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English Synonyms and Antonyms - With Notes on the Correct Use of Prepositions
by James Champlin Fernald
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EXAMPLES.

Even the bravest men may be swept along in a sudden ——.

With much more —— I view the fight than thou that mak'st the fray.

Look in, and see Christ's chosen saint In triumph wear his Christ-like chain; No —— lest he should swerve or faint.

The ghastly spectacle filled every beholder with ——.

A lingering —— crept upon him as he waited in the darkness.

* * * * *

FEMININE (page 169).

QUESTIONS.

1. How are female and feminine discriminated? 2. What is the difference between a female voice and a feminine voice? 3. How are womanly and womanish discriminated in use?

EXAMPLES.

Notice, too, how precious are these —— qualities in the sick room.

The demand for closet-room is no mere —— fancy, but the good sense of the sex.

* * * * *

FETTER (page 169).

QUESTIONS.

1. What are fetters in the primary sense? 2. What are manacles and handcuffs designed to fasten or hold? gyves? 3. What are shackles and what are they intended to fasten or hold? 4. Of what material are all these restraining devices commonly composed? By what general name are they popularly known? 5. What are bonds and of what material composed? 6. Which of these words are used in the metaphorical sense?

EXAMPLES.

But first set my poor heart free, Bound in those icy —— by thee.

Slaves can not breathe in England . . . They touch our country, and their —— fall.

* * * * *

FEUD (page 170).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a feud? Of what is it used? 2. Is a quarrel in word or act? contention? strife? contest? 3. How does quarrel compare in importance with the other words cited? 4. What does an affray always involve? To what may a brawl or broil be confined? 5. How do these words compare in dignity with contention, contest, controversy, and dissension?

EXAMPLES.

Could we forbear —— and practise love We should agree as angels do above.

"Between my house and yours," he answered, "There is a —— of five hundred years."

Beware of entrance to a ——.

* * * * *

FICTION (page 170).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a fiction in the most common modern meaning of the word? 2. How does a fiction differ from a novel? from a fable? from a myth? 3. How does a myth differ from a legend? 4. How do falsehood and fabrication differ from the words above mentioned? 5. Is fabrication or falsehood the more odious term? Which term is really the stronger? 6. What is a story? Is it good or bad, true or false? With what words of the group does it agree?

EXAMPLES.

O scenes surpassing ——, and yet true, Scenes of accomplished bliss.

A —— strange is told of thee.

I believe the whole account from beginning to end to be a pure ——.

A thing sustained by such substantial evidence could not be a mere —— of the imagination.

* * * * *

FIERCE (page 171).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does fierce signify? 2. To what does ferocious refer? How do the two words differ? 3. What does savage signify?

EXAMPLES.

—— was the day; the wintry sea Moaned sadly on New England's strand, When first the thoughtful and the free, Our fathers, trod the desert land.

Contentions ——, Ardent, and dire, spring from no petty cause.

The —— savages massacred the survivors to the last man.

* * * * *

FINANCIAL (page 172).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what does monetary directly refer? 2. How does pecuniary agree with and differ from monetary? 3. To what does financial especially apply? 4. In what connection is fiscal most commonly used?

EXAMPLES.

The —— year closes with the society out of debt.

He was rejoiced to receive the —— aid at a time when it was most needed.

In a —— panic, many a sound business house goes down for want of power to realize instantly on valuable securities.

* * * * *

FINE (page 172).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what is fine derived, and what is its original meaning? 2. How, from this primary meaning does fine become a synonym of excellent and beautiful? 3. How does it come into connection with clarified, clear, pure, refined? 4. How is it connected with dainty, delicate, and exquisite? 5. How does fine come to be a synonym for minute, comminuted? How for filmy, tenuous? for keen, sharp? Give instances of the use of fine in its various senses.

EXAMPLES.

Some people are more —— than wise.

—— feathers do not always make —— birds.

The ——est balances must be kept under glass, because so ——ly adjusted as to be —— to a film of dust or a breath of air.

* * * * *

FIRE (page 173).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the essential fact underlying the visible phenomena which we call fire? 2. What is combustion? 3. How wide is its range of meaning? 4. What is a conflagration?

EXAMPLES.

He's gone, and who knows how he may report Thy words by adding fuel to the ——?

Lo! as he comes, in Heaven's array, And scattering wide the —— of day.

* * * * *

FLOCK (page 173).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the most general word of this group? 2. What is a group, and of what class of objects may it be composed? 3. To what class of animals does brood apply? to what class does litter apply? 4. Of what is bevy used? flock? 5. To what is herd limited? 6. Of what is pack used? 7. What is a drove?

EXAMPLES.

What is not good for the —— is not good for the bee.

He heard the bleating of the ——s and the twitter of birds among the trees.

The lowing —— winds slowly o'er the lea.

Excited ——s gathered at the corners discussing the affair.

A —— of brightly clad women and children were enjoying a picnic under the trees.

* * * * *

FLUCTUATE (page 173).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of fluctuate? 2. In what one characteristic do swerve and veer differ from oscillate, fluctuate, undulate, and waver? 3. What is the difference in mental action between hesitate and waver? between vacillate and waver? 4. Which of the above-mentioned words apply to persons? which to feelings?

EXAMPLES.

Thou almost mak'st me —— in my faith.

The surface of the prairies rolls and —— to the eye.

It is almost universally true that the human mind —— at the moment of committing a crime.

The vessel suddenly —— from her course.

* * * * *

FLUID (page 174).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a fluid? 2. Into what two sections are fluids divided? 3. What is a liquid? a gas? 4. Are all liquids fluids? 5. Are gases fluids? 6. Are gases ever liquids? 7. What substance is at once a liquid and a fluid at the ordinary temperature and pressure?

EXAMPLES.

Now nature paints her colors, how the bee Sits on the bloom, extracting —— sweet.

This earth was once a —— haze of light.

* * * * *

FOLLOW (page 174).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to follow? 2. How does follow compare with chase and pursue? 3. As regards succession in time, what is the difference between follow and ensue? result?

EXAMPLES.

Say, shall my little bark attendant sail, —— the triumph and partake the gale?

When Youth and Pleasure meet To —— the glowing Hours with flying feet.

"Then —— me, the Prince," I answered; "each be hero in his turn! Seven and yet one, like shadows in a dream."

* * * * *

FORMIDABLE (page 176).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of formidable? 2. How does formidable differ from dangerous? terrible? tremendous? Give examples.

EXAMPLES.

All delays are —— in war.

—— as an army with banners.

The great fleet moved slowly toward the forts, a —— array.

* * * * *

FORTIFICATION (page 176).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does a fortress specifically differ from a fortification? 2. What is the distinctive meaning of citadel? 3. What is a fort? 4. What is a fastness or stronghold?

EXAMPLES.

For a man's house is his ——.

A mighty —— is our God, A bulwark never failing; Our helper He amid the flood Of mortal ills prevailing.

Alva built a —— in the heart of Antwerp to overawe the city.

* * * * *

FORTITUDE (page 176).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is fortitude? 2. How does it compare with courage? 3. How do resolution and endurance compare?

EXAMPLES.

Unbounded —— and compassion join'd, Tempering each other in the victor's mind.

Tell thy story; If thine, consider'd, prove the thousandth part Of my ——, thou art a man, and I Have suffer'd like a girl.

Thou didst smile, Infused with a —— from heaven, When I had decked the sea with drops full salt.

* * * * *

FORTUNATE (page 177).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does fortunate compare with successful? 2. How are lucky and fortunate discriminated? 3. In what special sense, and with what reference are favored and prospered used?

EXAMPLES.

It is not a —— word this same "impossible;" no good comes of those that have it so often in their mouth.

Ah, —— years! once more who would not be a boy?

I have a mind presages me such thrift That I should questionless be ——.

* * * * *

FRAUD (page 177).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a fraud? How does it differ from deceit or deception? 2. What is the design of an imposture? 3. What is dishonesty? a cheat? a swindle? How do all these fall short of the meaning of fraud? 4. Of what relations is treachery used? treason?

EXAMPLES.

—— doth never prosper: what's the reason? Why, if it prosper none dare call it ——.

Whoever has once become notorious by base ——, even if he speaks truth gains no belief.

The first and the worst of all —— is to cheat oneself.

* * * * *

FRIENDLY (page 178).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does friendly signify as applied to persons, or as applied to acts? 2. How does the adjective friendly compare in strength with the noun friend? 3. What is the special meaning of accessible? of companionable and sociable? of cordial and genial?

EXAMPLES.

He that hath friends must show himself ——.

A fellow feeling makes one wondrous ——.

* * * * *

FRIENDSHIP (page 179).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is friendship? 2. In what one quality does it differ from affection, attachment, devotion, and friendliness? 3. What is the meaning of comity and amity? 4. How does friendship differ from love?

EXAMPLES.

Talk not of wasted ——, —— never was wasted; If it enrich not the heart of another, its waters returning Back to their springs, like the rain, shall fill them full of refreshment.

——, peculiar boon of heaven, The noble mind's delight and pride, To men and angels only given, To all the lower world denied.

