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English Synonyms and Antonyms - With Notes on the Correct Use of Prepositions
by James Champlin Fernald
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LOOK.

Synonyms:

behold, discern, inspect, see, view, contemplate, gaze, regard, stare, watch. descry, glance, scan, survey,

To see is simply to become conscious of an object of vision; to look is to make a conscious and direct endeavor to see. To behold is to fix the sight and the mind with distinctness and consideration upon something that has come to be clearly before the eyes. We may look without seeing, as in pitch-darkness, and we may see without looking, as in case of a flash of lightning. To gaze is to look intently, long, and steadily upon an object. To glance is to look casually or momentarily. To stare is to look with a fixed intensity such as is the effect of surprise, alarm, or rudeness. To scan is to look at minutely, to note every visible feature. To inspect is to go below the surface, uncover, study item by item. View and survey are comprehensive, survey expressing the greater exactness of measurement or estimate. Watch brings in the element of time and often of wariness; we watch for a movement or change, a signal, the approach of an enemy, etc. Compare APPEAR.

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LOVE.

Synonyms:

affection, charity, friendship, regard, attachment, devotion, liking, tenderness. attraction, fondness,

Affection is kindly feeling, deep, tender, and constant, going out to some person or object, being less fervent and ardent than love, whether applied to persons or things. Love is an intense and absorbing emotion, drawing one toward a person or object and causing one to appreciate, delight in, and crave the presence or possession of the person or object loved, and to desire to please and benefit the person, or to advance the cause, truth, or other object of affection; it is the yearning or outgoing of soul toward something that is regarded as excellent, beautiful, or desirable; love may be briefly defined as strong and absorbing affection for and attraction toward a person or object. Love may denote the sublimest and holiest spiritual affection as when we are taught that "God is love." Charity has so far swung aside from this original meaning that probably it never can be recalled (compare BENEVOLENCE). The Revised Version uses love in place of charity in 1 Cor. xiii, and elsewhere. Love is more intense, absorbing, and tender than friendship, more intense, impulsive, and perhaps passionate than affection; we speak of fervent love, but of deep or tender affection, or of close, firm, strong friendship. Love is used specifically for personal affection between the sexes in the highest sense, the love that normally leads to marriage, and subsists throughout all happy wedded life. Love can never properly denote mere animal passion, which is expressed by such words as appetite, desire, lust. One may properly be said to have love for animals, for inanimate objects, or for abstract qualities that enlist the affections, as we speak of love for a horse or a dog, for mountains, woods, ocean, or of love of nature, and love of virtue. Love of articles of food is better expressed by liking, as love, in its full sense, expresses something spiritual and reciprocal, such as can have no place in connection with objects that minister merely to the senses. Compare ATTACHMENT; FRIENDSHIP.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for ANTIPATHY; ENMITY; HATRED.

Prepositions:

Love of country; for humanity; love to God and man.

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MAKE.

Synonyms:

become, constrain, fabricate, manufacture, bring about, construct, fashion, occasion, bring into being, create, force, perform, bring to pass, do, frame, reach, cause, effect, get, render, compel, establish, make out, require, compose, execute, make up, shape. constitute,

Make is essentially causative; to the idea of cause all its various senses may be traced (compare synonyms for CAUSE). To make is to cause to exist, or to cause to exist in a certain form or in certain relations; the word thus includes the idea of create, as in Gen. i, 31, "And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good." Make includes also the idea of compose, constitute; as, the parts make up the whole. Similarly, to cause a voluntary agent to do a certain act is to make him do it, or compel him to do it, compel fixing the attention more on the process, make on the accomplished fact. Compare COMPEL; DO; INFLUENCE; (make better) AMEND; (make haste) QUICKEN; (make known) ANNOUNCE; AVOW; CONFESS; (make prisoner) ARREST; (make up) ADD; (make void) CANCEL.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for ABOLISH; BREAK; DEMOLISH.

Prepositions:

Make of, out of, or from certain materials, into a certain form, for a certain purpose or person; made with hands, by hand; made by a prisoner, with a jack-knife.

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MARRIAGE.

Synonyms:

conjugal union, espousals, nuptials, spousals, wedding, espousal, matrimony, spousal, union, wedlock.

Matrimony denotes the state of those who are united in the relation of husband and wife; marriage denotes primarily the act of so uniting, but is extensively used for the state as well. Wedlock, a word of specific legal use, is the Saxon term for the state or relation denoted by matrimony. Wedding denotes the ceremony, with any attendant festivities, by which two persons are united as husband and wife, nuptials being the more formal and stately term to express the same idea.

Antonyms:

bachelorhood, celibacy, divorce, maidenhood, virginity, widowhood.

Prepositions:

Marriage of or between two persons; of one person to or with another; among the Greeks.

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MASCULINE.

Synonyms:

male, manful, manlike, manly, mannish, virile.

We apply male to the sex, masculine to the qualities, especially to the stronger, hardier, and more imperious qualities that distinguish the male sex; as applied to women, masculine has often the depreciatory sense of unwomanly, rude, or harsh; as, a masculine face or voice, or the like; tho one may say in a commendatory way, she acted with masculine courage or decision. Manlike may mean only having the outward appearance or semblance of a man, or may be closely equivalent to manly. Manly refers to all the qualities and traits worthy of a man; manful, especially to the valor and prowess that become a man; we speak of a manful struggle, manly decision; we say manly gentleness or tenderness; we could not say manful tenderness. Mannish is a depreciatory word referring to the mimicry or parade of some superficial qualities of manhood; as, a mannish boy or woman. Masculine may apply to the distinctive qualities of the male sex at any age; virile applies to the distinctive qualities of mature manhood only, as opposed not only to feminine or womanly but to childish, and is thus an emphatic word for sturdy, intrepid, etc.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for FEMININE.

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MASSACRE.

Synonyms:

butchery, carnage, havoc, slaughter.

A massacre is the indiscriminate killing in numbers of the unresisting or defenseless; butchery is the killing of men rudely and ruthlessly as cattle are killed in the shambles. Havoc may not be so complete as massacre, nor so coldly brutal as butchery, but is more widely spread and furious; it is destruction let loose, and may be applied to organizations, interests, etc., as well as to human life; "as for Saul, he made havoc of the church," Acts viii, 3. Carnage (Latin caro, carnis, flesh) refers to widely scattered or heaped up corpses of the slain; slaughter is similar in meaning, but refers more to the process, as carnage does to the result; these two words only of the group may be used of great destruction of life in open and honorable battle, as when we say the enemy was repulsed with great slaughter, or the carnage was terrible.

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MEDDLESOME.

Synonyms:

impertinent, intrusive, meddling, obtrusive, officious.

The meddlesome person interferes unasked in the affairs of others; the intrusive person thrusts himself uninvited into their company or conversation; the obtrusive person thrusts himself or his opinions conceitedly and undesirably upon their notice; the officious person thrusts his services, unasked and undesired, upon others. Obtrusive is oftener applied to words, qualities, actions, etc., than to persons; intrusive is used chiefly of persons, as is officious, tho we speak of officious attentions, intrusive remarks; meddlesome is used indifferently of persons, or of words, qualities, actions, etc. Compare INQUISITIVE; INTERPOSE.

Antonyms:

modest, reserved, retiring, shy, unassuming, unobtrusive.

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MELODY.

Synonyms:

harmony, music, symphony, unison.

Harmony is simultaneous; melody is successive; harmony is the pleasing correspondence of two or more notes sounded at once, melody the pleasing succession of a number of notes continuously following one another. A melody may be wholly in one part; harmony must be of two or more parts. Accordant notes of different pitch sounded simultaneously produce harmony; unison is the simultaneous sounding of two or more notes of the same pitch. When the pitch is the same, there may be unison between sounds of very different volume and quality, as a voice and a bell may sound in unison. Tones sounded at the interval of an octave are also said to be in unison, altho this is not literally exact; this usage arises from the fact that bass and tenor voices in attempting to sound the same note as the soprano and alto will in fact sound a note an octave below. Music may denote the simplest melody or the most complex and perfect harmony. A symphony (apart from its technical orchestral sense) is any pleasing consonance of musical sounds, vocal or instrumental, as of many accordant voices or instruments.

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MEMORY.

Synonyms:

recollection, reminiscence, retrospect, retrospection. remembrance,

Memory is the faculty by which knowledge is retained or recalled; in a more general sense, memory is a retention of knowledge within the grasp of the mind, while remembrance is the having what is known consciously before the mind. Remembrance may be voluntary or involuntary; a thing is brought to remembrance or we call it to remembrance; the same is true of memory. Recollection involves volition, the mind making a distinct effort to recall something, or fixing the attention actively upon it when recalled. Reminiscence is a half-dreamy memory of scenes or events long past; retrospection is a distinct turning of the mind back upon the past, bringing long periods under survey. Retrospection is to reminiscence much what recollection is to remembrance.

