English Travellers of the Renaissance
by Clare Howard
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—— Life of Henry, Prince of Wales. London, 1760.

Bonnaffe, Edmund. Voyages et Voyageurs de la Renaissance. Paris, 1895.

Bourciez, Eduard. Les Moeurs Polies et la Litterature de Cour sous Henri II. Paris, 1886.

Burgon, J.W. Life and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham. London, 1839.

Carte, Thomas. Life of James, Duke of Ormond. 6 vols. Oxford, 1851.

Congreve, William. Comedies. 2 vols. London, 1895.

Coriat Junior (Sam Paterson, Bookseller). Another Traveller: or Cursory Remarks and Critical Observations made upon a Journey through Part of the Netherlands in the latter end of the Year 1766. 2 vols. London, 1767.

Cust, Mrs Henry. Gentlemen Errant. London, 1909.

Devereux, W.B. Lives and Letters of the Devereux, Earls of Essex. 2 vols. London, 1853.

Dodd, Charles. Church History of England from the Commencement of the Sixteenth Century to the Revolution in 1688. Ed. by Rev. M.A. Tierney. 4 vols. London, 1841.

Einstein, Lewis. The Italian Renaissance in England. Columbia University Press, New York, 1902.

Feuillerat, Albert. John Lyly. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1910.

Fielding, Henry. Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon. Ed. by Austin Dobson. Chiswick Press, 1892.

Foote, Samuel. Dramatic Works. 4 vols. London, 1783.

Gibbon, Edward. Autobiography. Ed. by John Murray, with an introduction by the Earl of Sheffield. London, 1896.

Gray, Thomas. Gray and His Friends; Letters and Relics in great part hitherto unpublished. Ed. by D.C. Tovey. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1890.

——Letters of Thomas Gray. Ed. by D.C. Tovey. 2 vols. London, 1900.

Joecher, Christian Gottlieb. Gelehrten-Lexicon. Leipsig, Delmerhorst and Bremen, 1750-87.

Jusserand, J.J. Les Sports et Jeux D'exercice dans L'ancienne France. Paris, 1901.

Knight, Samuel. The Life of Dr John Colet. Oxford, 1823.

Lodge, Edmund. Illustrations of British History. 3 vols. London, 1791.

Mathew, A.H. The Life of Sir Tobie Matthew, by his kinsman. London, 1907.

Maugham, H. Neville. The Book of Italian Travel. London, 1903.

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. Letters and Works. Ed. by her great-grandson Lord Wharncliffe, with additions by W. Moy Thomas. 2 vols. London, 1893.

Nares, Edward. Memoirs of Lord Burghley. 3 vols. 1831.

Nicolas, Sir Harris. Memoirs of the Life and Times of Sir Christopher Hatton, K.G. London, 1847.

Nolhac, Pierre De. Erasme en Italie. Paris, 1898.

Nugent, Thomas. The Grand Tour. 4 vols. London, 1778.

Physikalisch-oekonomischer Bibliothek, XXI. Vide Beckmann, Johann.

Pinkerton, John. Voyages and Travels. Vol. 17. London, 1814.

Poole, R., Doctor of Physick. A Journey from London to France and Holland; or the Traveller's Useful Vade Mecum.... Wherein is also occasionally contained many Moral Reflections and Useful Observations. London, 1746.

——The Beneficient Bee; or Traveller's Companion, containing Each Day's Observations in a Voyage from London to Gibraltar ... interspersed with many useful Observations and occasional Remarks. London, 1753.

Rashdall, H. The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Oxford, 1895.

Rye, W.B. England as seen by Foreigners in the Days of Elizabeth and James the First. London, 1865.

Sauval, Henri. Histoire et Recherches des Antiquites de la Ville de Paris. Paris, 1724.

Seebohm, Frederic. The Oxford Reformers. London, 1887.

(Seward, William.) Anecdotes of Some Distinguished Persons, chiefly of the Present and two Preceding Centuries. 5 vols. London, 1796.

Sharp, Samuel. Letters from Italy, describing the Customs and Manners of that Country in the years 1765-1766. To which is annexed, an Admonition to Gentlemen who pass the Alps in their Tour through Italy. London, 1767.

—— A View of the Customs, Manners, Drama, etc., of Italy as they are described in The Frustra Letteraria; and in the Account of Italy in English written by Mr Baretti; compared with the Letters from Italy written by Mr Sharp. London, 1768.

Smith, Edward. Foreign Visitors in England. London, 1889.

Smollett, Tobias. Works. Ed. W.E. Henley. London, 1899.

Stanhope, Philip Dormer, Earl of Chesterfield. Letters to his Son. Published by Mrs Eugenia Stanhope from the originals now in her possession. 2 vols. London, 1774.

Thicknesse, Philip. Observations on the Customs and Manners of the French Nation in a Series of Letters in which that Nation is vindicated from the Misrepresentations of some Late Writers. London, 1766.

The Travellers. A Satire. London, 1778.

Verney, Margaret. Memoirs of the Verney Family during the Commonwealth, 1650-1660. Vol. iii. London, 1894.

Voltaire (Francis Marie Arouet). Lettres Philosophiques. Ed. by Gustave Lanson. Paris, 1909.

Walpole, Horace, Fourth Earl of Orford. Letters. Ed. by Peter Cunningham. 9 vols. London, 1891.

* * * * *


Academies, 121-132; in France, 121-123; proposals for academies in England, 123-126; objections to such academies, 128-132

Acworth, George, 62

Addison, Joseph, 181

Advice to Travellers, 4-5, 205; Elizabethan, 21; characteristics of Renaissance books of, 28-32; admonitory side of, 55, 88-98; for the country gentleman, 148; guide-books of the 18th century, 196, 200

Agricola, Rudolf, 7

Alps, the, 192, 200

Ambassadors, training for, 12-16, 43-47, 69; troubles of, 83-85, 133

Amorphus, in Cynthia's Revels, xii

Amsterdam, 137

Art in Spain, 134; attention to in 17th century, 168-169

Arundel, Earl of, see Howard

Ascham, Roger, 16, 18, 42, 52, 57, 65, 200

Bacon, Lady Anne, 73-75 Anthony, 73-75 Francis, 36 note, 45: Of Travel, 146 Sir Nicholas, 123

Barker, William, 62, 63

Bear-Leaders, the, 188

Becket, Thomas a, 7

Bedell, William, 76

Bedford, Earl of, see Russell

Bellay, Joachim Du, 16

Bembo, Pietro, 16

Berchtold, Leopold, Count, Essay to Direct and Extend the Inquiries of Patriotic Travellers, 195-198

Berneville, Marie Catherine Jumelle de, Comtesse D'Aunoy, 134

Bethune, Maximilien de, Duc de Sully, 115

Blotz, Hugo, 41

Bobadil, Captain, in Every Man in His Humour, 117

Bodley, Sir Thomas, 37

Boleyn, George, Viscount Rochford, 12, 15

Boorde, Andrew, 14

Borssele, Anne, Lady of Veer, 8

Bothwell, Earl of, see Hepburn

Bourdeille, Pierre de, Seigneur de Brantome, 117

Bourne, William, Treasure for Travellers, 35

Bowyer, Sir Henry, 113

Boyle, Richard, First Earl of Cork, and his sons Robert and Francis, 158-167

Brandon, Charles, Duke of Suffolk, 15

Brantome, see Bourdeille

Bras-de-Fer, see La Noue

Browne, Sir Thomas, 142, 193 note; his son at Padua, 139

Bryan, Sir Francis, 15

Bucer, Martin, 17, 41

Buckingham, Duke of, see Villiers

Burghley, Lord, see Cecil

Camden, Thomas, History of England, 14

Carew, Sir Nicholas, 15

Carlton, Sir Dudley, 45

Cavendish, Margaret, Duchess of Newcastle, 144 William, Duke of Newcastle, 104

Cecil, Anne, Countess of Oxford, 64, 66 Robert, Earl of Salisbury, 39, 76, 78, 150 Thomas, Earl of Exeter, 40, 57 note, 77, 145, 193 note William, Baron of Burghley, l8, 37, 39, 40, 64-66, 73 William, Lord Cranbourne, 76, 160 William, Lord Roos, 76-78, 80

Chamberlain, John, 45, 113

Charles I., 114, 132

Charles II., 104, 131, 178

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 29

Chesterfield, Earls of, see Stanhope

Chichester, Bishop of, see Montague

Clarendon, Earl of, see Hyde

Clenardus, Nicolaus, 132

Cleves, Charles Frederick, Duke of, 25

Clothes, 68-70; French, 15, 50, 51, 118, 179, 184, 189; Italian, 57, 67

Colbert, Jean Baptiste, Marquis de Seignelay, 168

Colet, John, 10

Compostella, St James of, 3

Cork, Earl of, see Boyle

Cornwallis, Sir Charles, 83-85

Coryat, Thomas, 20, 28 note, 200

Cost, see Expense

Cottington, Sir Francis, 83

Cranbourne, Lord, see Cecil

Cranmer, George, 11, 17, 41

Creswell, Joseph, Jesuit, 84

Crichton, James, "The Admirable," 48

Curiosities, 138-139, 168

Customs (droit d'aubaine) in Spain, 133

Dallington, Sir Robert, Method for Travell, 88-89, 108, 111-118, 155, 156; Survey of Tuscany, 108, 111; View of France, 108, 109

