Enquire Within Upon Everything - The Great Victorian Domestic Standby
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1889. Floss Silk.

Floss silk consists of several filaments of untwisted silk sufficient to make a strand of silk. It is used for working on the surface of wool stitches to heighten the effect and give brilliancy.

1890. Tusseh Silk.

Tusseh silk or, as some term it, "Tussore," is spun from the silk of the perforated cocoon of the tusseh-moth. This silk is seldom dyed, being the natural colour of the cocoon, which cannot be satisfactorily extracted; nor will it absorb dye perfectly.

1891. Embroidery Silk.

Embroidery silk is bright and lustrous, and composed of two rather loosely twisted large threads. Sadler's Silk and Purse-Silk have three threads. Sewing Silk has two. Tailor's Twist three threads.

1892. Chenille.

Chenille is of two kinds. Chenille a broder (the finest sort), and chenille ordinaire, which is stiff, and about the thickness of a quill: both are round. The extreme richness of the appearance of chenille makes it suitable for any work requiring great brilliancy; as the plumage of birds, some flowers, and arabesques. Silk canvas is much embroidered with chenille, but is extremely expensive, and very soon injured by dust. It should only be employed for articles intended to be glazed, such as pole-screens, the tops of work-boxes, and screens.

1893. Arrasene.

Arrasene is a perfectly flat silk-chenille—and is used for embroidery on all descriptions of material.

1894. Braids.

Braids are of various kinds. Russian silk braids are generally employed for dresses, slippers, &c.; but for many of these purposes the new Albert braid recently manufactured in England is much richer and far more effective. Russian silk braid is generally narrow, and the plait is of that kind which is termed Grecian—all the strands going from the edge to the centre. In French braid, on the contrary, the plait of every two strands over each other. French braid, in silk, is very little used in this country. Slippers and other small articles worked in braid have the effect greatly improved by laying a gold thread on one or both sides of the braid.

1895. Victoria, Adelaide, or Coronation Braid.

Victoria, Adelaide, or Coronation braid (for the same article has been called by all these various names), is a cotton braid, which, when laid on net or muslin, looks something like satin-stitch. It is composed of thick and thin parts alternately, and is made in only two sizes.

1896. Albert Braid.

Albert braid is a sort of silk cord, made in many beautiful colours. It is intended for either application, in braiding, and being raised, looks extremely well, with very small outlay of time or money.

1897. Gold and Silver Braids.

Gold and silver braids are often used in Mosaic work, and for slippers, blotting-cases, &c. The Mosaic braid, which is comparatively cheap, is generally used.

1898. Stitches.

Various stitches are used in embroidery with crewels and silk.

1899. Stem Stitch.

Stem stitch, also Crewel stitch, is that used for stems and for ordinary filling-in of flowers and arabesques. Instead of working from right to left, the stitches are smoother if worked from left to right. In stems a long stitch is made, and then a second halfway the length of the first, and half-way beyond it, till a stem is formed; and to complete it work from right to left, placing the needle under a stitch of the stem, not of the material, and so work back upon the top of the previous stitches. In the stem first worked only the tiniest piece of the material is taken up on the needle, so that the wool or silk is all on the surface.

1900. Stem Stitch in Flowers, &c.

In flowers and arabesques the stem-stitch is worked straight, but each stitch differing in length from the other, so as to make the wool smooth. Commence the work at the lowest part of the petals, and work upwards to the edge.

1901. Split Stem Stitch.

Having worked one stitch, in making the second split the first stitch in the centre with the needle. In the stitch, the thread is continued under the material.

1902. Couching.

Couching is a laying down on the outline of the design, a thick strand of filoselle, or cord or wool or silk of any kind, and then over-stitching it down with a fine silk of the same, or a contrasting colour.

1903. Basket-work Stitch and Diaper Stitch.

These are done with gold, silver, or silk cords, stitched on the material in patterns, with silk of another, or of the same colour. The cords are just passed through the back of the work to its surface; either one, two, or three at a time are held in place by the left hand, the over-stitching being done by the right hand.

1904. Canvas for Cross-stitch Work.

The Penelope is now universally used where the ground is filled in. Formerly it resembled the silk canvas now used where no grounding is required, but by accident a manufacturer observing some cross-stitch work unpicked, took the hint, and the result was the "Penelope canvas," of which there are different degrees of fineness, determined by the number of double-crossed threads that may fill the space of one inch.

1905. Elephant Penelope Canvas.

Elephant Penelope Canvas is extremely coarse—fitted for working rugs and eight or twelve thread wools.

1906. Silk Canvas.

Silk canvas requires no grounding; it is made of a cotton thread overcast with silk, and resembles coarse even-threaded cheese cloths, but is silky.

1907. Mode of doing Canvas Work.

This is always done by the thread,—particular care should in all cases be taken that the size of the various materials is properly proportioned. Placing the canvas in a frame, technically termed dressing the frame, is an operation which requires considerable care. The frame itself, especially for a large piece of work, should be substantially made; otherwise the stress upon it will be apt to warp it, and drag the canvas. If this occurs to any extent, the injury can never be repaired.

1908. To Frame Canvas.

After herringboning the raw edges of the canvas, sew them, by the thread, to the webbing of the frame,—that is, to the top and bottom. Then stretch the ends till the canvas is extended to its utmost length, put in the pegs, and brace the sides with fine twine. If the canvas is too long for the frame, and any part has to be rolled over the end, let the wood be first covered with a few thicknesses of silver paper.

1909. Design on Cloth.

Sometimes, to save the trouble of grounding, a design is worked on cloth, over which canvas is laid. Whenever this is the case, the cloth must be carefully damped, to remove the gloss, before it is put into the frame. Then, as cloth will always stretch much more than canvas, it must be cut a little smaller both ways. The raw edges of the cloth should be turned in, and tacked to the canvas before they are framed. Some people withdraw the threads of canvas after the work is done; but it has a much richer effect if the threads of canvas are cut close to the outer stitches; and if there are any small spaces in the pattern, where the ground should be seen, they may be worked in wool of the colour of the ground.

1910. Stretching Work.

Should a piece of work be a little drawn when taken out of the frame, damp the back well with a clean sponge, and stretch it again in the frame in the opposite direction. Whenever Berlin-work is done on any solid thick material, as cloth, velvet, &c., a needle should be used with an eye sufficiently large to form a passage for this wool. This prevents the latter from being crushed and impoverished as it passes through.

1911. Stitches in Canvas Work.

There are five kinds of stitch used in canvas work—Cross Stitch, Tent Stitch, Tapestry Stitch, German Stitch, and Irish Stitch.

1912. Cross Stitch.

Cross stitch is generally known. The needle is brought up in one pole of the canvas and down on another, two threads higher and more to the right. The slanting thread is then crossed in the opposite direction. A cross-stitch covers two threads in each direction.

1913. Tent Stitch.

Tent stitch occupies one-fourth the space of cross-stitch. It is taken from one hole to the next above, and on the right hand side of a previous stitch.


1914. Tapestry Stitch.

Tapestry stitch crosses two threads of the canvas in the length, and one in the width. It is sometimes called Gobelin stitch, because it resembles somewhat the Gobelin tapestry. It is not suited for coarse canvas, and, in working from a Berlin pattern, two straight stitches must be counted as one square cross stitch.

1915. German Stitch.

German stitch is worked diagonally, and consists of the first part of a cross stitch, and a tent stitch alternately worked.

1916. Irish Stitch.

Irish stitch is worked parallel with the selvedges of the canvas. None of the stitches cross the threads in the width. In the first row, take the thread alternately over four and two threads; in all future rows take the stitches over four threads,—which, as they rise—first from the long and then from the short stitch, will produce the same appearance in others.

1917. Handling Wool.

With regard to wools, they should never be wound, as the least handling crushes the pile and spoils them. Chenille needs still more careful handling.

1918. Stiffening Work.

To stiffen large pieces of work, wet the wrong side thoroughly with gum water or gum tragacanth, and dry it before a fire (the wet side nearest the fire), before removing it from the frame.

1919. Beads in Canvas Work.

Beads in canvas work have the treble merit of being at once brilliant, durable, and attractive.

1920. Tapestry Painting.

Tapestry painting is an imitation of the famed Gobelin tapestry, which is hand-woven over fine cord. The imitation is painted on a machine-woven rep canvas: the term rep is a corruption of the Saxon term wrepp, or rape, a cord, Dutch roop, from which we get the word rope. In the Gobelins the shading of the different tints of wool that form a picture, or other designs, are put in by hand work, or shuttles moved by the hand, and on the wrong side of the picture, and the threads of wool, the weft run longitudinally, not horizontally, so that when the design is finished the picture is turned horizontally, and is complete. In Tapestry Painting the rep of the canvas is from right to left (horizontal), and this is then painted over and forms a picture in imitation of the Gobelin tapestry. The latter is so named after its French inventor, Giles Gobelin, about 1520. He was a famous dyer who discovered the celebrated Gobelin's scarlet dye. The house in which he lived was purchased by Louis XIV for a manufactory of tapestry for adorning palaces, the designs for which were drawn by Le Brun, a celebrated French painter, about 1666. Her Majesty Queen Victoria has recently caused to be established at Windsor, an establishment where the art of making "Gobelin Tapestry" is successfully taught.

1921. Tapestry of Auxerre.

This town, in the northern part of the province of Burgundy, was once famous for its tapestry of a peculiar make. The design was handwoven in small patches of colour, and then was sewed together at the back to form the picture. Tapestry painting in blocks or masses of a single colour successfully imitate this tapestry, only that where the joining is of the real Auxerre tapestry is in tapestry painting marked by a black outline.