Antonyms:

forgetfulness, oblivion, obliviousness, oversight, unconsciousness.

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MERCY.

Synonyms:

benevolence, favor, kindness, mildness, benignity, forbearance, lenience, pardon, blessing, forgiveness, leniency, pity, clemency, gentleness, lenity, tenderness. compassion, grace,

Mercy is the exercise of less severity than one deserves, or in a more extended sense, the granting of kindness or favor beyond what one may rightly claim. Grace is favor, kindness, or blessing shown to the undeserving; forgiveness, mercy, and pardon are exercised toward the ill-deserving. Pardon remits the outward penalty which the offender deserves; forgiveness dismisses resentment or displeasure from the heart of the one offended; mercy seeks the highest possible good of the offender. There may be mercy without pardon, as in the mitigation of sentence, or in all possible alleviation of necessary severity; there may be cases where pardon would not be mercy, since it would encourage to repetition of the offense, from which timely punishment might have saved. Mercy is also used in the wider sense of refraining from harshness or cruelty toward those who are in one's power without fault of their own; as, they besought the robber to have mercy. Clemency is a colder word than mercy, and without its religious associations, signifying mildness and moderation in the use of power where severity would have legal or military, rather than moral sanction; it often denotes a habitual mildness of disposition on the part of the powerful, and is matter rather of good nature or policy than of principle. Leniency or lenity denotes an easy-going avoidance of severity; these words are more general and less magisterial than clemency; we should speak of the leniency of a parent, the clemency of a conqueror. Compare PITY.

Antonyms:

cruelty, implacability, punishment, rigor, sternness, hardness, justice, revenge, severity, vengeance. harshness, penalty,

Prepositions:

The mercy of God to or toward sinners; have mercy on or upon one.

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METER.

Synonyms:

euphony, measure, rhythm, verse.

Euphony is agreeable linguistic sound, however produced; meter, measure, and rhythm denote agreeable succession of sounds in the utterance of connected words; euphony may apply to a single word or even a single syllable; the other words apply to lines, sentences, paragraphs, etc.; rhythm and meter may be produced by accent only, as in English, or by accent and quantity combined, as in Greek or Italian; rhythm or measure may apply either to prose or to poetry, or to music, dancing, etc.; meter is more precise than rhythm, applies only to poetry, and denotes a measured rhythm with regular divisions into verses, stanzas, strophes, etc. A verse is strictly a metrical line, but the word is often used as synonymous with stanza. Verse, in the general sense, denotes metrical writing without reference to the thought involved; as, prose and verse. Compare MELODY; POETRY.

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MIND.

Synonyms:

brain, instinct, reason, spirit, consciousness, intellect, sense, thought, disposition, intelligence, soul, understanding.

Mind, in a general sense, includes all the powers of sentient being apart from the physical factors in bodily faculties and activities; in a limited sense, mind is nearly synonymous with intellect, but includes disposition, or the tendency toward action, as appears in the phrase "to have a mind to work." As the seat of mental activity, brain (colloquially brains) is often used as a synonym for mind, intellect, intelligence. Thought, the act, process, or power of thinking, is often used to denote the thinking faculty, and especially the reason. The instinct of animals is now held by many philosophers to be of the same nature as the intellect of man, but inferior and limited; yet the apparent difference is very great.

An instinct is a propensity prior to experience and independent of instruction.

PALEY Natural Philosophy ch. 18.

In this sense we speak of human instincts, thus denoting tendencies independent of reasoning or instruction. The soul includes the intellect, sensibilities, and will; beyond what is expressed by the word mind, the soul denotes especially the moral, the immortal nature; we say of a dead body, the soul (not the mind) has fled. Spirit is used especially in contradistinction from matter; it may in many cases be substituted for soul, but soul has commonly a fuller and more determinate meaning; we can conceive of spirits as having no moral nature; the fairies, elves, and brownies of mythology might be termed spirits, but not souls. In the figurative sense, spirit denotes animation, excitability, perhaps impatience; as, a lad of spirit; he sang with spirit; he replied with spirit. Soul denotes energy and depth of feeling, as when we speak of soulful eyes; or it may denote the very life of anything; as, "the hidden soul of harmony," MILTON L'Allegro l. 144. Sense may be an antonym of intellect, as when we speak of the sense of hearing; but sense is used also as denoting clear mental action, good judgment, acumen; as, he is a man of sense, or, he showed good sense; sense, even in its material signification, must be reckoned among the activities of mind, tho dependent on bodily functions; the mind, not the eye, really sees; the mind, not the ear, really hears. Consciousness includes all that a sentient being perceives, knows, thinks, or feels, from whatever source arising and of whatever character, kind, or degree, whether with or without distinct thinking, feeling, or willing; we speak of the consciousness of the brute, of the savage, or of the sage. The intellect is that assemblage of faculties which is concerned with knowledge, as distinguished from emotion and volition. Understanding is the Saxon word of the same general import, but is chiefly used of the reasoning powers; the understanding, which Sir Wm. Hamilton has called "the faculty of relations and comparisons," is distinguished by many philosophers from reason in that "reason is the faculty of the higher cognitions or a priori truth."

Antonyms:

body, brawn, brute force, material substance, matter.

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MINUTE.

Synonyms:

circumstantial, diminutive, little, slender, comminuted, exact, particular, small, critical, fine, precise, tiny. detailed,

That is minute which is of exceedingly limited dimensions, as a grain of dust, or which attends to matters of exceedingly slight amount or apparent importance; as, a minute account; minute observation. That which is broken up into minute particles is said to be comminuted; things may be termed fine which would not be termed comminuted; as, fine sand; fine gravel; but, in using the adverb, we say a substance is finely comminuted, comminuted referring more to the process, fine to the result. An account extended to very minute particulars is circumstantial, detailed, particular; an examination so extended is critical, exact, precise. Compare FINE.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for LARGE.

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MISFORTUNE.

Synonyms:

adversity, disappointment, ill fortune, ruin, affliction, disaster, ill luck, sorrow, bereavement, distress, misadventure, stroke, blow, failure, mischance, trial, calamity, hardship, misery, tribulation, chastening, harm, mishap, trouble, chastisement, ill, reverse, visitation.

Misfortune is adverse fortune or any instance thereof, any untoward event, usually of lingering character or consequences, and such as the sufferer is not deemed directly responsible for; as, he had the misfortune to be born blind. Any considerable disappointment, failure, or misfortune, as regards outward circumstances, as loss of fortune, position, and the like, when long continued or attended with enduring consequences, constitutes adversity. For the loss of friends by death we commonly use affliction or bereavement. Calamity and disaster are used of sudden and severe misfortunes, often overwhelming; ill fortune and ill luck, of lighter troubles and failures. We speak of the misery of the poor, the hardships of the soldier. Affliction, chastening, trial, and tribulation have all an especially religious bearing, suggesting some disciplinary purpose of God with beneficent design. Affliction may be keen and bitter, but brief; tribulation is long and wearing. We speak of an affliction, but rarely of a tribulation, since tribulation is viewed as a continuous process, which may endure for years or for a lifetime; but we speak of our daily trials. Compare CATASTROPHE.

Antonyms:

blessing, consolation, gratification, pleasure, success, boon, good fortune, happiness, prosperity, triumph. comfort, good luck, joy, relief,

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MOB.

Synonyms:

canaille, dregs of the people, masses, rabble, crowd, lower classes, populace, the vulgar.

The populace are poor and ignorant, but may be law-abiding; a mob is disorderly and lawless, but may be rich and influential. The rabble is despicable, worthless, purposeless; a mob may have effective desperate purpose. A crowd may be drawn by mere curiosity; some strong, pervading excitement is needed to make it a mob. Compare PEOPLE.

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MODEL.

Synonyms:

archetype, facsimile, original, representation, copy, image, pattern, standard, design, imitation, prototype, type. example, mold,

A pattern is always, in modern use, that which is to be copied; a model may be either the thing to be copied or the copy that has been made from it; as, the models in the Patent Office. A pattern is commonly superficial; a model is usually in relief. A pattern must be closely followed in its minutest particulars by a faithful copyist; a model may allow a great degree of freedom. A sculptor may idealize his living model; his workmen must exactly copy in marble or metal the model he has made in clay. Compare EXAMPLE; IDEA; IDEAL.

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MODESTY.

Synonyms:

backwardness, constraint, reserve, timidity, bashfulness, coyness, shyness, unobtrusiveness. coldness, diffidence,

Bashfulness is a shrinking from notice without assignable reason. Coyness is a half encouragement, half avoidance of offered attention, and may be real or affected. Diffidence is self-distrust; modesty, a humble estimate of oneself in comparison with others, or with the demands of some undertaking. Modesty has also the specific meaning of a sensitive shrinking from anything indelicate. Shyness is a tendency to shrink from observation; timidity, a distinct fear of criticism, error, or failure. Reserve is the holding oneself aloof from others, or holding back one's feelings from expression, or one's affairs from communication to others. Reserve may be the retreat of shyness, or, on the other hand, the contemptuous withdrawal of pride and haughtiness. Compare ABASH; PRIDE; TACITURN.