Dancing, 113-115

Dangers of Travel, 30, 47-49, 56, 94-98, 198

D'Aunoy, see Berneville

Davison, Francis, 39-41, 146, 155 William, 35, 154

Delahaute, Antoine, 168

De Peregrinatione, 23, 29-32, 55

Derby, Earl of, see Stanley

Descartes, Rene, 137

Deschamps, Eustache, 107

Devereux, Robert, Second Earl of Essex, 35, 36, 42 Robert, Third Earl of Essex, 38

Drake, Sir Francis, 27

Dudley, Sir Robert, 102

Dyer, Sir Edward, 21

Education, 103-108; see also Academies, Universities, Scholars, Ambassadors, Governors, Humanism

Edward VI., 16, 17

Einstein, Lewis, Italian Renaissance in England, 9

Ellis, Sir Henry, 4

Englishmen, their special reason for travelling, 22; peculiarities, 120; Italianate, 55; prejudices against foreigners, 67-69, 178-181

Erasmus, Desiderius, 6, 8, 9

Essex, Earls of, see Devereux

Evelyn, John, 138, 141, 144, 157, 169

Expenses of travel, 66, 154-157

Fairfax, Colonel Thomas, 152

Faubert, Mons., 125

Fencing, 117

Ferrar, Nicholas, 140

Fielding, Henry, 199

Finch, Sir John, 139

Fitzroy, Henry, Duke of Richmond, 15

Fleetwood, William, Recorder of London, 58, 62

Flemming, Robert, 9

Florio, John, Second Frutes, 21

Flutter, Sir Fopling, 179

Food, 48, 110-111

Foote, Samuel, The Englishman in Paris, 180

Forbes, James, 151-152

Foreigners, English prejudice against, 67-71, 178-181

Fox, Richard, Bishop of Winchester, 10

France, academies in, 101, 121-132; affectations learned in, 15, 50, 51, 179, 183-186; arbiter of fashion, 118, 119, 141; gentlemen of, 105, 107, 118, 119; attraction for tourists, 102-103; loses some of its charm, 177

Francis I., 14

Free, John, 9

Gailhard J., 167

Gardiner, Stephen, Bishop of Winchester, 41

George I., 190

Gerbier, Balthazar, 124-125; Subsidium Peregrinantibus, 169

Germans, energetic travellers, 22; Fynes Moryson's preference for, 93; slow to learn languages, 113 note

Germany, attraction of, 17; women of, 40; manners of, 48, 172; Ascham's Report of Germany, 200

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, 123

Gloucester, Duke of, see Henry

Governors, 24-25, 145-154, 167, 170, 186-189

Grand Tour, the, Origin of the term, 143-145

Gray, Thomas, 191-192

Greek, 7, 10, 18, 105

Greene, Robert, 55, 70; Greene's Mourning Garment, 21; Quip for an Upstart Courtier, 70

Greville, Fulke, Lord Brooke, 21, 36

Grey, William, 9

Grimani, Dominic, the Cardinal, 9

Grocyn, William, 10

Grosvenor, Sir Thomas, 168

Guide-books, see Advice to travellers

Gunthorpe, John, 9

Hall, Arthur, 57-62 Edward, 15 Joseph, 87, 98

Harington, Sir John, 38, 39, 79

Harrison, William, 68

Harvey, Gabriel, 67

Hatton, Sir Christopher, 21

Henri III., 113

Henri IV., 109-110

Henry VI., 3

Henry VIII., 6, 7, 11, 13, 67, 103

Henry, Prince of Wales, son of James I., 38, 79 note, 114, 124

Henry, Duke of Gloucester, son of Charles I., 131

Hepburn, Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, 102

Hertford, Earl of, see Seymour

Hoby, Sir Thomas, 16, 53-55, 62

Holland, 136-139, 197

Horace, 8, 27

Howard, Thomas, Fourth Duke of Norfolk, 63 Thomas, Second Earl of Arundel, 102

Howell, James, 118-120, 136, 156, 192; Instructions for Forreine Travell, 108, 118-120, 132; Perambulations of Spain, 135

Humanists, their sociability, 41, 43

Humanism, 7

Hyde, Edward, Earl of Clarendon, 128, 135, 183-186; Dialogue of the Want of Respect Due to Age, 184

Il Cortegiano, 23

Informacon for Pylgrymes unto the Holy Land, 4-5

Inns, 30, 47, 48, 197-199

Inquisition, 75-79 passim

Instructions for travellers, see Advice

Insurance, 95

Italianate Englishmen, 51-58 passim, 62-63, 70

Italy, attraction of, 7-9, 11, 17, 52, 54, 73; evils of, 49, 51, 55, 101-102; universities of, 7-9, 52-54

Jaffa, port, 3, 5

James I., 114, 135, 150

Jerusalem, 6

Jesuits, 75-85 passim

Johnson, Samuel, 182

Jones, Philip, 27

Jonson, Ben, 150; Cynthia's Revels, xii; Preface to Coryat's Crudities, 20; Every Man out of his Humour, 95 note; Volpone, or the Fox, 96-97

Journals, 38-40, 196

Jusserand, J.J., 130

Killigrew, Sir Thomas, 164-165

Kinaston, Sir Francis, 124

Kirchnerus, Hermannus, 28; Oration in Praise of Travel, 28, 30, 31, 201

Langton, Thomas, Bishop of Winchester, 11

Languages, 15-16, 73, 112-113, 190

La Noue, Francois de, 107

Lassels, Richard, 145, 157; The Voyage of Italy, 148-149, 194

Latimer, William, 10

Leicester's, the Earl of, son, see Dudley

Leigh, Edward, 167

Lewknor, Thomas, 100

Licences for Travel, 86-87

Lichefield, Edward, 79

Lily, William, 10 George, 11

Linacre, Thomas, 10

Lipsius, Justus, 26, 41, 42, 55

Lister, Martin, 139

Locke, John, 137, 186-187

Lodgings, with an ambassador, 43-46; with a bookseller, 43; with a scholar, 41; in Spain, 133-134; see also Inns

Lorkin, Thomas, 122

Louis XIII., 121, 126

Louis XIV., 177

Loysius, Georgius, Pervigilium Mercurii, 27-28

Lupset, Thomas, 11

Machiavelli, Niccolo, 23, 56

Maidwell, Lewis, 126

Mallerie, Melchisedech, 59-62

Manners, Edward, Third Earl of Rutland, 37, 39, 63

Manutius, Aldus, 9

Mason, Sir John, 13

Mathew, Sir Tobie, 86 note

Meierus, Albertus, Methodus describendi regiones, 27

Milton, John, 97, 101

Misson, Maximilian, 194, 197; A New Voyage to Italy, 194

Mole, John, 77-79

Montagu, Richard, Bishop of Chichester, 104

Morison, Sir Richard, 11

Moryson, Fynes, 20, 90; Precepts for Travellers, 90-95

Murder, 48, 198 note

Nash, Thomas, 50

Newcastle, Duchess and Earl of, see Cavendish

Norfolk, Duke of, see Howard

North, Dudley, Third Lord North, 48

Nuove Inventioni di Balli, 114

Osborn, Francis, 143, 154

Oxford, Earls of, see Vere

Pace, Richard, 11

Padua, Pole's household at, 11; University of, 52-55, 139, 140

Palmer, Sir Thomas, "The Traveller," died 1626, 35 Sir Thomas, died in Spain 1605, 81