1922. Terra Cotta Painting.

Terra Cotta is an Italian term for "burnt-earth." Bricks are a coarse kind of terra cotta. The new building erected at Kensington for the reception of valuable remains and subjects of natural history, is built entirely of terra cotta slabs. Terra Cotta vases of the early and late Etruscan period, such as those in the British Museum, are priceless. These are painted in various designs, and burnt in. The Doulton Ware is a close, if not exact, representation of these matchless specimens. Terra Cotta painting is simply vases and plates of red terra cotta, painted in Greek designs with ordinary black paint, and then varnished, or plates painted with a similar medium, in flowers of various colours. These last, of course, are no imitations of the antique.


1923. Lustra Painting.

Lustra painting is a recent invention that so much resembles silk embroidery as to be mistaken for it. The outline of a design is sketched either on Roman satin or any smooth fabric, and then bronze powders of different colours are rubbed in with a preparation which is a trade secret. The leaves and stems are outlined in silk, this rendering the imitations more complete.

1924. Hints upon Etiquette. [1]

[Footnote 1: See "Etiquette and Social Ethics." 1s. London: Houlston and Sons]

1925. Introduction to Society.

Avoid all extravagance and mannerism, and be not over-timid at the outset. Be discreet and sparing of your words. Awkwardness is a great misfortune, but it is not an unpardonable fault. To deserve the reputation of moving in good society, something more is requisite than the avoidance of blunt rudeness. Strictly keep to your engagements. Punctuality is the essence of politeness.

1926. The Toilet.

Too much attention cannot be paid to the arrangements of the toilet. A man is often judged by his appearance, and seldom incorrectly. A neat exterior, equally free from extravagance and poverty, almost always proclaims a right-minded man. To dress appropriately, and with good taste, is to respect yourself and others. A gentleman walking, should always wear gloves, this being one of the characteristics of good breeding. Fine linen, and a good hat, gloves, and boots, are evidences of the highest taste in dress.

1927. Visiting Dress.

A black coat and trousers are indispensable for a dinner, or a ball. Either a white or black waistcoat is proper on such occasions. Morning dress is sufficient for an ordinary visit of ceremony.

1938. Officers' Dress.

Upon public and state occasions all officers should appear in uniform.

1929. Ladies' Dress.

Ladies' dresses should be chosen so as to produce an agreeable harmony. Never put on a dark-coloured bonnet with a light spring costume. Avoid uniting colours which will suggest an epigram; such as a straw-coloured dress with a green bonnet.

1930. Arrangement of the Hair.

The arrangement of the hair is most important. Bands are becoming to faces of a Grecian caste. Ringlets better suit lively and expressive heads. Avoid the extremes of fashion, whatever the fashion may be, especially those fashions which tend to spoil the hair and render it unfitted for plainer styles.

1931. Excess of Lace and Flowers.

Whatever be your style of face, avoid an excess of lace, and let flowers be few and choice.

1932. Appropriateness of Ornaments.

In a married woman a richer style of ornament is admissible. Costly elegance for her—for a young girl, a style of modern simplicity.

1933. Simplicity and Grace.

The most elegant dress loses its character if it is not worn with grace. Young girls have often an air of constraint, and their dress seems to partake of their want of ease. In speaking of her toilet, a women should not convey the idea that her whole skill consists in adjusting tastefully some trifling ornaments. A simple style of dress is an indication of modesty.

1934. Cleanliness.

The hands should receive special attention. They are the outward signs of general cleanliness. The same may be said of the face, the neck, the ears, and the teeth. The cleanliness of the system generally, and of bodily apparel, pertains to Health, and is treated of under this head.

1935. The Handkerchief.

There is considerable art in using this accessory of dress and comfort. Avoid extreme patterns, styles, and colours.

Never be without a handkerchief. Hold it freely in the hand, and do not roll it into a ball. Hold it by the centre, and let the corners form a fan-like expansion. Avoid using it too much. With some persons the habit becomes troublesome and unpleasant.


1936. Visits and Presentations.

i. Friendly calls should be made in the forenoon, and require neatness, without costliness of dress.

ii. Calls to give invitations to dinner-parties, or balls, should be very short, and should be paid in the afternoon.

iii. Visits of condolence require a grave style of dress.

iv. A formal visit should never be made before noon. If a second visitor is announced, it will be proper for you to retire, unless you are very intimate both with the host and the visitor announced; unless, indeed, the host expresses a wish for you to remain.

v. Visits after balls or parties should be made within a month.

vi. In the latter, it is customary to enclose your card in an envelope, bearing the address outside. This may be sent by post, if you reside at a distance.

vii. But, if living in the neighbourhood, it is polite to send your servant, or to call in person. In the latter case a corner should be turned down.

viii. Scrape your shoes and use the mat. Never appear in a drawing-room with mud on your boots.

ix. When a new visitor enters a drawing-room, if it be a gentleman, the ladies bow slightly, if a lady, the guests rise.

x. Hold your hat in your hand, unless requested to put it down. Then lay it beside you.

xi. The last arrival in a drawing-room takes a seat left vacant near the mistress of the house.

xii. A lady is not required to rise to receive a gentleman, nor to accompany him to the door.

xiii. When your visitor retires, ring the bell for the servant. You may then accompany your guest as far towards the door as the circumstances of your friendship seem to demand.

xiv. Request the servant, during the visits of guests, to attend to the door the moment the bell rings.

xv. When you introduce a person, pronounce the name distinctly, and say whatever you can to make the introduction agreeable. Such as "an old and valued friend," a "schoolfellow of mine," "an old acquaintance of our family."

xvi. Never stare about you in a room as if you were taking stock of those who are present.

xvii. The gloves should not be removed during a visit.

xviii. Be hearty in your reception of guests; and where you see much diffidence, assist the stranger to throw it off.

xix. A lady does not put her address on her visiting card.

1937. Balls and Evening Parties.

i. An invitation to a ball should be given at least a week beforehand.

ii. Upon entering, first address the lady of the house; and after her, the nearest acquaintances you may recognise in the room.

iii. If you introduce a friend, make him acquainted with the names of the chief persons present. But first present him to the lady of the house, and to the host.

iv. Appear in full dress.

v. Always wear gloves.

vi. Do not wear rings on the outside of your gloves.

vii. Avoid an excess of jewellery.

viii. Do not select the same partner frequently.

ix. Distribute your attentions as much as possible.

x. Pay respectful attention to elderly persons.

xi. Be cordial when serving refreshments, but not importunate.

xii. If there are more dancers than the room will accommodate, do not join in every dance.

xiii. In leaving a large party it is unnecessary to bid farewell, and improper to do so before the guests.

xiv. In balls and large parties there should be a table for cards, and two packs of cards placed upon each table.

xv. Chess and all unsociable games should be avoided.

xvi. Although many persons do not like to play at cards except for a stake, the stakes agreed to at parties should be very trifling, so as not to create excitement or discussion.

xvii. The host and hostess should look after their guests, and not confine their attentions. They should, in fact, attend chiefly to those who are the least known in the room.

xviii. Avoid political and religious discussions. If you have a hobby, keep it to yourself.

xix. After dancing, conduct your partner to a seat.

xx. Resign her as soon as her next partner advances.

(For the Figures of Dances, see pars. 139-159.—See HINTS UPON ETIQUETTE, par 2024.)

1938. Marriage Arrangements.

1939. Special Licences.

Special licences are dispensations from the ordinary rule, under which marriages can only take place canonically in the parish church, or other places duly licensed for that purpose. They can only be obtained from the Metropolitan or archbishop of the province, and often with no small difficulty, not being readily granted; and when obtained the fees are about L50.

1940. Common Licences.

Common Licences enable persons of full age, or minors with consent of parents or guardians, to be married in the church of the parish in which one of them has resided for three weeks. They are procured from Doctors' Commons, or from any surrogate, at the cost of about L2 10s.

1941. Banns.

Banns must be published three times in the parish church, in each place where the persons concerned reside. The clerk is applied to on such occasions; his fee varies from 1s. 6d. upwards. When the marriage ceremony is over, the parties repair to the vestry, and enter their names in the parish registry. The registry is signed by the clergyman and the witnesses present, and a certificate of the registry is given to the bridegroom if desired. The charge for a certificate of marriage is 2s. 7d., including the penny stamp on the documents, as by law required, and the clergyman's fee varies according to circumstances. The clerk will at all times give information thereupon; and it is best for a friend of the bridegroom to attend to the pecuniary arrangements.

1942. Marriage by Registration.

An Act was passed in the reign of William the Fourth, by which it was rendered legal for persons wishing to be married by a civil ceremony, to give notice of their intention to the Registrar of Marriages in their district or districts. Three weeks' notice is necessary, to give which the parties call, separately or together, at the office of the registrar, who enters the names in a book. When the time of notice has expired, it is only necessary to give the registrar an intimation, on the previous day, of your intention to attend at his office on the next day, and complete the registration. The ceremony consists of merely answering a few questions, and making the declaration that you take each other to live as husband and wife. The fee amounts only to a few shillings, and in this form no wedding ring is required, though it is usually placed on the ring-finger of the bride's left hand, in the presence of the persons assembled. The married couple receive a certificate of marriage, which is in every respect lawful.


1943. Wedding Dress.

It is impossible to lay down specific rules for dress, as fashions change, and tastes differ. The great art consists in selecting the style of dress most becoming to the person. A stout person should adopt a different style from a thin person; a taLl one from a short one. Peculiarities of complexion, and form of face and figure, should be duly regarded; and in these matters there is no better course than to call in the aid of any respectable milliner and dressmaker, who will be found ready and able to give the best advice. The bridegroom should simply appear in morning dress, and should avoid everything eccentric and conspicuous in style. The bridesmaids should always be made aware of the bride's dress before they choose their own, which should be determined by a proper harmony with the former.

