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English Synonyms and Antonyms - With Notes on the Correct Use of Prepositions
by James Champlin Fernald
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EXAMPLES.

Sometimes gentle, sometimes capricious, sometimes awful; never the —— for two moments together.

Fashioned for himself, a bride; An ——, taken from his side.

* * * * *

ALLAY (page 31).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinction between allay and alleviate? Which word implies a partial removal of the cause of suffering, or an actual lightening of the burden? 2. With which of the above words are we to class appease, pacify, soothe, and the like? 3. With what words is alleviate especially to be grouped? (See synonyms for ALLEVIATE.)

EXAMPLES.

Such songs have power to —— The restless pulse of care, And come like the benediction That follows after prayer.

Many a word, at random spoken May —— or wound a heart that's broken!

* * * * *

ALLEGE (page 31).

QUESTIONS.

1. Which is the primary and which the secondary word, allege or adduce? Why? 2. How much of certainty is implied in allege? 3. How much does one admit when he speaks of an alleged fact, document, signature, or the like?

EXAMPLES.

In many —— cases of haunted houses, the spirits have not ventured to face an armed man who has passed the night there.

I can not —— one thing and mean another. If I can't pray I will not make believe!

* * * * *

ALLEGORY (page 33).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does allegory compare with simile? Simile with metaphor? 2. What are the distinctions between allegory, fable, and parable? 3. Under what general term are all these included? 4. To what is fiction now most commonly applied?

EXAMPLES.

In argument —— are like songs in love: They much describe; they nothing prove.

And He spake many things unto them in ——, saying, Behold a sower went forth to sow.

* * * * *

ALLEVIATE (page 33).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does alleviate differ from relieve? from remove? 2. Is alleviate used of persons? 3. What are the special significations of abate? assuage? mitigate? moderate? 4. How does alleviate compare with allay? (Compare synonyms for ALLAY.)

EXAMPLES.

To pity distress is but human; to —— it is Godlike.

But, O! what mighty magician can —— A woman's envy?

* * * * *

ALLIANCE (page 34).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an alliance? how does it differ from partnership? from coalition? from league? 2. How does a confederacy or federation differ from a union?

EXAMPLES.

The two nations formed an offensive and defensive —— against the common enemy.

Till the war-drum throbbed no longer, and the battle-flags were furled, In the Parliament of man, the —— of the world.

Business —— are the warrant for the existence of trade ——.

* * * * *

ALLOT (page 34).

QUESTIONS.

1. Does allot refer to time, place, or person? 2. To what does appoint refer? assign? 3. How does destine differ from appoint? 4. How does award differ from allot, appoint, and assign?

EXAMPLES.

Man hath his daily work of body or mind ——.

He ——eth the moon for seasons; the sun knoweth his going down.

The king is but as the hind ... Who may not wander from the —— field Before his work be done.

* * * * *

ALLOW (page 35).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the difference between allow and permit? between a permit and permission? 2. What instances can you give of the use of these words, also of tolerate and submit? 3. What does yield imply?

EXAMPLES.

Frederick —— the Austrians to cross the mountains that he might attack them on a field of his own choosing.

The cruelty and envy of the people —— by our dastard nobles, who Have all forsook me, hath devoured the rest.

State churches have ever been unwilling to —— dissent.

* * * * *

ALLUDE (page 36).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive sense of allude? of advert? of refer? 2. How do the above words compare with mention as to explicitness? 3. How do hint and insinuate differ?

EXAMPLES.

Late in the eighteenth century Cowper did not venture to do more than —— to the great allegorist [Bunyan], saying:

"I name thee not, lest so despised a name Should move a sneer at thy deserved fame."

* * * * *

ALLURE (page 37).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to allure? 2. How does allure differ from attract? from lure? 3. What does coax express? 4. What is it to cajole? to decoy? to inveigle? 5. How does seduce differ from tempt? 6. Is win used in the favorable or unfavorable sense?

EXAMPLES.

The ruddy square of comfortable light —— him, as the beacon blaze —— The bird of passage.

But Satan now is wiser than of yore, And —— by making rich, not making poor.

He had a strange gift of —— friends, and of —— the love of women.

* * * * *

ALSO (page 37).

QUESTIONS.

1. Into what two groups are the synonyms for also naturally divided? 2. Which words simply add a fact or thought? 3. Which distinctly imply that what is added is like that to which it is added?

EXAMPLES.

Thine to work —— to pray, Clearing thorny wrongs away; Plucking up the weeds of sin, Letting heaven's warm sunshine in.

* * * * *

ALTERNATIVE (page 38).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the difference between choice and alternative in the strict use of language? 2. Is alternative always so severely restricted by leading writers? 3. What do choice, pick, election, and preference imply regarding one's wishes? alternative? resources?

EXAMPLES.

Homer delights to call Ulysses "the man of many ——."

* * * * *

AMASS (page 38).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to amass? 2. How is amass distinguished from accumulate? 3. Is interest amassed or accumulated? 4. How does hoard differ from store?

EXAMPLES.

By daring and successful speculation, he —— a prodigious fortune.

The sum was the —— savings of an industrious and frugal life.

O, to what purpose dost thou —— thy words, That thou return'st no greeting to thy friends?

* * * * *

AMATEUR (page 39).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the difference between amateur and connoisseur? between connoisseur and critic? 2. Which word carries a natural implication of superficialness? 3. How do novice and tyro differ from amateur?

EXAMPLES.

He was in Logic a great —— Profoundly skill'd in Analytic; He could distinguish, and divide A hair 'twixt south and south-west side.

The greatest works in poetry, painting, and sculpture have not been done by ——.

The mere —— who produces nothing, and whose business is only to judge and enjoy.

* * * * *

AMAZEMENT (page 39).

QUESTIONS.

1. What do amazement and astonishment agree in expressing? 2. How do the two words differ? 3. What is the meaning of awe? of admiration? 4. How does surprise differ from astonishment and amazement? 5. What are the characteristics of wonder?

EXAMPLES.

'Twas while he toiled him to be freed, And with the rein to raise the steed, That, from ——'s iron trance, All Wycklif's soldiers waked at once.

Can such things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special ——?

The fool of nature stood with stupid eyes And gaping mouth that testified ——.

* * * * *

AMBITION (page 40).

QUESTIONS.

1. What two senses has ambition? 2. How does ambition differ from aspiration? Which is the higher word? 3. What is the distinctive sense of emulation? 4. Has emulation a good side? How does it compare with aspiration?

EXAMPLES.

Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away —— By that sin, fell the angels.

Envy, to which th' ignoble mind's a slave, Is —— in the learn'd or brave.

I have no spur To prick the sides of my intent, but only Vaulting ——.

* * * * *

AMEND (page 41).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to amend? 2. How do advance, better, and improve differ from amend? 3. Are these words applied to matters decidedly bad, foul, or evil? 4. What is the difference between amend and emend?

EXAMPLES.

Return ye now every man from his evil way, and —— your doings.

The construction here is difficult, and the text at this point has been variously ——.

Human characters and conditions never reach such perfection that they can not be ——.

* * * * *

AMIABLE (page 42).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what does lovely often apply? 2. To what does amiable always apply? 3. How do agreeable, attractive, and charming differ from amiable? Give examples. 4. Is a good-natured person necessarily agreeable? an amiable person?

EXAMPLES.

His life was ——; and the elements So mixed in him, that Nature might stand up And say to all the world, This was a man!