Paris, life of Englishmen at, 174-176; medical students at, 139; see also France

Passports, see Licences

Paulet, Sir Amias, 44

Peacham, Henry, 105, 132

Peregrine, in Volpone, or the Fox, xii

Peter Martyr, see Vermigli

Pighius, Stephanus Vinandus, 25

Pignatelli, 121

Pilgrimages, 3-7

Pirates, 47, 49

Plague, 24 note, 49

Plantin, Christophe, 25

Plato, 31, 112

Plegsis, Armand du, Cardinal Richelieu, 121

Pluvinel, Antoine, 121, 126, 128

Pole, Reginald, Cardinal, 11-12

Politian (Angelo Ambrogini), 15, 72

Politick-Would-Be in Volpone, or the Fox, xii, 96

Pretender, the, 173

Pugliano, John Pietro, 127

Pyrckmair, Hilarious, 24-25

Raleigh's, Sir Walter, son, 150

Ramus, Peter, 26

Reaux, Tallemant des, 115, 128

Religion, changes in, due to travel, 51, 56, 72-73, 75-86 passim, 88, 98

Renaissance, enthusiasm for travel, sources of, 18, 201; quest of virtu, 29

Richelieu, Cardinal and Duc de, see Plessis

Riding, 120; the Great Horse, 121, 126-130 passim, 142, 186

Robbers, 30, 47, 90, 91, 133, 198

Rochford, Viscount, see Boleyn

Rome, 25, 76, 86, 91, 94, 173

Ronsard, Pierre de, 16

Roos, Lord, see Cecil

Russell, Edward, Third Earl of Bedford, 42

Rutland, Earl of, see Manners

St John's College, Cambridge, 17, 18

St Lieger, Sir Anthony, 12

Salisbury, Earl of, see Cecil

Scholars, 7-11, 17, 18, 41-43, 65

Schottus, Franciscus, Itinerarium Italiae, 193

Seignelay, Marquis de, see Colbert

Selling, William, 10, 72

Seymour, Edward, Earl of Hertford, 21, 41

Shakespeare, William, Two Gentlemen of Verona, xii; Taming of the Shrew, 20

Sharp, Sam, 198; Letters from Italy, 198

Sickness, 24, 48, 160, 197, 199

Sidney, Sir Philip, 35, 43, 46, 127 Robert, Earl of Leicester, 41, 66, 154

"Sights," 143, 193

Smith, Richard, 40, 48 Sir Thomas, 14, 46

Smollett, Tobias, 199; Peregrine Pickle, 181

Spain, gentlemen of, 119, 135; discomforts of, 132-136

Stanhope, Philip, Second Earl of Chesterfield, 131-132, 140 Philip Dormer, Third Earl of Chesterfield, 170-177, 182-183

Stanley, William, Ninth Earl of Derby, 151-153

Starkey, Thomas, 11

Stradling, Sir John, 26, 42

Students, see Universities

Sturmius, Joannes, 17, 65

Sully, Duc de, see Bethune

Talbot, Gilbert, Seventh Earl of Shrewsbury, 21, 39, 63

Taylor, John, The Water Poet, 200

Temple, Sir William, 137

Tennis, 115-116

Thomas, William, The Historie of Italie, 53; The Pilgrim, 110

Throgmorton, Michael, 11

Tiptoft, John, Earl of Worcester, 9

Transportation, 4-5, 54, 142, 189, 197, 200

Tunstall, Cuthbert, 10

Turlerus, Hieronymus, 23, 24, 26; De Peregrinatione, 23, 29-32 passim, 55

Tutors, see Governors

Ulysses, 27, 31

Universities, of Italy, 7-9, 52-55, 139; of Spain, 84, 85; of England, 53, 105, 170, 171, 175, 183, 190

Unton, Sir Edward, 40, 56

Ursinus, Zacharias, 43

Valladolid, conversions at, 81, 84

Veer, Lady of, see Borssele

Venice, charm of, 52, 54, 55; clothes from, 50: inns at, 197

Vere, Edward de, Seventeenth Earl of Oxford, 63-67

Vermigli, John de, Twelfth Earl of Oxford, 4 Peter, Martyr, 17

Verney, Edmund, 131

Villiers, George, Duke of Buckingham, 102, 114, 133

Wallis, John, 129

Walpole, Horace, Fourth Earl of Orford, 177, 191-192 Richard, Jesuit, 81, 84

Walsingham, Sir Francis, 46 Our Lady of, 7

Wentworth, Thomas, Fourth Baron Wentworth, 78-80

Williamson, Sir Joseph, 147

Wilson, Thomas, Arte of Rhetoric, 24

Windebanke, Sir Thomas, 145

Wingfield, Sir Richard, 12 Sir Robert, 12

Winsor, Sir Edward, 49

Winter, Thomas, 11

Women, 28, 34, 55

Wood, Anthony a, ix, 124

Worde, Wynkin de, 4

Wotton, Sir Edward, 10, 127 Sir Henry, 41, 78-80, 95-98, 155 Sir Nicholas, 12

Wyatt, Sir Thomas, 12

Zouche, Edward la, Eleventh Baron Zouche of Harringworth, 38, 60, 87

Zwingerus, Theodor, 24, 26; Methodus Apodemica, 24, 33

* * * * *


Footnote 1: Ben Jonson, Cynthia's Revels, Act i. Sc. I.

Footnote 2: Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd Series, i. 110, note.

Footnote 3: Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd Series, i. 110, note.

Footnote 4: In c. 1498, 1515, and 1524.

Footnote 5: Itineraries of William Wey. Printed for the Roxburghe Club from the original MS. in the Bodleian Library, 1857, pp. 153-154.

Footnote 6: Familiarium Colloquiorum Opus. Basileae, 1542. De utilitate colloquiorum, ad lectorem.

Footnote 7: Ibid. De votis tentere susceptis, fol. 15.

Footnote 8: Ibid. Ad lectorem.

Footnote 9: Lord Campbell, Lives of the Lord Chancellors, i. 95.

Footnote 10: G. Cavendish, Life of Wolsey. Kelmscott Press, 1893.

Footnote 11: Opera (MDCCIII.), Tom. iii., Ep. xcii. (Annae Bersalae, Principi Verianae).

Footnote 12: "Quid caelum, quos agros, quas bibliothecas, quas ambulationes, quam mellitas eruditorum hominum confabulationes, quot mundi lumina ... reliquerim." Ep. cxxxvi.

Footnote 13: Ep. mclxxv.

Footnote 14: Opera (MDCCIII.) Tom. ix. 1137.

Footnote 15: Ep. ccclxiii.

Footnote 16: Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., vol. iv., Part I., No. 4.

Footnote 17: Richard Pace, De Fructu qui ex Doctrina Percipitur (1517), p. 27.

Footnote 18: Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd Series, vol. i. 65. Archbishop Cranmer to Henry VIII.

Footnote 19: Becatelli, Vita Reginaldi Poli. Latin version of Andreas Dudithius, Venetiis, 1558.

Footnote 20: MS. Cotton, Nero, B. f. 118.

Footnote 21: Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd Series, vol. i. 54.

Footnote 22: Wood's Athenae Oxonienses, ed. Bliss.

Footnote 23: Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., vol. ix., No. 101.

Footnote 24: J.S. Brewer, Reign of Henry VIII., vol. i. 117-147.

Footnote 25: Bapst, Edmond, Deux Gentilshommes-Poetes de la cour de Henry VIII., Paris, 1891, pp. 26, 60.

Footnote 26: Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., vol. ii., Part I., No. 2149.

Footnote 27: Ibid., vol. xi., No. 60; vol. xv., No. 581.

Footnote 28: D. Lloyd, State Worthies, vol. i. 105.

Footnote 29: Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., vol. v. p. 751.

Footnote 30: Camden, History of England.

Footnote 31: In the First Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge, 1547.

Footnote 32: Hall's Life of Henry VIII., ed. Whibley, 1904, vol. i. 175.

Footnote 33: The Travels and Life of Sir Thomas Hoby, ed. Powell, 1902, pp. 18, 37.

Footnote 34: Ascham's Works, ed. Giles, vol. i., Part II., p. 265.

Footnote 35: I refer to the death of Bucer and P. Fagius. Strype (Life of Cranmer, p. 282) says that when they arrived in England in the month of April they "very soon fell sick: which gave a very unhappy stop to their studies. Fagius on the fifth of November came to Cambridge, and ten days afterwards died."

Footnote 36: Taming of the Shrew, Act I. Sc. ii.

Footnote 37: Coryat's Crudities, ed. 1905, p. 17.

Footnote 38: Ed. 1591, p. 91.

Footnote 39: Works, ed. Grossart, ix. 139. In which the father of Philador, among many other admonitions, forestalls Sir Henry Wotton's famous advice to Milton on the traveller's need of holding his tongue: "Be, Philador, in secrecy like the Arabick-tree, that yields no gumme but in the darke night."

Footnote 40: Joecher, Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1751, and Zedler's Universal-Lexicon.

Footnote 41: Clarendon Press ed. 1909, p. 29.

Footnote 42: G. Gratarolus, De Regimine Iter Agentium, Some insight into the trials of travel in the sixteenth century may be gained by the sections on how to endure hunger and thirst, how to restore the appetite, make up lost sleep, ward off fever, avoid vermin, take care of sore feet, thaw frozen limbs, and so forth.

Footnote 43: Methodus Apodemica, Basel, 1577, fol. B, verso.

Footnote 44: Paul Hentzner, whose travels were reprinted by Horace Walpole, was a Hofmeister of this sort. The letter of dedication which he prefixed to his Itinerary in 1612 is a section, verbatim, of Pyrckmair's De Arte Apodemica.

Footnote 45: De Arte Apodemica, Ingolstadii, 1577, fols. 5-6.

Footnote 46: Hercules Prodicius, seu principis juventutis vita et peregrinatio, pp. 131-137

Footnote 47: Joecher, Gelebrten-Lexicon, under Zwinger.