* * * * *

FRIGHTEN (page 180).

QUESTIONS.

1. By what is one frightened? by what intimidated? 2. What is it to browbeat or cow? 3. What is it to scare or terrify?

EXAMPLES.

The child was —— by the stories the nurse told.

The loud, loud winds, that o'er the billows sweep— Shake the firm nerve, —— the bravest soul!

* * * * *

FRUGALITY (page 180).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is economy? 2. What is frugality? 3. What is parsimony? How does it compare with frugality? What is the motive of parsimony? 4. What is miserliness? 5. What is the special characteristic of prudence and providence? of thrift? 6. What is the motive of economy?

EXAMPLES.

There are but two ways of paying debt: increase of industry in raising, increase of —— in laying out.

By close —— the little home was at last paid for and there was a great thanksgiving time.

* * * * *

GARRULOUS (page 181).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does garrulous signify? chattering? 2. How do talkative and loquacious differ from garrulous, and from each other? 3. What is the special application of verbose?

EXAMPLES.

To tame a shrew, and charm her —— tongue.

Guard against a feeble fluency, a —— prosiness, a facility of saying nothing.

* * * * *

GENDER (page 181).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is sex? 2. To what beings only does sex apply? 3. What is gender? To what does it apply? Do the distinctions of gender correspond to the distinctions of sex? Give examples of languages containing three genders, and of the classification in languages containing but two.

EXAMPLES.

The maternal relation naturally and necessarily divides the work of the ——s giving to woman the indoor life, and to man, the work of the outer world.

While in French every word is either of the masculine or feminine ——, the language sometimes fails for that very reason to indicate the —— of some person referred to.

* * * * *

GENERAL (page 181).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does general signify? 2. How does general compare with universal? with common? 3. What illustrations of the differences are given in the text?

EXAMPLES.

—— friendships will admit of division, one may love the beauty of this, the good humor of that person, ... and so on.

A —— feeling of unrest prevailed.

Death comes to all by —— law.

* * * * *

GENEROUS (page 182).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the primary meaning of generous? the common meaning? 2. How does generous differ from liberal? 3. What is the distinctive sense of munificent? 4. What does munificent tell of the motive or spirit of the giver? What does generous tell? 5. How does disinterested compare with generous? 6. What is the distinctive meaning of magnanimous? How does it differ from generous as regards dealing with insults or injuries?

EXAMPLES.

To cunning men I will be very kind; and —— To mine own children, in good bringing up.

A —— friendship no cold medium knows, Burns with one love, with one resentment glows.

The conqueror proved as —— in victory as he was terrible in battle.

* * * * *

GENIUS (page 183).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is genius? 2. What is talent? 3. Which is the higher quality? 4. Which is the more dependent upon training?

EXAMPLES.

The eternal Master found His single —— well employ'd.

No great —— was ever without some mixture of madness.

* * * * *

GET (page 183).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a person said to get? 2. How is get related to expectation or desire? How is gain related to those words? 3. By what processes does one acquire? Is the thing acquired sought or desired, or not? 4. What does one earn? 5. Does a person always get what he earns or always earn what he gets? 6. What does obtain imply? Is the thing one obtains an object of desire? How does obtain differ from get? 7. What does win imply? How is one said to win a suit at law? What is the correct term in legal phrase? Why? 8. By what special element does procure differ from obtain? 9. What is especially implied in secure?

EXAMPLES.

He —— a living as umbrella mender but a poor living it is.

—— wisdom and with all thy getting, —— understanding.

In the strange city he found that all his learning would not —— him a dinner.

* * * * *

GIFT (page 184).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a gift? Is gift used in the good or the bad sense? Does the legal agree with the popular sense? 2. What synonymous word is always used in the evil sense? 3. What is a benefaction? a donation? What difference of usage is recognized between the two words? 4. What is a gratuity, and to whom given? 5. What is the sense and use of largess? 6. What is a present, and to whom given? 7. What is the special sense of boon? 8. What is a grant, and by whom made?

EXAMPLES.

He gave us only over beast, fish, fowl, Dominion absolute; that right we hold By his ——.

True love's the —— which God has given To man alone beneath the heaven.

"——, ——, noble knights," cried the heralds.

The courts of justice had fallen so low that it was practically impossible to win a cause without a ——.

* * * * *

GIVE (page 185).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the primary meaning of give? the secondary meaning? 2. Can we give what is undesired? 3. Can we give what we are paid for? 4. How is give always understood when there is no limitation in the context? 5. Is it correct to say "He gave it to me for nothing"? 6. What is to grant? 7. What is implied when we speak of granting a favor? 8. What is to confer? 9. What is especially implied in impart? in bestow?

EXAMPLES.

My God shall —— all your need according to his riches in glory by Christ Jesus.

—— to every man that asketh of thee, and from him that would borrow of thee, turn not thou away.

The court promptly —— the injunction.

The king —— upon him the honor of knighthood.

One of the pleasantest things in life is to —— instruction to those who really desire to learn.

* * * * *

GOVERN (page 185).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does the word govern imply? How does it differ from control? 2. How do command and control differ? 3. How do rule and govern differ? 4. What is the special significance of sway? of mold? 5. What is it to manage? 6. What is the present meaning of reign? How does it compare with rule?

EXAMPLES.

He that —— his spirit is greater than he that taketh a city.

For some must follow, and some —— Tho all are made of clay.

Daniel Webster well described the character of "Old Hickory" in the sentence, "I do not say that General Jackson did not mean to —— his country well, but I do say that General Jackson meant to —— his country."

* * * * *

GRACEFUL (page 186).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does graceful denote? How is it especially distinguished from beautiful?

EXAMPLES.

How —— upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings that publisheth peace.

A —— myrtle rear'd its head.

* * * * *

GRIEF (page 187).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is grief? 2. How does grief compare with sorrow? with sadness? with melancholy? 3. What two chief senses has affliction? 4. What is implied in mourning, in its most common acceptation?

EXAMPLES.

We glory in —— also.

For our light —— which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.

What private —— they have, alas! I know not, that made them do it.

* * * * *

HABIT (page 187).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is custom? routine? Which is the more mechanical? 2. What element does habit add to custom and routine? 3. Should we preferably use custom or habit of a society? of an individual? 4. What is fashion? rule? system? 5. What are use and usage, and how do they differ from each other? 6. What is practise? 7. What is the distinctive meaning of wont?

EXAMPLES.

Every —— is preserved and increased by correspondent actions, as the —— of walking by walking, of running by running.

Montaigne is wrong in declaring that —— ought to be followed simply because it is ——, and not because it is reasonable or just.

Lord Brougham says "The longer I live the more careful I am to entrust everything that I really care to do to the beneficent power of ——."

—— makes perfect.

Without —— little that is valuable is ever learned or done.

* * * * *

HAPPEN (page 188).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does happen signify? 2. How does it differ from chance? 3. What is the distinctive meaning of betide? 4. How do both befall and betide differ from happen in grammatical construction? 5. What is the meaning of supervene? 6. Is transpire correctly used in the sense of happen? When may an event be properly said to transpire?

EXAMPLES.

Whatever —— at all —— as it should.

Thou sowest not that body that shall be, but bear grain, it may —— of wheat, or of some other grain.

Ill —— the graceless renegade!

It —— that a secret treaty had been previously concluded between the powers.

If mischief —— him, thou shalt bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave.

* * * * *

HAPPINESS (page 189).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is gratification? satisfaction? 2. What is happiness? 3. How does happiness differ from comfort? 4. How does comfort differ from enjoyment? 5. How does pleasure compare with comfort and enjoyment? with happiness? 6. What do gratification and satisfaction express? How do they compare with each other? 7. How does happiness compare with gratification, satisfaction, comfort, and pleasure? with delight and joy? 8. What is delight? ecstasy? rapture? 9. What is triumph? blessedness? bliss?

EXAMPLES.

Sweet is —— after pain.

Virtue alone is —— below.

Hope elevates and —— brightens his crest.

The storm raged without, but within the house all was brightness and ——.

There is no —— so sweet and abiding as that of doing good.

This is the very —— of love.

* * * * *

HAPPY (page 190).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the original meaning of happy? With what words is it allied in this sense? 2. In what way is happy a synonym of blessed? 3. What is the meaning of happy in its most frequent present use?

EXAMPLES.

—— are they that mourn for they shall be comforted.

To what —— accident is it that we owe so unexpected a visit.

A —— heart maketh a —— countenance.

I would not spend another such a night, Tho 'twere to buy a world of —— days.

* * * * *

HARMONY (page 191).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is harmony? 2. How does harmony compare with agreement? 3. How do concord and accord compare with harmony and with each other? 4. What is conformity? congruity? 5. What is consistency? 6. What is unanimity? 7. How do consent and concurrence compare?

EXAMPLES.

We have made a covenant with death and with hell are we at ——.

Tyrants have made desperate efforts to secure outward —— in religious observances without —— of religious belief.

That action and counteraction which, in the natural and in the political world, from the reciprocal struggle of discordant powers draws out the —— of the universe.