The east is blossoming! Yea a rose, Vast as the heavens, soft as a kiss, —— as the presence of woman is.

* * * * *

ANALOGY (page 43).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the specific meaning of analogy? 2. What is affinity? coincidence? 3. Does coincidence necessarily involve resemblance or likeness? 4. What is parity of reasoning? 5. What is a similitude? 6. How do resemblance and similarity differ from analogy?

EXAMPLES.

The two boys bore a close —— to each other.

It is not difficult to trace the —— of the home to the state.

* * * * *

ANGER (page 44).

QUESTIONS.

1. What are the especial characteristics of anger? How does it differ from indignation? exasperation? rage? wrath? ire?

EXAMPLES.

My enemy has long borne me a feeling of ——.

Christ was filled with —— at the hypocrisy of the Jews.

I was overcome by a sudden feeling of ——.

* * * * *

ANIMAL (page 45).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an animal? a brute? a beast? 2. Is man an animal? 3. What is implied if we speak of any particular man as an animal? a brute? a beast? 4. What forms of existence does the word creature include? 5. What are the animals of a country or region collectively called?

EXAMPLES.

It is only within the last half century that societies have been organized for the prevention of cruelty to ——.

O that men should put an enemy in their mouths to steal away their brains! that we should with joy, pleasance, revel, and applause, transform ourselves into ——!

Take a —— out of his instinct, and you find him wholly deprived of understanding.

Spurning manhood and its joys to loot, To be a lawless, lazy, sensual ——.

* * * * *

ANNOUNCE (page 46).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to announce? 2. Does it apply chiefly to the past or the future? 3. To what is advertise chiefly applied? propound? promulgate? publish?

EXAMPLES.

The Sphinx —— its riddles with life and death depending on the answer.

Through the rare felicity of the times you are permitted to think what you please and to —— what you please.

The songs of birds and the wild flowers in the woodlands —— the coming of spring.

* * * * *

ANSWER (page 46).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a verbal answer? 2. In what wider sense is answer used? 3. What is a reply? a rejoinder? 4. How does an answer to a charge, an argument, or the like, differ from a reply or rejoinder? 5. What is the special quality of a response? 6. What is a retort? How does it differ from repartee?

EXAMPLES.

I can no other —— make, but thanks.

Theirs not to make —— Theirs not to reason why, Theirs but to do and die.

Upon thy princely warrant I descend, To give thee —— of thy just demand.

He could not be content without finding a —— in Nature to every mood of his mind; and he does find it.

A man renowned for —— Will seldom scruple to make free With friendship's honest feeling.

Nothing is so easy and inviting as the —— of abuse and sarcasm; but it is a paltry and unprofitable contest.

* * * * *

ANTICIPATE, ANTICIPATION (page 47).

QUESTIONS.

1. What are the two contrasted senses of anticipate? 2. Which is now the more common? 3. How does anticipate differ from expect? from hope? from apprehend? 4. How does anticipation differ from presentiment? from apprehension? from foreboding? 5. What special element is involved in foretaste? How do foresight and forethought go beyond the meaning of anticipation?

EXAMPLES.

Then some leaped overboard with fearful yell, As eager to —— their grave.

England —— every man to do his duty.

These are portents; but yet I ——, I hope, They do not point on me.

If I know your sect, I —— your argument.

The happy —— of a renewed existence in company with the spirits of the just.

* * * * *

ANTIPATHY (page 48).

QUESTIONS.

1. How is antipathy to be distinguished from dislike? from antagonism? from aversion? 2. What is uncongeniality? How does it differ from antipathy? Which is positive? and which negative?

EXAMPLES.

Christianity is the solvent of all race ——.

From my soul I loathe All affectation; 'tis my perfect scorn, object of my implacable ——.

* * * * *

ANTIQUE (page 48).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what does antique refer? antiquated? 2. Is the difference between them a matter of time? Give examples. 3. Can a modern building be antiquated? Can it be antique? 4. What is the significance of quaint?

EXAMPLES.

My copper lamps, at any rate, For being true ——, I bought.

I do love these —— ruins, We never tread upon them but we set Our foot upon some reverend history.

* * * * *

ANXIETY (page 49).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is anxiety in the primary sense? Is it mental or physical? 2. How does anxiety differ from anguish? 3. What kind of possibility does anxiety always suggest? 4. How does it differ from apprehension, fear, dread, etc., in this regard? 5. What is worry? fretfulness? 6. Does perplexity involve anxiety?

EXAMPLES.

Yield not to —— the future, weep not for the past.

Superstition invested the slightest incidents of life with needless ——.

—— is harder than work, and far less profitable.

* * * * *

APATHY (page 50).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is apathy? 2. How does it differ from the Saxon word unfeelingness? from indifference? from insensibility? from unconcern? 3. How does stoicism differ from apathy?

EXAMPLES.

In lazy —— let stoics boast Their virtue fixed: 'tis fixed as in a frost.

At length the morn and cold —— came.

He sank into a —— from which it was impossible to arouse him.

* * * * *

APOLOGY (page 51).

QUESTIONS.

1. What change of meaning has apology undergone? 2. What does an apology now always imply? 3. How does an apology differ from an excuse? 4. Which of these words may refer to the future? 5. How does confession differ from apology?

EXAMPLES.

—— only account for that which they do not alter.

Beauty is its own —— for being.

There is no refuge from —— but suicide; and suicide is ——.

* * * * *

APPARENT (page 52).

QUESTIONS.

1. What two contrasted senses arise from the root meaning of apparent? 2. What is implied when we speak of apparent kindness or apparent neglect? 3. How do presumable and probable differ? 4. What implication is conveyed in seeming? What do we suggest when we speak of "seeming innocence"?

EXAMPLES.

It is not —— that the students will attempt to break the rules again.

It is not yet —— what his motive could have been in committing such an offense.

It is —— that something has been omitted which was essential to complete the construction.

* * * * *

APPETITE (page 54).

QUESTIONS.

1. Of what kind of demands or impulses is appetite ordinarily used? 2. What demands or tendencies are included in passion? 3. What is implied by passions and appetites when used as contrasted terms?

EXAMPLES.

Govern well thy ——, lest sin Surprise thee, and her black attendant Death.

Take heed lest —— sway Thy judgment to do aught which else free will Would not admit.

* * * * *

APPORTION (page 54).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the special significance of apportion by which it is distinguished from allot, assign, distribute, or divide? 2. What is the significance of dispense in the transitive use? 3. What is it to appropriate?

EXAMPLES.

Representatives are —— among the several states according to the population.

The treasure was —— and their shares duly —— among the captors.

* * * * *

APPROXIMATION (page 55).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an approximation in the mathematical sense? 2. How close an approach to exactness and certainty does approximation imply? 3. How does approximation differ from resemblance and similarity? from approach? 4. How does approximation, as regards the class of objects to which it is applied, differ from nearness, neighborhood, or propinquity?

EXAMPLES.

We have to be content with —— to a solution.

Without faith, there is no real —— to God.

Wit consists in knowing the —— of things which differ, and the difference of things which are alike.

* * * * *

ARMS (page 55).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the difference between arms and armor? 2. In what connection is armor used in modern warfare?

EXAMPLES.

—— on —— clashing brayed Horrible discord.

There is constant rivalry between irresistible projectiles and impenetrable ——.

* * * * *

ARMY (page 56).

QUESTIONS.

1. What are the essentials of an army? 2. Is an army large or small? 3. What term would be applied to a multitude of armed men without order or organization? 4. In what sense is host used? legion?

