Enquire Within Upon Everything - The Great Victorian Domestic Standby
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2444. Cure for Toothache.

Two or three drops of essential oil of cloves put upon a small piece of lint or cotton wool, and placed in the hollow of the tooth, will be found to have the active power of curing the toothache without destroying the tooth or injuring the gums.

2445. Gutta Percha Tooth-Stopping.

Since the introduction of gutta-percha, the use of metallic succedaneum for filling decayed teeth has been superseded, especially in cases where the cavities are large. The gutta-percha is inodorous, cheap, and can be renewed as often as required. It is only necessary to soften it by warmth, either by holding it before a fire, or immersing it in boiling water. Succedaneum is best when the decayed spots are very small.

2446. Succedaneum.

Take an old silver thimble, an old silver coin, or other silver article, and with a very fine file convert it into filings. Sift through gauze, to separate the coarse from the fine particles. Take the finer portion, and mix with sufficient quicksilver to form a stiff amalgam, and while in this state fill the cavaties of decayed teeth. This is precisely the same as the metallic amalgam used by all dentists.

Caution.—As it turns black under the action of the acids of the mouth, it should be used sparingly for front teeth. A tooth should never be filled while it is aching.

2447. Rose Lipsalve.

i. Oil of almonds, three ounces; alkanet, half an ounce. Let them stand together in a warm place, then strain. Melt one ounce and a half of white wax and half an ounce of spermaceti with the oil; stir it till it begins to thicken, and add twelve drops of otto of roses.

ii. White wax, one ounce; almond oil, two ounces; alkanet, one drachm; digest in a warm place, stir till sufficiently coloured, strain and stir in six drops of otto of roses.

2448. Ventilating Bedrooms.

A sheet of finely perforated zinc, substituted for a pane of glass in one of the upper squares of a chamber window, is the cheapest and best form of ventilator; there should not be a bedroom without it.

2449. A Simple Method of Ventilation.

Get a piece of deal two inches wide and one inch thick, and as long as the width of the sashes of the window in which it is to be used. Care should be taken to ascertain the width of the sashes exactly, which may be done by measuring along the top of the lower sash, from one side of the sash frame to the other. Raise the lower sash—drop in the piece of wood, so that it rests on the bottom part of the window frame, the ends being within the stops on either side, and then close the sash upon it. If properly planed up, no draught can enter between the wood and the bottom of the sash; but the air can enter the room in an upward direction, through the opening between the top of the lower sash and the bottom of the upper sash, any direct draught into the interior of the room being prevented by the position of the lower sash.


2450. Bedclothes.

The perfection of dress, for day or night, where warmth is the purpose, is that which confines around the body sufficient of its own warmth, while it allows escape to the exhalations of the skin. Where the body is allowed to bathe protractedly in its own vapours we must expect an unhealthy effect upon the skin. Where there is too little allowance for ventilation, insensible perspiration is checked, and something analogous to fever supervenes; foul tongue, ill taste, and lack of morning appetite betray the evil.

2451. Vapour Baths.

Vapour baths may be made by putting boiling water in a pan, and placing a cane-bottom chair in the pan, the patient sitting upon it, enveloped from head to foot in a blanket covering the bath. Sulphur, spirit, medicinal, herbal, and other baths may be obtained in the same manner. They should not be taken except under medical advice.

2452. Vapour Bath at Home.

Another equally easy but far more effectual method of procuring a vapour bath at home is to attach one end of a piece of gutta-percha tubing to the snout of a kettle on the fire, and to introduce the other end below the chair, on which the person who requires the bath is sitting, enveloped in a blanket as described above.

2453. Hot Water.

In bruises, hot water is the most efficacious, both by means of insertion and fomentation, in removing pain, and totally preventing discoloration and stiffness. It has the same effect after a blow. It should be applied as quickly as possible, and as hot as it can be borne. The efficacy of hot water in preventing the ill effects of fatigue is too well-known to require notice.

2454. Thinning the Blood.

It is desirable to consider the means of thinning the blood, when it has been deprived, by too profuse transpiration in hot, dry winds, of its aqueous particles, and rendered thick and viscid. Water would easily supply this want of fluidity if it were capable of mingling with the blood when in this state; acid matter cannot be ultimately combined with the blood when the body is in this state. In order to find a menstruum by which water may be rendered capable of combining ultimately with the blood, of remaining long in combination with it, and of thinning it, we must mix it with a substance possessing the property of a soap, and consequently fit to dissolve viscous matters, and make them unite with water.

The soap must contain but little salt, that it may not increase the thirst of the parched throat. It must not have a disagreeable taste, that it may be possible to drink a considerable quantity of it: and it must be capable of recruiting the strength without overloading the stomach.

Now all these qualities are to be found in the yolk of egg. No beverage, therefore, is more suitable (whilst it is very agreeable) for hot, dry weather than one composed of the yolk of an egg beaten up with a little sugar according to taste, and mixed with a quart of cool spring or filtered water, half a glass of Moselle or any other Rhenish wine, and some lemon juice. The wine, however, may be omitted, and only the lemon juice be used; in like manner, hartshorn shavings boiled in water may be substituted for the yolk of egg. Equal quantities of beef tea and whey are good for delicate infants.

2455. Beverage for Hot Weather.

The yolk of eggs beaten up, lump sugar (to taste), Rhenish wine or not, citric acid powdered, or tartaric acid (small quantity, exact quantity soon found); one or two drops of essence of lemon on a lump of sugar, to make it mix readily with the water; one quart of water. This is really an excellent, agreeable, and, without the wine, an inexpensive beverage.


2456. To Ascertain the State of the Lungs.

Persons desirous of ascertaining the true state of their lungs should draw in as much breath as they conveniently can, they are then to count as far as they are able, in a slow and audible voice, without drawing in more breath. The number of seconds they can continue counting must be carefully observed; in cases of consumption the time does not exceed ten, and is frequently less than six seconds; in pleurisy and pneumonia it ranges from nine to four seconds. When the lungs are in a sound condition, the time will range as high as from twenty to thirty-five seconds.

2457. To Avoid Catching Cold.

Accustom yourself to the use of sponging with cold water every morning on first getting out of bed. It should be followed by a good deal of rubbing with a wet towel. It has considerable effect in giving tone to the skin, and maintaining a proper action in it, and thus proves a safeguard to the injurious influence of cold and sudden changes of temperature. Sir Astley Cooper said,

"The methods by which I have preserved my own health are —temperance, early rising, and sponging the body every morning with cold water, immediately after getting out of bed,—a practice which I have adopted for thirty years without ever catching cold."

2458. How to Prepare Artificial Sea-Water.

In each gallon of river or rain water dissolve about six ounces of sea-salt, either by stirring it or suspending it in the water in a linen or muslin bag. It dissolves as readily in cold as in hot water. Sea-salt is produced by evaporation of sea-water. Common salt is sometimes supplied in place of it; but the genuine sea-salt, manufactured by well-known firms, which can be procured of any grocer or of most chemists, is specially prepared to enable persons to have a salt-water bath at home.

2459. Change the Water in which Leeches are Kept.

Once a month in winter, and once a week in summer, is sufficiently often, unless the water becomes discoloured or bloody, when it should be changed every day. Either clean pond water or clean rain water should be employed.

2460. Damp Linen.

Few things are attended with more serious consequences than sleeping in damp linen. Persons are frequently assured that the sheets have been at a fire for many hours, but the question is as to what sort of fire, and whether they have been properly turned, so that every part has been exposed to the fire. The fear of creasing the linen, we know, prevents many from unfolding it, so as to be what we consider sufficiently aired: but health is of more importance than appearances; with gentleness there need be no fear of want of neatness.

2461. Improving Camomile Tonic.

Dried orange peel added to camomile flowers, in the proportion of half the quantity of the flowers, improves the tonic.

2462. Gingerbread Aperient.

Gingerbread, made with oatmeal or with barley flour, is a very agreeable aperient for children. Beware of giving children medicines too frequently.

2463. Cod Liver Oil.

This very beneficial drug, formerly so unpopular on account of its rank odour and nauseous taste, has of late years largely increased in consumption through the skilful manipulations of modern science in its preparation, whereby both the smell and the flavour have been almost entirely removed, rendering it capable of being taken by even the most delicate stomach. It is extremely efficacious in cases of consumption and debility, checking the emaciation, regulating the appetite, and restoring vitality. Coffee, new milk, and orange wine, whichever the patient may fancy, are among the best mediums for taking the oil.


2464. Camomile Flowers.

Camomile flowers should be gathered on a fine day, and dried upon a tray placed in the sun. All herbs for medicinal purposes and uses should be treated in the same manner.