The speaker was, by general ——, allowed to proceed.

* * * * *

HARVEST (page 192).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the original meaning of harvest? its later meaning? 2. How does harvest compare with crop? 3. What is produce? How does it differ from product? 4. What is the meaning of proceeds? yield? return? 5. Is harvest capable of figurative use, and in what sense? 6. What is the special meaning of harvest-home? harvest-tide? harvest-time?

EXAMPLES.

Just tickle the earth with a hoe, and she laughs with an abundant ——.

And the ripe —— of the new-mown hay gives it a sweet and wholesome odor.

It soweth here with toil and care But the —— of love is there.

Of no distemper, of no blast he died, But fell like autumn —— that mellowed long.

* * * * *

HATRED (page 193).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is repugnance? aversion? 2. How does hatred compare with aversion as applied to persons? as applied to things? 3. What is malice? malignity? 4. What is spite? 5. What are grudge, resentment, and revenge, and how do they compare with one another?

EXAMPLES.

Heaven has no —— like love to —— turned.

The slight put upon him filled him with deep ——.

He ne'er bore —— for stalwart blow Ta'en in fair fight from gallant foe.

In all cases of wilful injury to person or property, the law presumes ——.

I felt from our first meeting an instinctive —— for the man, which on acquaintance deepened into a settled ——.

* * * * *

HAVE (page 194).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what is have applied? How widely inclusive a word is it? 2. What does possess signify? 3. What is to hold? to occupy? 4. How does be in possession compare with possess? 5. How does own compare with possess or with be in possession? 6. What is the difference between the statement that a man has reason, and the statement that he is in possession of his reason?

EXAMPLES.

Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I —— is thine.

I earnestly entreat you, for your own sakes, to —— yourselves of solid reasons.

He occupies the house, but does not —— it.

* * * * *

HAZARD (page 194).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of hazard? 2. How does hazard compare with danger? 3. How do risk and venture compare with chance and hazard, and with each other? 4. How do accident and casualty differ? 5. What is a contingency?

EXAMPLES.

We must take the current when it serves or lose our ——.

I have set my life upon a cast, and I will stand the —— of the die.

There is no —— in doing known duty.

Do you think it necessary to provide for every —— before taking the first step?

* * * * *

HEALTHY (page 195).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of healthy? of healthful? Are the words properly interchangeable? 2. What are the chief synonyms of healthy? of healthful? 3. In what sense is salubrious used, and to what is it applied? 4. To what realm does salutary belong?

EXAMPLES.

In books, or work, or —— play let my first years be passed.

Blessed is the —— nature; it is the coherent, sweetly cooperative, not the self-distracting one.

* * * * *

HELP (page 195).

QUESTIONS.

1. Is help or aid the stronger term? 2. Which is used in excitement or emergency? 3. Does help include aid or does aid include help? 4. Which implies the seconding of another's exertions? Do we aid or help the helpless? 5. How do cooperate and assist differ? 6. To what do encourage and uphold refer? succor and support?

EXAMPLES.

He does not prevent a crime when he can —— it.

Know then whatever cheerful and serene —— the mind —— the body too.

* * * * *

HERETIC (page 196).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a heretic? a schismatic? 2. In what does a heretic differ from his church or religious body? a schismatic? 3. How do a heretic and a schismatic often differ in action? 4. How are the terms dissenter and non-conformist usually applied?

EXAMPLES.

A man that is an ——, after the first and second admonition, reject.

Churchmen and —— alike resisted the tyranny of James II.

* * * * *

HETEROGENEOUS (page 196).

QUESTIONS.

1. When are substances heterogeneous as regards each other? 2. When is a mixture, as cement, said to be heterogeneous? when homogeneous? 3. What is the special significance of non-homogeneous? 4. How does miscellaneous differ from heterogeneous?

EXAMPLES.

My second son received a sort of —— education at home.

Courtier and patriot can not mix Their —— politics Without an effervescence.

* * * * *

HIDE (page 197).

QUESTIONS.

1. Which is the most general term of this group, and what does it signify? 2. Is an object hidden by intention, or in what other way or ways, if any? 3. Does conceal evince intention? 4. How does secrete compare with conceal? How is it chiefly used? 5. What is it to cover? to screen?

EXAMPLES.

Men use thought only as authority for their injustice, and employ speech only to —— their thoughts.

Ye little stars! —— your diminished rays.

* * * * *

HIGH (page 198).

QUESTIONS.

1. What kind of a term is high? What does it signify? Give instances of the relative use of the word. 2. How does high compare with deep? To what objects may these words be severally applied? 3. What is the special significance of tall? 4. What element does lofty add to the meaning of high or tall? 5. How do elevated and eminent compare in the literal sense? in the figurative? 6. How do the words above mentioned compare with exalted? 7. What contrasted uses has high in the figurative sense? 8. What is towering in the literal, and in the figurative sense?

EXAMPLES.

A pillar'd shade, —— overarched, and echoing walks between.

A daughter of the gods, divinely —— and most divinely fair.

What is that which the breeze on the —— steep, As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?

He knew Himself to sing, and build the —— rime.

* * * * *

HINDER (page 199).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to hinder? 2. How does hinder differ from delay? 3. How does hinder compare with prevent? 4. What is the meaning of retard? 5. What is it to obstruct? to resist? How do these two words compare with each other?

EXAMPLES.

—— the Devil, and he will flee from you.

My tears must stop, for every drop —— my needle and thread.

It is the study of mankind to —— that advance of age or death which can not be ——.

* * * * *

HISTORY (page 200).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is history? How does it relate events? To what class of events does it apply? 2. How does history differ from annals or chronicles?

EXAMPLES.

Happy the people whose —— are dulled.

—— is little else than a picture of human crimes and misfortunes.

—— is philosophy teaching by example.

* * * * *

HOLY (page 200).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of sacred? 2. How does it compare with holy? 3. Which term do we apply directly to God? 4. In what sense is divine loosely used? What is its more appropriate sense?

EXAMPLES.

The —— time is quiet as a nun breathless with adoration.

A —— burden is this life ye bear.

All sects and churches of Christendom hold to some form of the doctrine of the —— inspiration of the Christian Scriptures.

* * * * *

HOME (page 201).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the general sense of abode, dwelling, and habitation? What difference is there in the use of these words? 2. From what language is home derived? What is its distinctive meaning?

EXAMPLES.

An —— giddy and unsure Hath he that buildeth on the vulgar heart.

The attempt to abolish the ideal woman and keep the ideal —— is a predestinated failure.

A house without love may be a castle or a palace, but it is not a ——.

Love is the life of a true ——.

* * * * *

HONEST (page 202).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of honest in ordinary use? 2. What is the meaning of honorable? 3. How will the merely honest and the truly honorable man differ in action? 4. What is honest in the highest and fullest sense? How, in this sense, does it differ from honorable?

EXAMPLES.

—— labor bears a lovely face.

An —— man's the noblest work of God.

No form of pure, undisguised murder will be any longer allowed to confound itself with the necessities of —— warfare.

* * * * *

HORIZONTAL (page 202).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does horizontal signify? How does it compare with level? 2. From what language is flat derived? 3. What is its original meaning? its most common present sense? In what derived sense is it often used? 4. What are the senses of plain and plane?

EXAMPLES.

Sun and moon were in the —— sea sunk.

Ample spaces o'er the smooth and —— pavement.

The prominent lines in Greek architecture were ——, and not vertical.

* * * * *

HUNT (page 203).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a hunt? 2. For what is a chase or pursuit conducted? a search? 3. What does hunt ordinarily include? 4. Is it correct to use hunt when search only is contemplated? 5. How are these words used in the figurative senses?

EXAMPLES.

Among the inalienable rights of man are life, liberty, and the —— of happiness.

All things have an end, and so did our —— for lodgings.

The —— formed the principal amusement of our Norman kings, who for that purpose retained in their possession forests in every part of the kingdom.

The —— is up, but they shall know The stag at bay's a dangerous foe.

* * * * *

HYPOCRISY (page 204).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is pretense derived, and what does it signify? 2. What is hypocrisy? 3. What is cant? sanctimoniousness? 4. What is pietism? formalism? sham? 5. How does affectation compare with hypocrisy?

EXAMPLES.

Let not the Trojans, with a feigned —— of proffered peace, delude the Latian prince.

—— is a fawning and flexible art, which accommodates itself to human feelings, and flatters the weakness of men in order that it may gain its own ends.

* * * * *

HYPOCRITE (page 204).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is hypocrite derived? What is its primary meaning? 2. What common term includes the other words of the group? 3. How are hypocrite and dissembler contrasted with each other? 4. What element is common to the cheat and the impostor? How do the two compare with each other?

EXAMPLES.

It is the weakest sort of politicians that are the greatest ——.

I dare swear he is no —— but prays from his heart.

In the reign of Henry VII., an ——, named Perkin Warbeck, laid claim to the English crown.