EXAMPLES.

For the —— is a school in which the miser becomes generous, and the generous, prodigal; miserly soldiers are like monsters, but very rarely seen.

The still-discordant wavering ——.

* * * * *

ARRAIGN (page 56).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what kind of proceedings do indict and arraign apply? 2. How is one indicted? How arraigned? 3. How do these words differ from charge? accuse? censure?

EXAMPLES.

The criminal was —— for trial for his offenses.

Religion does not —— or exclude unnumbered pleasures, harmlessly pursued.

* * * * *

ARTIFICE (page 58).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an artifice? a device? finesse? 2. In what sense are cheat, maneuver, and imposture always used? 3. In what sense is trick commonly used? 4. What is a fraud? 5. Is wile used in a good or a bad sense? 6. Does the good or the bad sense commonly attach to the words artifice, contrivance, ruse, blind, device, and finesse?

EXAMPLES.

Those who can not gain their ends by force naturally resort to ——.

The enemy were decoyed from their defenses by a skilful ——.

Quips and cranks and wanton ——, Nods and becks and wreathed smiles.

Whoever has even once become notorious by base ——, even if he speaks the truth, gains no belief.

* * * * *

ARTIST (page 58).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an artist? an artisan? 2. What is an artificer? How related to artist and artisan?

EXAMPLES.

The power depends on the depth of the ——'s insight of that object he contemplates.

Infuse into the purpose with which you follow the various employments and professions of life the sense of beauty, and you are transformed at once from an —— into an ——.

If too many —— turn shopkeepers, the whole natural quantity of that business divided among them all may afford too small a share for each.

* * * * *

ASK (page 59).

QUESTIONS.

1. For what class of objects does one ask? For what does he beg? 2. How do entreat and beseech compare with ask? 3. What is the special sense of implore? of supplicate? 4. How are crave and request distinguished? pray and petition? 5. What kind of asking is implied in demand? in require? How do these two words differ from one another?

EXAMPLES.

We, ignorant of ourselves, —— often our own harms, which the wise powers Deny us for our good: so we find profit, By losing of our prayers.

The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few: —— ye therefore the Lord of the harvest that he would send forth labourers into his harvest.

Speak with me, pity me, open the door, A beggar —— that never begg'd before.

Be not afraid to ——; to —— is right. ——, if thou canst, with hope; but ever ——. Though hope be weak or sick with long delay; —— in the darkness, if there be no light.

* * * * *

ASSOCIATE (page 60).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does associate imply, as used officially? What when used in popular language? 2. Do we speak of associates in crime or wrong? What words are preferred in such connection? (See synonyms for ACCESSORY.) 3. Is companion used in a good or bad sense? 4. How does it differ in use from associate? 5. What is the significance of peer? comrade? consort?

EXAMPLES.

His best ——, innocence and health, And his best riches, ignorance of wealth.

The —— accepted Napoleon's abdication.

The leader in the plot was betrayed by his ——.

* * * * *

ASSUME (page 61).

QUESTIONS.

1. Does assume apply to that which is rightfully or wrongfully taken? 2. In what use does assume correspond with arrogate and usurp? 3. How do arrogate and usurp differ from each other? How does assume differ from postulate as regards debate or reasoning of any kind?

EXAMPLES.

Wherefore do I —— These royalties, and not refuse to reign.

—— a virtue if you have it not.

For well we know no hand of blood and bone Can gripe the sacred handle of our scepter, Unless he do profane, steal, or ——.

* * * * *

ASSURANCE (page 61).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is assurance in the good sense? 2. What is assurance in the bad sense? 3. How does assurance compare with impudence? with effrontery?

EXAMPLES.

Let us draw near with a true heart in full —— of faith.

Some wicked wits have libel'd all the fair. With matchless —— they style a wife The dear-bought curse, and lawful plague of life.

With brazen —— he denied the most indisputable facts.

* * * * *

ASTUTE (page 62).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is acute derived? What is its distinctive sense? 2. From what language is keen derived? What does it distinctively denote? 3. From what language is astute derived, and what was its original meaning? 4. In present use what does astute add to the meaning of acute or keen? 5. What does astute imply regarding the ulterior purpose or object of the person who is credited with it?

EXAMPLES.

You statesmen are so —— in forming schemes!

He taketh the wise in their own ——ness.

The most —— reasoner may be deluded, when he practises sophistry upon himself.

* * * * *

ATTACHMENT (page 63).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is attachment? How does it differ from adherence or adhesion? from affection? from inclination? from regard?

EXAMPLES.

Talk not of wasted ——, —— never was wasted.

You do not weaken your —— for your family by cultivating ——s beyond its pale, but deepen and intensify it.

* * * * *

ATTACK, v. & n. (pages 63, 64).

QUESTIONS.

1. What special element is involved in the meaning of attack? 2. How do assail and assault differ? 3. What is it to encounter? how does this word compare with attack? How does attack differ from aggression?

EXAMPLES.

We see time's furrows on another's brow, And death intrench'd, preparing his ——; How few themselves in that just mirror see!

Who ever knew Truth put to the worse in a free and open ——?

Roger Williams —— the spirit of intolerance, the doctrine of persecution, and never his persecutors.

* * * * *

ATTAIN (page 64).

QUESTIONS.

1. What kind of a word is attain, and to what does it point? 2. How does attain differ from obtain? from achieve? 3. How does obtain differ from procure?

EXAMPLES.

The heights by great men —— and kept Were not —— by sudden flight, But they, while their companions slept, Were toiling upward in the night.

Our doubts are traitors, And make us lose the good we oft might —— By fearing to attempt.

* * * * *

ATTITUDE (page 65).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does position as regards the human body differ from attitude, posture, or pose? 2. Do the three latter words apply to the living or the dead? 3. What is the distinctive sense of attitude? Is it conscious or unconscious? 4. How does posture differ from attitude? 5. What is the distinctive sense of pose? How does it differ from, and how does it agree with attitude and posture?

EXAMPLES.

The —— assumed indicated great indignation because of the insult implied.

The —— was graceful and pleasing.

* * * * *

ATTRIBUTE, v. (page 65).

QUESTIONS.

1. What suggestion is often involved in attribute? 2. How does attribute differ from refer and ascribe? 3. Is charge (in this connection) used in the favorable or unfavorable sense?

EXAMPLES.

—— ye greatness unto our God.

He —— unworthy motives which proved a groundless charge.

* * * * *

ATTRIBUTE, n. (page 66).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the derivation and the inherent meaning of quality? 2. What is an attribute? 3. Which of the above words expresses what necessarily belongs to the subject of which it is said to be an attribute or quality? 4. What is the derivation and distinctive sense of property? 5. How does property ordinarily differ from quality? 6. In what usage do property and quality become exact synonyms, and how are properties then distinguished?

EXAMPLES.

His scepter shows the force of temporal power, The —— to awe and majesty, Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings.

Nothing endures but personal ——s.

* * * * *

AVARICIOUS (page 68).

QUESTIONS.

1. How do avaricious and covetous differ from miserly, niggardly, parsimonious, and penurious? 2. Of what matters are greedy and stingy used? How do they differ from each other?

EXAMPLES.

I am not —— for gold; Nor care I who doth feed upon my cost; It yearns me not if men my garments wear.

It is better to be content with such things as ye have than to become —— and —— in accumulating.