1944. The Order of Going to Church.

The order of going to church is as follows:—The BRIDE, accompanied by her father, occupies the last carriage. The father hands out the bride, and leads her direct to the altar, round which those who have been invited have already grouped themselves, leaving room for the father, the bride, and the bridesmaids, who usually await the bride's coming at the entrance to the church, or at the bottom of the chancel, and follow her to the communion rails.

1945. The Bridegroom.

The Bridegroom, who has made his way to the church, accompanied by his "best man," or principal groomsman—an intimate friend or brother—should be waiting at the communion rails to receive his future wife on her arrival. He and she then stand facing the altar, he being on the right of the bride, and the father or the gentleman who is to "give away" the bride, on the left.

1946. The Chief Bridesmaid.

The Chief Bridesmaid occupies a place immediately behind the bride, to hold her gloves and handkerchief, and flowers; her companions range themselves close to, and slightly in the rear of the principal bridesmaid. If any difficulties occur from forgetfulness, or want of knowledge, the woman who is usually in attendance at the church can set everything right.

1947. Important Details.

Remember to take the License and the Ring with you.—The fee to a clergyman is according to the rank and fortune of the bridegroom; the clerk if there be one, expects five shillings, and a trifle should be given to the pew opener, and other officials of the church. There is a fixed scale of fees at every church, to which the parties married can add if they please.

1948. Afterwards.

When the Ceremony is concluded, the bride, taking the bridegroom's arm, goes into the vestry, the others following; signatures are then affixed, and a registration made, after which the married pair enter their carriage, and proceed to the breakfast, everyone else following.

1949. The Order of Return.

The order of return from Church differs from the above only in the fact that the bride and bridegroom now ride together in the first carriage, the bride being on his left. The bridesmaids and other guests find their way home in the remaining carriages, but to prevent confusion some preconcerted arrangement is desirable.

1950. The Wedding Breakfast.

The Wedding Breakfast having been already prepared, the wedding party return thereto. If a large party, the bride and bridegroom occupy seats in the centre of the long table, and the two extremities should be presided over by the father and mother of the bride, or, failing these, by elderly relatives, if possible one from each family. Everyone should endeavour to make the occasion as happy as possible. One of the senior members of either the bride or bridegroom's family should, sometime before the breakfast has terminated, rise, and in a brief but graceful manner, propose the "Health and happiness of the wedded pair." It is much better to drink their healths together than separately; and, after a brief interval, the bridegroom should return thanks, which he may do without hesitation, since no one looks for a speech upon such an occasion. A few words, feelingly expressed, are all that is required. The breakfast generally concludes with the departure of the happy pair upon their wedding tour.


1951. Cards.

A newly married couple send out cards immediately after the ceremony to their friends and acquaintance, who, on their part, return either notes or cards of congratulation on the event. As soon as the lady is settled in her new home, she may expect the calls of her acquaintance; for which it is not absolutely necessary to remain at home, although politeness requires that they should be returned as soon as possible. But, having performed this, any further intercourse may be avoided (where it is deemed necessary) by a polite refusal of invitations. Where cards are to be left, the number must be determined according to the various members of which the family called upon is composed. For instance, where there are the mother, aunt, and daughters (the latter having been introduced to society), three cards should be left. Recently, the custom of sending cards has been in a great measure discontinued, and instead of this, the words "No cards" are appended to the ordinary newspaper advertisement, and the announcement of the marriage, with this addition, is considered all sufficient.

1952. Reception.

When the married pair have returned, and the day of reception arrives, wedding cake and wine are handed round, of which every one partakes, and each expresses some kindly wish for the newly married couple. The bride ought not to receive visitors without a mother, or sister, or some friend being present, not even if her husband be at home. Gentlemen who are in professions, or have Government appointments, cannot always await the arrival of visitors; when such is the case, some old friend of the family should represent him, and proffer an apology for his absence.

1953. The Wedding Tour.

The Wedding Tour must depend upon the tastes and circumstances of the married couple. Home-loving Englishmen and women may find much to admire and enjoy without ranging abroad. Those whose time is somewhat restricted should visit some spot which may be reached without difficulty. Cornwall and Devonshire, the Isle of Wight, &c., are each delightful to the tourist; and the former is now accessible by railway as far as the Land's End. The scenery of the North of Devon, and of both coasts of Cornwall, is especially beautiful. North Wales offers a delightful excursion; the lakes of Westmoreland and Cumberland; the lakes of Killarney, in Ireland; also the magnificent scenery of the Scottish lakes and mountains. To those who wish for a wider range, France, Germany, Switzerland, and the Rhine offer charms which cannot be surpassed.

1954. Wedding Cakes.

Four pounds of fine flour, well dried; four pounds of fresh butter; two pounds of loaf sugar; a quarter of a pound of mace, pounded and sifted fine; the same of nutmegs. To every pound of flour add eight eggs; wash four pounds of currants, let them be well picked and dried before the fire; blanch a pound of sweet almonds, and cut them lengthwise very thin; a pound of citron; one pound of candied orange; the same of candied lemon; half a pint of brandy. When these are made ready, work the butter with your hand to a cream; then beat in the sugar a quarter of an hour; beat the whites of the eggs to a very strong froth; mix them with the sugar and butter; beat the yolks half an hour at least, and mix them with the cake; then put in the flour, mace, and nutmeg, keep beating it well till your oven is ready—pour in the brandy, and beat the currants and almonds lightly in. Tie three sheets of white paper round the bottom of your hoop to keep it from running out; rub it well with butter, put in your cake; lay the sweetmeats in layers; with cake between each layer; and after it is risen and coloured cover it with paper before your oven is stopped up. It will require three hours to bake properly.


1955. Almond Icing for Wedding Cake.

Beat the whites of three eggs to a strong froth, pulp a pound of Jordan almonds very fine with rose water, mix them, with the eggs, lightly together; put in by degrees a pound of common loaf sugar in powder. When the cake is baked enough, take it out, and lay on the icing; then put it in to brown.

1956. Sugar Icing for Wedding Cake.

Beat two pounds of double refined sugar with two ounces of fine starch, sift the whole through a gauze sieve, then beat the whites of five eggs with a knife upon a pewter dish for half an hour; beat in the sugar a little at a time, or it will make the eggs fall, and injure the colour; when all the sugar is put in, beat it half an hour longer, and then lay on your almond icing, spreading it even with a knife. If put on as soon as the cake comes out of the oven, it will harden by the time the cake is cold.

1957. Marriages of Dissenters.

Marriages of Dissenters may be solemnized at any place of worship duly licensed, and in accordance with the forms of their worship. In some cases, the service of the Church of England is read, with slight additions or modifications. The clerk of the place of worship should be applied to for information.

1958. Christenings.

Christenings may be performed either in accordance with the rites of the Established Church, or of dissenting congregations; the time of birth, and the name of every child, must also be registered. The fees paid for christening vary with a variety of circumstances. Particulars should in each case be obtained of the clerk of the place of worship. It is usual to make a christening the occasion of festivity; but not in such a manner as to require special remark. The parents and god-parents of the child appear at church at the appointed hour. The child is carried by the nurse. The dress of the parties attending a christening should be what may be termed demi-costume, or half-costume; but the infant should be robed in the choicest manner that the circumstances will allow. It is usual for the sponsors to present the child with a gift to be preserved for its future years. Silver spoons, a silver knife and fork, a clasp-bible, a silver cup, and other such articles, are usually chosen. It is usual, also, to give a trifling present to the nurse.

1959. Registration of Births.

The law of registration requires the parents, or occupiers of houses in which the births happen, to register such birth at the registrar's office within six weeks after the date thereof. For registration, within the time specified, no charge is made. But after the expiration of the forty-second day from the birth, a fee of seven shillings and sixpence must be paid. After the expiration of six months from the date of the birth, no registration is allowed. It is therefore most important, as soon as possible after the birth of a child, for the father or mother, or in default of either, the occupier of the house in which to his knowledge the child is born, or any one who may have been present at the birth, to go to the office of the registrar of the district, and communicate the following particulars:

1. Date when born. 2. Name of the child. 3. Boy or girl. 4. Name of the father. 5. Name and maiden name of the mother. 6. Rank or profession of the father. 7. Signature, description, and residence of the person giving the information. 8 Date of the registration.

1960. Baptismal Name.

If any child born in England, whose birth has been registered, shall, within six months of such registration, have any name given to it in baptism other than that originally registered, such baptismal name may be added to the previous registration, if, within seven days of such baptism, application be made to the registrar by whom the child was originally registered. For this purpose a certificate of the baptism must be procured of the clergyman, for which a fee of 2s. 7d. (including stamp) must he paid. This certificate must he taken to the registrar, who will charge another fee of one shilling for adding the baptisinal name to the original registration.


1961. Choice of Names.

To choose names for children, parents should consult the list of names in pars. 971, 972.

1962. Children born at Sea.

If any child of an English parent shall be born at sea on board a British vessel, the captain or commanding officer shall make a minute of the particulars touching the birth of the child, and shall, on the arrival of the vessel at any part of the kingdom, or sooner, by any other opportunity, send a certificate of the birth through the post-office (for which no postage will be charged), to the Registrar General, General Registrar Office, London.

1963. Funerals and Registration of Deaths.

It is always best to place the direction of a funeral under a respectable undertaker, with the precaution of obtaining his estimate for the expenses, and limiting him to them. He can best advise upon the observances to be attended to, since the style of funerals differs with the station of the deceased's family, and is further modified by the customs of particular localities, and even by religious views.