* * * * *

HYPOTHESIS (page 205).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a hypothesis? What is its use in scientific investigation and study? 2. What is a guess? a conjecture? a supposition? a surmise? 3. What implication does surmise ordinarily convey? What is a theory? a scheme? a speculation? How do they differ?

EXAMPLES.

——, fancies, built on nothing firm.

There are no other limits to —— than those of the human mind.

The development ——, tho widely accepted by men of science fails of proof at many important points.

* * * * *

IDEA (page 206).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is idea derived, and what did it originally mean? 2. What did idea signify in early philosophical use? 3. What is its present popular use, and with what words is it now synonymous?

EXAMPLES.

All rests with those who read. A work or —— Is what each makes it to himself.

He who comes up to his own —— of greatness must always have had a very low standard of it in his mind.

* * * * *

IDEAL (page 206).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an ideal? 2. What is an archetype? a prototype? 3. Can a prototype be equivalent to an archetype? 4. Is an ideal primal, or the result of development? 5. What is an original? 6. What is the standard? How does it compare with the ideal? 7. How are idea and ideal contrasted?

EXAMPLES.

Be a —— to others and then all will go well.

The mind's the —— of the man.

Every man has at times in his mind the —— of what he should be, but is not.

* * * * *

IDIOCY (page 207).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is idiocy? 2. What is imbecility? How does it compare with idiocy? 3. How does insanity differ from idiocy or imbecility? 4. How do folly and foolishness compare with idiocy? 5. What is fatuity? stupidity?

EXAMPLES.

Where ignorance is bliss, 'tis —— to be wise.

To expect an effect without a cause, or attainment without application, is little less than ——.

* * * * *

IDLE (page 208).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is idle derived, and what is its original meaning? 2. What does idle in present use properly denote? Does it necessarily denote the absence of all action? 3. What does lazy signify? How does it differ from idle? 4. What does inert signify? sluggish? 5. In what realm does slothful belong, and what does it denote? 6. How does indolent compare with slothful?

EXAMPLES.

The —— stream was covered with a green scum.

Never —— a moment, but thrifty and thoughtful of others.

As the door turneth upon his hinges, so doth the —— turn upon his bed.

* * * * *

IGNORANT (page 208).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does ignorant signify? How wide is its range? 2. What is the meaning of illiterate? 3. How does unlettered compare with illiterate?

EXAMPLES.

So foolish was I and ——; I was as a beast before thee.

A boy is better unborn than ——.

* * * * *

IMAGINATION (page 209).

QUESTIONS.

1. Into what two parts was imagination divided in the old psychology? 2. What name is now preferably given to the so-called Reproductive Imagination by President Porter and others? 3. What is fantasy or phantasy? In what mental actions is it manifested? 4. What is fantasy in ordinary usage? 5. How is imagination defined? fancy? 6. To what faculty of the mind do both of these activities or powers belong? 7. In what other respects do imagination and fancy agree? What is the one great distinction between them? How do they respectively treat the material objects or images with which they deal? Which power finds use in philosophy, science, and mechanical invention, and how?

EXAMPLES.

While ——, like the finger of a clock, Runs the great circuit, and is still at home.

And as —— bodies forth The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name.

* * * * *

IMMEDIATELY (page 211).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the primary meaning of immediately? Its meaning as an adverb of time? 2. What did by and by formerly signify? What is its present meaning? 3. What did directly formerly signify, and what does it now commonly mean? 4. What change has presently undergone? 5. Is immediately losing anything of its force? What words now seem more emphatic?

EXAMPLES.

Nothing is there to come, and nothing past, But an eternal —— does always last.

Let us go up ——, and possess it; for we are well able to overcome it.

Obey me ——!

* * * * *

IMMERSE (page 212).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is dip derived? from what immerse? 2. How do the two words differ in dignity? How as to the completeness of the action? How as to the continuance of the object in or under the liquid? 3. Which word is preferably used as to the rite of baptism? 4. What does submerge imply? 5. What are douse and duck? 6. What special sense has dip which the other words do not share?

EXAMPLES.

Trust no Future, howe'er pleasant! Let the dead Past —— its dead.

The ships of war, Congress and Cumberland, were —— by the Merrimac.

When food can not be swallowed, life may be prolonged by —— the body in nutritive fluids.

* * * * *

IMMINENT (page 212).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is imminent derived and with what primary sense? impending? 2. How do imminent and impending differ in present use? 3. How does threatening differ from the two words above given?

EXAMPLES.

And nodding Ilium waits the —— fall.

And these she does apply for warnings, portents, And evils ——.

* * * * *

IMPEDIMENT (page 213).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does impediment primarily signify? obstacle? obstruction? 2. How does obstacle differ from obstruction? 3. What is a hindrance? 4. Is an impediment what one finds or what he carries? Is it momentary or constant? What did the Latin impedimenta signify? 5. What is an encumbrance? How does it differ from an obstacle or obstruction? 6. Is a difficulty within one or without?

EXAMPLES.

Something between a —— and a help.

Thus far into the bowels of the land Have we march'd without ——.

Demosthenes became the foremost orator of the world in spite of an —— in his speech.

——s overcome are the stepping-stones by which great men rise.

* * * * *

IMPUDENCE (page 213).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does impertinence primarily denote? What is its common acceptation? 2. What is impudence? insolence? 3. What is officiousness? 4. What does rudeness suggest?

EXAMPLES.

With matchless —— they style a wife The dear-bought curse, and lawful plague of life.

It is better not to turn friendship into a system of lawful and unpunishable ——.

A certain class of ill-natured people mistake —— for frankness.

* * * * *

INCONGRUOUS (page 214).

QUESTIONS.

1. When are things said to be incongruous? 2. To what is discordant applied? inharmonious? 3. What does incompatible signify? When are things said to be incompatible? 4. To what does inconsistent apply? 5. What illustrations of the uses of these words are given in the text? 6. What is the meaning of incommensurable?

EXAMPLES.

No solitude is so solitary as that of —— companionship.

I hear a strain —— as a merry dirge, or sacramental bacchanal might be.

* * * * *

INDUCTION (page 215).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is deduction? induction? 2. What is the proof of an induction? 3. What process is ordinarily followed in what is known as scientific induction? 4. How do deduction and induction compare as to the certainty of the conclusion? 5. How does an induction compare with an inference?

EXAMPLES.

The longer one studies a vast subject the more cautious in —— he becomes.

Perhaps the widest and best known —— of Biology, is that organisms grow.

* * * * *

INDUSTRIOUS (page 215).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does busy differ from industrious? 2. What is the implication if we say one is industrious just now? 3. What does diligent add to the meaning of industrious?

EXAMPLES.

Look cheerfully upon me, Here, love; thou see'st how —— I am.

The —— have no time for tears.

* * * * *

INDUSTRY (page 216).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is industry? 2. What does assiduity signify as indicated by its etymology? diligence? 3. How does application compare with assiduity? 4. What is constancy? patience? perseverance? 5. What is persistence? What implication does it frequently convey? 6. How does industry compare with diligence? 7. To what do labor and pains especially refer?

EXAMPLES.

Honors come by ——; riches spring from economy.

'Tis —— supports us all.

There is no success in study without close, continuous, and intense ——.

His —— in wickedness would have won him enduring honor if it had taken the form of —— in a better cause.

* * * * *

INFINITE (page 216).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is infinite derived, and with what meaning? To what may it be applied? 2. How do countless, innumerable, and numberless compare with infinite? 3. What is the use of boundless, illimitable, limitless, measureless, and unlimited? 4. What are the dimensions of infinite space? What is the duration of infinite time?

EXAMPLES.

My bounty is as —— as the sea, my love as deep, the more I give to thee, the more I have, for both are ——.

Man's inhumanity to man makes —— thousands mourn.

* * * * *

INFLUENCE (page 217).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to influence? is one influenced by external or internal force? 2. To what kind of power does actuate refer? Does one person actuate or influence another? 3. What do prompt and stir imply? 4. What is it to excite? 5. What do incite and instigate signify? How do these two words differ? 6. What do urge and impel imply? How do they differ in the source of the power exerted? 7. What do drive and compel imply, and how do these two words compare with each other?

EXAMPLES.

He was —— by his own violent passions to desperate crime.

And well she can ——.

Fine thoughts are wealth, for the right use of which Men are and ought to be accountable, If not to Thee, to those they ——.

* * * * *

INHERENT (page 218).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does inherent signify? 2. To what realm of thought does immanent belong? What does it signify? How does it differ from inherent? Which is applied to the Divine Being? 3. To what do congenital, innate, and inborn apply as distinguished from inherent and intrinsic? 4. With what special reference does congenital occur in medical and legal use? 5. What is the difference in use between innate and inborn? 6. What does inbred add to the sense of innate or inborn? 7. What is ingrained?

EXAMPLES.

An —— power in the life of the world.

All men have an —— right to life, liberty, and protection.

He evinced an —— stupidity that seemed almost tantamount to —— idiocy.

Many philosophers hold that God is —— in nature.

Any stable currency must be founded at last upon something, as gold or silver, that has —— value.