* * * * *

AVENGE (page 69).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to avenge? 2. How does avenge differ from revenge? 3. Which word would be used of an act of God? 4. Is retaliate used in the sense of avenge or of revenge?

EXAMPLES.

O, that the vain remorse, which must chastise Crimes done, had but as loud a voice to warn As its keen sting is mortal to ——.

I lost mine eye laying the prize aboard, And therefore to —— it, shalt thou die.

* * * * *

AVOW (page 69).

QUESTIONS.

1. Which words of this group refer exclusively to one's own knowledge or action? 2. What is the distinctive sense of aver? of avouch? of avow? 3. How do avouch and avow differ from aver in construction? 4. Is avow used in a good or a bad sense? What does it imply of others' probable feeling or action? 5. How does avow compare with confess?

EXAMPLES.

And, but herself, —— no parallel.

The child —— his fault and was pardoned by his parent.

* * * * *

AWFUL (page 70).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what matters should awful properly be restricted? 2. Is awful always interchangeable with alarming or terrible? with disagreeable or annoying?

EXAMPLES.

Then must it be an —— thing to die.

The silent falling of the snow is to me one of the most —— things in nature.

* * * * *

AWKWARD (page 70).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the derivation and original meaning of awkward? of clumsy? 2. To what, therefore, does awkward primarily refer? and to what clumsy? 3. Is a draft-horse distinctively awkward or clumsy? 4. Give some metaphorical uses of awkward.

EXAMPLES.

Though he was ——, he was kindly.

The apprentice was not only ——, but ——, and had to be taught over and over again the same methods.

The young girl stood in a —— way, looking in at the showy shop-windows.

* * * * *

AXIOM (page 71).

QUESTIONS.

1. In what do axiom and truism agree? 2. In what do they differ? 3. How do they compare in interest and utility?

EXAMPLES.

It is almost an —— that those who do most for the heathen abroad are most liberal for the heathen at home.

Trifling ——s clothed in great, swelling words of vanity.

* * * * *

BABBLE (page 71).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what class do most of the words in this group belong? Why are they so called? 2. What is the special significance of blab and blurt? How do they differ from each other in use? 3. What is chat? 4. How does prattling differ from chatting? 5. In what sense is jabber used? How does it compare with chatter?

EXAMPLES.

"The crane," I said, "may —— of the crane, The dove may —— of the dove."

Two women sat contentedly ——ing, one of them amusing a ——ing babe.

* * * * *

BANISH (page 72).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what land may one be banished? From what expatriated or exiled? 2. By whom may one be said to be banished? by whom expatriated or exiled? 3. Which of these words is of widest import? Give examples of its metaphorical use.

* * * * *

BANK (page 72).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a beach? a coast? 2. How does each of the above words differ from bank? 3. What is the distinctive sense of strand? In what style of writing is it most commonly used? 4. What are the distinctive senses of edge and brink?

* * * * *

BANTER (page 73).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is banter? 2. How is badinage distinguished from banter? raillery from both? 3. What is the distinctive sense of irony? 4. Is irony kindly or the reverse? badinage? banter? 5. What words of this group are distinctly hostile? 6. Is ridicule or derision the stronger word? What is the distinction between the two? between satire and sarcasm? between chaff, jeering, and mockery?

* * * * *

BARBAROUS (page 73).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of barbarian? 2. What is the added significance of barbaric? 3. How does barbarous in general use differ from both the above words? 4. What special element is commonly implied in savage? 5. In what less opprobrious sense may barbarous and savage be used? Give instances.

EXAMPLES.

A multitude like which the populous North Poured never from her frozen loins, to pass Rhene or the Danaw, when her —— sons Came like a deluge on the south.

Or when the gorgeous East, with richest hand, Showers on her kings —— pearl and gold.

It is most true, that a natural and secret hatred and aversation toward society, in any man, hath somewhat of the —— beast.

Thou art bought and sold among those of any wit like a —— slave.

* * * * *

BARRIER (page 74).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a bar? and what is its purpose? 2. What is a barrier? 3. Which word is ordinarily applied to objects of great extent? 4. Would a mountain range be termed a bar or a barrier? 5. What distinctive name is given to a mass of sand across the mouth of a river or harbor?

* * * * *

BATTLE (page 74).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the general meaning of conflict? 2. What is a battle? 3. How long may a battle last? 4. On how many fields may one battle be fought? 5. How does engagement differ from battle? How does combat differ? action? skirmish? fight?

* * * * *

BEAUTIFUL (page 76).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is necessary to constitute an object or a person beautiful? 2. Can beautiful be said of that which is harsh and ragged, however grand? 3. How is beautiful related to our powers of appreciation? 4. How does pretty compare with beautiful? handsome? 5. What does fair denote? comely? picturesque?

EXAMPLES.

I pray thee, O God, that I may be —— within.

A happy youth, and their old age is —— and free.

'Twas sung, how they were —— in their lives And in their death had not divided been.

How —— has the day been, how bright was the sun. How lovely and joyful the course that he run. Though he rose in a mist when his race he began And there followed some droppings of rain!

* * * * *

BECOMING (page 77).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of becoming? of decent? of suitable? 2. Can that which is worthy or beautiful in itself ever be otherwise than becoming or suitable? Give instances. 3. What is the meaning of fit? How does it differ from fitting or befitting?

EXAMPLES.

A merrier man, Within the limit of —— mirth, I never spent an hour's talk withal.

Still govern thou my song, Urania, and —— audience find, tho few.

Indeed, left nothing —— for your purpose Untouch'd, slightly handled, in discourse.

In such a time as this, it is not —— That every nice offense should bear his comment.

How could money be better spent than in erecting a —— building for the greatest library in the country?

* * * * *

BEGINNING (page 78).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is beginning derived? commencement? How do the two words differ in application and use? Give instances. 2. What is an origin? a source? a rise? 3. How are fount, fountain, and spring used in the figurative sense?

EXAMPLES.

For learning is the —— pure, Out from which all glory springs.

Truth is the —— of every good to gods and men.

Courage, the mighty attribute of powers above, By which those great in war are great in love; The —— of all brave acts is seated here.

It can not be that Desdemona should long continue her love to the Moor, nor he his to her: it was a violent ——, and thou shalt see an answerable sequestration.

In the —— God created the heaven and the earth.

* * * * *

BEHAVIOR (page 79).

QUESTIONS.

1. How do behavior and conduct differ? 2. What is the special sense of carriage? of bearing? demeanor? 3. What is manner? manners?

EXAMPLES.

Our thoughts and our —— are our own.

Good —— are made up of petty sacrifices.

* * * * *

BENEVOLENCE (page 80).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the original distinction between benevolence and beneficence? 2. In what sense is benevolence now most commonly used? 3. What words are commonly used for benevolence in the original sense? 4. What was the original sense of charity? the present popular sense? 5. What of humanity? generosity? liberality? philanthropy?

EXAMPLES.

—— is a virtue of the heart, and not of the hands.

The secrets of life are not shown except to —— and likeness.

* * * * *

BIND (page 81).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive sense of bind? 2. What is the special meaning of tie? 3. In how general a sense is fasten used? 4. Which of the above three words is used in a figurative sense?

EXAMPLES.

Shut, shut the door, good John! fatigu'd, I said; —— up the knocker, say I'm sick, I'm dead.

Adjust our lives to loss, make friends with pain, —— all our shattered hopes and bid them bloom again.

* * * * *

BITTER (page 81).

QUESTIONS.