2465. Decoction of Sarsaparilla.

Take four ounces of the root, slice it down, put the slices into four pints of water, and simmer for four hours. Take out the sarsaparilla, and beat it into a mash; put it into the liquor again, and boil down to two pints, then strain and cool the liquor. Dose, a wineglassful three times a day. Use—to purify the blood after a course of mercury; or, indeed, whenever any taint is given to the constitution, vitiating the blood, and producing eruptive affections.

2466. Preston Salts.

Take of sal-ammoniac and salts of tartar of each about two ounces; pound up the sal-ammoniac into small bits, and mix them gently with the salts of tartar. After being well mixed, add a few drops of oil of lavender, sufficient to scent, and also a little musk; stop up in a glass bottle, and when required for use, add a few drops of water, or spirits of hartshorn, when you will immediately have strong smelling salts. The musk being expensive, may be omitted, as the salts will be good without it. Any person can for a few pence obtain these ingredients at any druggist's, and they will make salts, which, to buy prepared, would cost, at the least, eighteen pence.

2467. Destruction of Rats.

The following receipt for the destruction originated with Dr. Ure, and is highly recommended as the best known means of getting rid of these most obnoxious and destructive vermin.

Melt hog's-lard in a bottle plunged in water, heated to about 150 degrees of Fahrenheit; introduce into it half an ounce of phosphorus for every pound of lard; then add a pint of proof spirit, or whisky; cork the bottle firmly after its contents have been heated to 150 degrees, taking it at the same time out of the water, and agitate smartly till the phosphorus becomes uniformly diffused, forming a milky-looking liquid. This liquid, being cooled, will afford a white compound of phosphorus and lard, from which the spirit spontaneously separates, and may be poured off to be used again for the same purpose, but not for drinking, for none of it enters into the combination, but it merely serves to comminute the phosphorus, and diffuse it in very small particles through the lard.

This compound, on being warmed very gently, may be poured out into a mixture of wheat flour and sugar, incorporated therewith, and then flavoured with oil of rhodium, or not, at pleasure. The flavour may be varied with oil of aniseed, &c. This dough, being made into pellets, is to be laid into rat-holes. By its luminousness in the dark, it attracts their notice, and being agreeable to their palates and noses, it is readily eaten, and proves certainly fatal.

2468. To Kill Slugs (1).

Take a quantity of cabbage leaves, and either put them into a warm oven, or heat them before the fire till they get quite soft; then rub them with unsalted butter, or any kind of fresh dripping, and lay them in places infested with slugs. In a few hours the leaves will be found covered with snails and slugs, which may then, of course, be destroyed in any way the gardener may think fit.

2469. To Destroy Slugs (2).

Slugs are very voracious, and their ravages often do considerable damage, not only to the kitchen garden, but to the flower-beds also. If, now and then, a few slices of turnip be put about the beds, on a summer or autumnal evening, the slugs will congregate thereon, and may be destroyed.

2470. To Exterminate Beetles.

i. Place a few lumps of unslaked lime where they frequent.

ii. Set a dish or trap containing a little beer or syrup at the bottom, and place a few sticks slanting against its sides, so as to form a sort of gangway for the beetles to climb up it, when they will go headlong into the bait set for them.

iii. Mix equal weights of red lead, sugar, and flour, and place it nightly near their haunts. This mixture, made into sheets, forms the beetle wafers sold at the oil shops.


2471. To Kill Cockroaches.

A teacupful of well-bruised plaster of Paris, mixed with double the quantity of oatmeal, to which a little sugar may be added, although this last-named ingredient is not essential. Strew it on the floor, or in the chinks where they frequent.

2472. Earwigs.

Earwigs are very destructive insects, their favourite food being the petals of roses, pinks, dahlias, and other flowers. They may be caught by driving stakes into the ground, and placing on each an inverted flower-pot, for the earwigs will climb up and take refuge under the pot, when they may be taken out and killed. Clean bowls of tobacco-pipes, placed in like manner on the tops of smaller sticks, are very good traps: or very deep holes may be made in the ground with a crowbar, into which they will fall, and may be destroyed by boiling water.

2473. To Destroy Ants.

Drop some quicklime on the mouth of their nest, and wash it in with boiling water; or dissolve some camphor in spirits of wine, then mix with water, and pour into their haunts; or tobacco-water, which has been found effectual. They are averse to strong scents. Camphor, or a sponge saturated with creosote, will prevent their infesting a cupboard. To prevent their climbing up trees, place a ring of tar about the trunk, or a circle of rag moistened occasionally with creosote.

2474. To Prevent Moths.

In the month of April or May, beat your fur garments well with a small cane or elastic stick, then wrap them up in linen, without pressing the fur too hard, and put betwixt the folds some camphor in small lumps; then put your furs in this state in boxes well closed. When the furs are wanted for use, beat them well as before, and expose them for twenty-four hours to the air, which will take away the smell of the camphor. If the fur has long hair, as bear or fox, add to the camphor an equal quantity of black pepper in powder.

2475. To get rid of Moths.

i. Procure shavings of cedar wood, and enclose in muslin bags, which can be distributed freely among the clothes.

ii. Procure shavings of camphor wood, and enclose in bags.

iii. Sprinkle pimento (allspice) berries among the clothes.

iv. Sprinkle the clothes with the seeds of the musk plant.

v. To destroy the eggs—when deposited in woollen cloths, &c., use a solution of acetate of potash in spirits of rosemary, fifteen grains to the pint.

2476. Bugs.

Spirits of naphtha rubbed with a small painter's brush into every part of a bedstead is a certain way of getting rid of bugs. The mattress and binding of the bed should be examined, and the same process attended to, as they generally harbour more in these parts than in the bedstead. Three pennyworth of naphtha is sufficient for one bed.

2477. Bug Poison.

Proof spirit, one pint; camphor, two ounces; oil of turpentine, four ounces: corrosive sublimate, one ounce, mix. A correspondent says,

"I have been for a long time troubled with bugs, and never could get rid of them by any clean and expeditious method, until a friend told me to suspend a small bag of camphor to the bed, just in the centre, overhead. I did so, and the enemy was most effectually repulsed, and has not made his appearance since—not even for a reconnaissance!"

This is a simple method of getting rid of these pests, and is worth a trial to see if it be effectual in other cases.

2478. Mixture for Destroying Flies (1).

Infusion of quassia, one pint; brown sugar, four ounces; ground pepper, two ounces. To be well mixed together, and put in small shallow dishes when required.

2479. To Destroy Flies (2).

To destroy flies in a room, take half a teaspoonful of black pepper in powder, one teaspoonful of brown sugar, and one tablespoonful of cream, mix them well together, and place them in the room on a plate, where the flies are troublesome, and they will soon disappear.


2480. Flies (3).

Cold green tea, very strong and sweetened with sugar, will, when set about the room in saucers, attract flies and destroy them.

2481. Inks.

There are many receipts published for making ink; the following is as useful and economical a mode of producing good ink as any of them:

2482. Dr. Ure's Ink.

For twelve gallons of ink take twelve pounds of bruised galls, five pounds of gum, five pounds of green sulphate of iron, and twelve gallons of rain-water. Boil the galls with nine gallons of the water for three hours, adding fresh water to supply that lost in vapour; let the decoction settle, and draw off the clear liquor. Add to it the gum, previously dissolved in one and a half gallons of water; dissolve the green vitriol separately in one and a half gallons of water, and mix the whole.

2483. Ink Powder.

Ink powder is formed of the dry ingredients for ink, powdered and mixed. Powdered galls, two pounds; powdered green vitriol, one pound; powdered gum, eight ounces. Two ounces of this mixture will make one pint of ink. Cost: galls, 1s. 4d. per pound; green vitriol, 1d. per pound; powdered gum, 1s. 5d. per pound.

2484. Red Writing Ink.

Best ground Brazil wood, four ounces; diluted acetic acid, one pint; alum, half an ounce. Boil the ingredients slowly in an enamelled vessel for one hour, strain, and add an ounce of gum.

2485. Marking Ink without Preparation.

There are several receipts for this ink, but the following is said to be one of the best of its kind:

Dissolve separately, one ounce of nitrate of silver, and one and a half ounce of best washing soda in distilled or rain water. Mix the solutions, and collect and wash the precipitate in a filter; whilst still moist, rub it up in a marble or Wedgwood mortar with three drachms of tartaric acid; add two ounces of distilled water, mix six drachms of white sugar, and ten drachms of powdered gum arabic, half an ounce of archil, and water to make up six ounces in measure.

2486a. Ink for Zinc Garden Labels.

Verdigris, one ounce; sal-ammoniac, one ounce; lampblack, half an ounce; water, half a pint. Mix in an earthenware mortar, without using a metal spatula.

Directions.—To be shaken before use, and used with a clean quill pen, on bright zinc.