Antonyms:

abandon, confidence, haughtiness, pertness, arrogance, egotism, impudence, sauciness, assumption, forwardness, indiscretion, self-conceit, assurance, frankness, loquaciousness, self-sufficiency, boldness, freedom, loquacity, sociability. conceit,

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MONEY.

Synonyms:

bills, cash, funds, property, bullion, coin, gold, silver, capital, currency, notes, specie.

Money is the authorized medium of exchange; coined money is called coin or specie. What are termed in England bank-notes are in the United States commonly called bills; as, a five-dollar bill. The notes of responsible men are readily transferable in commercial circles, but they are not money; as, the stock was sold for $500 in money and the balance in merchantable paper. Cash is specie or money in hand, or paid in hand; as, the cash account; the cash price. In the legal sense, property is not money, and money is not property; for property is that which has inherent value, while money, as such, has but representative value, and may or may not have intrinsic value. Bullion is either gold or silver uncoined, or the coined metal considered without reference to its coinage, but simply as merchandise, when its value as bullion may be very different from its value as money. The word capital is used chiefly of accumulated property or money invested in productive enterprises or available for such investment.

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MOROSE.

Synonyms:

acrimonious, dogged, ill-natured, splenetic, churlish, gloomy, severe, sulky, crabbed, gruff, snappish, sullen, crusty, ill-humored, sour, surly.

The sullen and sulky are discontented and resentful in regard to that against which they are too proud to protest, or consider all protest vain; sullen denotes more of pride, sulky more of resentful obstinacy. The morose are bitterly dissatisfied with the world in general, and disposed to vent their ill nature upon others. The sullen and sulky are for the most part silent; the morose growl out bitter speeches. A surly person is in a state of latent anger, resenting approach as intrusion, and ready to take offense at anything; thus we speak of a surly dog. Sullen and sulky moods may be transitory; one who is morose or surly is commonly so by disposition or habit.

Antonyms:

amiable, complaisant, gentle, kind, pleasant, benignant, friendly, good-natured, loving, sympathetic, bland, genial, indulgent, mild, tender.

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MOTION.

Synonyms:

act, change, movement, process, transition. action, move, passage, transit,

Motion is change of place or position in space; transition is a passing from one point or position in space to another. Motion may be either abstract or concrete, more frequently the former; movement is always concrete, that is, considered in connection with the thing that moves or is moved; thus, we speak of the movements of the planets, but of the laws of planetary motion; of military movements, but of perpetual motion. Move is used chiefly of contests or competition, as in chess or politics; as, it is your move; a shrewd move of the opposition. Action is a more comprehensive word than motion. We now rarely speak of mental or spiritual motions, but rather of mental or spiritual acts or processes, or of the laws of mental action, but a formal proposal of action in a deliberative assembly is termed a motion. Compare ACT.

Antonyms:

immobility, quiescence, quiet, repose, rest, stillness.

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MOURN.

Synonyms:

bemoan, deplore, lament, regret, rue, sorrow. bewail, grieve,

To mourn is to feel or express sadness or distress because of some loss, affliction, or misfortune; mourning is thought of as prolonged, grief or regret may be transient. One may grieve or mourn, regret, rue, or sorrow without a sound; he bemoans with suppressed and often inarticulate sounds of grief; he bewails with passionate utterance, whether of inarticulate cries or of spoken words. He laments in plaintive or pathetic words, as the prophet Jeremiah in his "Lamentations." One deplores with settled sorrow which may or may not find relief in words. One is made to rue an act by some misfortune resulting, or by some penalty or vengeance inflicted because of it. One regrets a slight misfortune or a hasty word; he sorrows over the death of a friend.

Antonyms:

be joyful, exult, joy, make merry, rejoice, triumph.

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MUTUAL.

Synonyms:

common, correlative, interchangeable, joint, reciprocal.

That is common to which two or more persons have the same or equal claims, or in which they have equal interest or participation; in the strictest sense, that is mutual (Latin mutare, to change) which is freely interchanged; that is reciprocal in respect to which one act or movement is met by a corresponding act or movement in return; we speak of our common country, mutual affection, reciprocal obligations, the reciprocal action of cause and effect, where the effect becomes in turn a cause. Many good writers hold it incorrect to say "a mutual friend," and insist that "a common friend" would be more accurate; but "common friend" is practically never used, because of the disagreeable suggestion that attaches to common, of ordinary or inferior. "Mutual friend" has high literary authority (of Burke, Scott, Dickens, and others), and a considerable usage of good society in its favor, the expression being quite naturally derived from the thoroughly correct phrase mutual friendship.

Antonyms:

detached, distinct, separated, unconnected, unrequited, disconnected, disunited, severed, unreciprocated, unshared. dissociated, separate, sundered,

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MYSTERIOUS.

Synonyms:

abstruse, inexplicable, recondite, cabalistic, inscrutable, secret, dark, mystic, transcendental, enigmatical, mystical, unfathomable, hidden, obscure, unfathomed, incomprehensible, occult, unknown.

That is mysterious in the true sense which is beyond human comprehension, as the decrees of God or the origin of life. That is mystic or mystical which has associated with it some hidden or recondite meaning, especially of a religious kind; as, the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse. That is dark which we can not personally see through, especially if sadly perplexing; as, a dark providence. That is secret which is intentionally hidden. Compare DARK.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for CLEAR.

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NAME.

Synonyms:

agnomen, denomination, prenomen, surname, appellation, designation, style, title. cognomen, epithet,

Name in the most general sense, signifying the word by which a person or thing is called or known, includes all other words of this group; in this sense every noun is a name; in the more limited sense a name is personal, an appellation is descriptive, a title is official. In the phrase William the Conqueror, King of England, William is the man's name, which belongs to him personally, independently of any rank or achievement; Conqueror is the appellation which he won by his acquisition of England; King is the title denoting his royal rank. An epithet (Gr. epitheton, something added, from epi, on, and tithemi, put) is something placed upon a person or thing; the epithet does not strictly belong to an object like a name, but is given to mark some assumed characteristic, good or bad; an epithet is always an adjective, or a word or phrase used as an adjective, and is properly used to emphasize a characteristic but not to add information, as in the phrase "the sounding sea;" the idea that an epithet is always opprobrious, and that any word used opprobriously is an epithet is a popular error. Designation may be used much in the sense of appellation, but is more distinctive or specific in meaning; a designation properly so called rests upon some inherent quality, while an appellation may be fanciful. Among the Romans the prenomen was the individual part of a man's name, the "nomen" designated the gens to which he belonged, the cognomen showed his family and was borne by all patricians, and the agnomen was added to refer to his achievements or character. When scientists name an animal or a plant, they give it a binary or binomial technical name comprising a generic and a specific appellation. In modern use, a personal name, as John or Mary, is given in infancy, and is often called the given name or Christian name, or simply the first name (rarely the prenomen); the cognomen or surname is the family name which belongs to one by right of birth or marriage. Style is the legal designation by which a person or house is known in official or business relations; as, the name and style of Baring Brothers. The term denomination is applied to a separate religious organization, without the opprobrious meaning attaching to the word "sect;" also, to designate any class of like objects collectively, especially money or notes of a certain value; as, the sum was in notes of the denomination of one thousand dollars. Compare TERM.

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NATIVE.

Synonyms:

indigenous, innate, natal, natural, original.

Native denotes that which belongs to one by birth; natal that which pertains to the event of birth; natural denotes that which rests upon inherent qualities of character or being. We speak of one's native country, or of his natal day; of natural ability, native genius. Compare INHERENT; PRIMEVAL; RADICAL.

Antonyms:

acquired, alien, artificial, assumed, foreign, unnatural.

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NAUTICAL.

Synonyms:

marine, maritime, naval, ocean, oceanic.

Marine (L. mare, sea) signifies belonging to the ocean, maritime, a secondary derivative from the same root, bordering on or connected with the ocean; as, marine products; marine animals; maritime nations; maritime laws. Nautical (Gr. nautes, a sailor) denotes primarily anything connected with sailors, and hence with ships or navigation; naval (L. navis, Gr. naus, a ship) refers to the armed force of a nation on the sea, and, by extension, to similar forces on lakes and rivers; as, a naval force; a nautical almanac. Ocean, used adjectively, is applied to that which belongs to or is part of the ocean; oceanic may be used in the same sense, but is especially applied to that which borders on (or upon) or is connected with, or which is similar to or suggestive of an ocean; we speak of ocean currents, oceanic islands, or, perhaps, of an oceanic intellect.

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NEAT.

Synonyms:

clean, dapper, nice, prim, tidy, cleanly, natty, orderly, spruce, trim.