1964. Registration of Deaths.

The father or mother of any child that dies, or the occupier of a house in which any person may die, must, within five days after such death, give notice to the registrar of the district. Some person present at the death should at the same time attend and give to the registrar an account of the circumstances or cause of the death, to the best of his or her knowledge or belief. Such person must sign his or her name, and give the place of abode at which he or she resides. The following are the particulars required:

1. Date of Death. 2. Name in full. 3. Sex and age. 4. Rank or profession. 5. Cause of death. 6. Signature, description, and residence of the person giving the information. 7. Date of the registration.

A certificate of the cause of death must be obtained from the medical man in attendance, who is required to state when he last saw the patient.

1965. Persons dying at Sea.

The commander of any British vessel, on board of which a death occurs at sea, must act the same as in a case of birth.

1966. Certificates of Death.

Every registrar must deliver to the undertaker, without fee, a certificate of the death, which certificate shall be delivered to the officiating minister. No dead body can be buried without such certificate, under a penalty of L10.

1967. Observances of Deaths and Funerals.

It is usual, when a death takes place, to communicate it immediately, upon mourning note-paper, to the principal members of the family, and to request them to notify the same to the more remote relatives in their circle. A subsequent note should state the day and hour at which the funeral is fixed to take place.

1968. Special Invitations.

Special invitations to funerals are not considered requisite to be sent to near relatives; but to friends and acquaintances such invitations should be sent.

1969. Gloves.

Most persons who attend funerals will provide themselves with gloves; but it is well to have a dozen pairs, of assorted sizes, provided in case of accident. An arrangement can be made for those not used to be returned.

1970. Hatbands and Cloaks.

Hatbands and Cloaks will be provided by the undertaker.

1971. Mourning.

The dressmaker will advise upon the "degree" of mourning to be worn, which must be modified according to the age of the deceased, and the relationship of the mourner. The undertaker will advise respecting the degree of mourning to be displayed upon the carriages, horses, &c.


1972. Going to the Funeral.

In going to the Funeral the nearest relatives of the deceased occupy the carriages nearest the hearse. The same order prevails in returning. Only the relatives and most intimate friends of the family should return to the house after the funeral; and their visit should be as short as possible.

1973. Walking Funerals.

In Walking Funerals it is considered a mark of respect for friends to become pall-bearers. In the funerals of young persons, the pall should be borne by their companions, wearing white gloves. It is a pretty and an affecting sight to see the pall over the coffin of a young lady borne by six of her female friends. Flowers may be placed, upon the coffin, and strewed in and over the grave.

1974. Societies.

As funerals in England, when conducted in ths ordinary way, with the usual display of hearse, mourning carriages, and costly mourning, are attended with considerable expense, societies have been formed in many parishes with the view of reducing the outlay resorted to on these occasions, and at a time perhaps when it would be better in many cases to observe the strictest economy. The members of these societies agree among themselves to do all that is possible to reduce expenditure at funerals, and to render the accompaniments of the sad ceremony as inexpensive as possible. Instead of going into mourning, many now content themselves with wearing a simple band of cloth round the left arm. This is done by women as well as by men.

1975. Visits of Condolence.

Visits of condolence after funerals should be paid by relatives within from a week to a fortnight; by friends within the second week of the fortnight; friends of less intimacy should make enquiries and leave cards.

1976. Correspondence.

Correspondence with families in mourning should be upon black-edged paper, if from members of the family; or upon the ordinary notepaper, but sealed with black, if from friends.

1977. Ceremonies.

All ceremonies are in themselves superficial things; yet a man of the world should know them. They are the outworks of manners and decency, which would be too often broken in upon, if it were not for that defence which keeps the enemy at a proper distance. It is for that reason we always treat fools and coxcombs with great ceremony, true good-breeding not being a sufficient barrier against them.

1978. Love's Telegraph.

If a gentleman want a wife, he wears a ring on the first finger of the left hand; if he be engaged, he wears it on the second finger; if married, on the third; and on the fourth if he never intends to be married. When a lady is not engaged, she wears a hoop or diamond on her first finger; if engaged, on the second; if married, on the third; and on the fourth if she intends to die unmarried. When a gentleman presents a fan, flower, or trinket, to a lady with the left hand, this, on his part, is an overture of regard; should she receive it with the left hand, it is considered as an acceptance of his esteem; but if with the right hand, it is a refusal of the offer. Thus, by a few simple tokens explained by rule, the passion of love is expressed; and through the medium of the telegraph, the most timid and diffident man may, without difficulty, communicate his sentiments of regard to a lady, and, in case his offer should be refused, avoid experiencing the mortification of an explicit refusal.

1979. Wedding Rings.

The custom of wearing wedding rings appears to have taken its rise among the Romans. Before the celebration of their nuptials, there was a meeting of friends at the house of the lady's father, to settle articles of the marriage contract, when it was agreed that the dowry should be paid down on the wedding day or soon after. On this occasion there was commonly a feast, at the conclusion of which the man gave to the woman, as a pledge, a ring, which she put on the fourth finger of her left hand, because it was believed that a nerve reached thence to the heart, and a day was then named for the marriage.

1980. Why the Wedding Ring is placed on the Fourth Finger.

"We have remarked on the vulgar error which supposes that an artery runs from the fourth finger of the left hand to the heart. It is said by Swinburn and others, that therefore it became the wedding finger. The priesthood kept up this idea by still retaining it as the wedding finger, but the custom is really associated with the doctrine of the Trinity; for, in the ancient ritual of English marriages, the ring was placed by the husband on the top of the thumb of the left hand, with the words, 'In the name of the father;' he then removed it to the forefinger, saying, 'In the name of the Son;' then to the middle finger, adding, 'And of the Holy Ghost;' finally, he left it as now, on the fourth finger, with the closing word, 'Amen.'" The History and Poetry of Finger Rings.

1981. The Art of being Agreeable.

The true art of being agreeble is to appear well pleased with all the company, and rather to seem well entertained with them than to bring entertainment to them. A man thus disposed, perhaps may not have much learning, nor any wit; but if he has common sense and something friendly in his behaviour, it conciliates men's minds more than the brightest parts without this disposition; and when a man of such a turn comes up to old age, he is almost sure to be treated with respect. It is true, indeed, that we should not dissembie and flatter in company; but a man may be very agreeable, strictly, consistent with truth and sincerity, by a prudent silence where he cannot concur, and a pleasing assent where he can. Now and then you meet a person so exactly formed to please, that he will gain upon everyone that hears or beholds him: this disposition is not merely the gift of nature, but frequently the effect of much knowledge of the world, and a command over the passions.

1982. Artificial Manners.

Artificial manners, and such as spring from good taste and refinement, can never be mistaken, and differ as widely as gold and tinsel. How captivating is gentleness of manner derived from true humility, and how faint is every imitation! That suavity of manner which renders a real gentlewoman courteous to all, and careful to avoid giving offence, is often copied by those who merely subject themselves to certain rules of etiquette: but very awkward is the copy. Warm professions of regard are bestowed on those who do not expect them, and the esteem which is due to merit appears to be lavished on every one alike. And as true humility, blended with a right appreciation of self-respect, gives a pleasing cast to the countenance, so from a sincere and open disposition springs that artlessness of manner which disarms all prejudice. Feeling, on the contrary, is ridiculous when affected, and, even when real, should not be too openly manifested. Let the manners arise from the mind, and let there be no disguise for the genuine emotions of the heart.

1983. Hints upon Personal Manners.

It is sometimes objected to books upon etiquette that they cause those who consult them to act with mechanical restraint, and to show in society that they are governed by arbitrary rules, rather than by an intuitive perception of what is graceful and polite.

1984. Unsound Objection.

This objection is unsound because it supposes that people who study the theory of etiquette do not also exercise their powers of observation in society, and obtain, by their intercourse with others, that freedom and ease of deportment which society alone can impart.


1985. Books upon Etiquette.

Books upon Etiquette are useful, inasmuch as they expound the laws of polite society. Experience alone, however, can give effect to the precise manner in which those laws are required to be observed.

1986. Simple Hints.

Whatever objections may be raised to the teachings of works upon etiquette, there can be no sound argument against a series of simple and brief hints, which shall operate as precautions against mistakes in personal conduct.

1987. No Gossip.

Avoid intermeddling with the affairs of others. This is a most common fault. A number of people seldom meet but they begin discussing the affairs of some one who is absent. This is not only uncharitable, but positively unjust. It is equivalent to trying a cause in the absence of the person implicated. Even in the criminal code a prisoner is presumed to be innocent until he is found guilty. Society, however, is less just, and passes judgment without hearing the defence. Depend upon it, as a certain rule, that the people who unite with you in discussing the affairs of others will proceed to your affairs and conduct in your absence.

1988. Consistent Principles.

Be consistent in the avowal of Principles. Do not deny to-day that which you asserted yesterday. If you do, you will stultify yourself, and your opinions will soon be found to have no weight. You may fancy that you gain favour by subserviency; but so far from gaining favour, you lose respect.

1989. Avoid Falsehood.

Avoid falsehood. There can be found no higher virtue than the love of truth. The man who deceives others must himself become the victim of morbid distrust. Knowing the deceit of his own heart, and the falsehood of his own tongue, his eyes must be always filled with suspicion, and he must lose the greatest of all happiness—confidence in those who surround him.

1990. Elements of Manly Character.

The following elements of manly character are worthy of frequent meditation:

i. To be wise in his disputes.

ii. To be a lamb in his home.

iii. To be brave in battle and great in moral courage.

iv. To be discreet in public.

v. To be a bard in his chair.

vi. To be a teacher in his household.

vii. To be a council in his nation.

viii. To be an arbitrator in his vicinity.

ix. To be a hermit in his church.

x. To be a legislator in his country.

xi. To be conscientious in his actions.

xii. To be happy in his life.

xiii. To be diligent in his calling.

xiv. To be just in his dealing.

xv. To do whatever he doeth as being done unto God, and not unto men.