1. How may acid, bitter, and acrid be distinguished? pungent? caustic? 2. In metaphorical use, how are harsh and bitter distinguished? 3. What is the special significance of caustic? 4. Give examples of these words in their various uses.

* * * * *

BLEACH (page 82).

QUESTIONS.

1. How do bleach and blanch differ from whiten? from each other?

EXAMPLES.

You can behold such sights, And keep the natural ruby of your cheeks, When mine is —— with fear.

We let the years go: wash them clean with tears, Leave them to —— out in the open day.

* * * * *

BLEMISH (page 82).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a blemish? 2. How does it differ from a flaw or taint? 3. What is a defect? a fault? 4. Which words of this group are naturally applied to reputation, and which to character?

EXAMPLES.

Every page enclosing in the midst A square of text that looks a little ——.

The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious: If it were so, it was a grievous ——.

* * * * *

BLUFF (page 83).

QUESTIONS.

1. In what sense are bluff, frank, and open used? 2. In what sense are blunt, brusk, rough, and rude employed?

EXAMPLES.

There are to whom my satire seems too ——.

Stout once a month they march, a —— band And ever but in times of need, at hand.

* * * * *

BOUNDARY (page 84).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the original sense of boundary? 2. How does it differ in usage from bound or bounds? 3. In what style and sense is bourn used? 4. What is the distinctive meaning of edge?

EXAMPLES.

So these lives ... Parted by ——s strong, but drawing nearer and nearer, Rushed together at last, and one was lost in the other.

In worst extremes, and on the perilous —— Of battle.

* * * * *

BRAVE (page 85).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does brave differ from courageous? 2. What is the special sense of adventurous? of bold? of chivalrous? 3. How do these words differ from venturesome? 4. What is especially denoted by fearless and intrepid? 5. What does valiant tell of results? 6. What ideas are combined in heroic?

EXAMPLES.

A —— man is also full of faith.

Fir'd at first sight with what the Muse imparts, In —— youth we tempt the heights of Arts.

Thy danger chiefly lies in acting well; No crime's so great as —— to excel.

* * * * *

BUSINESS (page 88).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive meaning of barter? 2. What does business add to the meaning of barter? 3. What is occupation? Is it broader than business? 4. What is a vocation? 5. What (in the strict sense) is an avocation? 6. What is implied in profession? pursuit? 7. What is a transaction? 8. How does trade differ from commerce? 9. What is work? 10. What is an art in the industrial sense? a craft?

EXAMPLES.

A man must serve his time to every ——.

We turn to dust, and all our mightiest ——s die too.

* * * * *

CALCULATE (page 90).

QUESTIONS.

1. How do you distinguish between count and calculate? compute, reckon and estimate? 2. Which is used mostly with regard to future probabilities? 3. Do we use compute or estimate of numbers exactly known? 4. Of compute, calculate, and estimate, which is used with especial reference to the future?

EXAMPLES.

There were 4046 men in the district, by actual ——.

The time of the eclipse was —— to a second.

We ask them to —— approximately the cost of the building.

* * * * *

CALL (page 91).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive meaning of call? 2. Do we ever apply bellow and roar to human sounds? 3. Can you give more than one sense of cry? 4. Are shout and scream more or less expressive than call? 5. Which of the words in this group are necessarily and which ordinarily applied to articulate utterance? Which rarely, if ever, so used?

EXAMPLES.

—— for the robin redbreast and the wren.

The pioneers could hear the savages —— outside.

I —— my servant and he came.

The captain —— in a voice of thunder to the helmsman, "Put your helm hard aport!"

* * * * *

CALM (page 91).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what classes of objects or states of mind do we apply calm? collected? quiet? placid? serene? still? tranquil? 2. Do the antonyms boisterous, excited, ruffled, turbulent, and wild, also apply to the same? 3. Can you contrast calm and quiet? 4. How many of the preceding adjectives can be applied to water? 5. How does composed differ from calm?

EXAMPLES.

The possession of a —— conscience is an estimable blessing.

The water is said to be always —— in the ocean depths.

—— on the listening ear of night Fall heaven's melodious strains.

* * * * *

CANCEL (page 92).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the difference in method involved in the verbs cancel, efface, erase, expunge, and obliterate? 2. Which suggest the most complete removal of all trace of a writing? 3. How do the figurative uses of these words compare with the literal? 4. Is it possible to obliterate or efface that which has been previously canceled or erased?

EXAMPLES.

It is practically impossible to clean a postage-stamp that has been properly —— so that it can be used again.

With the aid of a sharp penknife the blot was quickly ——.

By lapse of time and elemental action, the inscription had become completely ——.

* * * * *

CANDID (page 93).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what class of things do we apply aboveboard? candid? fair? frank? honest? sincere? transparent? 2. Can you state the similarity between artless, guileless, naive, simple, and unsophisticated? How do they differ as a class from the words above referred to? 3. How does it happen that "To be frank," or "To be candid" often precedes the utterance of something disagreeable?

EXAMPLES.

The sophistry was so —— as to disgust the assembly.

A. T. Stewart relied on —— dealing as the secret of mercantile success.

An —— man will not steal or defraud.

—— she seems with artful care Affecting to be unaffected.

* * * * *

CARE (page 94).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the special difference between care and anxiety? 2. Wherein does care differ from caution? solicitude from anxiety? watchfulness from wariness? 3. Can you give some of the senses of care? 4. Is concern as strong a term as anxiety? 5. What is circumspection? precaution? heed?

EXAMPLES.

Take her up tenderly, lift her with ——.

A military commander should have as much —— as bravery.

The invaders fancied themselves so secure against attack that they had not taken the —— to station sentinels.

* * * * *

CARICATURE (page 95).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive meaning of caricature? 2. What is the special difference between parody and travesty? between both and burlesque? 3. To what is caricature mostly confined? 4. How do mimicry and imitation differ? 5. Is an extravaganza an exaggeration?

EXAMPLES.

The eagle nose of the general was magnified in every artist's ——.

His laughable reproduction of the great actor's vagaries was a clever bit of ——.

If it be not lying to say that a fox's tail is four feet long, it is certainly a huge ——.

* * * * *

CARRY (page 96).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what sort of objects do we apply bear? carry? move? take? 2. What kinds of force or power do we indicate by convey, lift, transmit, and transport? 3. What is the distinction between bring and carry? between carry and bear? 4. What does lift mean? 5. Can you give some figurative uses of carry?

EXAMPLES.

The strong man can —— 1,000 pounds with apparent ease.

Napoleon always endeavored to —— the war into the enemy's territory.

It was found necessary to —— the coal overland for a distance of 500 miles.

My punishment is greater than I can ——.

* * * * *

CATASTROPHE (page 97).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a catastrophe or cataclysm? 2. Is a catastrophe also necessarily a calamity or a disaster? 3. Which word has the broader meaning, disaster or calamity? 4. Does misfortune suggest as serious a condition as any of the foregoing? 5. How does a mishap compare with a catastrophe, a calamity, or a disaster? 6. Give some chief antonyms of the above.

EXAMPLES.

War and pestilence are properly ——, while the loss of a battle may be a ——, but not a ——.

Fortune is not satisfied with inflicting one ——.

Well had the boding tremblers learned to trace The day's —— in his morning face.

The failure of the crops of two successive years proved an irreparable —— to the emigrants.

* * * * *

CAUSE (page 98).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the central distinction between antecedent and cause? 2. How are the words cause, condition, and occasion illustrated by the fall of an avalanche? 3. And the antonyms consequence? effect? outgrowth? result? 4. What are causality and causation? 5. How are origin and source related to cause?