Note.—Another kind of ink for zinc is also used, made of chloride of platinum, five grains, dissolved in one ounce of distilled or rain water; but the first, which is much less expensive, answers perfectly, if used as directed, on clean bright zinc.

2486b. Manifold Writing [1].

The demand for a rapid and simple method of multiplying letters, circulars, &c., has led in recent years to the invention of several ingenious processes. So few copies are obtainable by the ordinary reporters' system of sheets of tissue paper, or "flimsy," interleaved with sheets of prepared black paper, that various kinds of "graphs" have been produced, by which upwards of a hundred, and in some cases many more, copies may be produced from one writing.

The "graph" process usually consists of transferring a writing made in an aniline dye on to a gelatine surface, from which, by the application of successive sheets of paper, subjected to a smoothing pressure by the hand, a number of copies may be obtained, in a manner very similar to the ordinary lithographic process. All those which may be classed as "gelatine transfer" processes are, however, open to the objection that, after a certain number of copies, the colour grows very faint.

Some other methods of manifold writing, such es the Edison, the Trypograph, the Cyclostyle, &c. (by which 1,000 copies can be taken from one writing), do not possess this fault, being based on a principle of a fine stencil on prepared paper, and squeezing ink through the minute perforations on to a sheet of paper fixed underneath. The writing in these stencil systems, however, has a "dotty" and broken appearance, displeasing to many eyes—the Cyclostyle being, perhaps, least faulty in this respect. For those who would like to make a gelatine "graph," we append the following recipe:

Six parts by weight of pure glycerine, four parts by weight of water, two parts of barium sulphate, and one part of sugar. Mix them, and let them soak for twenty-four hours; then melt at a gentle heat, stir until thoroughly mixed, and pour the composition into a tray. Any chemist will supply an aniline dye for the ink.

[Footnote 1: Both these sections were numbered 2486 in the original text. txt Ed.]


2487. Cements.

The term "cement" includes all those substances employed for the purpose of causing the adhesion of two or more bodies, whether originally separate, or divided by an accidental fracture. As the various substances that may require cementing differ very much in texture, &c., a number of cements possessed of very different properties are required, because a cement that answers admirably under one set of circumstances may be perfectly useless in others. The general principles upon which the success or failure of cementing usually depends are:

The different parts of a solid are held together by an attraction between their several particles, which is termed the attraction of cohesion. This attraction acts only when the particles are in the closest possible contact: even air must not be between them. If, after breaking any substance, we could bring the particles into as close a contact as before, and perfectly exclude the air, they would re-unite, and be as strongly connected as ever. But in general this is impossible: small particles of grit and dust get between them; the film of interposed air cannot be removed; and thus, however firmly we press the edges of a broken cup together, it remains cracked china still.

The cohesion between the particles of the cement is very much less than the adhesion of the cement to other bodies; and if torn apart, the connected joint gives way, not by the loosening of the adhesion, but by the layer of cement splitting down the centre. Hence the important rule that the less cement in a joint the stronger it is. To unite broken substances with a thick cement is disadvantageous, the object being to bring the surfaces as closely together as possible. The general principles that ought always to be borne in mind having been mentioned, the manufacture and uses of some of the more useful cements may be described.

2488. Mouth Glue.

The very useful preparation sold under this title is merely a thin cake of soluble glue, which, when moistened with the tongue, furnishes a ready means of uniting papers, &c. It is made by dissolving one pound of fine glue or gelatine in water, and adding half a pound of brown sugar, boiling the whole until it is sufficiently thick to become solid on cooling; it is then poured into moulds, or on a slab slightly greased, and cut into the required shape when cool. (See LIQUID GLUE, No. 2491.)


2489. Paste.

Paste is usually made by rubbing up flour with cold water, and boiling; if a little alum is mixed before boiling it is much improved, being less clammy, working more freely in the brush, and thinner, a less quantity is required, and it is therefore stronger. If required in large quantity, as for papering rooms, it may be made by mixing one quartern of flour, one quarter pound of alum, and a little warm water; when mixed, the requisite quantity of boiling water should be poured on whilst the mixture is being stirred. Paste is only adapted to cementing paper; when used it should spread on one side of the paper, which should then be folded with the pasted side inwards, and allowed to remain a few minutes before being opened and used; this swells the paper, and permits its being mere smoothly and securely attached. If kept for a few days, paste becomes mouldy, and after a short time putrid; this inconveince may be obviated by the use of:

2490. Permanent Paste.

Permanent Paste, made by adding to each half-pint of flour paste without alum, fifteen grains of corrosive sublimate, previously rubbed to powder in a mortar, the whole to be well mixed; this, if prevented from drying, by being kept in a covered pot, remains good any length of time, and is therefore convenient; but unfortunately it is extremely poisonous, though its excessively nauseous taste would prevent its being swallowed accidentally. It possesses the great advantage of not being liable to the attacks of insects.

2491. Liquid Glue.

The liquid glue of the shops is made by dissolving shelac in water, by boiling it along with borax, which posesses the peculiar property of causing the solution of the resinous lac. This preparation is convenient from its cheapness and freedom from smell; but it gives way if exposed to long-continued damp, which that made with naphtha resists.

2492. Common Glue.

Of the use of common glue very little need be said; it should always be prepared in a gluepot or double vessel, to prevent its being burned, which injures it very materially. The chief objection to the use of this contrivance is, that it renders it impossible to heat the glue in the inner vessel to the boiling point; this, however, can be obviated by employing in the outer vessel some liquid which boils at a higher temperature than pure water, such as a saturated solution of salt (made by adding one-third as much salt as water). This boils at 224 deg. Fahr., 12 deg. above the heat of boiling water, and enables the glue in the inner vessel to be heated to a much higher temperature than when pure water is employed. If a saturated solution of nitre is used, the temperature rises still higher.

2493. Diamond Cement.

Soak isinglass in water till it is soft; then dissolve it in the smallest possible quantity of proof spirit, by the aid of a gentle heat; in two ounces of this mixture dissolve ten grains of ammoniacum, and whilst still liquid add half a drachm of mastic, dissolved in three drachms of rectified spirit; stir well together, and put into small bottles for sale.

Directions for Use.—Liquefy the cement by plunging the bottle in hot water, and use it directly. The cement improves the oftener the bottle is thus warmed; it resists the action of water and moisture perfectly.

2494. Rice Flour Cement.

An excellent cement may be made from rice flour, which is at present used for that purpose in China and Japan. It is only necessary to mix the rice flour intimately with cold water, and gently simmer it over a fire, when it readily forms a delicate and durable cement, not only answering all the purposes of common paste, but admirably adapted for joining together paper, cards, &c., in forming the various beautiful and tasteful ornaments which afford much employment and amusement to the ladies. When made of the consistence of plaster-clay, models, busts, bas-relievos, &c., may be formed of it; and the articles, when dry, are susceptible of high polish, and are very durable.

2495. Using Egg.

The white of an egg, well beaten with quicklime, and a small quantity of very old cheese, forms an excellent substitute for cement, when wanted in a hurry, either for broken china or old ornamental glassware.

2496. Cement for Broken China, Glass, &c.

This cement being nearly colourless, possesses advantages which liquid glue and other cements do not.—Dissolve half an ounce of gum acacia, in a wineglass of boiling water; add plaster of Paris sufficient to form a thick paste, and apply it with a brush, to the parts required to be cemented together.


2497. Lime and Egg Cement.

Lime and Egg Cement is frequently made by moistening the edges to be united with white of egg, dusting on some lime from a piece of muslin, and bringing the edges into contact. A much better mode is to slake some freshly-burned lime with a small quantity of boiling water; this occasions it to fall into a very fine dry powder, if excess of water has not been added. The white of egg used should be intimately and thoroughly mixed, by beating with an equal bulk of water, and the slaked lime added to the mixture, so as to form a thin paste, which should be used speedily, as it soon sets. This is a valuable cement, possessed of great strength, and capable of withstanding boiling water. Cements made with lime and blood, scraped cheese, or curd, may be regarded as inferior varieties of it.

2498. White Lead as Cement.

Cracked vessels of earthenware and glass may often be usefully, though not ornamentally, repaired by white lead spread on strips of calico, and secured with bands of twine.

2499. Marine Glue.

In point of strength, all ordinary cements yield the palm to Jeffery's Patent Marine Glue, a compound of India-rubber, shellac, and coal-tar naphtha. Small quantities can be purchased at most of the tool warehouses, at cheaper rates than it can be made. The colour of this glue, however, prevents its being much used.

2500. Coaguline.

An exceedingly strong, and at the same time a transparent and colourless cement is made by Messrs. Kay Brothers, of Stockport, and is sold by most fancy stationers and chemists under the name of Coaguline. It is easily and quickly applied, and will be found extremely serviceable in repairing glass, china, and stone articles. It is inexpensive.