1991. Good Temper.

Avoid Manifestations of Ill-temper. Reason is given for man's guidance. Passion is the tempest by which reason is overthrown. Under the effects of passion, man's mind becomes disordered, his face disfigured, his body deformed. A moment's passion has frequently cut off a life's friendship, destroyed a life's hope, embittered a life's peace, and brought unending sorrow and disgrace. It is scarcely worth while to enter into a comparative analysis of ill-temper and passion; they are alike discreditable, alike injurious, and should stand equally condemned.

1992. Be Humble.

Avoid Pride. If you are handsome, God made you so; if you are learned, some one instructed you; if you are rich, God gave you what you own. It is for others to perceive your goodness; but you should be blind to your own merits. There can be no comfort in deeming yourself better than you really are: that is self-deception. The best men throughout all history have been the most humble.

1993. Affectation is a Form of Pride.

It is, in fact, pride made ridiculous and contemptible. Some one writing upon affectation has remarked as follows:

"If anything will sicken and disgust a man, it is the affected, mincing way in which some people choose to talk. It is perfectly nauseous. If these young jackanapes, who screw their words into all manner of diabolical shapes, could only feel how perfectly disgusting they were, it might induce them to drop it. With many, it soon becomes such a confirmed habit that they cannot again be taught to talk in a plain, straightforward, manly way. In the lower order of ladies' boarding-schools, and indeed, too much everywhere, the same sickening, mincing tone is too often found. Do, pray, good people, do talk in your natural tone, if you don't wish to be utterly ridiculous and contemptible."

1994. Vulgarity.

We have adopted the foregoing Paragraph because we approve of some of its sentiments, but chiefly because it shows that persons who object to affectation may go to the other extreme—vulgarity. It is vulgar, we think, to call even the most affected people "jackanapes, who screw their words into all manner of diabolical shapes." Avoid vulgarity in manner, in speech, and in correspondence. To conduct yourself vulgarly is to offer offence to those who are around you; to bring upon yourself the condemnation of persons of good taste; and to incur the penalty of exclusion from good society. Thus, cast among the vulgar, you become the victim of your own error.

1995. Avoid Swearing.

An oath is but the wrath of a perturbed spirit. It is mean. A man of high moral standing would rather treat an offence with contempt than show his indignation by an oath. It is vulgar, altogether too low for a decent man. It is cowardly, implying a fear either of not being believed or obeyed. It is ungentlemanly, A gentleman, according to Webster, is a genteel man—well-bred, refined. It is indecent, offensive to delicacy, and extremely unfit for human ears. It is foolish. "Want of decency is want of sense." It is abusive—to the mind which conceives the oath, to the tongue which utters it, and to the person at whom it is aimed. It is venomous, showing a man's heart to be as a nest of vipers; and every time he swears, one of them starts out from his head. It is contemptible, forfeiting the respect of all the wise and good. It is wicked, violating the Divine law, and provoking the displeasure of Him who will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain.

1996. Be a Gentleman.

Moderation, decorum, and neatness distinguish the gentleman; he is at all times affable, diffident, and studious to please. Intelligent and polite, his behaviour is pleasant and graceful. When he enters the dwelling of an inferior, he endeavours to hide, if possible, the difference between their ranks of life; ever willing to assist those around him, he is neither unkind, haughty, nor over-bearing. In the mansions of the rich, the correctness of his mind induces him to bend to etiquette, but not to stoop to adulation; correct principle cautions him to avoid the gaming-table, inebriety, or any other foible that could occasion him self-reproach. Gratified with the pleasures of reflection, he rejoices to see the gaieties of society, and is fastidious upon no point of little import. Appear only to be a gentleman, and its shadow will bring upon you contempt; be a gentleman, and its honours will remain even after you are dead.

1997. The Happy Man, or True Gentleman.

How happy is he born or taught, That serveth not another's will, Whose armour is his honest thought, And simple truth his only skill:

Whose passions not his masters are. Whose soul is still prepared for death Not tied unto the world with care Of prince's ear, or vulgar breath:

Who hath his life from rumours freed, Whose conscience is his strong retreat Whose state can neither flatterers feed. Nor ruin make oppressors great,

Who God doth late and early pray More of His grace than gifts to lend; And entertains the harmless day With a well-chosen book or friend;

This man is freed from servile bands, Of hope to rise or fear to fall; Lord of himself, though not of lands, And having nothing, yet hath all.

Sir Henry Wotton, 1530.


1998. Be Honest.

Not only because "honesty is the best policy," but because it is a duty to God and to man. The heart that can be gratified by dishonest gains; the ambition that can be satisfied by dishonest means; the mind that can be devoted to dishonest purposes, must be of the worst order.

1999. General Principles.

Having laid down these General Principles for the government of personal conduct, we will epitomize what we would still enforce:

2000. Idleness.

Avoid Idleness. It is the parent of many evils. Can you pray, "Give us this day our daily bread," and not hear the reply, "Do thou this day thy daily duty"?

2001. Idle Tales.

Avoid telling Idle Tales, which is like firing arrows in the dark: you know not into whose heart they may fall.

2002. Self-Praise.

Avoid talking about yourself, praising your own works, and proclaiming your own deeds. If they are good they will proclaim themselves, if bad, the less you say of them the better.

2003. Envy.

Avoid Envy; for it cannot benefit you, nor can it injure those against whom it is cherished.

2004. Disputation.

Avoid Disputation for the mere sake of argument. The man who disputes obstinately, and in a bigoted spirit, is like the man who would stop the fountain from which he should drink. Earnest discussion is commendable; but factious argument never yet produced a good result.

2005. Kindness.

Be Kind in Little Things.—The true generosity of the heart is more displayed by deeds of minor kindness, than by acts which may partake of ostentation.

2006. Politeness.

Be Polite.—Politeness is the poetry of conduct—and like poetry, it has many qualities. Let not your politeness be too florid, but of that gentle kind which indicates a refined nature.

2007. Sociable.

Be Sociable—avoid reserve in society. Remember that the social elements, like the air we breathe, are purified by motion. Thought illumines thought, and smiles win smiles.

2008. Punctuality.

Be Punctual.—One minute too late has lost many a golden opportunity. Besides which, the want of punctuality is an affront offered to the person to whom your presence is due.

2009. Hints.

The foregoing Remarks may be said to apply to the moral conduct, rather than, to the details of personal manners. Great principles, however, suggest minor ones; and hence, from the principles laid down, many hints upon personal behaviour may be gathered.

2010. Hearty.

Be Hearty in your salutations, discreet and sincere in your friendships.

2011. Listen.

Prefer to Listen rather than to talk.

2012. Respect.

Behave, even in the presence of your relations, as though you felt respect to be due to them.

2013. Humble.

In Society never forget that you are but one of many.

2014. House Rules.

When you Visit a Friend, conform to the rules of his household; lean not upon his tables, nor rub your feet against his chairs.

2015. Privacy.

Pry not into Letters that are not your own.

2016. Ladies.

Pay unmistakable Respect to ladies everywhere.

2017. Silliness.

Beware of Foppery, and of silly flirtation.

2018. Considerate.

In Public Places be not too pertinacious of your own rights, but find pleasure in making concessions.

2019. Conversation.

Speak Distinctly, look at the person to whom you speak, and when you have spoken, give him an opportunity to reply.

2020. Temperance.

Avoid Drunkenness as you would a curse; and modify all appetites, especially those that are acquired.

2021. Correct Dress.

Dress Well, but not superfluously; be neither like a sloven, nor like a stuffed model.

2022. Cleanliness.

Keep away all Uncleanly Appearances from the person. Let the nails, the teeth, and, in fact, the whole system receive salutary rather than studied care. But let these things receive attention at the toilet—not elsewhere.

2023. Jewellery.

Avoid displaying Excess of Jewellery. Nothing looks more effeminate upon a man.

2024. Central Ideas.

Every one of these Suggestions may be regarded as the centre of many others, which the earnest mind cannot fail to discover. (See HINTS ON ETIQUETTE, par. 1924.)

2025. Children.

Happy indeed is the child who, during the first period of its existence, is fed upon no other aliment than the milk of its mother, or that of a healthy nurse. If other food become necessary before the child has acquired teeth, it ought to be of a liquid form; for instance, biscuits or stale bread boiled in an equal mixture of milk and water, to the consistence of a thick soup; but by no means even this in the first week of its life. Children who are brought up by hand, that is to say, who are not nursed by mother or wet nurse, require an occasioned change of diet, and thin gruel affords a wholesome alternation to milk. When cows' milk is used it should be obtained, if possible, from one and the same cow, and diluted with boiled water. Swiss milk is recommended by some medical men. The Aylesbury Dairy Company furnish a speciality for young children under the name of "Artificial Human Milk," which is recommended.

2026. Thickening.

Flour or Meal ought never to be used for soup, as it produces viscid humours, instead of a wholesome nutritious chyle.

2027 Introducing Solid Food.

After the first Six Months, weak veal or chicken broth may be given, and also, progressively, vegetables that are not very flatulent, for instance, carrots, endive, spinach, parsnips, with broth, and a little stewed fruit, such as apples, pears, plums, and cherries.

2028. After Weaning.

When the Infant Is Weaned, and has acquired its proper teeth, it is advisable to let it have small portions of meat, and other vegetables, as well as dishes prepared of flour, &c., so that it may gradually become accustomed to every kind of strong and wholesome food.