EXAMPLES.

Where there is an effect there must be also a ——.

It is necessary to know something of the —— of a man before we can safely trust him.

The —— of the river was found to be a small lake among the hills.

What was given as the —— of the quarrel was really but the ——.

* * * * *

CHAGRIN (page 100).

QUESTIONS.

1. What feelings are combined in chagrin? 2. How do you distinguish between chagrin, disappointment, humiliation, mortification, and shame? 3. Which involves a sense of having done wrong?

EXAMPLES.

The king's —— at the limitations imposed upon him was painfully manifest.

He is not wholly lost who yet can blush from ——.

Hope tells a flattering tale, Delusive, vain, and hollow. Ah! let not hope prevail, Lest —— follow.

* * * * *

CHANGE (page 100).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinction between change and exchange? Are they ever used as equivalent, and how? 2. Can you distinguish between modify and qualify?

EXAMPLES.

The tailor offered to —— the armholes of the coat.

We requested the pianist to —— his music by introducing a few popular tunes.

We often fail to recognize the actor who —— his costume between the acts.

* * * * *

CHARACTER (page 102).

QUESTIONS.

1. How do you distinguish between character and reputation? constitution and disposition? 2. Is nature a broader word than any of the preceding? 3. If so, why?

EXAMPLES.

The philanthropist's —— for charity is often a great source of annoyance to him.

Let dogs delight to bark and bite, for 'tis their —— to.

Misfortune may cause the loss of friends and reputation, yet if the man has not yielded to wrong, his —— is superior to loss or change.

* * * * *

CHOOSE (page 104).

QUESTIONS.

1. What are the shades of difference between choose, cull, elect, pick, prefer, and select? 2. Also between the antonyms cast away, decline, dismiss, refuse, repudiate? 3. Does select imply more care or judgment than choose?

EXAMPLES.

The prettiest flowers had all been ——.

Jacob was —— to Esau, tho he was the younger.

When a man deliberately —— to do wrong, there is little hope for him.

* * * * *

CIRCUMSTANCE (page 105).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what classes of things do we apply accompaniment? concomitant? circumstance? event? fact? incident? occurrence? situation? 2. Can you give some instances of the use of circumstance? 3. Is it a word of broader meaning than incident?

EXAMPLES.

The —— that there had been a fire was proved by the smoke-blackened walls.

Extreme provocation may be a mitigating —— in a case of homicide.

* * * * *

CLASS (page 106).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does a class differ from a caste? 2. In what connection is rank used? order? 3. What is a coterie? How does it differ from a clique?

EXAMPLES.

An —— was formed for the relief of the poor and needy of the city.

A select —— met at the residence of one of the leading men of the city.

There is a struggle of the masses against the ——.

* * * * *

CLEAR (page 107).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does clear originally signify? 2. How does clear differ from transparent as regards a substance that may be a medium of vision? 3. With what meaning is clear used of an object apprehended by the senses, as an object of sight or hearing? 4. What does distinct signify? 5. What is plain? 6. What special sense does this word always retain? How does transparent differ from translucent? 7. What do lucid and pellucid signify? 8. What is the special force of limpid?

* * * * *

CLEVER (page 109).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of clever as used in England? 2. What was the early New England usage? 3. What is to be said of the use of smart and sharp? 4. What other words of this group are preferable to clever in many of its uses?

EXAMPLES.

His brief experience in the department had made him very —— in the work now assigned him.

She was especially —— in song.

Be good, sweet maid, and let who will be ——; Do noble things, not dream them, all day long; And so make life, death, and the vast forever One grand, sweet song.

* * * * *

COMPANY (page 110).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what is company derived? What is its primary meaning? 2. For what are those associated who constitute a company? Is their association temporary or permanent? 3. What is the difference between assemblage and assembly? 4. What is a conclave? a convocation? a convention? 5. What are the characteristics of a group? 6. To what use is congregation restricted? How does meeting agree with and differ from it?

EXAMPLES.

Far from the madding ——'s ignoble strife, Their sober wishes never learned to stray.

The room contained a large —— of miscellaneous objects.

A fellow that makes no figure in ——.

A great —— had met, but without organization or officers.

If ye inquire anything concerning other matters, it shall be determined in a lawful ——.

* * * * *

COMPEL (page 111).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to compel? 2. What does force imply? 3. What is the especial significance of coerce? 4. What does constrain imply? In what favorable sense is it used?

EXAMPLES.

Even if we were not willing, they possessed the power of —— us to do justice.

Employers may —— their employees into voting as they demand, but for the secret ballot.

These considerations —— us to aid them to the utmost of our power.

* * * * *

COMPLAIN (page 112).

QUESTIONS.

1. By what is complaining prompted? murmuring? repining? 2. Which finds outward expression, and which is limited to the mental act? 3. To whom does one complain, in the formal sense of the word? 4. With whom does one remonstrate?

EXAMPLES.

It is not pleasant to live with one who is constantly ——ing.

The dog gave a low —— which frightened the tramp away.

* * * * *

COMPLEX (page 112).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does complex differ from compound? from composite? 2. What is heterogeneous? conglomerate? 3. How does complicated differ from intricate? from involved?

* * * * *

CONSCIOUS (page 116).

QUESTIONS.

1. Of what things is one aware? of what is he conscious? 2. How does sensible compare with the above-mentioned words? 3. What does sensible indicate regarding the emotions, that would not be expressed by conscious?

EXAMPLES.

To be —— that you are ignorant is a great step to knowledge.

They are now —— it would have been better to resist the first temptation.

He was —— of a stealthy step and a bulk dimly visible through the darkness.

* * * * *

CONSEQUENCE (page 116).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does consequence differ from effect? both from result? 2. How do result and issue compare? 3. In what sense is consequent used?

* * * * *

CONTAGION (page 117).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what is contagion now limited by the best medical usage? 2. To what is the term infection applied?

EXAMPLES.

During the plague in London persons walked in the middle of the streets for fear of the —— from the houses.

The mob thinks by —— for the most part, catching an opinion like a cold.

No pestilence is so much to be dreaded as the —— of bad example.

* * * * *

CONTINUAL (page 117).

QUESTIONS.

1. How does continuous differ from continual? incessant from ceaseless? Give examples.

* * * * *

CONTRAST (page 118).

QUESTIONS.

1. How is contrast related to compare? 2. What are the special senses of differentiate, discriminate and distinguish?

* * * * *

CONVERSATION (page 118).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the essential meaning of conversation? 2. How does conversation differ from talk? 3. How is discourse related to conversation? 4. What are the special senses of dialogue and colloquy?

EXAMPLES.

There can be no —— with a great genius, who does all the ——ing.

Nor wanted sweet ——, the banquet of the mind.

* * * * *

CONVEY (page 119).

QUESTIONS.

1. In what do convey, transmit, and transport agree? What is the distinctive sense of convey? 2. To what class of objects does transport refer? 3. To what class of objects do transfer, transmit, and convey apply? 4. Which is the predominant sense of the latter words?

* * * * *

CRIMINAL (page 120).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive meaning of criminal? How does it differ from illegal or unlawful? 2. What is felonious? flagitious? 3. What is the primary meaning of iniquitous? 4. Is an iniquitous act necessarily criminal?

* * * * *

DANGER (page 121).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive meaning of danger? 2. Does danger or peril suggest the more immediate evil? 3. How are jeopardy and risk distinguished from danger and peril?