2501. Red Cement .

Red Cement which is employed by instrument makers for cementing glass to metals, and which is very cheap, and exceedingly useful for a variety of purposes, is made by melting five parts of black rosin, one part of yellow wax, and then stirring in gradually one part of red ochre or Venetian red, in fine powder, and previously well dried. This cement requires to be melted before use, and it adheres better if the objects to which it is applied are warmed.

2502. A Soft Cement for Corks.

A soft cement, of a somewhat similar character to that just described, is useful for covering the corks of preserved fruit, and other bottles. It is made by melting yellow wax with an equal quantity of rosin, or of common turpentine (not oil of turpentine, but the resin), using the latter for a very soft cement, and stirring in, as before, some dried Venetian red.

2503. Mastic Cement.

This is employed for making a superior coating to inside walls, but must not be confounded with the resin mastic. It is made by mixing twenty parts of well-washed and sifted sharp sand with two parts of litharge and one of freshly burned and slaked quicklime, in fine dry powder. This is made into a putty, by mixing with linseed oil. It sets in a few hours, having the appearance of light stone; and we mention it, as it may be frequently employed with advantage in repairing broken stone-work (as steps), by filling up the missing parts. The employment of Roman cement, plaster, &c., for masonry work, hardly comes within the limits of Domestic Manipulation.

2504. Cement for Leather and Cloth.

An adhesive material for uniting the parts of boots and shoes, and for the seams of articles of clothing, may be made thus:—Take one pound of gutta-percha, four ounces of India rubber, two ounces of pitch, one ounce of shellac, two ounces of oil. The ingredients are to be melted together, and used hot.


2505. Birdlime.

Take any quantity of linseed oil, say half a pint; put it into an old pot, or any vessel that will stand the fire without breaking—the vessel must not be more than one-third full; put it on a slow fire, stir it occasionally until it thickens as much as required; this will be known by cooling the stick in water, and trying it with the fingers. It is best to make it rather harder than for use. Then pour it into cold water. It can be brought back to the consistency required with a little Archangel tar.

2506. Anglo-Japanese Work.

This is an elegant and easy domestic art. Take yellow withered leaves, dissolve gum, black paint, copal varnish, &c. Any articles, such as an old tea-caddy, flower-pots, fire-screens, screens of all descriptions, work-boxes, &c., may be ornamented with these simple materials. Select perfect leaves, dry and press them between the leaves of books; rub the surface of the article to be ornamented with fine sand paper, then give it a coat of fine black paint, which should be procured mixed at a colour shop.

When dry rub smooth with pumice-stone, and give two other coats. Dry. Arrange leaves in any manner and variety, according to taste. Gum the leaves on the under side, and press them upon their places. Then dissolve some isinglass in hot water, and brush it over the work. Dry. Give three coats of copal varnish, allowing ample time for each coat to dry. Articles thus ornamented last for years, and are very pleasing.

2507. Ornamental Leather Work.

An excellent imitation of carved oak, suitable for frames, boxes, vases, and ornaments in endless variety, may be made of a description of leather called basil. The art consists in simply cutting out this material in imitation of natural objects, and in impressing upon it by simple tools, either with or without the aid of heat, such marks and characteristics as are necessary to the imitation. The rules given with regard to the imitation of leaves and flowers apply to ornamental leather work. Begin with a simple object, and proceed by degrees to those that are more complicated.

Cut out an ivy or an oak leaf, and impress the veins upon it; then arrange these in groups, and affix them to frames, or otherwise. The tools required are ivory or steel points of various sizes, punches, and tin shapes, such as are used for confectionery. The points may be made out of the handles of old tooth-brushes. Before cutting out the leaves the leather should be well soaked in water, until it is quite pliable. When dry, it will retain the artistic shape. Leaves and stems are fastened together by means of liquid glue, and varnished with any of the drying varnishes, or with sealing-wax dissolved to a suitable consistency in spirits of wine. Wire, cork, gutta-percha, bits of stems of trees, &c., may severally be used to aid in the formation of groups of buds, flowers, seed-vessels, &c.

2508. Black Paper Patterns.

Mix some lamp-black with sweet oil. With a piece of flannel cover sheets of writing-paper with the mixture; dab the paper dry with a bit of fine linen. When using, put the black side on another sheet of paper, and fasten the corners together with small pins. Lay on the back of the black paper the pattern to be drawn, and go over it with the point of a steel drawing pencil: the black will then leave the impression of the pattern on the undersheet, on which you may draw it with ink.

2509. Patterns on Cloth or Muslin.

Patterns on cloth or muslin are drawn with a pen dipped in stone blue, a bit of sugar and a little water; wet to the consistence wanted.

2510. Feather Flowers: Materials.

Procure the best white swan or goose feathers; have them plucked off the fowl with care not to break the web; free them from down, except a small quantity on the shaft of the feather. Get also a little fine wire, different sizes; a few skeins of fine floss silks, some good cotton wool or wadding, a reel of No. 4 Moravian cotton, a skein of Indian silk, some starch and gum for pastes, and a pair of small sharp scissors, a few sheets of coloured silk paper, and some water colours.


2511. Patterns for Petals.

Having procured two good specimens of the flower you wish to imitate, carefully pull off the petals of one, and, with a piece of tissue paper, cut out the shape of each, taking care to leave the shaft of the feather at least half an inch longer than the petal of the flower. Carefully bend the feather with the thumb and finger to the proper shape; mind not to break the web.

2512. Stem and Heart of a Flower.

Take a piece of wire six inches long; across the top lay a small piece of cotton wool, turn the wire over it, and wind it round until it is the size of the heart or centre of the flower you are going to imitate. If a single flower, cover it with paste or velvet of the proper colour, and round it must be arranged the stamens; these are made of fine Indian silk, or feathers may be used for this purpose. After the petals have been attached, the silk or feather is dipped into gum, and then into the farina. Place the petals round, one at time, and wind them on with Moravian cotton, No. 4. Arrange them as nearly like the flower you have for a copy as possible. Cut the stems of the feathers even, and then make the calyx of feathers, cut like the pattern or natural flower. For the small flowers the calyx is made with paste. Cover the stems with paper or silk the same as the flowers; the paper must be cut in narrow strips, about a quarter of an inch wide.

2513. Pastes of Calyx, Hearts, and Buds of Flowers.

Take common white starch and mix it with gum water until it is the substance of thick treacle; colour it with the dyes used for the feathers, and keep it from the air.

2514. To make the Farina.

Use common ground rice, mixed into a stiff paste with any dye; dry it before the fire, and when quite hard, pound it to a fine powder. The buds, berries, and hearts of some double flowers are made with cotton wool, wound around wire, moulded to the shape with thumb and finger. Smooth it over with gum water, and when dry, cover the buds, berries, or calyx with the proper coloured pastes; they will require one or two coats, and may be shaded with a little paint, and then gummed and left to dry.

2515. Flowers of Two or More Shades.

Flowers of two or more shades are variegated with water colours, mixed with lemon juice, ultramarine and chrome for blue; and to produce other effects, gold may also be used in powder, mixed with lemon juice and gum water.

2516. To Dye Feathers Blue.

Into two pennyworth of oil of vitriol mix two pennyworth of the best indigo in powder; let it stand a day or two; when wanted shake it well, and into a quart of boiling water put one tablespoonful of the liquid. Stir it well, put the feathers in, and let them simmer a few minutes.

2517. Yellow.

Put a tablespoonful of the best turmeric into a quart of boiling water; when well mixed put in the feathers. More or less of the turmeric will give them different shades, and a very small quantity of soda will give them an orange hue.

2518. Green.

Mix the indigo liquid with turmeric, and pour boiling water over it; let the feathers simmer in the dye until they have acquired the shade you want them.

2519. Pink.

Three good pink saucers in a quart of boiling water, with a small quantity of cream of tartar. If a deep colour is required, use four saucers. Let the feathers remain in the dye several hours.

2520. Red.

In a quart of boiling water dissolve a teaspoonful of cream of tartar; put in one tablespoonful of prepared cochineal, and then a few drops of muriate of tin. This dye is expensive, and scarlet flowers are best made with the plumage of the red ibis, which can generally be had of a bird-fancier or bird-stuffer, who will give directions how it should be applied.


2521. Lilac.

About two teaspoonfuls of cudbear into about a quart of boiling water; let it simmer a few minutes before you put in the feathers. A small quantity of cream of tartar turns the colour from lilac to amethyst.

2522. Black; Crimson.

See Instructions upon Dyeing, par. 2682, et seq.

