that has been delivered to his partner.
Badminton is a game similar to Lawn Tennis, but it is played with shuttlecocks instead of balls, and over a higher net.
[THAT THOU MAYEST INJURE NO MAN, DOVE-LIKE BE.]
2769. Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes.
INLAND BILL OF EXCHANGE, Draft, or Order for the payment to the bearer, or to order, at any time, otherwise than on demand, of any sum of money,
Duty. L s. d. Not above..................... L5 0 0 1 above L5 and not above 10 0 0 2 " 10 " 25 0 0 3 " 25 " 50 0 0 6 " 50 " 75 0 0 9 " 75 " 100 0 1 0 " 100 " 200 0 2 0 " 200 " 300 0 3 0 " 300 " 400 0 4 0 " 400 " 500 0 5 0 " 500 " 600 0 6 0 " 600 " 700 0 7 0 " 700 " 800 0 8 0 " 800 " 900 0 9 0 " 900 " 1000 0 10 0
And for every additional L100 or fractional part of L100, 1s.
2770. Percentages or Discounts.
Showing the Reduction per L on Discounts allowed for Cash Purchases, at Rates ranging from 1 to 50 per cent.
s. d. s. d. _ 0-1/2 p.c. is 0 1 per L 11 p.c. is 2 2-1/2 per L 1 " 0 2-1/2 " 12 " 2 5 " 1-1/2 " 0 3-1/2 " 12-1/2 " 2 6 " 2 " 0 5 " 13 " 2 7 " 2-1/2 " 0 6 " 14 " 2 9-1/2 " 3 " 0 7 " 15 " 3 0 " 3-1/2 " 0 8-1/2 " 17-1/2 " 3 6 " 4 " 0 9-1/2 " 20 " 4 0 " 4-1/2 " 0 11 " 22-1/2 " 4 6 " 5 " 1 0 " 25 " 5 0 " 5-1/2 " 1 1 " 27-1/2 " 5 6 " 6 " 1 2-1/2 " 30 " 6 0 " 6-1/2 " 1 3-1/2 " 32-1/2 " 6 6 " 7 " 1 5 " 35 " 7 0 " 7-1/2 " 1 6 " 37-1/2 " 7 6 " 8 " 1 7 " 40 " 8 0 " 8-1/2 " 1 8-1/2 " 42-1/2 " 8 6 " 9 " 1 9-1/2 " 45 " 9 0 " 9-1/2 " 1 11 " 47-1/2 " 10 6 " 10 " 2 0 " 50 " 10 0 "
2771. A Table of the Number of Days, from any Day of any one Month to the same Day of any other Month.
From Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
To Jan. 365 334 306 275 245 214 184 153 122 92 61 31 Feb. 31 365 337 306 276 245 215 184 153 123 92 62 Mar. 59 28 365 334 304 273 243 212 181 151 120 90 Apr. 90 59 31 365 335 304 274 243 212 182 151 121 May 120 89 61 30 365 334 304 273 242 212 181 151 June 151 120 92 61 31 365 335 304 273 243 212 182 July 181 150 122 91 61 30 365 334 303 273 242 212 Aug. 212 181 153 122 92 61 31 365 334 304 273 243 Sep. 243 212 184 153 123 92 62 31 365 335 304 274 Oct. 273 242 214 183 153 122 92 61 30 365 334 304 Nov. 304 273 245 214 184 153 123 92 61 31 365 335 Dec. 334 303 275 244 214 183 153 122 91 61 30 365
USE OF THE ABOVE TABLE.
What is the number of days from 10th of October to 10th July? Look in the upper line for October, let your eye descend down that column till you come opposite to July, and you will find 273 days, the exact number of days required. Again, what is the number of days from 16th of February to 14th August?
Under February, and opposite to August, is 181 days From which subtract the difference between 14 and 16 2 days _ The exact number of days required is 179 days
N.B.—In Leap Year, if the last day February comes between, add one day for the day over to the number in the Table.
[...AND SERPENT-LIKE, THAT NONE MAY INJURE THEE.]
2772. For Mistresses and Servants: Table of Expenses, Income and Wages.
Showing at one view what any sum, from L1 to L1,000 per Annum, is per Day, Week, or Month.
Per Year. Per Month. Per Week. Per Day.
L s. L s. d. L s. d. L s. d.
1 is 1 8 0 4-1/2 0-3/4 1 10 2 6 0 7 1 2 0 3 4 0 9-1/4 1-1/4 2 2 4 6 0 9-3/4 1-1/2 2 0 5 2 0 11-1/2 1-3/4 3 0 5 0 1 1-3/4 2 3 3 5 3 1 2-1/2 2 3 10 6 10 1 4-1/4 2-1/4 4 0 6 8 1 6-1/2 2-3/4 4 4 7 0 1 7-1/2 2-3/4 4 10 7 6 1 8-3/4 3 5 0 8 4 1 11 3-1/4 5 5 8 9 2 0-1/4 3-1/2 5 10 9 2 2 1-1/2 3-3/4 6 0 10 0 2 3-3/4 4 6 6 10 6 2 5 4-1/4 6 10 10 10 2 6 4-1/4 7 0 11 8 2 8-1/4 4-1/2 7 7 12 3 2 10 4-3/4 7 10 12 6 2 10-1/2 5 8 0 13 4 3 1 5-1/4 ———————————————————————————————-
Per Year. Per Month. Per Week. Per Day.