The wrongs and abuses which are —— in the very structure and constitution of society as it now exists throughout Christendom.

* * * * *

INJURY (page 219).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is injury derived? What is its primary meaning? Its derived meaning? 2. How inclusive a word is injury? 3. From what is damage derived, and with what original sense? detriment? How do these words compare in actual use? 4. How does damage compare with loss? How can a loss be said to be partial? 5. What is evil, and with what frequent suggestion? 6. What is harm? hurt? How do these words compare with injury? 7. What is mischief? How caused, and with what intent?

EXAMPLES.

Nothing can work me ——, except myself; the —— that I sustain I carry about with me, and never am a real sufferer but by my own fault.

Hippolyta, I woo'd thee with my sword, And won thy love, doing thee ——.

* * * * *

INJUSTICE (page 220).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is injustice? 2. How does wrong differ from injustice in legal use? How in popular use? 3. What is iniquity in the legal sense? in the common sense?

EXAMPLES.

War in men's eyes shall be a monster of ——.

No man can mortgage his —— as a pawn for his fidelity.

Such an act is an —— upon humanity.

* * * * *

INNOCENT (page 220).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does innocent in the full sense signify? 2. Is innocent positive or negative? How does it compare with righteous, upright, or virtuous? 3. In what two applications may immaculate, pure, and sinless be used? 4. With what limited sense is innocent used of moral beings? 5. In what sense is innocent applied to inanimate substances?

EXAMPLES.

They are as —— as grace itself.

For blessings ever wait on —— deeds, And tho a late, a sure reward succeeds.

The wicked flee where no man pursueth, but the —— are bold as a lion.

A daughter, and a goodly babe; ... the queen receives Much comfort in't: says, My poor prisoner, I am —— as you.

* * * * *

INQUISITIVE (page 221).

QUESTIONS.

1. What are the characteristics of an inquisitive person? 2. Is inquisitive ever used in a good sense? What, in that sense, is ordinarily preferred? 3. What does curious signify, and how does it differ from inquisitive?

EXAMPLES.

His was an anxiously —— mind, a scrupulously conscientious heart.

Adrian was the most —— man that ever lived, and the most universal inquirer.

I am —— to know the cause of this sudden change of purpose.

* * * * *

INSANITY (page 221).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is insanity in the widest sense? in its restricted use? Which use is the more frequent? 2. From what is lunacy derived? What did it originally imply? In what sense is it now used? 3. What is madness? 4. What is derangement? delirium? 5. What is the specific meaning of dementia? 6. What is aberration? 7. What is the distinctive meaning of hallucination? 8. What is monomania? 9. What are frenzy and mania?

EXAMPLES.

Go—you may call it ——, folly—you shall not chase my gloom away.

All power of fancy over reason is a degree of ——.

* * * * *

INTERPOSE (page 222).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to interpose? 2. How does intercede differ from interpose? 3. What is it to intermeddle? How does it differ from meddle? from interfere? 4. What do arbitrate and mediate involve?

EXAMPLES.

Dion, his brother, —— for him and his life was saved.

Nature has —— a natural barrier between England and the continent.

* * * * *

INVOLVE (page 223).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is involve derived, and with what primary meaning? 2. How does involve compare with implicate? 3. Are these words used in the favorable or the unfavorable sense? 4. As regards results what is the difference between include, imply, and involve?

EXAMPLES.

Rocks may be squeezed into new forms, bent, contorted, and ——.

An oyster-shell sometimes —— a pearl.

—— in other men's affairs, he went down to their ruin.

* * * * *

JOURNEY (page 223).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is journey derived? What is its primary meaning? Its present meaning? 2. What is travel? How does it differ from journey? 3. What was the former meaning of voyage? its present meaning? 4. What is a trip? a tour? 5. What is the meaning and common use of passage? of transit? 6. What is the original meaning of pilgrimage? How is it now used?

EXAMPLES.

—— makes all men countrymen.

All the —— of their life is bound in shallows and in miseries.

It were a —— like the path to heaven, To help you find them.

* * * * *

JUDGE (page 224).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a judge in the legal sense? 2. What other senses has the word judge in common use? 3. What is a referee, and how appointed? an arbitrator? 4. What is the popular sense of umpire? the legal sense? 5. What is the present use of arbiter? 6. What are the judges of the United States Supreme Court officially called?

EXAMPLES.

The end crowns all, And that old common ——, Time, Will one day end it.

A man who is no —— of law may be a good —— of poetry.

The —— is only the mouth of law, and the magistrate who punishes is only the hand.

* * * * *

JUSTICE (page 225).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is justice in governmental relations? in social and personal relations? in matters of reasoning or literary treatment? 2. To what do integrity, rectitude, right, righteousness, and virtue apply? What do all these include? 3. What two contrasted senses has lawfulness? 4. To what does justness refer, and in what sense is it used?

EXAMPLES.

—— exalteth a nation.

—— of life is fame's best friend.

He shall have merely ——, and his bond.

* * * * *

KEEP (page 226).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the general meaning of keep? 2. How does keep compare with preserve? fulfil? maintain? 3. What does keep imply when used as a synonym of guard or defend?

EXAMPLES.

These make and —— the balance of the mind.

The good old rule Sufficeth them,—the simple plan, That they should take who have the power And they should —— who can.

—— thy shop, and thy shop will —— thee.

* * * * *

KILL (page 226).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to kill? 2. To what are assassinate, execute, and murder restricted? 3. What is the specific meaning of murder? execute? assassinate? To what class of persons is the latter word ordinarily applied? 4. What is it to slay? 5. To what is massacre limited? With what special meaning is it used? 6. To what do butcher and slaughter primarily apply? What is the sense of each when so used? 7. What is it to despatch?

EXAMPLES.

To look into her eyes was to —— doubt.

Two presidents of the United States have been ——.

Hamilton was —— in a duel by Aaron Burr.

The place was carried by storm, and the inhabitants —— without distinction of age or sex.

* * * * *

KIN (page 227).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does kind compare with kin? 2. What do kin and kindred denote? 3. What is affinity? How does it differ from consanguinity?

EXAMPLES.

A little more than ——, and less than ——.

He held his seat,—a friend to the human ——.

The patient bride, a little sad, Leaving of home and ——.

* * * * *

KNOWLEDGE (page 227).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is knowledge? How does it differ from information? 2. What is perception? apprehension? cognizance? 3. What is intuition? 4. What is experience, and how does it differ from intuition? 5. What is learning? erudition?

EXAMPLES.

—— comes, but wisdom lingers.

The child is continually seeking ——; hence his endless questions.

'Tis the sunset of life gives me mystical ——, And coming events cast their shadows before.

——s lie at the very foundation of all reasoning.

* * * * *

LANGUAGE (page 228).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the derivation of language? What was its original signification? How wide is its present meaning? 2. As regards the use of words, what does language denote in the general and in the restricted sense? 3. What does speech always involve? 4. Can we speak of the speech of animals? of their language? 5. What is a dialect? a barbarism? an idiom? 6. What is a patois? How does it differ from a dialect? 7. What is a vernacular?

EXAMPLES.

We must be free or die, who speak the —— That Shakespeare spake: the faith and morals hold Which Milton held.

—— is great; but silence is greater.

An infant crying in the night, An infant crying for the light, And with no —— but a cry.

Thought leapt out to wed with Thought, Ere Thought could wed itself with ——.

A Babylonish —— Which learned pedants much affect.

O! good, my lord, no Latin; I'm not such a truant since my coming As not to know the —— I have lived in.

* * * * *

LARGE (page 229).

QUESTIONS.

1. To how many dimensions does large apply? How does it differ from long? 2. How does large compare with great? with big?

EXAMPLES.

Courage, the mighty attribute of powers above, By which those —— in war, are —— in love.

Everything is twice as —— measured on a three-year-old's three-foot scale as on a thirty-year-old's six-foot scale.

And his —— manly voice, Turning again toward childish treble, Pipes and whistles in its sound.

* * * * *

LAW (page 229).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the definition of law in its ideal? What does it signify in common use? 2. What are the characteristics of command and commandment? of an edict? 3. What is a mandate? a statute? an enactment? 4. In what special connection is formula commonly used? ordinance? order? 5. What is the meaning of law in such an expression as "the laws of nature?" What in more strictly scientific use? 6. What is a code? jurisprudence? legislation? What is an economy? Is law ever a synonym for these words, and in what way?

EXAMPLES.

Order is Heaven's first ——; and this confest, Some are, and must be, greater than the rest.

Those he commands move only in ——, Nothing in love.

His fair large front and eye sublime declared Absolute ——.

We have strict ——, and most biting ——.

Napoleon gave France the best —— of —— she has ever possessed.

—— is physical, established sequence; intellectual, a condition of intellectual action in order that truth may be reached; and moral, an imperative which determines the right guidance of our higher life.

* * * * *

LIBERTY (page 230).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is freedom? 2. What is liberty in the primary sense? in the widest sense? 3. How do freedom and liberty compare? 4. How is independence used in distinction from freedom and liberty? 5. Is freedom or liberty more freely used in a figurative sense? 6. What is license? How does it compare with liberty and freedom?