2523. Preparation of Feathers for Dyeing.

The feathers must be put into hot water, and allowed to drain before they are put into the dyes. After they are taken out of the dye, rinse them two or three times in clear cold water (except the red, which must only be done once), then lay them on a tray, over which a cloth has been spread, before a good fire; when they begin to dry and unfold, draw each feather gently between your thumb and finger, until it regains its proper shape.

2524. Leaves of the Flowers.

These are made of green feathers, cut like those of the natural flower, and serrated at the edge with a very small pair of scissors. For the calyx of a moss-rose the down is left on the feather, and is a very good representation of the moss on the natural flower.

2525. Waxen Flowers and Fruit.

There is no art more easily acquired, nor more encouraging in its immediate results, than that of modelling flowers and fruit in wax. The art, however, is attended by this draw-back—that the materials required are somewhat expensive.

2526. Materials for Wax Flowers.

The appliances required for commencing the making of waxen flowers will cost from 20s. to 30s., and may be obtained at most fancy repositories in large towns. Persons wishing to commence the art would do well to inquire for particulars, and see specimens of materials; because in this, as in every other pursuit, there are novelties and improvements being introduced, which no book can give an idea of.

2527. Petals and Leaves of Wax Flowers.

Petals and leaves of wax flowers are made of sheets of coloured wax, which may be purchased in packets of assorted colours.

2528. Stems.

The stems are made of wire of suitable thicknesses, covered with silk, and overlaid with wax; and the leaves are frequently made by thin sheets of wax pressed upon leaves of embossed calico. Leaves of various descriptions are to be obtained of the persons who sell the materials for wax flower making.

2529. Models for Wax Flowers.

Ladies will often find among their discarded artificial flowers, leaves and buds that will serve as the base of their wax models.

2530. Natural Models for Wax Flowers.

The best guide to the construction of a flower—far better than printed diagrams or patterns—is to take a flower, say a tulip, a rose, or a camellia. If possible, procure two flowers, nearly alike; and carefully pick one of them to pieces; lay the petals down in the order in which they are taken from the flower, and then cut paper patterns from them, and number them fron the centre of the flower, that you may know their relative positions.

2531. Putting Petals Together.

The perfect flower will guide you in getting the wax petals together, and will enable you to give, not only to each petal but to the contour of the flower, the characteristics which are natural to it. In most cases, they are merely pressed together and held in their places by the adhesiveness of the wax. From the paper patterns the wax petals or other portions of the flowers may be cut. They should be cut singly, and the scissors should be frequently dipped into water, to prevent the wax adhering to the blades.

2532. Utilisation of Scraps of Wax.

The scraps of wax that fall from the cutting will be found useful for making seed vessels, and other parts of the flowers.


2533. Leaves of Flowers.

Where the manufactured foundations cannot be obtained, patterns of them should be cut in paper; the venous appearance may be imparted to the wax by pressing the leaf upon it.

2534. Sprigs of Plants.

In the construction of sprigs, it is most important to be guided by sprigs of the natural plant, as various kinds of plants have many different characteristics in the grouping of their flowers, leaves and branches.

2535. Selection of Sheets of Wax.

When about to copy a flower, take care in the selection of good sheets of wax, and see that their colours are precisely those of the flower you desire to imitate.

2536. Imitation of Tints, Stripes, Spots, &c.

For the tints, stripes, and spots of variegated flowers, you will be supplied with colours among the other materials; and the application of them is precisely upon the principle of water-colour painting.

2537. Fruit, &c., in Wax.

For the imitating of fruit in wax, very different rules are to be observed. The following directions may, however, be generally followed:

The material of which moulds for waxen fruit should be composed is the best plaster of Paris, such as is used for plaster casts, &c. If this cannot be procured, the inferior plaster, from the oil-shop, may be substituted, if it can be obtained quite fresh. If, however, the plaster is faulty, the results of the modelling will of course be more or less faulty also. It is the property of plaster of Paris to form a chemical union with water, and to form a pasto winch rapidly "sets" or hardens into a substance of the density of firm chalk. The mould must therefore be formed by impression from the object to be imitated, made upon the plaster before it sets.

2538. Causes of Want of Accuracy.

The use of an elastic fruit in early experiments leads to a want of accuracy in the first, steps of the operation, which causes very annoying difficulties afterwards; and therefore a solid, inelastic body—an egg boiled hard—is recommended as the first object to be imitated.

2539. Making the Moulds—First Half.

Having filled a small pudding basin about three-quarters full of damp sand (the finer the better), lay the egg lengthways in the sand, so that half of it is above, and half below, the level of the sand, which should be perfectly smooth around it. Then prepare the plaster in another basin, which should be half full of water. Sprinkle the plaster in quickly till it comes to the top of the water, and then, having stirred it for a moment with a spoon, pour the whole upon the egg in the other basin.

2540. Making the Moulds—Second Half.

While the half mould thus made is hardening thoroughly, carefully remove every particle of plaster from the basin in which it was mixed, and also from the spoon which has been used. This must be done by placing them both in water and wiping them perfectly clean. This is highly important, since a small quantity of plaster which has set will destroy the quality of a second mixing if it is incorporated therewith. In about five minutes the half mould will be fit to remove, which may be done by turning the basin up with the right hand (taking care not to lose the sand), so that the mould falls into the left hand.

The egg should then be gently allowed to fall back on the sand out of the mould; if, however, it adheres, lightly scrape the plaster from the edge of the mould, and then shake it out into the hollow of the hand. If, however, the exact half of the egg has been immersed in the sand, no such difficulty will arise; this shows how important is exactness in the first position of the object from which a tasting is to be taken.

The egg being removed and laid aside, the moulder casting must be "trimmed;" that is, the sand must be brushed from the flat surface of the mould with a nail-brush very slightly, without touching the extreme and sharp edges where the hollow of the mould commences. Then upon the broad edge from which the sand has been brushed, make four equi-distant hollows (with the round end of a table-knife), like the deep impression of a thimble's-end. These are to guide hereafter in the fixing of the second half of the mould. The egg should now be replaced in the casting, and the edge of the cast, with the holes, thoroughly lubricated with sweet oil, laid on with a feather, or what is better, a large camel-hair brush.


2541. Casting Second Half of Mould.

Into the small pudding basin from which the sand has been emptied, place with the egg upper-most the half mould, which, if the operation has been managed properly, should fit close at the edges to the side of the vessel; then prepare some more liquid plaster as before, and pour it upon the egg and mould, and while it is hardening, round it with the spoon as with the first half.

2542. Completion of Mould.

In due time remove the whole from the basin; the halves will be found readily separable, and the egg being removed, the mould is ready to cast in, after it has been set aside for an hour or two, so as to completely harden. This is the simplest form of mould, and all are made upon the same principle.

2543. Casting Egg in Wax.

The casting of an egg is not merely interesting as the first step in a series of lessons, but as supplying a means of imitating peculiarly charming objects, which the student of natural history tries almost in vain to preserve. We shall proceed, then, with the directions for the casting of an egg in the mould.

2544. Materials required.

For the first experiments, common yellow wax may be used as the material, or the ends of half-burnt wax candles. The materials of the hard (not tallow) composition mould candles will also answer.

2545. Large Castings made Hollow.

Every large object to be imitated in wax should be cast hollow; and therefore, though the transparent lightness required in the imitation of fruits is not requisite in an artificial egg, the egg may be cast upon the same principle as a piece of fruit, in the following manner.

Firstly. The two pieces of the plaster of Paris mould must be soaked in hot water for ten minutes.

Secondly. The wax should in the meantime be very slowly melted in a small tin saucepan, with a spout to it, care being taken not to allow it to boil, or it will be discoloured. As to the quantity of wax to be melted, the following is a general rule:—If a lump, the size of the object to be imitated, be placed in the saucepan, it should be sufficient for casting twice, at least.

Thirdly. As soon as the wax is melted thoroughly, place the saucepan on the hob of the grate, and taking the parts of the mould from the hot water, remove the moisture from their surfaces by pressing them gently with a handkerchief or soft cloth. It is necessary to use what is called in some of the arts "a very light hand" in this operation, especially in drying moulds of fruits whose aspect possesses characteristic irregularities—such as those on the orange, the lemon, or the cucumber. The mould must not be wiped, but only pressed. If the water has not been hot enough, or if the drying is not performed quickly, the mould will be too cold, and the wax will congeal too rapidly, and settle in ridges and streaks; on the other hand, if the wax has been made too hot, it will adhere to the mould, and refuse to come out entire.

Fourthly. Having laid the two halves of the mould so that there can be no mistake in fitting the one in its exact place quickly on the other, pour from the saucepan into one of the half moulds nearly as much wax as will fill the hollow made by the model (egg), quickly fit the other half on the top of it, squeeze the two pieces tightly together in the hand, and still holding them thus, turn them over in every possible position, so that the wax which is slowly congealing in the internal hollow of the mould may be of equal thickness in all parts. Having continued this process at least two minutes, the hands (still holding and turning the mould) may be immersed in cold water to accelerate the cooling process. The perfect congealment of the wax may be known after a little experience by the absence of the sound of fluid on shaking the mould.