2029. Simple Food.

We ought, however, to be cautious, and not upon any account to allow a child pastry, confectionery, cheese, heavy dishes made of boiled or baked flour, onions, horseradish, mustard, smoked and salted meat, especially pork, and all compound dishes; for the most simple food is the most wholesome.

2030. Potatoes.

Potatoes should be allowed only in moderation, and not to be eaten with butter, but rather with other vegetables, either mashed up or in broth.

2031. Time-Table.

The Time of Taking Food is not a matter of indifference; very young infants make an exception; for, as their consumption of vital power is more rapid, they may be more frequently indulged with aliment.

2032. Regularity.

It is, however, advisable to accustom even them to a certain regularity, so as to allow them their victuals at stated periods of the day; for it has been observed that those children which are fed indiscriminately through the whole day, are subject to debility and disease. The stomach should be allowed to recover its tone, and to collect the juices necessary for digestion, before it is supplied with a new portion of food.

2033. Daily Diet.

The following Order of giving Food to children has been found proper, and conducive to their health:—After rising in the morning, suppose about six o'clock, a moderate portion of lukewarm milk, with well baked bread, which should by no means be new; at nine o'clock, bread with some fruit, or, if fruit be scarce, a small quantity of fresh butter; about twelve o'clock, the dinner, of a sufficient quantity; between four and five o'clock, some bread with fruit, or, in winter, some preserve as a substitute for fruit.

2034. Tea.

On this Occasion, Children should be allowed to eat till they are satisfied, without surfeiting themselves, that they may not crave for a heavy supper, which disturbs their rest, and is productive of bad humours: lastly, about seven o'clock they may be permitted a light supper, consisting either of milk, soup, fruit, or boiled vegetables and the like, but neither meat nor mealy dishes, nor any article of food which produces flatulency; in short, they ought then to eat but little, and remain awake at least for an hour after it.

2035. Bread.

It has often been contended that Bread is hurtful to children; but this applies only to new bread, or such as is not sufficiently baked; for instance, nothing can be more hurtful or oppressive than rolls, muffins, and crumpets. Good wheaten bread, especially that baked by the aerated process, is extremely proper during the first years of infancy; but that made of whole wheat meal, or wheat flour from which the bran has not been eliminated is, perhaps, more conducive to health after the age of childhood.

2036. Drink.

With respect to Drink, physicians are decidedly against giving it to children in large quantities, and at irregular periods, whether it consists of the mother's milk, or any other equally mild liquid.

2037. Improper.

It is improper and pernicious to keep infants continually at the breast; and it would be less hurtful, nay, even judicious, to let them cry for a few nights, rather than to fill them incessantly with milk, which readily turns sour on the stomach, weakens the digestive organs, and ultimately generates scrofulous affections.

2038. Liquids.

In the latter part of the First Year, pure water, milk-and-water, or toast-and-water may occasionally be given. On no account should a young child be permitted to taste beer or wine, unless specially ordered by a medical man. Those parents who accustom their children to drink water only, bestow on them a fortune, the value and importance of which will be sensibly felt through life.

2039. Drinking with Meals.

Many Children acquire a Habit of Drinking during their meals; it would be more conducive to digestion if they were accustomed to drink only after having made a meal. This salutary rule is too often neglected, though it is certain that innundations of the stomach, during the mastication and maceration of the food, not only vitiate digestion, but they may be attended with other bad consequences; as cold drink, when brought in contact with the teeth previously heated, may easily occasion cracks or chinks in these useful bones, and pave the way for their carious dissolution.

2040. Crying.

If we Inquire into the Cause which produces the crying of infants, we shall find that it seldom originates from pain, or uncomfortable sensations, for those who are apt to imagine that such causes must always operate on the body of an infant, are egregiously mistaken; inasmuch as they conceive that the physical condition, together with the method of expressing sensations, is the same in infants and adults.

2041. Difference.

It requires, however, no demonstration to prove that the state of the former is essentially different from that of the latter.

2042. Power.

In the First Year of Infancy, many expressions of the tender organs are to be considered only as efforts of manifestations of power.

2043. Exertions.

We observe, for instance, that a child, as soon as it is undressed, or disencumbered from swaddling clothes, moves its arms and legs, and often makes a variety of strong exertions; yet no reasonable person would suppose that such attempts arise from a preternatural or oppressive state of the little agent.

2044. Exercise.

It is therefore equally absurd to draw an unfavourable inference from every inarticulate cry; because, in most instances, these vociferating sounds imply the effort which children necessarily make to display the strength of their lungs, and exercise the organs of respiration.


2045. Functions.

Nature has wisely ordained that by these very efforts the power and utility of functions so essential to life should be developed, and rendered more perfect with every inspiration.

2046. Development of the Breast.

Hence it follows, that those over-anxious parents or nurses, who continually endeavour to prevent infants crying do them a material injury; for, by such imprudent management, their children seldom or never acquire a perfect form of the breast, while the foundation is laid in the pectoral vessels for obstructions and other diseases.

2047. Independent.

Independently of any particular causes, the cries of children, with regard to their general effects, are highly beneficial and necessary.

2048. Sole Exercises.

In the First Period of Life, such exertions are almost the only exercises of the infant; thus the circulation of the blood, and all the other fluids, is rendered more uniform; digestion, nutrition, and the growth of the body are thereby promoted; and the different secretions, together with the very important office of the skin, or insensible perspiration, are duly performed.

2049. Extremely Improper.

It is Extremely Improper to consider every noise of an infant as a claim upon our assistance, and to intrude either food or drink, with a view to satisfy its supposed wants. By such injudicious conduct, children readily acquire the injurious habit of demanding nutriment at improper times, and without necessity; their digestion becomes impaired; and consequently, at this early age, the whole mass of the fluids is gradually corrupted.

2050. Cold.

Sometimes, however, the Mother or Nurse removes the child from its couch, carries it about frequently in the middle of the night, and thus exposes it to repeated colds, which are in their effects infinitely more dangerous than the most violent cries.

2051. Indulgence.

We learn frum Daily Experience, that children who have been the least indulged, thrive much better, unfold all their faculties quicker, and acquire more muscular strength and vigour of mind, than those who have been constantly favoured, and treated by their parents with the most solicitous attention: bodily weakness and mental imbecility are the usual attributes of the latter.

2052. Free and Independent Agent.

The First and Principal Rule of education ought never to be forgotten—that man is intended to be a free and independent agent; that his moral and physical powers ought to be spontaneously developed; that he should as soon as possible be made acquainted with the nature and uses of all his faculties, in order to attain that degree of perfection which is consistent with the structure of his organs; and that he was not originally designed for what we endeavour to make of him by artificial aid.

2053. Guide and Watch.

The Greatest Art in educating children consists in a continued vigilance over all their actions, without ever giving them an opportunity of discovering that they are guided and watched.

2054. Instances.

There are, however, Instances in which the loud complaints of infants demand our attention.

2055. Causes.

Thus, if their Cries be unusually violent and long continued, we may conclude that they are troubled with colic pains; if, on such occasions, they move their arms and hands repeatedly towards the face, painful teething may account for the cause; and if other morbid phenomena accompany their cries, or if these expressions be repeated at certain periods of the day, we ought not to slight them, but endeavour to discover the proximate or remote causes.

2056. Sleep.

Infants cannot Sleep too Long; and it is a favourable symptom when they enjoy a calm and long-continued rest, of which they, should by no means be deprived, as this is the greatest support granted to them by by nature.

2057. Faster Life.

A Child lives comparatively much faster than an adult; its blood flows more rapidly; every stimulus operates more powerfully; and not only its constituent parts, but its vital resources also, are more speedily consumed.


2058. Aid of Sleep.

Sleep promotes a more Calm and Uniform Circulation of the blood; it facilitates the assimilation of the nutriment received, and contributes towards a more copious and regular deposition of alimentary matter, while the horizontal posture is the most favourable to the growth and development of the child.

2059. Proportion.

Sleep ought to be in Proportion to the age of the infant. After the age of six months, the periods of sleep, as well as all other animal functions, may in some degree be regulated; yet, even then, a child should be suffered to sleep the whole night, and several hours both in the morning and in the afternoon.

2060. Night Preferable.

Mothers and Nurses should endeavour to accustom infants, from the time of their birth, to sleep in the night preferably to the day, and for this purpose they ought to remove all external impressions which may disturb their rest, such as noise, light, &c., but especially not to obey every call for taking them up, and giving food at improper times.

2061. Day Sleep.

After the Second Year of their age, children will not instinctively require to sleep in the forenoon, though after dinner it may be continued to the third and fourth year of life, if the child shows a particular inclination to repose; because, till that age, the full half of life may safely be allotted to sleep.

2062. Proportion of Sleep.

From that period, however, sleep ought to be shortened for the space of one hour with every succeeding year, so that a child of seven years old may sleep about eight, and not exceeding nine hours: this proportion may be continued to the age of adolescence, and even manhood.

2063. Gradual Awakening.

To awaken Children from their sleep with a noise, or in an impetuous manner, is extremely injudicious and hurtful; nor is it proper to carry them from a dark room immediately into a glaring light, or against a dazzling wall; for the sudden impression of light debilitates the organs of vision, and lays the foundation of weak eyes, from early infancy.

2064. Room for Sleeping.

A Bedroom or Night Nursery ought to be spacious and lofty, dry, airy, and not inhabited through the day.

2065. No Contamination.

No Servants, if possible, should be suffered to sleep in the same room, and no linen or washed clothes should ever be hung there to dry, as they contaminate the air in which so considerable a portion of infantile life must be spent.

2066. Consequences.

The Consequences attending a vitiated atmosphere in such rooms are serious, and often fatal.