EXAMPLES.

Delay always breeds ——.

The careful rider avoids running ——.

Stir, at your ——!

* * * * *

DECAY (page 122).

QUESTIONS.

1. What sort of things decay? putrefy? rot? 2. What is the essential difference between decay and decompose?

EXAMPLES.

The flowers wither, the tree's trunk ——.

The water was —— by the electric current.

* * * * *

DECEPTION (page 123).

QUESTIONS.

1. How is deceit distinguished from deception? from guile? fraud? lying? hypocrisy? 2. Do all of these apply to conduct as well as to speech? 3. Is deception ever innocent? 4. Have craft and cunning always a moral element? 5. How is dissimulation distinguished from duplicity?

EXAMPLES.

The —— of his conduct was patent to all.

It was a matter of self——-.

The judge decided it to be a case of ——.

* * * * *

DEFINITION (page 124).

QUESTIONS.

1. Which is the more exact, a definition or a description? 2. What must a definition include, and what must it exclude? 3. What must a description include? 4. In what respect has interpretation a wider meaning than translation? 5. How does an explanation compare with an exposition?

EXAMPLES.

A prompt —— of the difficulty prevented a quarrel.

The —— of scenery was admirable.

The seer gave an —— of the dream.

Many a controversy may be instantly ended by a clear —— of terms.

* * * * *

DELIBERATE (page 125).

QUESTIONS.

1. What are the chief distinctions between deliberate? consult? consider? meditate? reflect? 2. Do large gatherings of people consult, or meditate, or deliberate? 3. Do we reflect on things past or things to come? 4. How many persons are necessarily implied in consult, confer, and debate as commonly used? in deliberate, consider, ponder, reflect? in meditate? 5. What idea of time is implied in deliberate?

EXAMPLES.

The matter was carefully —— in all its bearings.

The legislature —— for several days.

* * * * *

DELUSION (page 127).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the essential difference between illusion and delusion? How does hallucination differ from both? 2. Which word is used especially of objects of sight?

EXAMPLES.

The —— of the sick are sometimes pitiful.

In the soft light the —— was complete.

* * * * *

DEMONSTRATION (page 127).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what kind of reasoning does demonstration in the strict sense apply? 2. What is evidence? proof? 3. Which is the stronger term? 4. Which is the more comprehensive?

EXAMPLES.

The —— of the witness was so complete that no further —— was required.

A mathematical —— must be final and conclusive.

* * * * *

DESIGN (page 128).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive meaning of design? 2. What element is prominent in intention? purpose? plan? 3. Does purpose suggest more power to execute than design? 4. How does intent specifically differ from purpose? Which term do we use with reference to the Divine Being?

EXAMPLES.

The architect's —— involved much detail.

Hell is paved with good ——.

It is the —— of the voter that decides how his ballot shall be counted.

The —— of the Almighty can not be thwarted.

The adaption of means to ends in nature clearly indicates a ——, and so proves a ——er.

* * * * *

DESPAIR (page 129).

QUESTIONS.

1. In what order might despair, desperation, discouragement, and hopelessness follow, each as the result of the previous condition? 2. How does despondency especially differ from despair?

EXAMPLES.

The utter —— of their condition was apparent.

In weak —— he abandoned all endeavor.

* * * * *

DEXTERITY (page 129).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what is adroitness derived? From what dexterity? How might each be rendered? 2. How does adroitness differ in use from dexterity? 3. From what is aptitude derived, and what does it signify? 4. How does skill differ from dexterity? Which can and which can not be communicated?

EXAMPLES.

He had a natural —— for scientific investigation, and by long practise gained an inimitable —— of manipulation.

His —— in debate enabled him to evade or parry arguments or attacks which he could not answer.

The —— of the best trained workman can not equal the precision of a machine.

* * * * *

DICTION (page 130).

QUESTIONS.

1. Which is the more comprehensive word, diction, language, or phraseology? 2. What is the true meaning of verbiage? Should it ever be used as the equivalent of language or diction? 3. What is style? How does it compare with diction or language?

EXAMPLES.

The —— of the discourse was plain and emphatic.

The —— of a written contract should be such as to prevent misunderstandings.

The poetic —— of Milton is so exquisitely perfect that another word can scarcely ever be substituted for the one he has chosen without marring the line.

* * * * *

DIFFERENCE (page 131).

QUESTIONS.

1. Which pertain mostly to realities, and which are matters of judgment—difference, disparity, distinction, or inconsistency? 2. What do we mean by "a distinction without a difference"?

EXAMPLES.

The proper —— should be carefully observed in the use of "shall" and "will."

The —— between black and white is self-evident.

The —— of our representatives' conduct with their promises is unpardonable.

* * * * *

DISCERN (page 133).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what sort of objects do we apply behold, discern, distinguish, observe, and see? 2. What do behold and distinguish suggest in addition to seeing?

EXAMPLES.

With the aid of a great telescope we may —— what stars are double.

—— the upright man.

Let us minutely —— the color of the goods.

* * * * *

DISCOVER (page 133).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive meaning of detect? discover? invent? 2. How do discover and invent differ? 3. Is detect often used in a favorable sense?

EXAMPLES.

An experienced policeman acquires wonderful skill in ——ing criminals.

Newton —— the law of gravitation.

To —— a machine, one must first understand the laws of mechanics.

* * * * *

DISEASE (page 134).

QUESTIONS.

1. What was the early and general meaning of sick and sickness in English? 2. How long did that usage prevail? 3. What is the present restriction upon the use of these words in England? What words are there commonly substituted? 4. What is the prevalent usage in the United States?

EXAMPLES.

—— spread in the camp and proved deadlier than the sword.

The —— was found to be contagious.

He is just recovering from a slight ——.

It is not good manners to talk of one's ——s.

* * * * *

DO (page 135).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the most comprehensive word of this group? 2. In what sense are finish and complete used, and how are they discriminated from each other? 3. How do we discriminate between fulfil, realize, effect, and execute? perform and accomplish? accomplish and complete?

EXAMPLES.

A duty has been ——, a work of gratitude and affection has been ——.

It is wonderful how much can be —— by steady, plodding industry without brilliant talents.

The work is not only grand in design but it is —— with the most exquisite delicacy in every detail.

It is the duty of the legislators to make laws, of the magistrates to —— them.

Every one should labor to —— his duties faithfully, and —— the just expectations of those who have committed to him any trust.

* * * * *

DOCTRINE (page 136).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what matters do we apply the word creed? doctrine? dogma? principle? 2. Which is the more inclusive word? 3. Is dogma used favorably or unfavorably?

EXAMPLES.

The —— rests either upon the authority of the Scriptures, or upon a decision of the Church.

A man may have upright ——s even while he disregards commonly received ——s.

* * * * *

DOUBT, v. (page 137).

QUESTIONS.

1. Do we apply doubt, distrust, surmise, and suspect mostly to persons and things, or to motives and intentions? 2. Is mistrust used of persons or of things? 3. Is it used, in a favorable or an unfavorable sense?

EXAMPLES.

We do not —— that the earth moves around the sun.

Nearly every law of nature was by man first ——, then proved to be true.

I —— my own heart.

I —— that man from the outset.

* * * * *

DOUBT, n. (page 138).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what class of objects do we apply disbelief? doubt? hesitation? misgiving? 2. Which of these words most commonly implies an unfavorable meaning? 3. What meaning has skepticism as applied to religious matters?

EXAMPLES.