Footnote 48: Zwinger, Methodus Apodemica, fol. B, verso.

Footnote 49: Ad. Ph. Lanoyum, fol. 106, in Justi Lipsii Epistole Selecta, Parisiis, 1610.

Footnote 50: A Direction for Travailers, London, 1592.

Footnote 51: "Methodus describendi regiones, urbes, et arces, et quid singulis locis praecipue in peregrinationibus homines nobiles ac docti animadvertere observare et annotare debeant." Meier was a Danish geographer and historian, 1528-1603.

Footnote 52: G. Loysii Curiovoitlandi Pervigilium Mercurii. Curiae Variscorum, 1598. (Nos. 17, 20, 23, 27.)

Footnote 53: Op. cit., No. 109.

Footnote 54: Translated by Thomas Coryat in his Crudities, 1611. He must have picked up the oration in his tour of Germany; but nothing which appears to be the original is given among the forty-six works of Hermann Kirchner, Professor of History and Poetry at Marburg, as cited by Joecher, though the other "Oratio de Germaniae perlustratione omnibus aliis peregrinationibus anteferenda," also translated by Coryat, is there listed.

Footnote 55: Turler, The Traveiler, p. 12.

Footnote 56: Kirchner in Coryat's Crudities, vol. i. 131.

Footnote 57: Turler, op. cit., p. 48.

Footnote 58: Lipsius, Turler, Kirchner.

Footnote 59: Turler, The Traveiler, p. 47.

Footnote 60: Turler, op. cit., p. 107.

Footnote 61: Methodus Apodemica, p. 26.

Footnote 62: An Essay of the Meanes how to make our Travailes in forraine Countries the more profitable and honourable. London, 1606.

Footnote 63: London, 1578.

Footnote 64: Sidney, Letter to his brother, 1580.

Footnote 65: Profitable Instructions. Written c. 1595. Printed 1633.

Footnote 66: Profitable Instructions, 1595, Harl. MS. 6265, printed in Spedding's Letters and Life of Bacon, vol. ii. p. 14. Spedding believes these Instructions to be by Bacon.

Footnote 67: State Papers, Domestic Elizabeth, 1547-80, vol. lxxvii., No. 6.

Footnote 68: Hist. MSS. Comm. 12th Report, App. IV., January 31, 1571.

Footnote 69: Life, Written by Himself, Oxford, 1647.

Footnote 70: Devereux, Lives and Letters of the Devereux, vol. ii. 233.

Footnote 71: Birch, Life of Prince Henry of Wales, App. No. XII.

Footnote 72: Life and Letters, by Pearsall Smith, vol. i. 246.

Footnote 73: Op. cit.

Footnote 74: Talbot, MSS. in the College of Arms, vol. P, fol. 571.

Footnote 75: Davison's Poetical Rhapsody. I. Biographical Notice, p. xxiii.

Footnote 76: Sloane MS. 1813.

Footnote 77: State Papers, Domestic, 1547-80, vols. xviii., No. 31; xix., No. 6-52 passim; xx., No. 1-39 passim.

Footnote 78: Direction for Travailers.

Footnote 79: Stowe's Annals, p. 600.

Footnote 80: Works, ed. Giles, vol. i., Pt. ii., Epis. cxvi.

Footnote 81: Op. cit.

Footnote 82: Fox-Bourne's Life of Sidney, p. 91.

Footnote 83: Op. cit.

Footnote 84: Thomae Erpenii, De Peregrinatione Gallica, 1631, pp. 6, 12.

Footnote 85: Copy-Book of Sir Amias Poulet's Letters, Roxburghe Club, p. 89.

Footnote 86: Letter-Book, p. 16.

Footnote 87: Letter-Book, p. 89.

Footnote 88: Poems of Thomas Carew, ed. W.C. Hazlitt, 1870. Pp. xxiii.-xxx.

Footnote 89: T. Birch, Court and Times of James I., vol. i. p. 218.

The embarrassments of an ambassador under these circumstances are hardly exaggerated, perhaps, in Chapman's play, Monsieur D'Olive, where the fictitious statesman bursts into a protest:

"Heaven I beseech thee, what an abhominable sort of Followers have I put upon mee: ... I cannot looke into the Cittie, but one or other makes tender his good partes to me, either his Language, his Travaile, his Intelligence, or something: Gentlemen send me their younger Sonnes furnisht in compleat, to learn fashions, for-sooth: as if the riding of five hundred miles, and spending 1000 Crownes would make 'am wiser then God meant to make 'am.... Three hundred of these Gold-finches I have entertained for my Followers: I can go in no corner, but I meete with some of my Wifflers in there accoutrements; you may heare 'am halfe a mile ere they come at you, and smell 'am half an hour after they are past you: sixe or seaven make a perfect Morrice-daunce; they need no Bells, their Spurs serve their turne: I am ashamed to traine 'am abroade, theyle say I carrie a whole Forrest of Feathers with mee, and I should plod afore 'am in plaine stuffe, like a writing Schole-maister before his Boyes when they goe a feasting."

Footnote 90: Strype, Life of Sir Thomas Smith, p. 119.

Footnote 91: The Travels and Life of Sir Thomas Hoby, 1547-1564, ed. Powell, p. 27.

Footnote 92: Spelman, W., A Dialogue between Two Travellers, c. 1580, ed. by Pickering for the Roxburghe Club, 1896, p. 42.

Footnote 93: Gratarolus, De Regimine iter agentium, 1561, p. 19.

Footnote 94: Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, vol. i. p. 69.

Footnote 95: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 10th May 1909.

Footnote 96: Florio, Second Frutes, p. 95.

Footnote 97: Sloane MS., 1813, fol.7.

Footnote 98: Article on the third Lord North in the Dictionary of National Biography.

Footnote 99: T. Wright, Queen Elizabeth, vol. i. p. 316.

Footnote 100: Sir Thomas Overbury, An Affectate Traveller, in Characters.

Footnote 101: Dieppe.

Footnote 102: Thomas Nash, Pierce Pennilesse, in Works, ed. Grosart, vol. ii. 27.

Footnote 103: Nash, The Unfortunate Traveller, in Works, ed. Grosart, v. 145.

Footnote 104: Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster, ed. Mayor, pp. 84-85.

Footnote 105: William Harrison, A Description of England, ed. Withington, p. 8.

Footnote 106: Ascham, op. cit., p. 86.

Footnote 107: Robert Greene, Repentance, in Works, ed. Grosart, xii. 172; John Marston, Certaine Satires, 1598; Satire II., p. 47.

Footnote 108: Ascham, op. cit., p. 77.

Footnote 109: James Howell, Letters, ed. Jacobs, p. 69.

Footnote 110: William Thomas, The Historic of Italie, 1549, p. 2.

Footnote 111: Travels and Life of Sir Thomas Hoby, Written by Himself, ed. Powell, p. 10.

Footnote 112: William Thomas, op. cit. p. 2.

Footnote 113: Fynes Moryson, An Itinerary, etc., Glasgow ed. 1907, i. 159.

Footnote 114: Ibid.

Footnote 115: Thomas Hoby, op. cit. pp. 14, 15.

Footnote 116: William Thomas, op. cit. p. 85.

Footnote 117: Robert Greene, All About Conny-Catching. Works, x. Foreword.

Footnote 118: Epistola de Peregrinatione in De Eruditione Comparanda, 1699, p. 588.

Footnote 119: Turler, The Traveller, Preface, and pp. 65-67.

Footnote 120: The Unton Inventories, ed. by J.G. Nichols, p. xxxviii.

Footnote 121: Sir Robert Dallington, State of Tuscany, 1605, p. 64.

Footnote 122: Arthur Hall, Ten Books of Homer's Iliades, 1581, Epistle to Sir Thomas Cicill.

Footnote 123: Nicholas Breton: A Floorish upon Fancie, ed. Grosart, p. 6.

Footnote 124: Thomas Wright, Queen Elizabeth, ii. 205.

Footnote 125: "A letter sent by F.A. touching the proceedings in a private quarrel and unkindnesse, between Arthur Hall and Melchisedech Mallerie, Gentleman, to his very friend L.B. being in Italy." (Only fourteen copies of this escaped destruction by order of Parliament in 1580. One was reprinted in 1815 in Miscellanea Antiqua Anglicana, from which my quotations are taken.)

Footnote 126: St Paul's Cathedral, the fashionable promenade.

Footnote 127: Cooper's Athenae Cantabrigienses, i. 381.

Footnote 128: Life and Travels of Thomas Hoby, Written by Himself, p. 19, 20.

Footnote 129: Bercher, Ded. to Queen Elizabeth, in The Nobility of Women, 1559, ed. by W. Bond for the Roxburghe Club, 1904.

Footnote 130: Ibid. Introduction by Bond, p. 36.

Footnote 131: D.N.B. Article by Sir Sidney Lee.