2067. Feather Beds.

Feather Beds should be banished from nurseries, as they are unnatural and debilitating contrivances.

2068. Windows.

The Windows should never be opened at night, but may be left open the whole day in fine clear weather.

2069. Position of Bedstead.

Lastly, the Bedstead must not be placed too low on the floor; nor is it proper to let children sleep on a couch which is made without any elevation from the ground; because the most mephitic and pernicious stratum of air in an apartment is that within one or two feet from the floor, while the most wholesome, or atmospheric air, is in the middle of the room, and the inflammable gas ascends to the top.

2070. Cookery for Children.

2071. Food for an Infant.

Take of fresh cow's milk, one tablespoonful, and mix with two tablespoonfuls of hot water; sweeten with loaf sugar, as much as may be agreeable. This quantity is sufficient for once feeding a new-born infant; and the same quantity may be given every two or three hours,—not oftener,—till the mother's breast affords natural nourishment.

2072. Milk for Infants Six Months Old.

Take one pint of milk, one pint of water; boil it, and add one tablespoonful of flour. Dissolve the flour first in half a teacupful of water; it must he strained in gradually, and boiled hard twenty minutes. As the child grows older, one-third water. If properly made, it is the most nutritious, at the same time the most delicate food that can be given to young children.

2073. Broth.

Broth, made of mutton, veal, or chicken, with stale bread toasted, and broken in, is safe and wholesome for the dinners of children when first weaned.

2074. Milk.

Milk, fresh from the cow, with a very little loaf sugar, is good and safe food for young children. From three years old to seven, pure milk, into which stale bread is crumbled, is the best breakfast and supper for a child.

2075. For a Child's Luncheon.

Good sweet butter, with stale bread, is one of the most nutritious, at the same time the most wholesome articles of food that can be given children after they are weaned.

2076. Milk Porridge.

Stir four tablespoonsfuls of oatmeal, smoothly, into a quart of milk, then stir it quickly into a quart of boiling water, and boil up a few minutes till it is thickened: sweeten with sugar. Oatmeal, where it is found to agree with the stomach, is much better for children, being a mild aperient as well as cleanser; fine flour in every shape is the reverse. Where biscuit-powder is in use, let it be made at home; this, at all events, will prevent them getting the sweepings of the baker's counters, boxes, and baskets, All the waste bread in the nursery, hard ends of stale loaves, &c., ought to be dried in the oven or screen, and reduced to powder in the mortar.

2077. Meats for Children.

Mutton and poultry are the best. Birds and the white meat of fowls are the most delicate food of this kind that can be given. These meats should be slowly cooked, and no gravy, if made rich with butter, should be eaten by a young child, Never give children hard, tough, half-cooked meats, of any kind.

2078. Vegetables for Children. Eggs, &c.

For children rice ought to be cooked in no more water than is necessary to swell it; apples roasted, or stewed with no more water than is necessary to steam them; vegetables so well cooked as to make them require little butter, and less digestion; eggs boiled slowly and soft. The boiling of milk ought to be directed by the state of the bowels; if flatulent or bilious, a very little currie-powder may be given with vegetables with good effect. Turmeric and the warm seeds (not hot peppers) are also particularly useful in such cases.

2079. Potatoes and Peas.

Potatoes, particularly some kinds, are not easily digested by children; but this may be remedied by mashing them very fine, and seasoning them with salt and a little milk. When peas are dressed for children, let them be seasoned with mint and salt, which will take off the flatulency. If they are old, let them be pulped, as the skins cannot be digested by children's stomachs. Never give them vegetables less stewed than would pulp through a cullender.

2080. Rice Pudding With Fruit.

In a pint of new milk put two large spoonfuls of rice, well washed; then add two apples, pared and quartered, or a few currants or rasins. Simmer slowly till the rice is very soft, then add one egg beaten to bind it: serve with cream and sugar.

2081. Puddings and Pancakes for Children.

Sugar and egg, browned before the fire, or dropped as fritters into a hot frying-pan, without fat, will make a nourishing meal.

2082. To prepare Fruit for Children.

A far more wholesome way than in pies or puddings, is to put apples sliced, or plums, currants, gooseberries, &c., into a stone jar, and sprinkle among them as much sugar as necessary. Set the jar in the oven, with a teacupful of water to prevent the fruit from burning, or put the jar into a saucepan of water till its contents be perfectly done, Slices of bread or some rice may be put in to the jar to eat with the fruit.


2083. Rice and Apples.

Core as many nice apples as will fill the dish; boil them in light syrup; prepare a quarter of a pound of rice in milk with sugar and salt; put some of the rice in the dish, put in the apples, and fill up the intervals with rice; bake it in the oven till it is a fine colour.

2084. A nice Apple Cake for Children.

Grate some stale bread, and slice about double the quantity of apples; butter a mould, and line it with sugar paste, and strew in some crumbs, mixed with a little sugar; then lay in apples, with a few bits of butter over them, and so continue till the dish is full; cover it with crumbs, or prepared rice; season with cinnamon and sugar. Bake it well.

2085. Fruits for Children.

That fruits are naturally healthy in their season, if rightly taken, no one who believes that the Creator is a kind and beneficent Being can doubt. And yet the use of summer fruits appears often to cause most fatal diseases, especially in children. Why is this? Because we do not conform to the natural laws in using this kind of diet. These laws are very simple, and easy to understand. Let the fruit be ripe when you eat it; and eat when you require food. Fruits that have seeds are much more wholesome than the stone fruits. But all fruits are better, for very young children, if baked or cooked in some manner, and eaten with bread. The French always eat bread with raw fruit. Apples and winter pears are very excellent food for children,—indeed, for almost any person in health,—but best when eaten for breakfast or dinner. If taken late in the evening, fruit often proves injurious. The old saying, that apples are gold in the morning, silver at noon, and lead at night, is pretty near the truth. Both apples and pears are often good and nutritious when baked or stewed, and when prepared in this way are especially suitable for those delicate constitutions that cannot bear raw fruit. Much of the fruit gathered when unripe might be rendered fit for food by preserving in sugar.

2086. Ripe Currants.

Ripe Currants are excellent food for children. Mash the fruit, sprinkle with sugar, and let them eat freely, taking some good bread with the fruit.

2087. Blackberry Jam.

Gather the fruit in dry weather; allow half a pound of good brown sugar to every pound of fruit; boil the whole together gently for an hour, or till the blackberries are soft, stirring and mashing them well. Preserve it like any other jam, and it will be found very useful in families, particularly for children, regulating their bowels, and enabling you to dispense with cathartics. It may be used in the ordinary way in roll-over puddings, and for tarts, or spread on bread instead of butter; and even when the blackberries are bought, it is cheaper than butter. In the country every family should preserve at least half a peck of blackberries.

2088. Blackberry Pudding or Pie.

Pudding or pie made of blackberries only, or of blackberries and apples mixed in equal proportions is excellent. For suitable suet crust see par. 1269. and for puff paste see par. 1257.

2089. To make Senna and Manna Palatable.

Take of senna leaves and manna a quarter of an ounce of each, and pour over them a pint of boiling water; when the strength is abstracted, pour the infusion over from a quarter to half a pound of prunes and two large tablespoonfuls of West India molasses. Stew the whole slowly until the liquid is nearly absorbed. When cold it can be eaten with bread and butter, without detecting the senna, and is excellent for children when costive.

2090. Discipline of Children.

Children should not be allowed to ask for the same thing twice. This may be accomplished by parents, teacher, or whoever may happen to have the management of them, paying attention to their little wants, if proper, at once, when possible. Children should be instructed to understand that when they are not answered immediately, it is because it is not convenient. Let them learn patience by waiting.


2091. My Wife's Little Tea Parties.

My wife is celebrated for her little parties,—not tea parties alone, but dinner parties, pic-nic parties, music parties, supper parties—in fact, she is vhe life and soul of ALL PARTIES, which is more than any leading politician of the day can boast. But her great forte is her little tea parties—praised and enjoyed by everybody. A constant visitor at these little parties is Mrs. Hitching (spoken of elsewhere), and before a certain epoch in her life (See par. 215) she was wont to remark that she "never knew hany one who understood the hart of bringing so many helegancies together" as my wife. Nobody makes tea like her, and how she makes it she will impart at a future time. But for her little "nick nacks," as she calls them, which give a variety and a charm to the tea-table without trenching too deeply upon our own pocket, she has been kind enough to give a few receipts upon the present occasion.

2092. Good Plum Cake.

One pound of flour, quarter of a pound of butter, quarter of a pound of sugar, quarter of a pound of currants, three eggs, half a pint of milk, and a small teaspoonful of carbonate of soda or baking powder. The above is excellent. The cakes are always baked in a common earthen flower-pot saucer, which is a very good plan.

2093. Gingerbread Snaps.

One pound of flour, half a pound of treacle, half a pound of sugar, quarter of a pound of butter, half an ounce of best prepared ginger, sixteen drops of essence of lemon, potash the size of a nut dissolved in a tablespoonful of hot water.

2094. Drop Cakes.

One pint of flour, half a pound of butter, quarter of a pound of pounded lump sugar, half a nutmeg grated, a handful of currants, two eggs, and a large pinch of carbonate of soda, or a little baking powder. To be baked in a slack oven for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour. The above quantity will make about thirty excellent cakes.

2095. A very Nice and Cheap Cake.

Two pounds and a half of flour, three quarters of a pound of sugar, three quarters of a pound of butter, half a pound of currants or quarter of a pound of raisins, quarter of a pound of orange peel, two ounces of caraway seeds, half an ounce of ground cinnamon or ginger, four teaspoonfuls of carbonate of soda or some baking powder; mixed well, with rather better than a pint of new milk. The butter must be well melted previous to being mixed with the ingredients.