EXAMPLES.

In Rousseau's philosophy —— is conceived of as lawlessness.

When —— from her mountain-height Unfurled her standard to the air, She tore the azure robe of night, And set the stars of glory there.

The —— to go higher than we are is given only when we have fulfilled amply the duty of our present sphere.

—— they mean when they cry ——! For who loves that must first be wise and good.

* * * * *

LIGHT (page 231).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is light? 2. What are the characteristics of a flame? a blaze? 3. What is a flare? a flash? 4. What is the sense of glare and glow? How do they differ, and to what are they applied? 5. To what do shine and sheen refer? 6. What do glimmer, glitter, and shimmer denote? 7. What is gleam? a glitter? a sparkle? glistening? 8. What is scintillation? in what two senses used? 9. To what are twinkle and twinkling applied? 10. What is illumination? incandescence?

EXAMPLES.

From a little spark may burst a mighty ——.

A —— as of another life, my kindling soul received.

It is ——, that enables us to see the differences between things; and it is Christ that gives us ——.

White with the whiteness of the snow, Pink with faintest rosy ——, They blossom on their sprays.

Ghastly in the —— of day.

—— in golden coats like images.

So —— a good deed in a naughty world.

There's but the —— of a star Between a man of peace and war.

* * * * *

LISTEN (page 232).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does hear signify? What does listen add to the meaning of hear? 2. What does attend add to the meaning of listen? 3. What does heed further imply? 4. What is the difference between listen for and listen to?

EXAMPLES.

And ——! how blithe the throstle sings; He, too, is no mean preacher;

Till I —— and —— If a step draweth near.

Chill airs and wintry winds! my ear Has grown familiar with your song; I —— it in the opening year, I ——, and it cheers me long.

——, every one That —— may, unto a tale That's merrier than the nightingale.

The men lay silent in the tall grass —— for the signal gun that should bid them rise and charge.

* * * * *

LITERATURE (page 233).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is literature in the most general sense? in more limited sense? 2. What does literature, used absolutely, denote? 3. How may literature include science? How is it ordinarily contrasted with science?

EXAMPLES.

Wherever —— consoles sorrow or assuages pain; wherever it brings gladness to eyes which fail with wakefulness and tears—there is exhibited in its noblest form the immortal influence of Athens.

—— are lifelong friends.

—— are embalmed minds.

In our own language we have a —— nowhere surpassed, in whose lock no foreign key will ever rust.

* * * * *

LOAD (page 233).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is burden derived, and with what primary meaning? load? 2. What does weight signify? How does it compare with load and burden? 3. What are cargo, freight, and lading? 4. What is the distinctive sense of pack?

EXAMPLES.

Bear ye one another's ——.

Wearing all that —— Of learning lightly like a flower.

The ass will carry his ——, but not a double ——.

* * * * *

LOOK (page 234).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinction between look and see? between these words and behold? 2. What is it to gaze? to glance? to stare? 3. What do scan, inspect, and survey respectively express, and how are they distinguished from one another? 4. What element or elements does watch add to the meaning of look?

EXAMPLES.

It is always well to —— at people when addressing them.

Having eyes they —— not, and having ears hear not.

Then gently —— your brother man, Still gentler sister woman; Tho' they may gang a kennin wrang, To step aside is human.

My soul waiteth for the Lord more than they that —— for the morning.

How peacefully the broad and golden moon Comes up to —— upon the reaper's toil!

I am monarch of all I ——, My right there is none to dispute; From the center all round to the sea, I am lord of the fowl and the brute.

But, ——, the morn in russet mantle clad, Walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill.

* * * * *

LOVE (page 235).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is affection? 2. What may be given as a brief definition of love? 3. Does affection apply to persons or things? To what does love apply? 4. What term is preferable to love as applying to articles of food and the like? 5. How does love differ from affection? from friendship?

EXAMPLES.

Peace, commerce, and honest —— with all nations help to form the bright constellation which has gone before us.

And you must love him ere to you he will seem worthy of your ——.

Yet pity for a horse o'erdriven And —— in which my hound has part Can hang no weight upon my heart, In its assumptions up to heaven.

Such —— and unbroken faith As temper life's worst bitterness.

* * * * *

MAKE (page 236).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the essential idea of make? 2. How is make allied with create? 3. How is make allied with compose or constitute? 4. What are some chief antonyms for make? 5. What are the prepositions chiefly used with make, and how employed?

EXAMPLES.

In the beginning God —— the heaven and the earth.

The mason ——, the architect ——.

I assert confidently that it is in the power of one American mother to —— as many gentlemen as she has sons.

Newton discovered, but did not —— the law of gravitation.

The river flows over a bed of pebbles like those that —— the beach and the surrounding plains.

A hermit and a wolf or two My whole acquaintance ——.

If we were not willing, they possessed the power of —— us to do them justice.

The lessons of adversity sometimes soften and ——, but as often they indurate and pervert.

* * * * *

MARRIAGE (page 236).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does matrimony specifically denote? 2. What two senses has marriage? 3. From what language is wedlock derived? what is its distinctive use? 4. What is the meaning of wedding? nuptials?

EXAMPLES.

Let me not to the —— of true minds admit impediments.

The lover was killed in a duel on the night before the intended ——.

I'll join my eldest daughter, and my joy, To him forthwith in holy —— bonds.

* * * * *

MASCULINE (page 237).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what is male applied? To what masculine? 2. To what does manly refer? manful? In what connection can manly be used where manful could not be substituted? 3. What is the sense of mannish? virile?

EXAMPLES.

Every virtue in the higher phases of —— character begins in truth and pity or truth and reverence to all womanhood.

One brave and —— struggle And he gained the solid land And the cover of the mountains And the carbines of his band.

So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; —— and female created he them.

* * * * *

MASSACRE (page 237).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is massacre? butchery? havoc? 2. To what does carnage especially refer? slaughter? 3. Which of these words can be used of the destruction of life in open and honorable warfare?

EXAMPLES.

Mark! where his —— and his conquests cease! He makes a solitude and calls it peace!

Forbade to wade through —— to a throne, And shut the gates of mercy on mankind.

The capture of Port Arthur was followed by a terrible ——.

* * * * *

MEDDLESOME (page 238).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the conduct specially characteristic of a meddlesome person? of an intrusive person? of one who is obtrusive? officious? 2. To what is obtrusive chiefly applied? intrusive? officious? meddlesome?

EXAMPLES.

Where sorrow's held —— and turned out, There wisdom will not enter nor true power, Nor aught that dignifies humanity.

A —— monkey had been among the papers.

* * * * *

MELODY (page 238).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is harmony? melody? In what special feature does the one differ from the other? 2. How many parts are required for harmony? how many for melody? 3. What is unison? 4. What does music include?

EXAMPLES.

Sweetest —— Are those that are by distance made more sweet.

——, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory.

Ring out ye crystal spheres And with your ninefold —— Make up full consort to the angelic ——.

* * * * *

MEMORY (page 239).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is memory in the special and in the general sense? 2. What is remembrance, and how distinguished from memory? 3. Is remembrance voluntary or involuntary? 4. What is recollection, and what does it involve? 5. What is reminiscence? retrospection? How do these two words differ?

EXAMPLES.

—— like a purse, if it be over-full that it can not shut, all will drop out of it; take heed of a gluttonous curiosity to feed on many things, lest the greediness of the appetite of thy —— spoil the digestion thereof.

—— wakes with all her busy train, Swells at my breast, and turns the past to pain.

It is a favorite device of eminent men to devote their old age to writing their ——s, thus quietly living over again a busy or tumultuous life.

* * * * *

MERCY (page 239).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is mercy in the strictest sense? 2. To what class is grace shown? 3. To what class are mercy, forgiveness, and pardon extended? 4. In what wider significations is mercy used? 5. What is clemency? leniency or lenity? How do these words compare with mercy?

EXAMPLES.

How would you be, If He, which is the top of judgment, should But judge you as you are? O, think on that; And —— then will breathe within your lips, Like man new made.

The only protection which the conquered could find was in the moderation, the ——, and the enlarged policy of the conquerors.

To favor sin is to discourage virtue; undue —— to the bad is unkindness to the good.

* * * * *

METER (page 240).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is euphony? How does it differ from meter, measure, and rhythm? 2. How are rhythm and meter produced? 3. How does meter differ from rhythm? 4. What is a verse in the strict sense? In what wider sense is the word often used?

EXAMPLES.

—— is a very vague and unscientific term. Each nation considers its own language, each tribe its own dialect, euphonic.

—— may be defined to be a succession of poetical feet arranged in regular order according to certain types recognized as standards, in verses of a determinate length.

We have three principal domains in which —— manifests its nature and power—dancing, music, poetry.

* * * * *

MIND (page 241).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is mind? How does it differ from intellect? 2. What does consciousness include? Is it attended with distinct thinking and willing? 3. What is the soul? 4. From what is spirit used in special contradistinction? How does it differ from soul? 5. What is Paley's definition of instinct? 6. In what contrasted meanings is the word sense employed? 7. What is thought?