Fifthly. As soon as the mould is completely cooled, the halves may be separated carefully, the upper being lifted straight up from the under, and if the operation has been properly managed, a waxen egg will be turned out of the mould.

Lastly. The egg will only require trimming, that is, removing the ridge which marks the line at which the halves of the mould joined, and polishing out the scratches or inequalities left by the knife with a piece of soft rag, wet with spirits of turpentine or spirits of wine.

It is always desirable to make several castings of the same object, as the moulds are apt to get chipped when laid by in a cupboard; and for this reason, as well as for the sake of practice, we recommend our pupils to make at least a dozen waxen eggs before they proceed to any other object. If they succeed in this completely, they may rest assured that every difficulty which is likely to meet them in any future operation will be easily overcome.


2546. Colouring the Wax.

While the wax is yet on the hob, and in a fluid state, stir into it a little flake white, in powder, and continue to stir the mixture while it is being poured into the half mould. It will be found that unless the fixing and shaking of the moulds is managed quickly, the colouring matter will settle on the side of the half into which the mixture is poured; a little care in manipulation is therefore again requisite. The colouring of the wax is a matter which comes easily enough by experiment. Oranges, lemons, large gooseberries, small cucumbers, &c.,&c., are excellent objects for practice.

2547. Close Imitation of the Surface.

It will be noted by the accurate observer that the shell of the common hen's egg has a number of minute holes, which destroy the perfect smoothness of its appearance. This peculiarity is imitated in the following simple manner:—In the first place, very slightly prick with a fine needle the surface of your waxen egg, and then, having smeared it with spirits of turpentine, rub the surface all over. So as nearly to obliterate the marks of the needle point.

2548. Diaphanie.

This is a beautiful, useful, and inexpensive art easily acquired, and producing imitations of the richest and rarest stained glass; and also of making blinds, screens, skylights, Chinese lanterns, &c., in every variety of colour and design.

2549. Imitation of Coloured Glass.

In decorating his house an Englishman spends as much money as he can conveniently spare; the elegances and refinements of modern taste demand something more than mere comfort; yet though his walls are hung with pictures, his drawing-rooms filled with bijouterie, how is it that the windows of his hall, his library, his staircase, are neglected? The reason is obvious. The magnificent historical old stained glass might be envied, but could not be brought within the compass of ordinary means.

Recent improvements in printing in colours led the way to this beautiful invention, by which economy is combined with the most perfect results. A peculiar kind of paper is rendered perfectly transparent, upon which designs are printed in glass colours (vitre de couleurs), which will not change with the light. The paper is applied to the glass with a clear white varnish, and when dry, a preparation is finally applied, which increases the transparency, and adds tenfold brilliancy to the effect.

2550. Imitation of Half-Light.

There is another design, printed in imitation of the half-light (abat-jour); this is used principally for a ground, covering the whole surface of the glass, within which (the necessary spaces having been previously cut out before it is stuck on the glass) are placed medallion centres of Watteau figures, perfectly transparent, which derive increased brilliancy from the semi-transparency of the surrounding ground. This is by far the cheapest method, though involving extra trouble, as the plain grounds printed in sheets are only a fourth the price of the sheets which contain the medallion Watteau centres or other small designs suitable for the purpose.

2551. Sheets of Designs.

The transparent sheets measure 20-1/2 in. by 16-1/2, and are ready for immediate use. The other articles required are some clear white varnish, some liqueur diaphane, brushes, metal palettes, and ivory sticks. These are all the appliances required.

2552. Calculation of Quantities.

To ascertain the quantity of designs required, measure your glass carefully, and then calculate how many sheets it will take (the sheets being 20-1/2 in. by 16-1/2 in. as given above). The sheets are arranged so that they can be joined together continuously, or cut to any size or shape.

2553. Practical Instructions.

Choose a fine day for the operation, as the glass should be perfectly dry, and unaffected by the humidity of the atmosphere. Of course, if you have a choice, it is more convenient to work on your glass before it is fixed in the frame. If you are working on a piece of unattached glass, lay it on a flat table (a marble slab is preferable), over which you must previously lay a piece of baize or cloth to keep the glass steady.

The glass being thus fixed, clean and polish the side on which you intend to operate (in windows this is the inner side), then with your brush lay on it very equably a good coat of the prepared varnish; let this dry for an hour, more or less, according to the dryness of the atmosphere and the thickness of the coat of varnish; meantime cut and trim your designs carefully to fit the glass (if it is one entire transparent sheet you will find little trouble); then lay them on a piece of paper, face downwards, and damp the back of them with a sponge, applied several times, to equalize the moisture.

In ths operation arrange your time so that your designs may now be finally left to dry for fifteen minutes before application to the glass, the varnish on which has now become tacky or sticky, and in a proper state to receive them. Apply the printed side next to the glass without pressure; endeavour to let your sheet fall perfectly level and smooth on your glass, so that you may avoid leaving creases, which would be fatal.

Take now your palette, lay it flat on the design, and press out all the air-bubbles, commencing in the centre, and working them out at the sides; an ivory stick will be found useful in removing creases: you now leave this to dry, and after twenty-four hours apply a slight coat of the liqueur diaphane, leaving it another day, when, if dry, apply a second coat of the same kind, which must be left several days; finally, apply a coat of varnish over all.

2554. Probable Results.

If these directions are carefully followed, your glass will never be affected by time or any variations in the weather; it will defy hail, rain, frost, and dust, and can be washed the same as ordinary stained glass, to which, in some respects, it is even superior.

2555. Application of Diaphanie.

It is impossible to enumerate the variety of articles to the manufacture of which Diaphanie may be successfully applied, as it is not confined to glass, but can be done on silk, parchment, paper, linen, &c., after they have been made transparent which may be accomplished in the following manner:

2556. Management of Paper, &c.

Stretch your paper, or whatever it may be, on a frame or drawing board, then apply two successive coats (a day between each) of diaphanous liquor, and after leaving it to dry for several days, cover it with a thin layer of very clear size, and when dry it will be in a fit state to receive the coat of varnish and the designs.

2557. Management of Textile Fabrics.

Silk, linen, or other stuffs should be more carefully stretched, and receive a thicker coat of size than paper or parchment; the latter may be strained on a drawing or any other smooth board, by damping the sheet, and after pasting the edges, stretching it down while damp. Silk, linen, and other stuffs require to be carefully stretched on a suitable frame. Whatever you use, take great care to allow time to dry before applying the liqueur diaphane.

2558. Screens, &c., in Diaphanie.

All kinds of screens, lamp shades and glasses, lanterns, &c., &c., may be made in this way, as heat will produce no effect upon them. The transparent pictures are successful, because they may be hung on a window frame or removed at will, and the window blinds are superior to anything of that kind yet produced.

2559. Vitremanie.

Vitremanie is a process of imitating painting on glass similar to Diaphanie, and Potichomanie is a process of like nature by which glass plates, vases, &c., are made to resemble porclain.

2560. Decalcomanie.

This recently discovered and beautiful art consists in transferring coloured drawings to glass, porcelain, china, wood, silk, furniture, plaster of Paris, alabaster, ivory, paper, paper hangings, windows, tea trays, oil cloth, and all kinds of fancy articles; in short, materials of any kind, shape, or size, provided they possess a smooth surface, can be decorated with Decalcomanie; the immediate result being an exact resemblance to painting by hand. The art itself is simple and ingenious, and while affording agreeable occupation to ladies, it may be made to serve many useful purposes, on account of the numerous objects which will admit of being thus ornamented.

2561. Materials Employed in Decalcomanie.

i. A bottle of transfer varnish for fixing the drawings.

ii. A bottle of light varnish to pass over the drawings when fixed.

iii. A bottle of spirit to clean the brushes, and to remove those pictures which may not be successful.

iv. A piece of beaver cloth about nine inches square.

v. A paper-knife and roller.

vi. Two or three camel-hair brushes.

vii. A basin of water.

viii. A bottle of opaque varnish.

2562. Instructions.

Thoroughly clean and free from grease the article to be decorated; then, having cut off the white paper margin of the drawing, dip one of the brushes into the transfer varnish, and give it a very light coat, being especially careful to cover the whole of the coloured portion, but not to allow it to touch the blank paper; then lay the drawing, face downwards, on the object to be ornamented, taking care to place it at once where it is to remain, as it would be spoilt by moving. If the varnish, on its first application, is too liquid, allow the picture to remain for about ten minutes to set.