Footnote 132: Hist. MSS. Commission, 12th Report, App. Part IV. MSS. of the Duke of Rutland, p. 94.

Footnote 133: Ibid.

Footnote 134: E. Lodge, Illustrations of British History, ii. 100. (Gilbert Talbot to his father, the Earl of Shrewsbury.)

Footnote 135: Hatfield MSS. (Calendar), ii. 83.

Footnote 136: Ibid., ii. 129.

Footnote 137: Ibid., ii. 114.

Footnote 138: Hatfield MSS. (Calendar), ii. 129.

Footnote 139: Ibid., p. 131.

Footnote 140: Ibid., p. 144.

Footnote 141: See "Sir Henry Sidney to his son Robert," 28th Oct. 1578, in Collin's Sidney Papers, i. 271.

Footnote 142: In A Method for Travell, c. 1598, Fol. C.

Footnote 143: John Stowe, Annales, ed. 1641, p. 868.

Footnote 144: Ibid.

Footnote 145: Gabriel Harvey, Letter-Book, Camden Society, New Series, No. xxxiii. p. 97.

Footnote 146: Stowe, Annales, ed. 1641, p. 867.

Footnote 147: Ibid., p. 869.

Footnote 148: Harrison's Description of England, ed. Withington, p. 111.

Footnote 149: T. Birch, Court and Times of James I., i. 191.

Footnote 150: E. Lodge's Illustrations of British History, ii. 228.

Footnote 151: Harleian Miscellany, vol. v. pp. 400-401.

Footnote 152: Leland, J., De Scriptoribus Britannicis, vol. i. 482.

Footnote 153: Calendar of State Papers, Foreign, 1562, Nos. 1069 and 1230.

Footnote 154: E. Nares, Memoir of Lord Burghley, vol. iii. p. 513.

Footnote 155: Lambeth MSS., No. 647, fol. iii. Printed in Spedding's Letters and Life of Bacon, vol. i. p. 110.

Footnote 156: Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1603-1610, p. 634.

Footnote 157: Quoted in Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, ed. by L. Pearsall Smith, vol. ii. p. 462.

Footnote 158: Fuller, The Church-History of Britain, ed. 1655, book x. p. 48. The alleged reason for Mole's imprisonment, Fuller says, was that he had translated Du Plessis Mornay, "his book on the Visibility of the Church, out of French into English; but besides, there were other contrivances therein, not so fit for a public relation" (supra, p. 49).

Footnote 159: Fourth Baron Wentworth of Nettlestead and first Earl of Cleveland, 1591-1667, who became a Royalist general in the Civil War. At the time of Wotton's letter (1609) he was completing his education abroad after residence at Oxford. See Dictionary of National Biography, which does not, however, mention his foreign tour.

Footnote 160: He was at once "reconciled" to the Church of Rome, entered the Society of the Jesuits, and "died a most holy death," in 1626, while filling the office of Confessor of the English College at Rome. H. Foley, Records of Society of Jesus, vi. p. 257, cited in Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, i. p. 457, note.

Footnote 161: Second Lord Harington of Exton, 1592-1614; the favourite friend and companion of Henry, Prince of Wales. A rare and godly young man. For an account of him, and for his letters from abroad, in French and Latin, to Prince Henry, see T. Birch's Life of Prince Henry.

Footnote 162: "One Tovy, an 'aged man,' late master of the free school, Guildford." Dictionary of National Biography, article on Sir John Harington, supra.

Footnote 163: Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, i. 456-7.

Footnote 164: S.R. Gardiner, History of England, iii. 191.

Footnote 165: H. Foley, Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, London, 1882, Series ii. p. 253.

Footnote 166: Ibid.

Footnote 167: Foley, op. cit., p. 256. The facts are confirmed by the report of the English Ambassador at Valladolid, 17th July 1605, O.S., printed in the Winwood Memorials, vol. ii. p. 95.

Footnote 168: Fynes Moryson, Itinerary, ed. 1907, vol. iii. pp. 390-1.

Footnote 169: Such as Dr Thomas Case of St John's in Oxford, whom Fuller reports as "always a Romanist in his heart, but never expressing the same till his mortal sickness seized upon him" (Church History, book ix. p. 235).

Footnote 170: Gardiner, History of England, vol. v. pp. 102-3. The same wavering between two Churches in the time of James I. is exemplified by "Edward Buggs, Esq., living in London, aged seventy, and a professed Protestant." He "was in his sicknesse seduced to the Romish Religion." Recovering, a dispute was held at his request between two Jesuits and two Protestant Divines, on the subject of the Visibility of the Church. "This conference did so satisfie Master Buggs, that renouncing his former wavering, he was confirmed in the Protestant truth" (Fuller, Church History, x. 102).

Footnote 171: Winwood Memorials, vol. ii. 109.

Footnote 172: The Earl of Nottingham, Ambassador Extraordinary in 1605.

Footnote 173: Winwood Memorials, vol. ii. 76.

Footnote 174: Winwood Memorials, vol. ii. 109.

Footnote 175: Fynes Moryson, Itinerary, vol. i. p. 260.

Footnote 176: Such was the case of Tobie Matthew, son of the Archbishop of York, converted during his travels in Italy. This witty and frivolous courtier came home and faced the uproar of his friends, spent a whole plague-stricken summer in Fleet arguing with the Bishops sent to reclaim him, and then was banished. After ten years he reappeared at Court, as amusing as ever, the protege of the Duke of Buckingham. But under the mask of frippery he worked unsleepingly to advance the Church of Rome, for he had secretly taken orders as a Jesuit Priest. See Life of Sir Tobie Matthew, by A.H. Mathew, London, 1907.

Footnote 177: Davison's Poetical Rhapsody, ed. Nicolas, 1826, vol. i. p. vi.

Footnote 178: Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, vol. ii. 482.

Footnote 179: Quo Vadis, A Just Censure of Travel, in Works, Oxford, vol. ix. p. 560.

Footnote 180: Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, vol. i. 70, note.

Footnote 181: A Method for Travell shewed by taking the view of France, As it stoode in the yeare of our Lord, 1598.

Footnote 182: Wood records such a state of mind in John Nicolls, who, in 1577 left England, made a recantation of his heresy, and was "received into the holy Catholic Church." Returning to England he recanted his Roman Catholic opinions, and even wrote "His Pilgrimage, wherein is displayed the lives of the proud Popes, ambitious Cardinals, leacherous Bishops, fat bellied Monks, and hypocritical Jesuits" (1581). Notwithstanding which, he went beyond the seas again (to turn Mohometan, his enemies said), and under threats and imprisonment at Rouen, recanted all that he had formerly uttered against the Romanists.—Athenae Oxonienses, ed. Bliss, i. p. 496.

Footnote 183: Understood: "for in the pulpit, being eloquent, they," etc.

Footnote 184: In volume iii. of his Itinerary (reprint by the University of Glasgow, 1908), preceded by an Essay of Travel in General, a panegyric in the style of Turler, Lipsius, etc., containing most points of previous essays in praise of travel, and some new ones. For instance, in his defence of travel, he must answer the objection that travellers run the risk of being perverted from the Church of England.

Footnote 185: Itinerary, iii. 411.

Footnote 186: Ibid., i. 304.

Footnote 187: Ibid., i. 78-80.

Footnote 188: Ibid., i. 399.

Footnote 189: Ibid., iii. 389.

Footnote 190: Itinerary, iii. 400.

Footnote 191: Ibid., iii. 388.

Footnote 192: Ibid., iii. 387.

Footnote 193: Ibid., iii. 375.

Footnote 194: Itinerary, iii. 411.

Footnote 195: Ibid., iii. 413.

Footnote 196: See Ben Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour, Act II. Sc. i.: "I do intend this year of jubilee coming on, to travel, and because I will not altogether go upon expense I am determined to put forth some five thousand pound, to be paid me five for one, upon the return of myself, my wife, and my dog from the Turk's court in Constantinople." Also the epigram of Sir John Davies in Poems, ed. Grosart, vol. ii. p. 40: "Lycus, which lately is to Venice gone, Shall if he doe returne, gaine three for one."

Footnote 197: Volpone: or the Fox, Act II. Sc. i.

Footnote 198: Ibid., Act III. Sc. v.

Footnote 199: The whole letter is printed in Pearsall Smith's Collection, vol. ii. p. 382.

Footnote 200: Pearsall Smith's Collection, vol. ii. p. 364 (in another letter of advice on foreign travel).

Footnote 201: Defensio secunda, in Opera Latina, Amstelodami, 1698, p. 96.

Footnote 202: Quo Vadis? A Just Censure of Travel as it is undertaken by the Gentlemen of our Nation, London, 1617.

Footnote 203: 19th September 1614. Quoted in C. Dodd's Church History of England, ed. Tierney, vol. iv. Appendix, p. ccxli.

Footnote 204: Master of Ceremonies to James I.

Footnote 205: The Reformed Travailer, by W.H., 1616, fol. A 4, verso.