That which is clean is simply free from soil or defilement of any kind. Things are orderly when in due relation to other things; a room or desk is orderly when every article is in place; a person is orderly who habitually keeps things so. Tidy denotes that which conforms to propriety in general; an unlaced shoe may be perfectly clean, but is not tidy. Neat refers to that which is clean and tidy with nothing superfluous, conspicuous, or showy, as when we speak of plain but neat attire; the same idea of freedom from the superfluous appears in the phrases "a neat speech," "a neat turn," "a neat reply," etc. A clean cut has no ragged edges; a neat stroke just does what is intended. Nice is stronger than neat, implying value and beauty; a cheap, coarse dress may be perfectly neat, but would not be termed nice. Spruce is applied to the show and affectation of neatness with a touch of smartness, and is always a term of mild contempt; as, a spruce serving man. Trim denotes a certain shapely and elegant firmness, often with suppleness and grace; as, a trim suit; a trim figure. Prim applies to a precise, formal, affected nicety. Dapper is spruce with the suggestion of smallness and slightness; natty, a diminutive of neat, suggests minute elegance, with a tendency toward the exquisite; as, a dapper little fellow in a natty business suit.

Antonyms:

dirty, negligent, slouchy, uncared for, disorderly, rough, slovenly, unkempt, dowdy, rude, soiled, untidy.

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NECESSARY.

Synonyms:

essential, infallible, required, unavoidable, indispensable, needed, requisite, undeniable. inevitable, needful,

That is necessary which must exist, occur, or be true; which in the nature of things can not be otherwise. That which is essential belongs to the essence of a thing, so that the thing can not exist in its completeness without it; that which is indispensable may be only an adjunct, but it is one that can not be spared; vigorous health is essential to an arctic explorer; warm clothing is indispensable. That which is requisite (or required) is so in the judgment of the person requiring it, but may not be so absolutely; thus, the requisite is more a matter of personal feeling than the indispensable. Inevitable (L. in, not, and evito, shun) is primarily the exact equivalent of the Saxon unavoidable; both words are applied to things which some at least would escape or prevent, while that which is necessary may meet with no objection; food is necessary, death is inevitable; a necessary conclusion satisfies a thinker; an inevitable conclusion silences opposition. An infallible proof is one that necessarily leads the mind to a sound conclusion. Needed and needful are more concrete than necessary, and respect an end to be attained; we speak of a necessary inference; necessary food is what one can not live without, while needful food is that without which he can not enjoy comfort, health, and strength.

Antonyms:

casual, needless, optional, useless, contingent, non-essential, unnecessary, worthless.

Prepositions:

Necessary to a sequence or a total; for or to a result or a person; unity is necessary to (to constitute) completeness; decision is necessary for command, or for a commander.

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NECESSITY.

Synonyms:

compulsion, fatality, requisite, destiny, fate, sine qua non, emergency, indispensability, unavoidableness, essential, indispensableness, urgency, exigency, need, want. extremity, requirement,

Necessity is the quality of being necessary, or the quality of that which can not but be, become, or be true, or be accepted as true. Need and want always imply a lack; necessity may be used in this sense, but in the higher philosophical sense necessity simply denotes the exclusion of any alternative either in thought or fact; righteousness is a necessity (not a need) of the divine nature. Need suggests the possibility of supplying the deficiency which want expresses; to speak of a person's want of decision merely points out a weakness in his character; to say that he has need of decision implies that he can exercise or attain it. As applied to a deficiency, necessity is more imperative than need; a weary person is in need of rest; when rest becomes a necessity he has no choice but to stop work. An essential is something, as a quality, or element, that belongs to the essence of something else so as to be inseparable from it in its normal condition, or in any complete idea or statement of it. Compare NECESSARY; PREDESTINATION.

Antonyms:

choice, doubt, dubiousness, freedom, possibility, contingency, doubtfulness, fortuity, option, uncertainty.

Prepositions:

The necessity of surrender; a necessity for action; this is a necessity to me.

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NEGLECT.

Synonyms:

carelessness, heedlessness, negligence, scorn, default, inadvertence, omission, slackness, disregard, inattention, oversight, slight, disrespect, indifference, remissness, thoughtlessness. failure, neglectfulness,

Neglect (L. nec, not, and lego, gather) is the failing to take such care, show such attention, pay such courtesy, etc., as may be rightfully or reasonably expected. Negligence, which is the same in origin, may be used in almost the same sense, but with a slighter force, as when Whittier speaks of "the negligence which friendship loves;" but negligence is often used to denote the quality or trait of character of which the act is a manifestation, or to denote the habit of neglecting that which ought to be done. Neglect is transitive, negligence is intransitive; we speak of neglect of his books, friends, or duties, in which cases we could not use negligence; negligence in dress implies want of care as to its arrangement, tidiness, etc.; neglect of one's garments would imply leaving them exposed to defacement or injury, as by dust, moths, etc. Neglect has a passive sense which negligence has not; the child was suffering from neglect, i. e., from being neglected by others; the child was suffering from negligence would imply that he himself was neglectful. The distinction sometimes made that neglect denotes the act, and negligence the habit, is but partially true; one may be guilty of habitual neglect of duty; the wife may suffer from her husband's constant neglect, while the negligence which causes a railroad accident may be that of a moment, and on the part of one ordinarily careful and attentive; in such cases the law provides punishment for criminal negligence.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for CARE.

Prepositions:

Neglect of duty, of the child by the parent; there was neglect on the part of the teacher.

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NEW.

Synonyms:

fresh, modern, new-made, upstart, juvenile, new-fangled, novel, young, late, new-fashioned, recent, youthful.

That which is new has lately come into existence, possession, or use; a new house is just built, or in a more general sense is one that has just come into the possession of the present owner or occupant. Modern denotes that which has begun to exist in the present age, and is still existing; recent denotes that which has come into existence within a comparatively brief period, and may or may not be existing still. Modern history pertains to any period since the middle ages; modern literature, modern architecture, etc., are not strikingly remote from the styles and types prevalent to-day. That which is late is somewhat removed from the present, but not far enough to be called old. That which is recent is not quite so sharply distinguished from the past as that which is new; recent publications range over a longer time than new books. That which is novel is either absolutely or relatively unprecedented in kind; a novel contrivance is one that has never before been known; a novel experience is one that has never before occurred to the same person; that which is new may be of a familiar or even of an ancient sort, as a new copy of an old book. Young and youthful are applied to that which has life; that which is young is possessed of a comparatively new existence as a living thing, possessing actual youth; that which is youthful manifests the attributes of youth. (Compare YOUTHFUL.) Fresh applies to that which has the characteristics of newness or youth, while capable of deterioration by lapse of time; that which is unworn, unspoiled, or unfaded; as, a fresh countenance, fresh eggs, fresh flowers. New is opposed to old, modern to ancient, recent to remote, young to old, aged, etc.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for OLD.

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NIMBLE.

Synonyms:

active, alert, bustling, prompt, speedy, spry, agile, brisk, lively, quick, sprightly, swift.

Nimble refers to lightness, freedom, and quickness of motion within a somewhat narrow range, with readiness to turn suddenly to any point; swift applies commonly to more sustained motion over greater distances; a pickpocket is nimble-fingered, a dancer nimble-footed; an arrow, a race-horse, or an ocean steamer is swift; Shakespeare's "nimble lightnings" is said of the visual appearance in sudden zigzag flash across the sky. Figuratively, we speak of nimble wit, swift intelligence, swift destruction. Alert, which is strictly a synonym for ready, comes sometimes near the meaning of nimble or quick, from the fact that the ready, wide-awake person is likely to be lively, quick, speedy. Compare ACTIVE; ALERT.

Antonyms:

clumsy, dull, heavy, inactive, inert, slow, sluggish, unready. dilatory,

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NORMAL.

Synonyms:

common, natural, ordinary, regular, typical, usual.

That which is natural is according to nature; that which is normal is according to the standard or rule which is observed or claimed to prevail in nature; a deformity may be natural, symmetry is normal; the normal color of the crow is black, while the normal color of the sparrow is gray, but one is as natural as the other. Typical refers to such an assemblage of qualities as makes the specimen, genus, etc., a type of some more comprehensive group, while normal is more commonly applied to the parts of a single object; the specimen was typical; color, size, and other characteristics, normal. The regular is etymologically that which is according to rule, hence that which is steady and constant, as opposed to that which is fitful and changeable; the normal action of the heart is regular. That which is common is shared by a great number of persons or things; disease is common, a normal state of health is rare. Compare GENERAL; USUAL.

Antonyms:

abnormal, irregular, peculiar, singular, unprecedented, exceptional, monstrous, rare, uncommon, unusual.

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NOTWITHSTANDING, conj.

Synonyms:

altho(ugh), howbeit, nevertheless, tho(ugh), but, however, still, yet.