L s. L s. d. L s. d. L s. d.
8 8 14 0 3 2-3/4 0 5-1/4 8 10 0 14 2 3 3-1/4 0 5-1/4 9 0 0 15 0 3 5-1/2 0 6 9 9 0 15 9 3 7-1/2 0 6-1/4 10 0 0 16 8 3 10-1/4 0 6-1/2 10 10 0 17 6 4 0-1/2 0 7 11 0 0 18 4 4 3-3/4 0 7-1/4 11 11 0 19 3 4 5-1/4 0 7-1/2 12 0 1 0 0 4 7-1/2 0 8 12 12 1 1 0 4 10-1/4 0 8-1/4 13 0 1 1 8 5 0 0 8-1/2 13 13 1 2 9 5 3 0 9 14 0 1 3 4 5 4-1/2 0 9-1/4 14 14 1 4 6 5 7-3/4 0 9-3/4 15 0 1 5 0 5 9-1/4 0 9-3/4 15 15 1 6 3 6 0-3/4 0 10-1/4 16 0 1 6 8 6 1-3/4 0 10-1/2 16 16 1 8 0 6 5-1/2 0 11 17 0 1 8 4 6 6-1/2 0 11-1/4 17 17 1 9 0 6 10-1/2 0 11-3/4 18 0 1 10 0 6 11 0 11-3/4 ———————————————————————————————-
Per Year. Per Month. Per Week. Per Day.
L s. L s. d. L s. d. L s. d.
18 18 1 11 6 0 7 3-1/4 0 1 0-1/2 19 0 1 11 8 0 7 3-3/4 0 1 0-1/2 20 0 1 13 4 0 7 8-1/4 0 1 1-1/4 25 0 2 1 8 0 9 7 0 1 4-1/2 30 0 2 10 0 0 11 6-1/2 0 1 7-3/4 40 0 3 6 8 0 15 4-1/2 0 2 2-1/4 50 0 4 3 4 0 19 2-3/4 0 2 9 60 0 5 0 0 1 3 1 0 3 3-1/2 70 0 5 16 8 1 6 11 0 3 10 80 0 6 13 4 1 10 9-1/4 0 4 4-1/2 90 0 7 10 0 1 14 7-1/2 0 4 11-1/4 100 0 8 6 8 1 18 5-1/2 0 5 5-3/4 200 0 16 13 4 3 16 11 0 10 11-1/2 300 0 25 0 0 5 15 4-1/2 0 16 5-1/4 400 0 33 6 8 7 13 10-1/4 1 1 11 500 0 41 18 4 9 12 3-3/4 1 7 4-3/4 600 0 50 0 0 11 10 9-1/4 1 12 10-1/2 700 0 58 6 8 13 9 2-3/4 1 18 4-1/4 800 0 66 13 4 15 7 8-1/4 2 3 10 900 0 75 0 0 17 6 1-3/4 2 9 3-3/4 1000 0 83 6 8 19 4 7-1/4 2 14 9-1/2 ———————————————————————————————-
2773. Interest Table for Savings, Investments, &c.
Showing what any sum, from L1 to L500, will produce for a given number of days, which may be, by simple addition, calculated at L5 per cent. for Months or Years, for sums up to L5,000 or any other amount.
1 Day. 2 Days. 3 Days. 4 Days. 5 Days.
L s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d.
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/4 4 0 0 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/2 0 0-1/2 5 0 0 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/2 0 0-3/4 6 0 0 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/2 0 0-3/4 0 0-3/4 7 0 0 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/2 0 0-3/4 0 1 8 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/2 0 0-3/4 0 1 0 1-1/4 9 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/2 0 0-3/4 0 1 0 1-1/2 10 0 0-1/4 0 0-1/2 0 0-3/4 0 1-1/4 0 1-1/2 20 0 0-1/2 0 1-1/4 0 1-3/4 0 2-1/2 0 3-1/4 30 0 0-3/4 0 1-3/4 0 2-3/4 0 3-3/4 0 4-3/4 40 0 1-1/4 0 2-1/4 0 3-3/4 0 5-1/4 0 6-1/2 50 0 1-1/2 0 3-1/4 0 4-3/4 0 6-1/2 0 8 60 0 1-3/4 0 3-3/4 0 5-3/4 0 7-3/4 0 9-3/4 70 0 2-1/4 0 4-1/2 0 6-3/4 0 9 0 11-1/2 80 0 2-1/2 0 5-1/4 0 7-3/4 0 10-1/2 1 1 90 0 2-3/4 0 5-3/4 0 8-3/4 0 11-3/4 1 2-3/4 100 0 3-1/4 0 6-1/2 0 9-3/4 1 1 1 4-1/4 200 0 6-1/2 1 1 1 7-1/2 2 2-1/4 2 8-3/4 300 0 9-3/4 1 7-1/2 2 5-1/2 3 3-1/4 4 1-1/4 400 1 1 2 2-1/4 3 3-1/4 4 4-1/2 5 5-3/4 500 1 4-1/4 2 8-3/4 4 1-1/4 5 5-3/4 6 10