Footnote 206: Charles II.

Footnote 207: Ellis, Original Letters, 1st Series, iii. 288.

Footnote 208: The Scholemaster, ed. Mayor, p. 53.

Footnote 209: The Compleat Gentleman, 1634 (reprint 1906), p. 33.

Footnote 210: Cited in G. D'Avenel, La Noblesse francaise sous Richelieu, p. 52.

Footnote 211: Ibid., pp. 41-2.

Footnote 212: Balade, "Les chevaliers ont honte d'etudier" (OEuvres Completes, tome iii. p. 187).

Footnote 213: De la Noue, Discours Politiques et Militaires, 1587, p. 111.

Footnote 214: De la Noue, op. cit., pp. 118-22. Court and Times of Charles I., vol. ii. pp. 89, 187.

Footnote 215: A Method for Travell. Shewed by taking the view of France. As it stood in the yeare of our Lord, 1598.

Footnote 216: By James Howell.

Footnote 217: Supra, note (1).

Footnote 218: A Survey of the Great Dukes State of Tuscany. In the yeare of our Lord, 1596.

Footnote 219: The View of France, fol. X.

Footnote 220: The View of France, fol. H 4, verso.

Footnote 221: William Thomas, The Pilgrim, 1546.

Footnote 222: Survey of Tuscany, p. 34.

Footnote 223: A Method for Travell, Fol. B 4, verso.

Footnote 224: The first edition of The View of Fraunce was printed anonymously in 1604 by Symon Stafford: When Thomas Creede brought out another edition, apparently in 1606, Dallington inserted a preface "To All Gentlemen that have Travelled," and A Method for Travell, consisting of eight unpaged leaves, and a folded leaf containing a conspectus of A Method for Travell.

Footnote 225: As the use of Latin waned, a knowledge of modern languages became increasingly important. The attitude of continental gentlemen on this point is indicated by a Spanish Ambassador in 1613, to whom the Pope's Nuncio used a German Punctilio, of speaking Latin, for more dignity, to him and Italian to the Residents of Mantua and Urbino. The Ambassador answered in Italian, "and afterwards gave this reason for it: that it were as ill a Decorum for a Cavalier to speak Latin, as for a Priest to use any other Language." (Winwood Memorials, vol. iii. p. 446).

Footnote 226: Fynes Moryson had a great deal to say on this subject. In particular, he instances the Germans as reprehensible in living only with their own countrymen in Italy, "never attaining the perfect use of any forreigne Language, be it never so easy. So as myselfe remember one of them, who being reprehended, that having been thirty yeeres in Italy hee could not speake the Language, he did merrily answer in Dutch: Ah lieber was kan man doch in dreissig Jahr lehrnen? Alas, good Sir, what can a man learne in thirty yeeres?" (Itinerary, vol. in. p. 379).

Footnote 227: A Method for Travell, B 4, verso.

Footnote 228: Court and Times of James I., vol. i. p. 286.

Footnote 229: Amias Paulet to Elizabeth, Jan. 31, 1577. Cal. State Papers, Foreign.

Footnote 230: By Cesare Nigri Milanese detto il trombone, "Famose e eccellente Professori di Ballare." Printed at Milan, 1604.

Footnote 231: "In twenty manere coude he trippe and dance After the schole of Oxenforde tho, And with his legges casten to and fro."

The Milleres Tale, 11. 142-4.

Footnote 232: Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd Series, vol. iii. p. 214.

Footnote 233: Ibid., 1st Series, vol. iii. pp. 138-9.

Footnote 234: A Method jor Travell, fol. B 4, verso.

Footnote 235: Historiettes, ed. Paris, 1834, tome 1er, p. 72.

Footnote 236: So counted the Pope's Legate in 1596. Cited by Jusserand, in Sports et Jeux D'Exercise dans L'ancienne France, p. 252.

Footnote 237: A View of France, fol. V, verso.

Footnote 238: Jusserand, op. cit., p. 241. Cited from Thomassin's Ancienne et nouvelle discipline de l'Eglise, 1725, tome iii. col. 1355.

Footnote 239: The View of France, T 4, verso, V, verso.

Footnote 240: Fol. C.

Footnote 241: Every Man in his Humour, Act IV. Sc. v.

Footnote 242: Touchant les Duels, ed. 1722, p. 79.

Footnote 243: "If in the Court they spie one in a sute of the last yeres making, they scoffingly say, 'Nous le cognoissons bien, il ne nous mordra pas, c'est un fruit suranne.' We know him well enough, he will not hurt us, hee's an Apple of the last yeere" (The View of France, fol. T 4).

Footnote 244: Instructions for Forreine Travell, 1642.

Footnote 245: Op. cit., pp. 65-70.

Footnote 246: Ibid., pp. 181, 188.

Footnote 247: Op. cit., pp. 193-5.

Footnote 248: Ibid., p. 51.

Footnote 249: "The Great Horse" is the term used of animals for war or tournaments, in contradistinction to Palfreys, Coursers, Nags, and other common horses. These animals of "prodigious weight" had to be taught to perform manoeuvres, and their riders, the art of managing them according to certain rules and principles. See A New Method ... to Dress Horses, by William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, London, 1667.

Footnote 250: Histoire et Recherches des Antiquites de la Ville de Paris, par H. Sauval, Paris, 1724, tome ii. p. 498.

Footnote 251: Les Antiquitez de la Ville de Paris. Paris 1640, Livre second, p. 403.

Footnote 252: Probably the son of Sir John Puckering, Lord Keeper in 1592-1596.

Footnote 253: Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd Series, vol. iii. pp. 220-1.

Footnote 254: Archeologia, vol. xxxvi. pp. 343-4.

Footnote 255: Collectania, First Series, ed. for the Oxford Historical Society (vol. v.) by C.R.L. Fletcher, p. 213.

Footnote 256: See Archeologia, xxi. p. 506. Gilbert's and La Noue's dreams were of academies like Vittorino da Feltre's—not Pluvinel's.

Footnote 257: Oxford Historical Society, vol. v. p. 276.

Footnote 258: Ibid., pp. 280-2.

Footnote 259: The Interpreter of the Academic for Forrain Languages, and all Noble Sciences, and Exercises, London, 1648.

Footnote 260: Evelyn's Diary, 9th August 1682.

Footnote 261: Ibid., 18th December 1684.

Footnote 262: Oxford Historical Society, vol. v. pp. 309-13.

Footnote 263: Ibid., p. 319.

Footnote 264: Le Maneige Royal, ou l'on peut remarquer le defaut et la perfection du chevalier, en tous les exercices de cet art, digne de Princes, fait et pratique en l'instruction du Roy par Antoine Pluvinel son Escuyer principal, Conseiller en son Conseil d'Estat, son Chambellan ordinaire, et Sous-Gouverneur de sa Majeste. Paris, 1624.

Footnote 265: Opening words of An Apologie for Poetrie, ed. 1595.

Footnote 266: Historiettes, vol. i. p. 89 of ed. 1834. Marguerite of Valois compared M. de Souvray, the governor of Louis XIII., to Chiron rearing Achilles. Contemporary satire said that M. de Souvray "n'avoit de Chiron que le train de derriere."

Footnote 267: Henri Sauval, op. cit., p. 498.

Footnote 268: A Dialogue concerning Education, in Tracts, London, 1727, p. 297. We must allow for the fact that English university men did not approve of the French ambition to elevate the vernacular, or of their translation of the classics, or of any displacement of Latin from the highest place in the ambitions of anyone with pretentions to learning. See also Evelyn, State of France, p. 99.

Footnote 269: Oxford Historical Society, vol. v. p. 325.

Footnote 270: Written to John Aubrey, between 1685-93. Quoted in Oxford Historical Society, vol. v. p. 295.

Footnote 271: Ravaisson, Archives de la Bastille, Paris, 1866, tome i. p. 263; cited in Sports et Jeux d'Exercice, p. 377.

Footnote 272: Thomas Carte, Life of James, Duke of Ormond, vol. iii. p. 635.

Footnote 273: Addit. MS. 19253 (British Museum).

Footnote 274: Memoires du Comte de Grammont, Strawberry Hill, 1772.

Footnote 275: In The Compleat Gentleman, 1622.

Footnote 276: Nicolaus Clenardus Latomo Suo S.D., Epistole, Antverpiae, 1566, pp. 20-4, passim. See p. 234 for the historic incident of the drinking cup, broken by Vasaeus, and so impossible to replace, after a search through the whole Spanish village, that the rest of the party were obliged to drink out of their hands. As to expenses, Clenardus scoffs at the poets who sing of "Auriferum Tagum." "Aurum auferendum" would better express it, he found.

Footnote 277: Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd Series, vol. ii. p. 38.

Footnote 278: Ibid.

Footnote 279: James Howell, A Discours or Dialog, containing a Perambulation of Spain and Portugall which may serve for a direction how to travell through both Countreys, London, 1662.