However simply waives discussion, and (like the archaic howbeit) says "be that as it may, this is true;" nevertheless concedes the truth of what precedes, but claims that what follows is none the less true; notwithstanding marshals the two statements face to face, admits the one and its seeming contradiction to the other, while insisting that it can not, after all, withstand the other; as, notwithstanding the force of the enemy is superior, we shall conquer. Yet and still are weaker than notwithstanding, while stronger than but. Tho and altho make as little as possible of the concession, dropping it, as it were, incidentally; as, "tho we are guilty, thou art good;" to say "we are guilty, but thou art good," would make the concession of guilt more emphatic. Compare BUT; YET.

* * * * *

NOTWITHSTANDING, prep.

Synonyms:

despite, in spite of.

Notwithstanding simply states that circumstances shall not be or have not been allowed to withstand; despite and in spite of refer primarily to personal and perhaps spiteful opposition; as, he failed notwithstanding his good intentions; or, he persevered in spite of the most bitter hostility. When despite and in spite of are applied to inanimate things, it is with something of personification; "in spite of the storm" is said as if the storm had a hostile purpose to oppose the undertaking.

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OATH.

Synonyms:

adjuration, curse, profane swearing, affidavit, cursing, profanity, anathema, denunciation, reprobation, ban, execration, swearing, blaspheming, imprecation, sworn statement. blasphemy, malediction, vow.

In the highest sense, as in a court of justice, "an oath is a reverent appeal to God in corroboration of what one says," ABBOTT Law Dict.; an affidavit is a sworn statement made in writing in the presence of a competent officer; an adjuration is a solemn appeal to a person in the name of God to speak the truth. An oath is made to man in the name of God; a vow, to God without the intervention, often without the knowledge, of man. In the lower sense, an oath may be mere blasphemy or profane swearing. Anathema, curse, execration, and imprecation are modes of invoking vengeance or retribution from a superhuman power upon the person against whom they are uttered. Anathema is a solemn ecclesiastical condemnation of a person or of a proposition. Curse may be just and authoritative; as, the curse of God; or, it may be wanton and powerless: "so the curse causeless shall not come," Prov. xxvi, 2. Execration expresses most of personal bitterness and hatred; imprecation refers especially to the coming of the desired evil upon the person against whom it is uttered. Malediction is a general wish of evil, a less usual but very expressive word. Compare TESTIMONY.

Antonyms:

benediction, benison, blessing.

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OBSCURE.

Synonyms:

abstruse, darksome, dusky, involved, ambiguous, deep, enigmatical, muddy, cloudy, dense, hidden, mysterious, complex, difficult, incomprehensible, profound, complicated, dim, indistinct, turbid, dark, doubtful, intricate, unintelligible.

That is obscure which the eye or the mind can not clearly discern or see through, whether because of its own want of transparency, its depth or intricacy, or because of mere defect of light. That which is complicated is likely to be obscure, but that may be obscure which is not at all complicated and scarcely complex, as a muddy pool. In that which is abstruse (L. abs, from, and trudo, push) as if removed from the usual course of thought or out of the way of apprehension or discovery, the thought is remote, hidden; in that which is obscure there may be nothing to hide; it is hard to see to the bottom of the profound, because of its depth, but the most shallow turbidness is obscure. Compare COMPLEX; DARK; DIFFICULT; MYSTERIOUS.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for CLEAR.

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OBSOLETE.

Synonyms:

ancient, archaic, obsolescent, out of date, antiquated, disused, old, rare.

Some of the oldest or most ancient words are not obsolete, as father, mother, etc. A word is obsolete which has quite gone out of reputable use; a word is archaic which is falling out of reputable use, or, on the other hand, having been obsolete, is taken up tentatively by writers or speakers of influence, so that it may perhaps regain its position as a living word; a word is rare if there are few present instances of its reputable use. Compare OLD.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for NEW.

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OBSTINATE.

Synonyms:

contumacious, headstrong, mulish, resolute, decided, heady, obdurate, resolved, determined, immovable, opinionated, stubborn, dogged, indomitable, persistent, unconquerable, firm, inflexible, pertinacious, unflinching, fixed, intractable, refractory, unyielding.

The headstrong person is not to be stopped in his own course of action, while the obstinate and stubborn is not to be driven to another's way. The headstrong act; the obstinate and stubborn may simply refuse to stir. The most amiable person may be obstinate on some one point; the stubborn person is for the most part habitually so; we speak of obstinate determination, stubborn resistance. Stubborn is the term most frequently applied to the lower animals and inanimate things. Refractory implies more activity of resistance; the stubborn horse balks; the refractory animal plunges, rears, and kicks; metals that resist ordinary processes of reduction are termed refractory. One is obdurate who adheres to his purpose in spite of appeals that would move any tender-hearted or right-minded person. Contumacious refers to a proud and insolent defiance of authority, as of the summons of a court. Pertinacious demand is contrasted with obstinate refusal. The unyielding conduct which we approve we call decided, firm, inflexible, resolute; that which we condemn we are apt to term headstrong, obstinate, stubborn. Compare PERVERSE.

Antonyms:

amenable, dutiful, pliable, tractable, complaisant, gentle, pliant, undecided, compliant, irresolute, submissive, wavering, docile, obedient, teachable, yielding.

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OBSTRUCT.

Synonyms:

arrest, check, embarrass, interrupt, stay, bar, choke, hinder, oppose, stop. barricade, clog, impede, retard,

To obstruct is literally to build up against; the road is obstructed by fallen trees; the passage of liquid through a tube is obstructed by solid deposits. We may hinder one's advance by following and clinging to him; we obstruct his course by standing in his way or putting a barrier across his path. Anything that makes one's progress slower, whether from within or from without, impedes; an obstruction is always from without. To arrest is to cause to stop suddenly; obstructing the way may have the effect of arresting progress. Compare HINDER; IMPEDIMENT.

Antonyms:

accelerate, aid, facilitate, free, open, promote. advance, clear, forward, further, pave the way for,

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OLD.

Synonyms:

aged, decrepit, immemorial, senile, ancient, elderly, olden, time-honored, antiquated, gray, patriarchal, time-worn, antique, hoary, remote, venerable.

That is termed old which has existed long, or which existed long ago. Ancient, from the Latin, through the French, is the more stately, old, from the Saxon, the more familiar word. Familiarity, on one side, is near to contempt; thus we say, an old coat, an old hat. On the other hand, familiarity is akin to tenderness, and thus old is a word of endearment; as, "the old homestead," the "old oaken bucket." "Tell me the old, old story!" has been sung feelingly by millions; "tell me that ancient story" would remove it out of all touch of human sympathy. Olden is a statelier form of old, and is applied almost exclusively to time, not to places, buildings, persons, etc. As regards periods of time, the familiar are also the near; thus, the old times are not too far away for familiar thought and reference; the olden times are more remote, ancient times still further removed. Gray, hoary, and moldering refer to outward and visible tokens of age. Aged applies chiefly to long-extended human life. Decrepit, gray, and hoary refer to the effects of age on the body exclusively; senile upon the mind also; as, a decrepit frame, senile garrulousness. One may be aged and neither decrepit nor senile. Elderly is applied to those who have passed middle life, but scarcely reached old age. Remote (L. re, back or away, and moveo, move), primarily refers to space, but is extended to that which is far off in time; as, at some remote period. Venerable expresses the involuntary reverence that we yield to the majestic and long-enduring, whether in the material world or in human life and character. Compare ANTIQUE; OBSOLETE; PRIMEVAL.

Antonyms:

Compare synonyms for NEW; YOUTHFUL.

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OPERATION.

Synonyms:

action, effect, force, performance, result. agency, execution, influence, procedure,

Operation is action considered with reference to the thing acted upon, and may apply to the action of an intelligent agent or of a material substance or force; as, the operation of a medicine. Performance and execution denote intelligent action, considered with reference to the actor or to that which he accomplishes; performance accomplishing the will of the actor, execution often the will of another; we speak of the performance of a duty, the execution of a sentence. Compare ACT.

Antonyms:

failure, ineffectiveness, inutility, powerlessness, uselessness. inaction, inefficiency,

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ORDER.

Synonyms:

command, injunction, mandate, requirement. direction, instruction, prohibition,

Instruction implies superiority of knowledge, direction of authority on the part of the giver; a teacher gives instructions to his pupils, an employer gives directions to his workmen. Order is still more authoritative than direction; soldiers, sailors, and railroad employees have simply to obey the orders of their superiors, without explanation or question; an order in the commercial sense has the authority of the money which the one ordering the goods pays or is to pay. Command is a loftier word, as well as highly authoritative, less frequent in common life; we speak of the commands of God, or sometimes, by polite hyperbole, ask of a friend, "Have you any commands for me?" A requirement is imperative, but not always formal, nor made by a personal agent; it may be in the nature of things; as, the requirements of the position. Prohibition is wholly negative; it is a command not to do; injunction is now oftenest so used, especially as the requirement by legal authority that certain action be suspended or refrained from, pending final legal decision. Compare ARRAY; CLASS; LAW; PROHIBIT; SYSTEM.

Antonyms:

allowance, consent, leave, liberty, license, permission, permit.