EXAMPLES.

A great —— will be strong to live, as well as to think.

God is a ——: and they that worship him must worship him in —— and in truth.

* * * * *

MINUTE (page 242).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of minute? 2. When is a thing said to be comminuted? 3. How does fine differ from comminuted? 4. What terms are applied to an account extended to minute particulars? to an examination similarly extended?

EXAMPLES.

No —— room so warm and bright, Wherein to read, wherein to write.

Life hangs on, held by a —— thread.

An organism so —— as to be visible only under the microscope, yet possessed of life, motion, and seeming intelligence is a source of ceaseless wonder.

* * * * *

MISFORTUNE (page 242).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is misfortune? Is the sufferer considered blameworthy for it? 2. What is calamity? disaster? 3. In what special sense are the words affliction, chastening, trial, and tribulation used? How are these four words discriminated the one from another?

EXAMPLES.

He's not valiant that dares die, But he that boldly bears ——.

I never knew a man in life who could not bear another's —— perfectly like a Christian.

* * * * *

MODEL (page 243).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a model? a pattern? How are they distinguished from one another? 2. Which admits of freedom or idealization?

EXAMPLES.

Things done without ——, in their issue Are to be fear'd.

Be a —— to others, and then all will go well.

Washington and his compeers had no —— of a federal republic with constitutional bonds and limitations.

Moses was admonished, See that thou make all things according to the —— shewed to thee in the mount.

* * * * *

MODESTY (page 244).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is modesty in the general sense? In what specific sense is the word also used? 2. What is bashfulness? diffidence? coyness? reserve?

EXAMPLES.

For silence and chaste —— is woman's genuine praise, and to remain quiet within the house.

If a young lady has that discretion and ——, without which all knowledge is little worth, she will never make an ostentatious parade of it.

His shrinking —— was often mistaken for a proud ——.

* * * * *

MONEY (page 244).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is money? specie? cash? 2. How does property differ from money? 3. What is bullion? capital?

EXAMPLES.

I am not covetous for ——; Nor care I who doth feed upon my cost.

For the love of —— is the root of all evil.

He converted all his —— into ready ——.

One who undertakes to do business without —— is likely to be speedily straitened for ——.

—— in reversion may be of far less value than —— in hand.

* * * * *

MOROSE (page 245).

QUESTIONS.

1. By what characteristics are the morose distinguished? the sullen and sulky? 2. How does sullen differ from sulky? 3. What is the meaning of surly? 4. Which of these words denote transient moods and which denote enduring states or disposition?

EXAMPLES.

My master is of —— disposition, And little recks to find the way to heaven By doing deeds of hospitality.

A poet who fails in writing, becomes often a —— critic.

He answered with a —— growl.

Achilles remained in his tent in —— inaction.

* * * * *

MOTION (page 246).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is motion? 2. How does motion differ from movement? Give examples. 3. In what sense is move employed? 4. What is the special sense of motion in a deliberative assembly? 5. Is action or motion the more comprehensive word? Which is commonly used in reference to the mind?

EXAMPLES.

That —— is best which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers.

There is no death! What seems so is ——; This life of mortal breath Is but a suburb of the life elysian, Whose portal we call Death.

The Copernican theory first clearly explained the —— of the planets.

* * * * *

MUTUAL (page 246).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of common? mutual? reciprocal? 2. Is it correct to speak of a mutual friend?

EXAMPLES.

—— friendships will admit of division, one may love the beauty of this, the good humor of that person.

In all true family life there is a —— dependence which binds hearts together.

—— action is the rule in the human body, where every part is alternately means and end, and every action both cause and effect.

* * * * *

NAME (page 247).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a name in the most general sense? 2. In the more limited sense, how does a name differ from an appellation? a title? Give instances of the use of these three words. 3. From what language is epithet derived? What is its primary meaning? 4. What does epithet signify in literary use? 5. What part of speech is an epithet? Is it favorable or unfavorable in signification? 6. What is a cognomen? How does it differ from a surname? 7. What is style considered as a synonym of name?

EXAMPLES.

Those he commands, move only in command Nothing in love: now does he feel the —— Hang loose about him, like a giant's robe Upon a dwarfish thief.

O magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt his —— together.

* * * * *

NATIVE (page 248).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does native denote? natal? natural? 2. What examples are given in the text of the correct use of these words?

EXAMPLES.

I would advise no child's being taught music who has not a —— aptitude for it.

It was the 4th of July, the —— day of American freedom.

* * * * *

NAUTICAL (page 248).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what is marine derived? maritime? What do these two words respectively signify? 2. From what is naval derived? nautical? How do these words differ in meaning? 3. How does ocean, used adjectively, differ from oceanic?

EXAMPLES.

That sea-beast, Leviathan, which God of all his works Created hugest that swim the —— stream.

* * * * *

NEAT (page 249).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does clean signify? 2. Does orderly apply to persons or things, and in what sense? 3. What does tidy denote? 4. What is the meaning of neat? 5. How does nice compare with neat? 6. What is the significance of spruce? trim? dapper?

EXAMPLES.

If he (Jefferson) condescended to turn —— sentences for delicate ears—still, he was essentially an earnest man.

Still to be ——, still to be drest, As you were going to a feast, Still to be powder'd, still perfum'd.

* * * * *

NECESSARY (page 250).

QUESTIONS.

1. When is a thing properly said to be necessary? 2. What is the meaning of essential? How does it differ from indispensable? 3. With reference to what is a thing said to be requisite? How does requisite compare with essential and indispensable? 4. How do inevitable and unavoidable compare? To what kind of things are both these words applied? 5. How do needed and needful compare with necessary?

EXAMPLES.

As you grow ready for it, somewhere or other you will find what is —— for you in a book.

The ideas of space and time are called in philosophy —— ideas.

* * * * *

NECESSITY (page 250).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is necessity? 2. What do need and want imply? How does need compare with want? 3. How does necessity compare with need? 4. What is an essential?

EXAMPLES.

Courage is, on all hands, considered as an —— of high character.

No living man can send me to the shades Before my time; no man of woman born, Coward or brave, can shun his ——.

* * * * *

NEGLECT, n. (page 251).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is neglect? negligence? How do the two words compare? 2. What senses has negligence that neglect has not? 3. Which of the two words may be used in a passive sense? 4. What is the legal phrase for a punishable omission of duty?

EXAMPLES.

Ah, why Should we, in the world's riper years, —— God's ancient sanctuaries, and adore Only among the crowd.

But, alas, to make A fixed figure, for the hand of —— To point his slow unmoving finger at.

* * * * *

NEW (page 252).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of new? of modern? of recent? 2. How does recent compare with new? 3. What is the meaning of novel? of fresh? 4. To what do young and youthful distinctively apply?

* * * * *

NIMBLE (page 253).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what does nimble properly refer? 2. To what does swift apply? 3. How does alert compare with nimble? For what is alert more properly a synonym?

EXAMPLES.

Win her with gifts, if she respect not words; Dumb jewels often, in their silent kind, More —— than words, do move a woman's mind.

Profound thinkers are often helpless in society, while shallow men have —— and ready minds.

* * * * *

NORMAL (page 253).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does natural signify? normal? Give instances of the distinctive use of the two words. 2. What does typical signify? regular? common?

EXAMPLES.

He does it with a better grace, but I do it more ——.

The —— round of work may grow monotonous, but it is evidently necessary.

* * * * *

NOTWITHSTANDING (page 254).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the signification of however as a conjunction? of nevertheless? 2. Which is the most emphatic word of the group and what does it signify? 3. How do yet and still compare with notwithstanding? with but? 4. What is the force of tho and altho? 5. How does notwithstanding as a preposition differ from despite or in spite of?

EXAMPLES.

—— do thy worst, old Time; despite thy wrong, My love shall in my verse ever live young.

—— till all graces be in one woman, one woman shall not come in my grace.

There was an immense crowd —— the inclement weather.

* * * * *

OATH (page 254).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an oath? an affidavit? How does the affidavit differ from the oath? 2. What is an adjuration? 3. What is a vow? How does it differ from an oath? 4. Of what words is oath a popular synonym? 5. In what do anathema, curse, execration, and imprecation agree? 6. What is an anathema? 7. Is a curse just or unjust? 8. What does execration express? imprecation?

EXAMPLES.

Better is it that thou shouldest not ——, than that thou shouldest —— and not pay.

Then how can any man be said To break an —— he never made?

* * * * *

OBSCURE (page 255).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is obscure? 2. How does obscure compare with complicated? with complex? with abstruse? with profound?

* * * * *

OBSOLETE (page 256).

QUESTIONS.

1. When is a word obsolete? When is a word archaic? 2. Is an old or ancient word necessarily obsolete? 3. What is meant by saying that a word is rare? 4. Is a rare word necessarily obsolete or an obsolete word necessarily rare?

EXAMPLES.

When the labors of modern philologists began, Sanscrit was the most —— of all the Aryan languages known to them.