2096. "Jersey Wonders."

The oddity of these "wonders" consists solely in the manner of cooking, and the shape consequent. Take two pounds of flour, six ounces of butter, six ounces of white sugar, a little nutmeg, ground ginger, and lemon peel; beat eight eggs, and knead them all well together; a taste of brandy will be an improvement. Roll the paste into a long mass about the thickness of your wrist; cut off a slice and roll it into an oval, about four inches long and three inches wide, not too thin; cut two slits in it, but not through either end, there will then be three bands. Pass the left one through the aperture to the right, and throw it into a brass or bell-metal skillet of BOILING lard or beef or mutton dripping. You may cook three or four at a time. In about two minutes turn them with a fork, and you will find them browned, and swollen or risen in two or three minutes more. Remove them from the pan to a dish, when they will dry and cool.


2097. Muffins.

Add a pint and a half of good ale yeast (from pale malt, if possible) to a bushel of the very best white flour; let the yeast lie all night in water, then pour off the water quite clear; heat two gallons of water just milk-warm, and mix the water, yeast, and two ounces of salt well together for about a quarter of an hour. Strain the whole, and mix up your dough as light as possible, letting it lie in the trough an hour to rise; next roll it with your hand, pulling it into little pieces about the size of a large walnut. These must be rolled out thin with a rolling-pin, in a good deal of flour, and if covered immediately with a piece of flannel, they will rise to a proper thickness; but if too large or small, dough must be added accordingly, or taken away; meanwhile, the dough must be also covered with flannel.

Next begin baking; and when laid on the iron, watch carefully, and when one side changes colour, turn the other, taking care that they do not burn or become discoloured. Be careful also that the iron does not get too hot. In order to bake muffins properly, you ought to have a place built as if a copper were to be set; but instead of copper a piece of iron must be put over the top, fixed in form like the bottom of an iron pot, underneath which a coal fire is kindled when required. Toast the muffins crisp on both sides with a fork; pull them open with your hand, and they will be like a honeycomb; lay in as much butter as you intend; then clap them together, and set by the fire: turn them once, that both sides may be buttered alike. When quite done, cut them across with a knife; but if you use a knife either to spread or divide them, they will be as heavy as lead. Some kinds of flour will soak up more water than others; when this occurs, add water; or if too moist, add flour: for the dough must be as light as possible.

2098. Unfermented Cakes, &c.

All cakes of this description may be made with the aid of a little baking-powder, or egg-powder. For instructions respecting these preparations the reader is referred to pars. 1011, 1012.

2099. Tea Cakes.

Take of flour one pound; sugar, one ounce; butter, one ounce; baking-powder, three teaspoonfuls; milk, six ounces; water, six ounces. Rub the butter and baking powder into the flour; dissolve the sugar in the water, and then add the milk. Pour this mixture gradually over the flour, and mix well together; divide the mass into three portions, and bake twenty-five minutes. Flat round tins or earthen-pans are the best to bake the cakes in. Buttermilk may be used instead of milk and water, if preferred.

2100. Unfermented Cake.

Take of flour one pound and a half; baking powder, four teaspoonfuls; sugar, one ounce and a half; butter, one ounce and a half; milk, twenty ounces; currants, six ounces, more or less. Mix the baking powder and butter into the flour by rubbing them together; next dissolve the sugar in the milk, and add it gradually to the flour, mixing the whole intimately, and adding fruit at discretion. Bake in a tin or earthen pan.

2101. Luncheon Cakes.

Take of flour one pound; baking powder, three teaspoonfuls; sugar, three ounces; butter, three ounces; currants, four ounces; milk, one pint, or twenty ounces: bake one hour in a quick oven.

2102. Nice Plum Cake.

Take of flour one pound; baking powder, three teaspoonfuls; butter, six ounces; loaf sugar, six ounces; currants, six ounces; three eggs; milk, about four ounces; bake for one hour and a half in a tin or pan.

2103. Lemon Buns.

Take of flour one pound; baking powder, three teaspoonfuls; butter, six ounces; loaf sugar, four ounces; one egg; essence of lemon, six or eight drops: make into twenty buns, and bake in a quick oven for fifteen minutes.

2104. Soda Cake.

Take of flour half a pound; bicarbonate of soda, two drachms; tartaric acid, two drachms; butter, four ounces; white sugar, two ounces; currants, four ounces; two eggs; warm milk, half a teacupful.


2105. Excellent Biscuits.

Take of flour two pounds; carbonate of ammonia, three drachms, in fine powder; white sugar, four ounces; arrowroot one ounce; butter, four ounces; one egg: mix into a stiff paste with new milk, and beat them well with a rolling-pin for half an hour; roll out thin, and cut them out with a docker, and bake in a quick oven for fifteen minutes.

2106. Wine Biscuits.

Take of flour half a pound; butter, four ounces; sugar, four ounces; two eggs; carbonate of ammonia, one drachm; white wine, enough to mix to a proper consistence. Cut out with a glass.

2107. Ginger Cakes.

To two pounds of flour add three quarters of a pound of good moist sugar, one ounce best Jamaica ginger well mixed in the flour; have ready three quarters of a pound of lard, melted, and four eggs well beaten: mix the lard and eggs together, and stir into the flour, which will form a paste; roll out in thin cakes, and bake in a moderately heated oven. Lemon biscuits may be made in a similar way, by substituting essence of lemon for ginger.

2108. Sponge Cake (1).

(Very Easy Method.)—The following receipt is as excellent as it is simple, it gives less trouble than any other, and has never been known to fail:—Take five eggs and half a pound of loaf sugar, sifted; break the eggs upon the sugar, and beat all together with a steel fork for half an hour. Previously take the weight of two eggs and a half, in their shells, of flour. After you have beaten the eggs and sugar the time specified, grate in the rind of a lemon (the juice may be added at pleasure), stir in the flour, and immediately pour it into a tin lined with buttered paper, and let it be instantly put into rather a cool oven.

2109. Sponge Cake (2).

Take equal weight of eggs and sugar; half their weight in sifted flour; to twelve eggs add the grated rind of three lemons, and the juice of two. Beat the eggs carefully, white and yolks separately, before they are used. Stir the materials thoroughly together, and bake in a quick oven.

2110. Almond Sponge Cake.

Almond Sponge Cake is made by adding blanched almonds to the above.

2111. Yule Cake.

Take one pound of fresh butter; one pound of sugar; one pound and a half of flour; two pounds of currants; a glass of brandy; one pound of sweetmeats; two ounces of sweet almonds; ten eggs; a quarter of an ounce of allspice; and a quarter of an ounce of cinnamon. Melt the butter to a cream, and put in the sugar. Stir it till quite light, adding the allspice and pounded cinnamon; in a quarter of an hour, take the yolks of the eggs, and work them two or three at a time; and the whites of the same must by this time be beaten into a strong snow, quite ready to work in. As the paste must not stand to chill the butter, or it will be heavy, work in the whites gradually, then add the orange peel, lemon, and citron, cut in fine strips, and the currants, which must be mixed in well, with the sweet almonds; then add the sifted flour and glass of brandy. Bake this cake in a tin hoop, in a hot oven, for three hours, and put twelve sheets of paper under it to keep it from burning.

2112. Cake of Mixed Fruits.

Extract the juice from red currants by simmering them very gently for a few minutes over a slow fire; strain it through folded muslin, and to one pound of the juice add a pound and a half of freshly gathered cooking apples, pared, and rather deeply cored, that the fibrous part may be avoided. Boil these quite slowly until the mixture is perfectly smooth; then, to evaporate part of the moisture, let the boiling be quickened. In from twenty-five to thirty minutes, draw the pan from the fire, and throw in gradually a pound and a quarter of sugar in fine powder; mix it well with the fruit, and when it is dissolved, continue the boiling rapidly for twenty minutes longer, keeping the mixture constantly stirred; put it into a mould, and store it, when cold, for winter use, or serve it for dessert, or for the second course; in the latter case, decorate it with spikes of almonds, blanched, and heap solid whipped cream round it, or pour a custard into the dish. For dessert, it may be garnished with dice of the palest apple jelly.


2113. Banbury Cakes.

Roll out the paste about half an inch thick, and cut it into pieces; then roll again till each piece becomes twice the size; put some Banbury meat in the middle of one side; fold the other over it, and pinch it up into a somewhat oval shape; flatten it with your hand at the top, letting the seam be quite at the bottom; rub the tops over with the white of an egg, laid on with a brush, and dust loaf sugar over them: bake in a moderate oven.

2114. Meat for Banbury Cakes.

The meat for Banbury cakes is made thus:—Beat up a quarter of a pound of butter until it becomes in the state of cream; then mix with it half a pound of candied orange and lemon peel, cut fine; one pound of currants, a quarter of an ounce of ground cinnamon; and a quarter of an ounce of allspice: mix all well together, and keep in a jar till wanted for use.

2115. Bath Buns.

A quarter of a pound of flour; four yolks and three whites of eggs, with four spoonfuls of solid fresh yeast. Beat in a bowl, and set before the fire to rise; then rub into one pound of flour ten ounces of butter; put in half a pound of sugar, and caraway comfits; when the eggs and yeast are pretty light, mix by degrees all together; throw a cloth over it, and set before the fire to rise. Make the buns, and when on the tins, brush over with the yolk of egg and milk; strew them with caraway comfits; bake in a quick oven. If baking powder is used instead of yeast, use two teaspoonfuls, and proceed as directed, omitting to set the dough before the fire to rise, which is useless as regards all articles made with baking powder.

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