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OSTENTATION.

Synonyms:

boast, flourish, parade, pompousness, vaunt, boasting, pageant, pomp, show, vaunting. display, pageantry, pomposity,

Ostentation is an ambitious showing forth of whatever is thought adapted to win admiration or praise; ostentation may be without words; as, the ostentation of wealth in fine residences, rich clothing, costly equipage, or the like; when in words, ostentation is rather in manner than in direct statement; as, the ostentation of learning. Boasting is in direct statement, and is louder and more vulgar than ostentation. There may be great display or show with little substance; ostentation suggests something substantial to be shown. Pageant, pageantry, parade, and pomp refer principally to affairs of arms or state; as, a royal pageant; a military parade. Pomp is some material demonstration of wealth and power, as in grand and stately ceremonial, rich furnishings, processions, etc., considered as worthy of the person or occasion in whose behalf it is manifested; pomp is the noble side of that which as ostentation is considered as arrogant and vain. Pageant and pageantry are inferior to pomp, denoting spectacular display designed to impress the public mind, and since the multitude is largely ignorant and thoughtless, the words pageant and pageantry have a suggestion of the transient and unsubstantial. Parade (L. paro, prepare) is an exhibition as of troops in camp going through the evolutions that are to be used in battle, and suggests a lack of earnestness and direct or immediate occasion or demand; hence, in the more general sense, a parade is an uncalled for exhibition, and so used is a more disparaging word than ostentation; ostentation may spring merely from undue self-gratulation, parade implies a desire to impress others with a sense of one's abilities or resources, and is always offensive and somewhat contemptible; as, a parade of wealth or learning. Pomposity and pompousness are the affectation of pomp.

Antonyms:

diffidence, quietness, retirement, timidity, modesty, reserve, shrinking, unobtrusiveness.

* * * * *

OUGHT.

Synonym:

should.

One ought to do that which he is under moral obligation or in duty bound to do. Ought is the stronger word, holding most closely to the sense of moral obligation, or sometimes of imperative logical necessity; should may have the sense of moral obligation or may apply merely to propriety or expediency, as in the proverb, "The liar should have a good memory," i. e., he will need it. Ought is sometimes used of abstractions or inanimate things as indicating what the mind deems to be imperative or logically necessary in view of all the conditions; as, these goods ought to go into that space; these arguments ought to convince him; should in such connections would be correct, but less emphatic. Compare DUTY.

* * * * *

OVERSIGHT.

Synonyms:

care, control, management, surveillance, charge, direction, superintendence, watch, command, inspection, supervision, watchfulness.

A person may look over a matter in order to survey it carefully in its entirety, or he may look over it with no attention to the thing itself because his gaze and thought are concentrated on something beyond; oversight has thus two contrasted senses, in the latter sense denoting inadvertent error or omission, and in the former denoting watchful supervision, commonly implying constant personal presence; superintendence requires only so much of presence or communication as to know that the superintendent's wishes are carried out; the superintendent of a railroad will personally oversee very few of its operations; the railroad company has supreme direction of all its affairs without superintendence or oversight. Control is used chiefly with reference to restraint or the power of restraint; a good horseman has a restless horse under perfect control; there is no high character without self-control. Surveillance is an invidious term signifying watching with something of suspicion. Compare CARE; NEGLECT.

* * * * *

PAIN.

Synonyms:

ache, distress, suffering, torture, agony, pang, throe, twinge, anguish, paroxysm, torment, wo(e).

Pain is the most general term of this group, including all the others; pain is a disturbing sensation from which nature revolts, resulting from some injurious external interference (as from a wound, a bruise, a harsh word, etc.), or from some lack of what one needs, craves, or cherishes (as, the pain of hunger or bereavement), or from some abnormal action of bodily or mental functions (as, the pains of disease, envy, or discontent). Suffering is one of the severer forms of pain. The prick of a needle causes pain, but we should scarcely speak of it as suffering. Distress is too strong a word for little hurts, too feeble for the intensest suffering, but commonly applied to some continuous or prolonged trouble or need; as, the distress of a shipwrecked crew, or of a destitute family. Ache is lingering pain, more or less severe; pang, a pain short, sharp, intense, and perhaps repeated. We speak of the pangs of hunger or of remorse. Throe is a violent and thrilling pain. Paroxysm applies to an alternately recurring and receding pain, which comes as it were in waves; the paroxysm is the rising of the wave. Torment and torture are intense and terrible sufferings. Agony and anguish express the utmost pain or suffering of body or mind. Agony of body is that with which the system struggles; anguish that by which it is crushed.

Antonyms:

comfort, delight, ease, enjoyment, peace, rapture, relief, solace.

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PALLIATE.

Synonyms:

apologize for, conceal, extenuate, hide, screen, cloak, cover, gloss over, mitigate, veil.

Cloak, from the French, and palliate, from the Latin, are the same in original signification, but have diverged in meaning; a cloak may be used to hide completely the person or some object carried about the person, or it may but partly veil the figure, making the outlines less distinct; cloak is used in the former, palliate, in the latter sense; to cloak a sin is to attempt to hide it from discovery; to palliate it is to attempt to hide some part of its blameworthiness. "When we palliate our own or others' faults we do not seek to cloke them altogether, but only to extenuate the guilt of them in part." TRENCH Study of Words lect. vi, p. 266. Either to palliate or to extenuate is to admit the fault; but to extenuate is rather to apologize for the offender, while to palliate is to disguise the fault; hence, we speak of extenuating but not of palliating circumstances, since circumstances can not change the inherent wrong of an act, tho they may lessen the blameworthiness of him who does it; palliating a bad thing by giving it a mild name does not make it less evil. In reference to diseases, to palliate is really to diminish their violence, or partly to relieve the sufferer. Compare ALLEVIATE; HIDE.

* * * * *

PARDON, v.

Synonyms:

absolve, condone, forgive, pass by, remit. acquit, excuse, overlook, pass over,

To pardon is to let pass, as a fault or sin, without resentment, blame, or punishment. Forgive has reference to feelings, pardon to consequences; hence, the executive may pardon, but has nothing to do officially with forgiving. Personal injury may be forgiven by the person wronged; thus, God at once forgives and pardons; the pardoned sinner is exempt from punishment; the forgiven sinner is restored to the divine favor. To pardon is the act of a superior, implying the right to punish; to forgive is the privilege of the humblest person who has been wronged or offended. In law, to remit the whole penalty is equivalent to pardoning the offender; but a part of a penalty may be remitted and the remainder inflicted, as where the penalty includes both fine and imprisonment. To condone is to put aside a recognized offense by some act which restores the offender to forfeited right or privilege, and is the act of a private individual, without legal formalities. To excuse is to overlook some slight offense, error, or breach of etiquette; pardon is often used by courtesy in nearly the same sense. A person may speak of excusing or forgiving himself, but not of pardoning himself. Compare ABSOLVE; PARDON, n.

Antonyms:

castigate, chastise, convict, doom, recompense, sentence, chasten, condemn, correct, punish, scourge, visit.

* * * * *

PARDON, n.

Synonyms:

absolution, amnesty, forgiveness, oblivion, acquittal, forbearance, mercy, remission.

Acquittal is a release from a charge, after trial, as not guilty. Pardon is a removal of penalty from one who has been adjudged guilty. Acquittal is by the decision of a court, commonly of a jury; pardon is the act of the executive. An innocent man may demand acquittal, and need not plead for pardon. Pardon supposes an offense; yet, as our laws stand, to grant a pardon is sometimes the only way to release one who has been wrongly convicted. Oblivion, from the Latin, signifies overlooking and virtually forgetting an offense, so that the offender stands before the law in all respects as if it had never been committed. Amnesty brings the same idea through the Greek. Pardon affects individuals; amnesty and oblivion are said of great numbers. Pardon is oftenest applied to the ordinary administration of law; amnesty, to national and military affairs. An amnesty is issued after war, insurrection, or rebellion; it is often granted by "an act of oblivion," and includes a full pardon of all offenders who come within its provisions. Absolution is a religious word (compare synonyms for ABSOLVE). Remission is a discharge from penalty; as, the remission of a fine.

Antonyms:

penalty, punishment, retaliation, retribution, vengeance.

Prepositions:

A pardon to or for the offenders; for all offenses; the pardon of offenders or offenses.

* * * * *

PART, v.

Synonyms:

Compare synonyms for PART, n.

Prepositions:

Part into shares; part in the middle; part one from another; part among the claimants; part between contestants (archaic); in general, to part from is to relinquish companionship; to part with is to relinquish possession; we part from a person or from something thought of with some sense of companionship; a traveler parts from his friends; he maybe said also to part from his native shore; a man parts with an estate, a horse, a copyright; part with may be applied to a person thought of in any sense as a possession; an employer parts with a clerk or servant; but part with is sometimes used by good writers as meaning simply to separate from.

* * * * *

PART, n.