Moisten the cloth with water, and lay it gently on the drawing which has been previously laid in its place on the object to be decorated; then rub it over with the paper-knife or roller, so as to cause the print to adhere in every part; this done, remove the cloth, well soak the paper with a camel-hair brush dipped in water, and immediately after lift the paper by one corner, and gently draw it off.

The picture will be left on the object, while the paper will come off perfectly white. Care must be taken that the piece of cloth, without being too wet, is sufficiently so to saturate the paper completely. The drawing must now be washed with a camel-hair brush, in clean water, to remove the surplus varnish, and then left till quite dry. On the following day, cover the picture with a light coat of the fixing varnish, to give brilliancy to the colours.


2563. To Ornament Dark-coloured Objects.

To ornament dark-coloured objects, such as the bindings of books, Russia leather, blotting-cases, leathern bags, &c., the picture must be previously covered with a mixture of opaque white varnish, taking care not to pass beyond the outline of the design. On the following day, proceed according to the instructions given in the preceding paragraph.

2564. To ornament Silk, Paper, or Articles which will not bear wetting.

Varnish the picture with the transfer varnish, as previously explained, following the outline of the design, then allow it to dry for an hour or two; when quite dry, pass a damp sponge over the entire surface of the sheet, so as to remove the composition which surrounds the picture, and which may spoil the object.

Let the paper dry once more, and varnish the picture again with the transfer varnish; in about ten minutes, place it face downward on the object to be decorated, and rub it with the paper-knife or roller, over the whole of its surface. Finally, moisten the paper with a wet brush, allow it to remain sufficiently long to become moist, then strip the paper off.

To remove a spoilt picture from any object, dip a soft rag in the essence, and rub it over the surface.

2565. To Insure a Successful Result.

To insure a successful result, care must be taken to give a very light coating of varnish to the parts to be transferred. When the varnish is first applied it is very liquid, and must remain ten minutes, the best condition for transferring being when the varnish is only just sticky, without being too dry.

2566. The Following Designs will be found the most Elegant and Appropriate.

English flowers of every variety: bouquets, tropical birds, flowers and fruits in imitation of aqua-tint; garlands with cupids after Watteau, and garlands with birds; domestic scenes; pears and cherries, apples and plums, white grapes and plums, black grapes and peaches, plums and mulberries, large bouquet of roses; bouquets of moss roses and pansies.; bouquets of small camellias; bouquets of wall-flowers and poppies; bouquets of orange-blossom, medallions, various subjects; birds'-nests; Gothic initials and monograms, fleurs-de-lis; borders various.

2567. Heraldic Decalcomanie.

Heraldic Decalcomanie is an extended application of this art, the arms and crests of persons or families being emblazoned in their proper colours according to the rules of heraldry, and prepared for Decalcomanie. Armorial bearings, thus embellished, serve admirably to ornament and identify the books of a library and pictures of a gallery, to decorate menus for dinner, the invitations to a soiree, &c. By their brilliant colours they give an elegant effect to the table decorations.

2568. Croquet.

This out-door pastime is of comparatively modern creation, and until quite lately was very much in vogue. It nay be played by persons of all ages and of either sex; but it is especially adapted for ladies and young persons, as it demands but slight personal exertion, while it affords delightful and health-giving sport.

2569. The Ground.

The ground is preferably a grass plot of an oblong form; but an ordinary lawn or expanse of even turf will answer the purpose, so long as it is of sufficient extent for the operations of the game.

2570. Implements.

The implements are balls, mallets, starting and turning pegs, croquet clips or markers, hoops or arches.

2571. Arrangement of the Hoops.

As much of the interest of this game depends upon the arrangement of the hoops, it is essential that they should be fixed in the ground on definite principles. In the first place, the starting peg is driven in at one end of the ground, and the turning peg is driven in at the other extremity. From each of these pegs a space of twelve feet intervenes; here a hoop is fixed; another space of ten feet intervenes, when a second hoop is fixed; a space of eight feet then succeeds, and at this point is formed what may be termed the base, on each side of which, at a distance of twenty feet, and succeeding each other at intervals of ten feet, three hoops are driven in. By this arrangement, a square is formed, the starting peg leading into its centre, and the turning peg leading from it. Where the ground is small, the distances may be contracted proportionally. Other arrangements of the hoops may he made at the discretion of the players, but the first-named plan will be found best worthy of adoption, as it affords the most excellent opportunities for the display of address and skill.

2572. The Game.

The game consists in striking the balls from the starting peg through the hoops to the peg at the opposite extremity. The balls are then driven back again to the starting peg. The game may be played by any number of persons not exceeding eight. A larger number renders the game tedious. The best number is four. If two only piay, each player may take two balls, and when as many as eight play, there should be two sides or sets. Each player takes a mallet, ball, and croquet clip of the same colour or number, the clip being used to indicate the hoop at which, in his turn, he aims. The division into sides, choice of balls, mallets, &c., is determined by the players among themselves.

2573. Laws of Croquet.

In this game, as with many other sports when first established, there were differences of opinion on certain points of practice. In 1870, however, at a conference of Croquet players, the following rules were settled and adopted. They are now accepted by all players.

i. There shall be no restriction to the number, weight, size, shape, or material of the mallets: nor as to the attitude or position of the striker.

ii. The players shall toss for choice of lead and of balls: and a succession of games shall take the lead alternately and keep the same balls.

iii. In commencing, each ball shall be placed at one foot from the first hoop in a direct line between the pegs; and a ball having been struck is at once in play, and croquetable whether it shall have made the first hoop or not.

iv. A stroke is considered to have been taken if a ball is moved perceptibly; but should the player have struck it accidentally, and the umpire be satisfied that the stroke was accidental, the ball is replaced and the stroke taken again.

v. If the player make a foul stroke he loses his turn and all the points made therein, and the balls remain where they lie, at the option of the adversary. The following are considered foul strokes:

(a) To strike with the mallet another ball instead of or besides one's own in making the stroke.

(b) To spoon, that is, to push a ball without an audible knock.

(c) To strike a ball twice in the same stroke.

(d) To stop a ball with the foot in taking a loose Croquet.

(e) To allow a ball to touch the mallet in rebounding from the turning peg.

(f) To fail to stir the passive ball in taking Croquet.

(g) If a player, in striking at a ball which lies against a peg or wire, should move it from its position by striking a peg or wire, the ball must be replaced, and the stroke taken again.

vi. A player continues to play so long as he makes a point or hits a ball. A point consists in making a hoop or hitting the turning peg in order.

vii. The ball has made its hoop when, having passed through from the playing side and ceased to roll, it cannot be touched by a straight-edge placed across the wires on the side from which it was played.

viii. A player who hits a ball must take Croquet: that is, must strike his own ball while in contact with the other, so as perceptibly to stir both. In doing this he is not allowed to place his foot on his ball. A player, when his turn comes round, may hit and Croquet each ball in succession, and can do this again after each point made, but between the points can only take Croquet once off each ball.

ix. A playing ball which hits another after making a point is in hand, and the striker can score no point till he has taken Croquet. After hitting another, a ball may be stopped by any player; but should it, in rolling, displace any of the other balls, such balls must remain where they are driven.

x. When, at the commencement of a turn, two balls are found touching, Croquet must be taken at once, without repeating the hit.

xi. When a player, in his stroke, hits one or more balls, he must take Croquet off the ball that is struck first; but if he has hit two simultaneously, he may choose from which of them he will take it, and in both cases a second hit is required before he can take it from the other ball.

xii. Should the ball in making its hoop strike another that lies beyond the hoop and then pass through it, the hoop and the hit both count; but, should any part of the ball that is hit have been lying beneath the hoop, the Croquet must be taken, but the hoop does not count.

xiii. A rover which strikes or is driven by another ball against the winning peg is out of the game, and must be removed from the ground.

xiv. A player who pegs out a rover by a first hit cannot take Croquet from it, as the ball is out of the game, and he is not entitled to another stroke.

xv. Should a player play out of his turn, or with a wrong ball, and this be discovered by his antagonist before a second stroke in error has been made, the turn is lost, and all points made after the mistake, and the balls shall remain as they lay at the time the mistake was discovered, or be replaced to the satisfaction of the antagonist. But if he has made a second stroke before the error is discovered, he continues his break, and the next player follows with the ball that is next in rotation to the one with which he has played, and is liable to lose his turn, and all points made therein, if he plays with that which would have been the right ball if no mistake had been made.

xvi. Should a player make the wrong hoop by mistake, or Croquet a ball that he is not entitled to Croquet, and the mistake be discovered before he has made a second stroke, he loses his turn, and any point so made in error; but if he has made a second stroke before the discovery, he shall be allowed to continue his break.