Footnote 280: Relation du Voyage d'Espagne, a la Haye, 1691 (translated in 1692 under the title of "The Ingenious and Diverting Letters of the Lady —— Travels into Spain").

Footnote 281: Comtesse d'Aunoy, op. cit., p. 99.

Footnote 282: Reprinted in The Life of Sir Tobie Matthew, by A.H. Mathew, p. 115.

Footnote 283: By James Howell, 1662.

Footnote 284: Howell's Letters, ed. Jacobs, p. 168.

Footnote 285: Winwood Memorials, vol. iii. p. 264.

Footnote 286: Tracts: (A Dialogue concerning Education), 1727, p. 340.

Footnote 287: The Perambulation of Spain, p. 29.

Footnote 288: See Les Delices de la Hollande, Amsterdam, 1700, pp. 9, 25; Sir William Brereton, Bart., Travels in Holland, the United Provinces, England, Scotland, and Ireland, 1634-1635, ed. Hawkins, for the Chatham Society, 1844; William Carr, Gentleman, The Traveller's Guide and Historian's Faithful Companion, London, 1690.

Footnote 289: William Seward, Anecdotes of Some Distinguished Persons, London, 1796, vol. ii. p. 168.

Footnote 290: Lord King, The Life and Letters of John Locke, with Extracts from his Journals and Common-place Books, London, 1858, vol. ii. pp. 5, 50, 71.

Footnote 291: The Harleian Miscellany, vol. ii. p. 592.

Footnote 292: Observations upon the United Provinces of the Netherlands, London, 1693, p. 188.

Footnote 293: Coriat Junior, Another Traveller, London, 1767, p. 152.

Footnote 294: John Evelyn, Diary and Correspondence, ed. Bray, London, 1906, p. 38.

Footnote 295: Ibid., p. 29. Also John Raymond, Il Mercurio Italico, London, 1648, p. 95.

Footnote 296: Coriat Junior, op. cit., p. 152.

Footnote 297: R. Poole, Doctor of Physick, A Journey from London to France and Holland; or, the Traveller's Useful Vade Mecum, London, 1746.

Footnote 298: Sir Thomas Browne, Works, ed. Wilkin, vol. i. p. 91.

Footnote 299: Martin Lister's Travels in France, in John Pinkerton's Collection of Voyages and Travels, 1809, vol. iv. pp. 2, 21.

Footnote 300: Nicholas Ferrar, Two Lives, by his brother John and by Doctor Jebb, ed. J.E.B. Mayor, London, 1855.

Footnote 301: State of France, 1652, pp. 78, 105. A Character of England, 1659, pp. 45, 49.

Footnote 302: Advice to a Young Gentleman Leaving the University, by R.(ichard) L.(assels), 1670.

Footnote 303: Sir Thomas Browne, Works, ed. by Wilkin, vol. i. pp. 3-14, passim.

Footnote 304: Advice to a Son, ed. 1896, p. 63.

Footnote 305: Life of William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, ed. Firth, 1886, p. 309.

Footnote 306: Prefatory Letter, The State of France, 1652, fol. B.

Footnote 307: Ibid., fol. B 3.

Footnote 308: The Voyage of Italy, Paris, 1670. A Preface to the Reader concerning Travelling.

Footnote 309: Winwood Memorials, vol. iii. 312.

Footnote 310: Calendar of State Papers, Foreign, 1561-2, pp. 632, 635.

Footnote 311: Davison's Poetical Rhapsody, ed. Nicolas, vol. i. p. xi.

Footnote 312: "That young men travel under some tutor, or grave servant, I allow well: so that he be such a one that hath some entrance into the language, and hath been in the country before; whereby he may be able to tell them what things are worthy to be seen in the country where they go: what acquaintances they are to seek; what exercises or discipline the place yieldeth. For else young men shall go hooded, and look abroad little" (Essays: Of Travel).

Footnote 313: Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1651-2, No, 51. It will be seen from the above letter that fear of a change in their son's religion was still a very real one in the minds of parents. See also A Letter of Advice to a Young Gentleman of an Honorable Family, Now in his Travels beyond the Seas. By a True Son of the Church of England, London, 1688. The writer hopes that above all things the young man may return "A well-bred Gentleman, a good Scholar, and a sound Christian."

Footnote 314: "Newly printed at Paris, and are to be sold in London, by John Starkey, 1670." Lassels, a Roman Catholic, passed most of his life abroad. He left Oxford for the College of Douay. See D.N.B.

Footnote 315: The Voyage of Italy, Preface to the Reader.

Footnote 316: Op. cit., Preface to the Reader.

Footnote 317: Thomas Carte, Life of James, Duke of Omond, vol. iv. p. 632. "He passed several months in a very cheap country, and yet the bills of expenses sent over by the governor were higher than those which used to be drawn by Colonel Fairfax on account of the Earl of Derby, when he was travelling from place to place, and appeared in all with so much dignity."

Footnote 318: Anthony Weldon, Court and Character of King James, London, 1650, p. 92.

Footnote 319: Winwood Memorials, vol. iii. p. 226.

Footnote 320: Ben Jonson, Conversations with Drummond, ed. Sidney, 1906, pp. 34-5.

Footnote 321: Life of James, Duke of Ormond, vol. iv. pp. 487-90.

Footnote 322: Court and Times of James I., vol. i. p, 285.

Footnote 323: Life of James, Duke of Ormond, vol. iv. p. 667.

Footnote 324: Advice to a Son, p. 72.

Footnote 325: A. Collins, Letters and Memorials of State, vol. i. p. 271. (Sir Henry Sidney to his son Robert Sidney, after Earl of Leicester.)

Footnote 326: Davison's Poetical Rhapsody, ed. Nicolas, vol. i. pp. viii.-xi.

Footnote 327: Sir Henry Wotton; Life and Letters, ed. Pearsall Smith, vol. i. p. 233 (note 1).

Footnote 328: Davison's Poetical Rhapsody, pp. viii., xi.

Footnote 329: Itinerary, vol. iii. p. 374.

Footnote 330: A Method for Travell, fol. G.

Footnote 331: Instructions for Forreine Travel, p. 51.

Footnote 332: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. v. p. 24.

Footnote 333: The Voyage of Italy; Preface to the Reader, fol. B 4.

Footnote 334: The State of France, 1652. Folio B.

Footnote 335: Robert Boyle, Works, 1744, vol. i. p. 7.

Footnote 336: Lismore Papers, 1st Series, vol. v. pp. 78, 80.

Footnote 337: Ibid., 112.

Footnote 338: It was a common custom at this time to marry one's sons, if a favourable match could be made, before they went abroad.

Footnote 339: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. iv. p. 95.

Footnote 340: On Nov. 23rd, 1610, Carleton, the Ambassador at Venice, wrote to Salisbury that his son was ill at Padua. "He finds relish in nothing on this side the mountains, nor much in anything on this side the sea; his affections being so strangely set on his return homeward, that any opposition is a disease." Cranborne's tutor, Dr Lister, wrote to Carleton in December: "Sir, we must for England, there is no resisting of it. If we stay the fruit will not be great, the discontent infinite. My Lord is going to dinner, this being the first meal he eateth." (State Papers, 1610. Cited in Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton, ed. Pearsall-Smith, vol. i. p. 501.)

Footnote 341: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. iv. p. 98.

Footnote 342: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. iv. p. 234.

Footnote 343: Ibid., p. 171.

Footnote 344: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. iv. p. 100.

Footnote 345: Ibid., p. 103.

Footnote 346: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. iv. p. 100.

Footnote 347: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. iv. p. 99.

Footnote 348: In March 1640. This fact, and his appearance in the Lismore Papers, are not mentioned in the Dictionary of National Biography.

Footnote 349: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. iv. p. 113.

Footnote 350: Ibid., p. 235.

Footnote 351: Ibid., p. 234.

Footnote 352: Ibid., pp. 232-3.

Footnote 353: She became one of the mistresses of Charles II. With her daughter, Charlotte Boyle, otherwise Fitzroy, she is buried in Westminster Abbey. (Cockayne's Peerage, under Viscount Shannon.)

Footnote 354: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. v. pp. 19-24.

Footnote 355: Lismore Papers, 2nd Series, vol. v. pp. 72, 97, 121.

Footnote 356: Three Diatribes or Discourses, London, 1671.

Footnote 357: The Compleat Gentleman, London, 1678.

Footnote 358: The Compleat Gentleman, p. 3.

Footnote 359: Albert Babeau, Les Voyageurs en France, Paris, 1885, p. 175.

Footnote 360: M. Adrien Delahaute, Une Famille de Finance an XVIII. Siecle, vol. i. p. 434.

Footnote 361: George Sandys, A Relation of a Journey begun in An. Dom. 1610, London, 1615.

Footnote 362: John Evelyn, Diary and Correspondence, ed. Bray, London, 1906, vol. i. p. 77.