Synonyms:

atom, fraction, member, section, component, fragment, particle, segment, constituent, ingredient, piece, share, division, instalment, portion, subdivision. element,

Part, a substance, quantity, or amount that is the result of the division of something greater, is the general word, including all the others of this group. A fragment is the result of breaking, rending, or disruption of some kind, while a piece may be smoothly or evenly separated and have a certain completeness in itself. A piece is often taken for a sample; a fragment scarcely would be. Division and fraction are always regarded as in connection with the total; divisions may be equal or unequal; a fraction is one of several equal parts into which the whole is supposed to be divided. A portion is a part viewed with reference to some one who is to receive it or some special purpose to which it is to be applied; in a restaurant one portion (i. e., the amount designed for one person) is sometimes, by special order, served to two; a share is a part to which one has or may acquire a right in connection with others; an instalment is one of a series of proportionate payments that are to be continued till the entire claim is discharged; a particle is an exceedingly small part. A component, constituent, ingredient, or element is a part of some compound or mixture; an element is necessary to the existence, as a component or constituent is necessary to the completeness of that which it helps to compose; an ingredient may be foreign or accidental. A subdivision is a division of a division. We speak of a segment of a circle. Compare PARTICLE; PORTION.

* * * * *

PARTICLE.

Synonyms:

atom, grain, mite, scrap, whit. corpuscle, iota, molecule, shred, element, jot, scintilla, tittle,

A particle is a very small part of any material substance; as, a particle of sand or of dust; it is a general term, not accurately determinate in meaning. Atom (Gr. a- privative, not, and temno, cut) etymologically signifies that which can not be cut or divided, and is the smallest conceivable particle of matter, regarded as absolutely homogeneous and as having but one set of properties; atoms are the ultimate particles of matter. A molecule is made up of atoms, and is regarded as separable into its constituent parts; as used by physicists, a molecule is the smallest conceivable part which retains all the characteristics of the substance; thus, a molecule of water is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. Element in chemistry denotes, without reference to quantity, a substance regarded as simple, i. e., one incapable of being resolved by any known process into simpler substances; the element gold may be represented by an ingot or by a particle of gold-dust. In popular language, an element is any essential constituent; the ancients believed that the universe was made up of the four elements, earth, air, fire, and water; a storm is spoken of as a manifestation of the fury of the elements. We speak of corpuscles of blood. Compare PART.

Antonyms:

aggregate, entirety, mass, quantity, sum, sum total, total, whole.

* * * * *

PATIENCE.

Synonyms:

calmness, forbearance, long-suffering, sufferance. composure, fortitude, resignation, endurance, leniency, submission,

Patience is the quality or habit of mind shown in bearing passively and uncomplainingly any pain, evil, or hardship that may fall to one's lot. Endurance hardens itself against suffering, and may be merely stubborn; fortitude is endurance animated by courage; endurance may by modifiers be made to have a passive force, as when we speak of "passive endurance;" patience is not so hard as endurance nor so self-effacing as submission. Submission is ordinarily and resignation always applied to matters of great moment, while patience may apply to slight worries and annoyances. As regards our relations to our fellow men, forbearance is abstaining from retaliation or revenge; patience is keeping kindliness of heart under vexatious conduct; long-suffering is continued patience. Patience may also have an active force denoting uncomplaining steadiness in doing, as in tilling the soil. Compare INDUSTRY.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for ANGER.

Prepositions:

Patience in or amid sufferings; patience with (rarely toward) opposers or offenders; patience under afflictions; (rarely) patience of heat or cold, etc.

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PAY, n.

Synonyms:

allowance, hire, recompense, salary, compensation, honorarium, remuneration, stipend, earnings, payment, requital, wages. fee,

An allowance is a stipulated amount furnished at regular intervals as a matter of discretion or gratuity, as of food to besieged soldiers, or of money to a child or ward. Compensation is a comprehensive word signifying a return for a service done. Remuneration is applied to matters of great amount or importance. Recompense is a still wider and loftier word, with less suggestion of calculation and market value; there are services for which affection and gratitude are the sole and sufficient recompense; earnings, fees, hire, pay, salary, and wages are forms of compensation and may be included in compensation, remuneration, or recompense. Pay is commercial and strictly signifies an exact pecuniary equivalent for a thing or service, except when the contrary is expressly stated, as when we speak of "high pay" or "poor pay." Wages denotes what a worker receives. Earnings is often used as exactly equivalent to wages, but may be used with reference to the real value of work done or service rendered, and even applied to inanimate things; as, the earnings of capital. Hire is distinctly mercenary or menial, but as a noun has gone out of popular use, tho the verb to hire is common. Salary is for literary or professional work, wages for handicraft or other comparatively inferior service; a salary is regarded as more permanent than wages; an editor receives a salary, a compositor receives wages. Stipend has become exclusively a literary word. A fee is given for a single service or privilege, and is sometimes in the nature of a gratuity. Compare REQUITE.

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PEOPLE.

Synonyms:

commonwealth, nation, race, state, tribe. community, population,

A community is in general terms the aggregate of persons inhabiting any territory in common and viewed as having common interests; a commonwealth is such a body of persons having a common government, especially a republican government; as, the commonwealth of Massachusetts. A community may be very small; a commonwealth is ordinarily of considerable extent. A people is the aggregate of any public community, either in distinction from their rulers or as including them; a race is a division of mankind in the line of origin and ancestry; the people of the United States includes members of almost every race. The use of people as signifying persons collectively, as in the statement "The hall was full of people," has been severely criticized, but is old and accepted English, and may fitly be classed as idiomatic, and often better than persons, by reason of its collectivism. As Dean Alford suggests, it would make a strange transformation of the old hymn "All people that on earth do dwell" to sing "All persons that on earth do dwell." A state is an organized political community considered in its corporate capacity as "a body politic and corporate;" as, a legislative act is the act of the state; every citizen is entitled to the protection of the state. A nation is an organized political community considered with reference to the persons composing it as having certain definite boundaries, a definite number of citizens, etc. The members of a people are referred to as persons or individuals; the individual members of a state or nation are called citizens or subjects. The population of a country is simply the aggregate of persons residing within its borders, without reference to race, organization, or allegiance; unnaturalized residents form part of the population, but not of the nation, possessing none of the rights and being subject to none of the duties of citizens. In American usage State signifies one commonwealth of the federal union known as the United States. Tribe is now almost wholly applied to rude peoples with very imperfect political organization; as, the Indian tribes; nomadic tribes. Compare MOB.

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PERCEIVE.

Synonyms:

apprehend, comprehend, conceive, understand.

We perceive what is presented through the senses. We apprehend what is presented to the mind, whether through the senses or by any other means. Yet perceive is used in the figurative sense of seeing through to a conclusion, in a way for which usage would not allow us to substitute apprehend; as, "Sir, I perceive that thou art a prophet," John iv, 19. That which we apprehend we catch, as with the hand; that which we conceive we are able to analyze and recompose in our mind; that which we comprehend, we, as it were, grasp around, take together, seize, embrace wholly within the mind. Many things may be apprehended which can not be comprehended; a child can apprehend the distinction between right and wrong, yet the philosopher can not comprehend it in its fulness. We can apprehend the will of God as revealed in conscience or the Scriptures; we can conceive of certain attributes of Deity, as his truth and justice; but no finite intelligence can comprehend the Divine Nature, in its majesty, power, and perfection. Compare ANTICIPATE; ARREST; CATCH; KNOWLEDGE.

Antonyms:

fail of, ignore, lose, misapprehend, misconceive, miss, overlook.

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PERFECT.

Synonyms:

absolute, consummate, holy, spotless, accurate, correct, ideal, stainless, blameless, entire, immaculate, unblemished, complete, faultless, sinless, undefiled. completed, finished,

That is perfect to which nothing can be added, and from which nothing can be taken without impairing its excellence, marring its symmetry, or detracting from its worth; in this fullest sense God alone is perfect, but in a limited sense anything may be perfect in its kind; as a perfect flower; a copy of a document is perfect when it is accurate in every particular; a vase may be called perfect when entire and unblemished, even tho not artistically faultless; the best judges never pronounce a work of art perfect, because they see always ideal possibilities not yet attained; even the ideal is not perfect, by reason of the imperfection of the human mind; a human character faultlessly holy would be morally perfect tho finite. That which is absolute is free from admixture (as absolute alcohol) and in the highest and fullest sense free from imperfection or limitation; as, absolute holiness and love are attributes of God alone. In philosophical language, absolute signifies free from all necessary, or even from all possible relations, not dependent or limited, unrelated and unconditioned; truth immediately known, as intuitive truth, is absolute; God, as self-existent and free from all limitation or dependence, is called the absolute Being, or simply the Absolute. Compare INNOCENT; INFINITE; RADICAL.

Antonyms:

bad, defective, imperfect, meager, scant, blemished, deficient, incomplete, perverted, short, corrupt, deformed, inferior, poor, spoiled, corrupted, fallible, insufficient, ruined, worthless. defaced, faulty, marred,

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PERMANENT.