Atlas, we read in —— song, Was so exceeding tall and strong, He bore the skies upon his back, Just as the pedler does his pack.

It is wonderful that so few —— words are found in Shakespeare after the lapse of three centuries.

* * * * *

OBSTINATE (page 256).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does headstrong differ from obstinate and stubborn? 2. How do obstinate and stubborn differ from each other? Which is commonly applied to the inferior animals and to inanimate things? 3. What is the meaning of refractory? How does it differ from stubborn? Which word is applied to metals, and in what sense? 4. What is the meaning of obdurate? contumacious? pertinacious? 5. What words do we apply to the unyielding character or conduct that we approve?

EXAMPLES.

Is it in heav'n a crime to love too well? To bear too tender, or too —— a heart, To act a Lover's or a Roman's part?

"I shall talk of what I like," she said wilfully, clasping her hands round her knees with the gesture of an —— child.

* * * * *

OBSTRUCT (page 257).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the literal meaning of obstruct? How does it compare with hinder? 2. How does obstruct compare with impede? 3. What does arrest signify in the sense here considered?

EXAMPLES.

There is a certain wisdom of humanity which is common to the greatest men with the lowest, and which our ordinary education often labors to silence and ——.

No, no ——ing the vast wheel of time, That round and round still turns with onward might.

* * * * *

OLD (page 257).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does old signify? 2. How do old and ancient compare? 3. What contrasted senses has old? 4. What is the special force of olden? 5. In what sense are gray, hoary, and olden used of material objects? 6. To what is aged chiefly applied? 7. To what do decrepit, gray, and hoary apply, as said of human beings? 8. To what does senile apply? 9. In what sense is elderly used? 10. What are the primary and derived meanings of remote? 11. What does venerable express?

EXAMPLES.

The hills, Rock-ribbed and —— as the sun,—the vales Stretching in pensive quietness between; The —— woods, ... ... and, poured round all, —— ocean's gray and melancholy waste,— Are but the solemn decorations all Of the great tomb of man.

Through the sequestered vale of rural life, The —— patriarch guileless held The tenor of his way.

O good —— head which all men knew!

Shall we, shall —— men, like —— trees, Strike deeper their vile root, and closer cling, Still more enamored of their wretched soil?

* * * * *

OPERATION (page 258).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does operation denote? and by what kind of agent is it effected? 2. What do performance and execution denote? and by what kind of agents are they effected? 3. How does performance differ from execution?

EXAMPLES.

It requires a surgical —— to get a joke well into a Scotch understanding.

His promises were, as he then was, mighty; But his ——, as he is now, nothing.

* * * * *

ORDER (page 258).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does instruction imply? direction? 2. How does order compare with direction? 3. To what classes of persons are orders especially given? How does an order in the commercial sense become authoritative? 4. How does command compare with order? 5. In what sense is requirement used? By what authority is a requirement made? 6. In what sense is prohibition used? injunction?

EXAMPLES.

General Sherman writes in his Memoirs, "I have never in my life questioned or disobeyed an ——."

"Ye shall become like God"—transcendent fate! That God's —— forgot, she plucked and ate.

* * * * *

OSTENTATION (page 259).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is ostentation? How does it compare with boasting? display? show? 2. What is pomp? pageant or pageantry? What do the two latter words suggest, and how do they compare with pomp? 3. From what is parade derived? What is its primary meaning? With what implication is it always used in the metaphorical sense? How does parade compare with ostentation?

EXAMPLES.

The boast of heraldry, the —— of power, And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave. Await alike the inevitable hour; The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

The President's salary does not permit ——, nor, indeed, is —— expected of him.

With all his wealth, talent, and learning, he was singularly free from ——.

* * * * *

OVERSIGHT (page 260).

QUESTIONS.

1. In what two contrasted senses is oversight used? 2. How does superintendence compare with oversight? 3. With what special reference is control used? 4. What kind of a term is surveillance, and what does it imply?

EXAMPLES.

Those able to conduct great enterprises must be allowed wages of ——.

O Friendship, equal poised ——!

Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the —— thereof not by constraint, but willingly.

* * * * *

OUGHT (page 260).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does ought properly signify? 2. How does ought compare with should? 3. In what secondary sense is ought sometimes used?

EXAMPLES.

He has not a right to do what he likes, but only what he —— with his own, which after all is his own only in a qualified sense.

Age —— have reverence, and —— be worthy to have it.

* * * * *

PAIN (page 261).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is pain? suffering? 2. How does distress rank as compared with pain and suffering? 3. What is an ache? a throe? a paroxysm? 4. What is agony? anguish?

EXAMPLES.

To each his ——s; all are men, Condemned alike to groan; The tender for another's ——, The unfeeling for his own.

The weariest and most loathed worldly life That age, ——, penury, and imprisonment Can lay on nature.

* * * * *

PALLIATE (page 261).

QUESTIONS.

1. How do cloak and palliate agree in original meaning? How do they differ in the derived senses? 2. What is it to extenuate, and how does that word compare with palliate?

EXAMPLES.

Speak of me as I am; nothing —— Nor aught set down in malice.

We would not dissemble nor —— [our transgressions] before the face of Almighty God, our heavenly Father.

I shall never attempt to —— my own foibles by exposing the error of another.

* * * * *

PARDON, v. (page 262).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to pardon? 2. To what does forgive refer? 3. How do pardon and forgive differ in use in accordance with the difference in meaning? 4. What is it to remit? to condone? to excuse?

EXAMPLES.

How many will say ——, And find a kind of license in the sound To hate a little longer!

I —— him, as heaven shall —— me.

To err is human, to ——, divine.

* * * * *

PARDON, n. (page 262).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is acquittal? How does it differ from pardon as regards the person acquitted or pardoned? 2. Is an innocent person ever pardoned? 3. What is oblivion? amnesty? absolution?

EXAMPLES.

For 'tis sweet to stammer one letter Of the Eternal's language;—on earth it is called ——.

——, not wrath, is God's best attribute.

—— to the injured does belong, But they ne'er —— who have done the wrong.

* * * * *

PART, n. (page 264).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a part? 2. What is a fragment? a piece? 3. What do division and fraction signify? 4. What is a portion? 5. What is a share? an instalment? a particle? 6. What do component, constituent, ingredient, and element signify? How do they differ from one another? 7. What is a subdivision?

EXAMPLES.

The best —— of a good man's life, His little, nameless, unremembered acts Of kindness and of love.

Spirits that live throughout, Vital in every —— ... Can not but by annihilating die.

Many cheap houses were built to be sold by ——s.

* * * * *

PARTICLE (page 264).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a particle? 2. What does atom etymologically signify? What is its meaning in present scientific use? 3. What is a molecule, and of what is it regarded as composed? 4. What is an element in chemistry?

EXAMPLES.

Lucretius held that the universe originated from a fortuitous concourse of ——s.

But thou shalt flourish in immortal youth, Unhurt amidst the war of ——s, The wreck of matter and the crush of worlds.

Many aquatic animals, whose food consists of small —— diffused through the water, have an apparatus for creating currents so as to bring such —— within their reach.

* * * * *

PATIENCE (page 265).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is patience? 2. What is endurance? 3. How does patience compare with submission and endurance? 4. To what are submission and resignation ordinarily applied? 5. What is forbearance? How does it compare with patience?

EXAMPLES.

With —— bear the lot to thee assigned, Nor think it chance, nor murmur at the load, For know what man calls Fortune is from God.

There is, however, a limit at which —— ceases to be a virtue.

* * * * *

PAY (page 266).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is pay? compensation? remuneration? recompense? 2. What is an allowance? 3. What are wages? earnings? 4. What is hire? what does it imply? 5. For what is salary paid? How does it differ from wages? 6. What is a fee, and for what given?

EXAMPLES.

I am not aware that ——, or even favors, however gracious, bind any man's soul.

Our praises are our ——.

Carey, in early life, was a country minister with a small ——.

Laborers are remunerated by ——, and officials by ——.

* * * * *

PEOPLE (page 266).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a community? a commonwealth? 2. What is a people? a race? 3. What is a state? a nation? 4. What does population signify? tribe?

EXAMPLES.

A —— may let a king fall, and still remain a ——, but if a king let his —— slip from him, he is no longer a king.

Questions of —— have played a great part in the politics and wars of the latter half of the nineteenth century, the Germanic ——, the Slavonic ——, the Italian, and the Greek ——s struggling to assert their unity.

* * * * *

PERCEIVE (page 267).

QUESTIONS.

1. What class of things do we perceive? 2. How does apprehend differ in scope from perceive? 3. What does conceive signify? 4. How does comprehend compare with apprehend? with conceive?

EXAMPLES.

We may —— the tokens of the divine agency without being able to —— or —— the divine Being.

... Admitted once to his embrace, Thou shalt —— that thou wast blind before.

O horror! horror! horror! Tongue nor heart Can not —— nor name thee!

* * * * *

PERFECT (page 268).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is perfect in the fullest and highest sense? 2. What is absolute in the fullest sense? 3. What is perfect in the limited sense, and in popular language?

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