Footnote 363: Ibid., p. 78.

Footnote 364: Balthazar Gerbier, Subsidium Peregrinantibus, Oxford, 1665.

Footnote 365: Letter to his Son, Feb. 22, 1748.

Footnote 366: Ibid., Oct. 2, O.S., 1747.

Footnote 367: Letter to his Son, Oct. 9, O.S., 1747.

Footnote 368: Lausanne was where Edward Gibbon received the education he considered far superior to what could be had from Oxford. When he returned to England, after four years, he missed the "elegant and rational society" of Lausanne, and could not love London—"the noisy and expensive scene of crowds without company, and dissipation without pleasure."

Footnote 369: Letter to his Son, April 12, O.S., 1749.

Footnote 370: Ibid., Sept. 22, O.S., 1749.

Footnote 371: Ibid., Sept. 5, O.S., 1749.

Footnote 372: Letter to his Son, Nov. 8, O.S., 1750.

Footnote 373: Letter to his Son, May 10, O.S., 1748.

Footnote 374: Letter to his Son, April 30, O.S., 1750.

Footnote 375: Letters from Paris, Sept. 22, 26; Oct. 3, 6, 1765.

Footnote 376: A Character of England, As it was lately presented in a Letter to a Noble Man of France, London, 1659.

Footnote 377: See Voltaire, Lettres Philosophiques, tome ii. p. 272, ed. Gustave Lanson, Paris, 1909.

Footnote 378: "The merest John Trot in a week you shall see Bien poli, bien frize, tout a fait un Marquis."

(Samuel Foote, Dramatic Works, vol. i. p. 47.)

The Hon. James Howard, The English Mounsieur, London, 1674; Sir George Etherege, Sir Fopling Flutter, Love in a Tub, Act III. Sc. iv.

The Abbe le Blanc on visiting England was very indignant at the representation of his countrymen on the London stage: he describes how, "Two actors came in, one dressed in the English manner very decently, and the other with black eye-brows, a riband an ell long under his chin, a big peruke immoderately powdered, and his nose all bedaubed with snuff. What Englishman could not know a Frenchman by this ridiculous picture?... But when it was found that the man thus equipped, being also laced down every seam of his coat, was nothing but a cook, the spectators were equally charmed and surprised. The author had taken care to make him speak all the impertinences he could devise.... There was a long criticism upon our manners, our customs and above all, our cookery. The excellence and virtues of English beef were cried up; the author maintained that it was owing to the quality of its juice that the English were so courageous, and had such a solidity of understanding which raised them above all the nations of Europe" (E. Smith, Foreign Visitors In England, London, 1889, pp. 193-4).

Footnote 379: Samuel Foote, Dramatic Works, vol. i. p. 7.

Footnote 380: Ibid.

Footnote 381: "Let Paris be the theme of Gallia's Muse Where Slav'ry treads the Streets in wooden shoes." (Gay, Trivia.)

Footnote 382: Joseph Addison, A Letter from Italy, London, 1709.

Footnote 383: Samuel Johnson, London: A Poem.

Footnote 384: Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, Letters to his Son, London, 1774; vol. ii. p. 123; vol. iii. p. 308.

Footnote 385: Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, A Dialogue concerning Education, in A Collection of Several Tracts, London, 1727.

Footnote 386: Ibid., Dialogue of The Want of Respect Due to Age, pp. 295-6.

Footnote 387: John Locke, Some Thoughts concerning Education, London, 1699, pp. 356-7, 375-7.

Footnote 388: John Locke, Some Thoughts concerning Education, London, 1699, pp. 356-7, 375-7.

Footnote 389: Ibid.

Footnote 390: As Cowper says in The Progress of Error:

"From school to Cam or Isis, and thence home: And thence with all convenient speed to Rome. With reverend tutor clad in habit lay, To tease for cash and quarrel with all day: With memorandum-book for every town, And every post, and where the chaise broke down."

Foote's play, An Englishman in Paris, represents in the character of the pedantic prig named Classick, the sort of university tutor who was sometimes substituted for the parson, as an appropriate guardian.

Footnote 391: The Bear-Leaders, London, 1758.

Footnote 392: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu met many of these pairs at Rome, where she writes that, by herding together and throwing away their money on worthless objects, they had acquired the title of Golden Asses, and that Goldoni adorned his dramas with "gli milordi Inglesi" in the same manner as Moliere represented his Parisian marquises (Letters, ed. Wharncliffe, London, 1893, vol. ii. p. 327).

Footnote 393: William Congreve, The Way of the World, Act III. Sc. xv.

Footnote 394: Philip Thicknesse, Observations on the Customs and Manners of the French Nation, London, 1766, p. 3.

Footnote 395: Thomas Gray the poet.

Footnote 396: Horace Walpole, Letters, ed. Cunningham, London, 1891, vol. i. p. 24.

Footnote 397: Thomas Gray, Letters, ed. Tovey, Cambridge University Press, 1890, pp. 38, 44, 68.

Footnote 398: James Howell, Instructions for Forraine Travell, p. 25 (Arber Reprint).

Footnote 399: Ibid., Epistolae Ho-Elianae, ed. Jacobs, 1892, vol. i. p. 95.

The Renaissance traveller had little commendation for a land that was not fruitful, rich with grains and orchards. A landscape that suggested food was to him the fairest landscape under heaven. Far from being an admirer of mountains, he was of the opinion of Dr Johnson that "an eye accustomed to flowery pastures and waving harvests is astonished and repelled by this wide extent of hopeless sterility" and that "this uniformity of barrenness can afford very little amusement to the traveller" (Works, ed. 1787, vol. x. p. 359).

Footnote 400: Itinerarii Italiae Rerumq. Romanorum libri tres a Franc. Schotto I.C. ex antiquis novisque Scriptoribus iis editi qui Romam anno Iubileii sacro visunt. Ad Robertum Bellarminum S.R.E. Card. Ampliss. Antverpiae. Ex officina Plantiniana apud Joannem Moretum. Anno saecularii sacro, 1600.

Thomas Cecil in Paris in 1562 studied the richly illustrated Cosmographia Universalis of Sebastien Munster (pub. Basel 1550) which gave descriptions of "Omnium gentium mores, leges, religio, res gestae, mutationes."

Sir Thomas Browne recommends to his son in France in 1661 Les Antiquities de Paris "which will direct you in many things, what to look after, that little time you stay there" (Works, ed. Wilkin, 1846, vol. i. p. 16).

Footnote 401: Such as: (a) La Guide des Chemins: pour aller et venir par tous les pays et contrees du Royaume de France. Avec les noms des Fleuves et Rivieres qui courent parmy lesdicts pays. A. Paris (n.d.) (1552?).

(b) Deliciae Galliae, sive Itinerarium per universam Galliam. Coloniae, 1608.

(c) Iodoci Sinceri Itinerarium Galliae, Ita accomodatum, ut eius ductu mediocri tempore tota Gallia obiri, Anglia et Belgium adire possuit: nec bis terve ad eadum loca rediri oporteat: De Burdigala, Lugduni, 1616.

(d) Le Voyage de France Dresse pour l'instruction et commodite tant des Francais que des Estrangers. Paris, chez Olivier de Varennes, 1639.

Footnote 402: Maximilian Misson, A New Voyage to Italy; Together with Useful Instructions for those who shall Travel thither, 2 vols., London, 1695.

Footnote 403: Count Leopold Berchtold, An Essay to Direct and Extend the Inquiries of Patriotic Travellers, London, 1789.

Footnote 404: Mission, op. cit., vol. ii. p. 335.

Footnote 405: See Hearne's Collections, vol. viii., being vol. I. of publications of The Oxford Historical Society, pp. 118, 133, 201, for the account of an assault by six highwaymen upon two gentlemen with their servants on the way from Calais, in September 1723. Defoe wrote a tract on the subject, and it was treated in Boyer's Political State, and in other periodicals of the time.

Footnote 406: Letters from Italy, to which is annexed, An Admonition to Gentlemen who pass the Alps, London, 1767, pp. 44, 65, 172, 306.

Footnote 407: Henry Fielding, The Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon.

Footnote 408: Tobias Smollett, Works, ed. 1887, p. 709.

Footnote 409: Roger Ascham, Works, ed. Giles, London, 1865, vol. i. part ii. p. 253.

Footnote 410: All the Works of John Taylor the Water Poet, being sixty-three in number, collected into one volume by the Author, London, 1630. See p. 76, Three Weekes, three Dayes, and three Houres Observations from London to Hamburgh in Germanie ... dedicated to Sr. Thomas Coriat, Great Brittaines Error, and the World's Mirror, Aug. 17, 1616.

Footnote 411: Coryal's Crudities, Glasgow, 1905, vol. i. pp. 216, 226, 255; vol. ii. pp. 57, 176.

Footnote 412: Hermannus Kirchnerus in Coryat's Crudities, vol. ii. p. 74.


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