Synonyms:

abiding, enduring, lasting, steadfast, changeless, fixed, perpetual, unchangeable, constant, immutable, persistent, unchanging. durable, invariable, stable,

Durable (L. durus, hard) is said almost wholly of material substances that resist wear; lasting is said of either material or immaterial things. Permanent is a word of wider meaning; a thing is permanent which is not liable to change; as, a permanent color; buildings upon a farm are called permanent improvements. Enduring is a higher word, applied to that which resists both time and change; as, enduring fame.

Antonyms:

See synonyms for TRANSIENT.

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PERMISSION.

Synonyms:

allowance, authorization, leave, license, authority, consent, liberty, permit.

Authority unites the right and power of control; age, wisdom, and character give authority to their possessor; a book of learned research has authority, and is even called an authority. Permission justifies another in acting without interference or censure, and usually implies some degree of approval. Authority gives a certain right of control over all that may be affected by the action. There may be a failure to object, which constitutes an implied permission, tho this is more properly expressed by allowance; we allow what we do not oppose, permit what we expressly authorize. The noun permit implies a formal written permission. License is a formal permission granted by competent authority to an individual to do some act or pursue some business which would be or is made to be unlawful without such permission; as, a license to preach, to solemnize marriages, or to sell intoxicating liquors. A license is permission granted rather than authority conferred; the sheriff has authority (not permission nor license) to make an arrest. Consent is permission by the concurrence of wills in two or more persons, a mutual approval or acceptance of something proposed. Compare ALLOW.

Antonyms:

denial, objection, prevention, refusal, resistance. hindrance, opposition, prohibition,

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PERNICIOUS.

Synonyms:

bad, evil, mischievous, pestilential, baneful, foul, noisome, poisonous, deadly, harmful, noxious, ruinous, deleterious, hurtful, perverting, unhealthful, destructive, injurious, pestiferous, unwholesome. detrimental, insalubrious,

Pernicious (L. per, through, and neco, kill) signifies having the power of destroying or injuring, tending to hurt or kill. Pernicious is stronger than injurious; that which is injurious is capable of doing harm; that which is pernicious is likely to be destructive. Noxious (L. noceo, hurt) is a stronger word than noisome, as referring to that which is injurious or destructive. Noisome now always denotes that which is extremely disagreeable or disgusting, especially to the sense of smell; as, the noisome stench proclaimed the presence of noxious gases.

Antonyms:

advantageous, favorable, helpful, profitable, serviceable, beneficent, good, invigorating, rejuvenating, useful, beneficial, healthful, life-giving, salutary, wholesome.

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PERPLEXITY.

Synonyms:

amazement, bewilderment, distraction, doubt, astonishment, confusion, disturbance, embarrassment.

Perplexity (L. per, through, and plecto, plait) is the drawing or turning of the thoughts or faculties by turns in different directions or toward contrasted or contradictory conclusions; confusion (L. confusus, from confundo, pour together) is a state in which the mental faculties are, as it were, thrown into chaos, so that the clear and distinct action of the different powers, as of perception, memory, reason, and will is lost; bewilderment is akin to confusion, but is less overwhelming, and more readily recovered from; perplexity, accordingly, has not the unsettling of the faculties implied in confusion, nor the overwhelming of the faculties implied in amazement or astonishment; it is not the magnitude of the things to be known, but the want of full and definite knowledge, that causes perplexity. The dividing of a woodland path may cause the traveler the greatest perplexity, which may become bewilderment when he has tried one path after another and lost his bearings completely. With an excitable person bewilderment may deepen into confusion that will make him unable to think clearly or even to see or hear distinctly. Amazement results from the sudden and unimagined occurrence of great good or evil or the sudden awakening of the mind to unthought-of truth. Astonishment often produces bewilderment, which the word was formerly understood to imply. Compare AMAZEMENT; ANXIETY; DOUBT.

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PERSUADE.

Synonyms:

allure, dispose, incline, move, bring over, entice, induce, prevail on or upon, coax, impel, influence, urge, convince, incite, lead, win over.

Of these words convince alone has no direct reference to moving the will, denoting an effect upon the understanding only; one may be convinced of his duty without doing it, or he may be convinced of truth that has no manifest connection with duty or action, as of a mathematical proposition. To persuade is to bring the will of another to a desired decision by some influence exerted upon it short of compulsion; one may be convinced that the earth is round; he may be persuaded to travel round it; but persuasion is so largely dependent upon conviction that it is commonly held to be the orator's work first to convince in order that he may persuade. Coax is a slighter word than persuade, seeking the same end by shallower methods, largely by appeal to personal feeling, with or without success; as, a child coaxes a parent to buy him a toy. One may be brought over, induced, or prevailed upon by means not properly included in persuasion, as by bribery or intimidation; he is won over chiefly by personal influence. Compare INFLUENCE.

Antonyms:

deter, discourage, dissuade, hinder, hold back, repel, restrain.

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PERTNESS.

Synonyms:

boldness, forwardness, liveliness, sprightliness. briskness, impertinence, sauciness, flippancy, impudence, smartness,

Liveliness and sprightliness are pleasant and commendable; smartness is a limited and showy acuteness or shrewdness, usually with unfavorable suggestion; pertness and sauciness are these qualities overdone, and regardless of the respect due to superiors. Impertinence and impudence may be gross and stupid; pertness and sauciness are always vivid and keen. Compare IMPUDENCE.

Antonyms:

bashfulness, demureness, diffidence, humility, modesty, shyness.

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PERVERSE.

Synonyms:

contrary, froward, petulant, untoward, factious, intractable, stubborn, wayward, fractious, obstinate, ungovernable, wilful.

Perverse (L. perversus, turned the wrong way) signifies wilfully wrong or erring, unreasonably set against right, reason, or authority. The stubborn or obstinate person will not do what another desires or requires; the perverse person will do anything contrary to what is desired or required of him. The petulant person frets, but may comply; the perverse individual may be smooth or silent, but is wilfully intractable. Wayward refers to a perverse disregard of morality and duty; froward is practically obsolete; untoward is rarely heard except in certain phrases; as, untoward circumstances. Compare OBSTINATE.

Antonyms:

accommodating, complaisant, genial, kind, amenable, compliant, governable, obliging.

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PHYSICAL.

Synonyms:

bodily, corporeal, natural, tangible, corporal, material, sensible, visible.

Whatever is composed of or pertains to matter may be termed material; physical (Gr. physis, nature) applies to material things considered as parts of a system or organic whole; hence, we speak of material substances, physical forces, physical laws. Bodily, corporal, and corporeal apply primarily to the human body; bodily and corporal both denote pertaining or relating to the body; corporeal signifies of the nature of or like the body; corporal is now almost wholly restricted to signify applied to or inflicted upon the body; we speak of bodily sufferings, bodily presence, corporal punishment, the corporeal frame.

Antonyms:

hyperphysical, intangible, invisible, moral, unreal, immaterial, intellectual, mental, spiritual, unsubstantial.

* * * * *

PIQUE.

Synonyms:

displeasure, irritation, offense, resentment, umbrage. grudge,

Pique, from the French, signifies primarily a prick or a sting, as of a nettle; the word denotes a sudden feeling of mingled pain and anger, but slight and usually transient, arising from some neglect or offense, real or imaginary. Umbrage is a deeper and more persistent displeasure at being overshadowed (L. umbra, a shadow) or subjected to any treatment that one deems unworthy of him. It may be said, as a general statement, that pique arises from wounded vanity or sensitiveness, umbrage from wounded pride or sometimes from suspicion. Resentment rests on more solid grounds, and is deep and persistent. Compare ANGER.

Antonyms:

approval, contentment, gratification, pleasure, satisfaction. complacency, delight,

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PITIFUL.

Synonyms:

abject, lamentable, paltry, sorrowful, base, miserable, pathetic, touching, contemptible, mournful, piteous, woful, despicable, moving, pitiable, wretched.

Pitiful originally signified full of pity; as, "the Lord is very pitiful and of tender mercy," James v, 11; but this usage is now archaic, and the meaning in question is appropriated by such words as merciful and compassionate. Pitiful and pitiable now refer to what may be deserving of pity, pitiful being used chiefly for that which is merely an object of thought, pitiable for that which is brought directly before the senses; as, a pitiful story; a pitiable object; a pitiable condition. Since pity, however, always implies weakness or inferiority in that which is pitied, pitiful and pitiable are often used, by an easy transition, for what might awaken pity, but does awaken contempt; as, a pitiful excuse; he presented a pitiable appearance. Piteous is now rarely used in its earlier sense of feeling pity, but in its derived sense applies to what really excites the emotion; as, a piteous cry. Compare HUMANE; MERCY; PITY.

Antonyms:

august, dignified, grand, lofty, sublime, beneficent, exalted, great, mighty, superb, commanding, glorious, helpful, noble, superior.

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