xvii. In order to prevent the occurrence of the errors noticed in the above rules (Nos. xv. and xvi), a player is bound, upon being appealed to, to declare truly what is his next hoop or point in order, and is entitled to demand of his antagonist what he his played last, and to insist upon his clip being properly placed.

xviii. When clips are used they should be moved by the umpire, or with his cognisance, at the end of each turn, and their position shall he conclusive as to the position of the balls in the game.

xix. Should a ball in play be accidentally stopped by the umpire, he places it where he considers that it would have rolled to. Should it be stopped by a player, it will rest with the side opposed to that player to say whether the ball shall remain where it stopped, or be placed by the umpire, or the stroke be taken again.

xx. If a ball lies within a mallet's length of the boundary, and is not the playing ball, it must at once be put out three feet at right angles from the boundary; but if it is the playing ball, it may, at the discretion of the player, either be put out or played from where it lies.

xxi. If it is found that the height of the boundary interferes with the stroke, the player may, at the umpire's discretion, bring out the ball so far as to allow of the free swing of the mallet, and in taking a Croquet both the balls.

xxii. Should a player, in trying to make his hoop, knock a wire out of the ground with his ball or mallet, the stroke shall be taken again.

xxiii. Any player may set upright a peg or hoop except the one next in order; and that, however loose, awry, or slanting it may be, must not be altered except by the umpire.

xxiv. No ball may be moved because of its lying in a hole or on bad ground, except by the umpire or with his permission.

xxv. Where there is no umpire present, permission to move a ball, or to set up a hoop or peg or other indulgence for which an umpire would have been appealed to, must be asked of the other side.

xxvi. The decision of the umpire shall in all cases be final. His duties are:

(a) To move the clips, or see that they are properly moved;

(b) to decide on the application of the laws;

(c) to satisfy any player as to the point that is next to be made, or the right ball to play;

(d) to keep the score. But he shall not give his opinion, or notice any error that may be made, unless appealed to by one of the players.

xxvii. It was also decided that the mallet should be held within twelve inches of its head.

2574. Supplementary Laws.

The following were added from the Draft Club Laws of Croquet.

i. If a ball be driven partly through its hoop from the non-playing side, and remain so that a straight-edge placed in contact with the hoop on the non-playing side touches the ball, the ball cannot run its hoop at its next stroke.

ii. If in taking Croquet the striker's ball go off the ground, the striker loses the remainder of his turn; but if by the same stroke the striker make a point or a Croquet, he continues his turn.

iii. If, after a Croquet, the striker's ball, while rolling, be touched by the striker or his partner, the stroke is foul.

2575. Difference between Old and New Laws.

The chief difference (says Captain Crawley) between these and previous laws will be found in the method of taking the Croquet. The new laws say that the foot must not be placed on the player's ball; the generally accepted practice was to take the Croquet by putting your foot on your ball and striking it so as to send the other bill off to a distance; or if the other ball belonged to your partner to merely tap it in the direction desired. The foot practice is still observed by many players; and some think with advantage.

2576. Technical Terms Used in Croquet.

i. Roquet.—To strike another ball with your own.

ii. Croquet.—When two balls are in contact, the player strikes the other away, either with or without putting the foot on your own ball, as may be previously arranged.

iii. A loose Croquet is made by striking your opponent's ball without putting your foot on your own ball. In taking "two off" it is, however, necessary that the ball should be seen to move.

iv. Wired.—A ball is in contact with a hoop, so as to prevent it going through.

v. Bridge Ball.—One that has passed the first arch.

vi. Dead Ball.—One in hand after having roqueted another.

vii. To Peg.—To play for either of the pegs in regular order.

viii. The Tour.—The run given to each player till he fails to strike through a hoop.

ix. To Dismiss a ball is to Croquet it to a distance.

x. Rover.—You become a Rover when you have completed the hoops from point to point, and instead of hitting the starting-peg and retiring, you prefer to strike your ball to any part of the ground, croqueting friends or foes.

xi. The terms side stroke, straight stroke, following ball, over-running a bridge, running a bridge, &c., explain themselves.

2577. Bagatelle.

An indoor game played on an oblong board usually from six to ten feet long by a foot and a half to three feet in width. The bed of the table is of slate covered with a fine green cloth; and at the upper end, which is rounded, there are nine holes or cups, numbered from 1 to 9, thus:

5 3 2 8 9 7 4 6 1

Into these holes ivory balls are driven by a leather pointed cue. The player stands at the lower end of the table; and his object is to hole the balls sucessively into the several cups. Nine balls are used, eight white and one red; or seven white with two coloured balls. The red is placed on a spot just in front of the 1 hole; and the game is played according to the following:

2578. Rules.

i. Any number of persons may play, whether singly or on sides.

ii. Each player strings for lead, and he whose ball falls into the highest hole begins.

iii. The winner of the lead plays the nine balls successively up the table from baulk, first striking at the red ball on the spot.

iv. The red ball counts double when holed, and each white ball scores towards game a number corresponding to that marked in the hole (when two coloured balls are used, each counts double).

v. The red ball must be first struck; and the rest of the balls are played up to the holes, the sum total of all the holes filled being the striker's score.

vi. Any number of rounds agreed on may be played, and the highest aggregate total by a player or by partners wins the game.

vii. A ball rebounding beyond the baulk line, or forced off the table, is put aside and not re-used in that round.

2579. The French Game (or Sans Egal).

The French Game (or Sans Egal) is played as follows:—The player who wins the lead takes four balls, leaving the other four for his opponent, and placing the black ball on the spot. He plays at it from baulk, and scores all he can. The other player then strikes up one of his balls, and so on alternately; the maker of the highest number of points winning. While the coloured ball is on the table, it must be struck, and when it is holed it counts double, in addition to any other score made by the same stroke. If either player hole his adversary's ball he forfeits to him the number scored by the stroke. If he fail to strike the black ball he forfeits five points. The rules as to rebounding balls, foul strokes, &c., are the same as in the ordinary game.

2580. Old Canon Game.

Old Canon Game, sometimes played on a table without holes or pockets, consists entirely of canons—two balls struck in succession by the player's ball. The game, 50 or 100 up, each canon counting two points, is played with three balls only—a white, spot-white, and black (or red) ball. When played on the ordinary bagatelle table, the holes filled after making a canon score to the player. One point is forfeited for missing the white, five points for missing the red; and all points made without a canon. The players go on alternately, the first who scores the stipulated number winning the game.

2581. Other Games.

Mississippi, Trou Madame, Cockamaroo, and other toy-games are sometimes played on the bagatelle table; but they need no description. To play well at any of the games, however, requires great care and nicety. Much depends on the manner of holding and using the cue, and the slight degree of force employed in making the stroke. Some experts are able to fill all the holes at one essay, placing the coloured balls in the 8 and 7 at the first stroke, and then playing direct at the cups or at the cushion, till all the balls are holed. At the French Game a hundred or more canons at a break is by no means unusual.

2582. Billiards.

This well-known game of skill is played on a rectangular table with three ivory balls,—white, spot-white, and red; the object being to drive one or other of them into either of the six pockets, and to strike one ball against the two others. The first stroke is known as a hazard, and the second as a canon. The instrument for striking at the ball, is a long tapering stick called a cue; and the game is scored by hazards, canons, misses, and forfeitures. The ball struck with the cue is known as the player's ball; the ball played as the object ball. A ball struck into a pocket, is a winning hazard; the player's ball falling into a pocket after contact with the white or red, is a losing hazard. Three principal games are played on the billiard table—the English game, or Billiards, Pyramids, and Pool.

2583. English Billiards.

English Billiards,—the best of all the games,—is usually played 50 or 100 up. The points are thus reckoned—three for each red hazard, two for each white hazard, and two for each canon. A coup—that is running in a pocket, or off the table without striking a ball—is a forfeiture of three points,—a miss gives one point to the adversary. The game commences by stringing for lead and choice of balls. The red ball is placed on the spot at the top of the table, and the first player either strikes at it, or gives a miss. Every time the red ball is pocketed, it is replaced on the spot. He who makes a hazard or canon goes on playing till he fails to score. Then the other goes on, and so they play alternately till one or other completes the required number of points, and wins the game.

2584. Pyramids.

Pyramids is a game played by two persons, or by four in sides, two against two. Fifteen balls are placed close together in the form of a triangle or pyramid, with the apex towards the player, thus:

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

The centre of the apex ball covers the second or pyramid spot; and the first player strikes at the mass with a white ball from baulk. Pyramids is a game consisting entirely of winning hazards, and he who succeeds in pocketing the greatest number of balls, wins. A single point is scored for each winning hazard, and a forfeiture of a point for each losing hazard; the game being usually played for a stake—so much (say 6d.) a ball, and so much (say 1s. 6d.) for the game.

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