We feel no —— in giving our approval.

The jury had ——s of his guilt.

We did all we could to further the enterprise, but still had our ——s as to the outcome.

* * * * *

DUPLICATE (page 141).

QUESTIONS.

1. Can you give the distinction between a copy and a duplicate? a facsimile, and an imitation? 2. What sort of a copy is a transcript?

EXAMPLES.

The —— of an organ by the violinist was perfect.

This key is a ——, and will open the lock.

The signature was merely a printed ——.

* * * * *

DUTY (page 142).

QUESTIONS.

1. Do we use duty and right of civil things? or business and obligation of moral things? 2. Does responsibility imply connection with any other person or thing?

EXAMPLES.

I go because it is my ——.

We recognize a —— for the good conduct of our own children, but do we not also rest under some —— to society to exercise a good influence over the children of others?

* * * * *

EAGER (page 142).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinction between eager and earnest in the nature of the feeling implied? in the objects toward which it is directed? 2. How does anxious in this acceptation differ from both eager and earnest?

EXAMPLES.

Hark! the shrill trumpet sounds to horse! away! My soul's in arms, and —— for the fray.

I am in ——. I will not equivocate; I will not excuse; I will not retreat a single inch; and I will be heard!

I am —— to hear of your welfare, and of the prospects of the enterprise.

* * * * *

EASE (page 143).

QUESTIONS.

1. What does ease denote, in the sense here considered? Does it apply to action or condition? 2. Is facility active or passive? readiness? 3. What does ease imply, and to what may it be limited? 4. What does facility imply? readiness? 5. To what is expertness limited?

EXAMPLES.

He plays the violin with great ——, and delights an audience.

Whatever he did was done with so much ——, In him alone 'twas natural to please.

It is often said with equal truth that we ought to take advantage of the —— which children possess of learning.

* * * * *

EDUCATION (page 143).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive meaning of education? instruction? teaching? 2. How is instruction or teaching related to education? 3. How does training differ from teaching? 4. What is discipline? tuition? 5. What are breeding and nurture, and how do they differ from each other? 6. How are knowledge and learning related to education?

EXAMPLES.

The true purpose of —— is to cherish and unfold the seed of immortality already sown within us.

By ——, we do learn ourselves to know And what to man, and what to God we owe.

—— maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.

For natural abilities are like natural plants that need pruning by ——; and ——s themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.

A branch of —— is often put to an improper use, for fear of its being idle.

* * * * *

EFFRONTERY (page 144).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is audacity? hardihood? 2. What special element does effrontery add to the meaning of audacity and hardihood? 3. What is impudence? shamelessness? 4. How does effrontery compare with these words? 5. What is boldness? Is it used in a favorable or an unfavorable sense?

EXAMPLES.

When they saw the —— of Peter and John, and perceived that they were unlearned and ignorant men they marvelled.

I ne'er heard yet That any of these bolder vices wanted Less —— to gainsay what they did, Than to perform it first.

I am not a little surprised at the easy —— with which political gentlemen in and out of Congress take it upon them to say that there are not a thousand men in the North who sympathize with John Brown.

* * * * *

EGOTISM (page 145).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is egoism and how does it differ from egotism? 2. What is self-assertion? self-conceit? 3. Does conceit differ from self-conceit, and how? 4. What is self-confidence? Is it worthy or unworthy? 5. Is self-assertion ever a duty? self-conceit? 6. What is vanity? How does it differ from self-confidence? from pride? 7. What is self-esteem? How does it differ from self-conceit? from self-confidence?

EXAMPLES.

—— may puff a man up, but never prop him up.

—— is as ill at ease under indifference, as tenderness is under the love which it can not return.

* * * * *

EMBLEM (page 146).

QUESTIONS.

1. From what language is emblem derived? What did it originally signify? 2. What is the derivation and primary meaning of symbol? 3. How do the two words compare as now used? 4. How does a sign suggest something other than itself? 5. Can the same thing be both an emblem and a symbol? a sign and a symbol? 6. What is a token? a figure? an image? a type?

EXAMPLES.

Rose of the desert, thou art to me An —— of stainless purity, —— Of those who, keeping their garments white, Walk on through life with steps aright.

All things are ——s: the external shows Of nature have their —— in the mind As flowers and fruits and falling of the leaves.

Moses, as Israel's deliverer, was a —— of Christ.

* * * * *

EMIGRATE (page 147).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the distinctive meaning of migrate? What is its application? 2. What do emigrate and immigrate signify? To what do they apply? Can the two words be used of the same person and the same act? How?

EXAMPLES.

The ship was crowded with —— mostly from Germany.

—— are pouring into the United States often at the rate of half a million a year.

* * * * *

EMPLOY (page 147).

QUESTIONS.

1. What are the distinctive senses of employ and use? Give instances. 2. What does use often imply as to materials used? 3. How does hire compare with employ?

EXAMPLES.

The young man had been —— by the firm for several months and had proved faithful in every respect.

The church was then ready to —— a pastor.

What one has, one ought to ——: and whatever he does he should do with all his might.

* * * * *

END, v. (page 148).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to end, and what reference does end have to intention or expectation? 2. What do close, complete, conclude, and finish signify as to expectation or appropriateness? Give instances. 3. What specially distinctive sense has finish? 4. Does terminate refer to reaching an arbitrary or an appropriate end? 5. What does stop signify?

EXAMPLES.

The life was suddenly ——.

The train —— long enough for the passengers to get off, then whirled on.

* * * * *

END, n. (page 148).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the end? 2. What is the distinctive meaning of extremity? 3. How does extremity compare with end? 4. What reference is implied in extremity? 5. What is the meaning of tip? point? How does extremity differ in use from the two latter words? 6. What is a terminus? What specific meaning has the word in modern travel? 7. What is the meaning of termination, and of what is it chiefly used? expiration? limit?

EXAMPLES.

Seeing that death, a necessary —— will come when it will come.

All rejoice at the successful —— of the vast undertaking.

He that endureth to the —— shall be saved.

Do not turn back when you are just at the ——.

* * * * *

ENDEAVOR, v. (page 149).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to attempt? to endeavor? To what sort of exertion does endeavor especially apply? 2. How does essay differ from attempt and endeavor in its view of the results of the action? 3. What is implied in undertake? Give an instance. 4. What does strive suggest? 5. How does try compare with the other words of the group?

EXAMPLES.

—— first thyself, and after call on God, For to the worker God himself lends aid.

—— the end, and never stand to doubt; Nothing's so hard but search will find it out.

—— to enter in at the strait gate.

* * * * *

ENDEAVOR, n. (page 150).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an effort? an exertion? Which includes the other? 2. How does attempt differ from effort? 3. What is a struggle? 4. What is an essay, and for what purpose is it made? 5. What is an endeavor, and how is it distinguished from effort? from attempt?

EXAMPLES.

Youth is a blunder; manhood a ——; old age a regret.

So vast an —— required more capital than he could command at that time. Others combining with him enabled him to succeed with it.

After a few spasmodic ——, he abandoned all —— at improvement.

* * * * *

ENDURE (page 150).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of bear as applied to care, pain, grief, and the like? 2. What does endure add to the meaning of bear? 3. How do allow and permit compare with the words just mentioned? 4. How do put up with and tolerate compare with allow and permit? 5. What is the special sense of afford? How does it come into connection with the words of this group? 6. What is the sense of brook? 7. Of what words does abide combine the meanings?

EXAMPLES.

Charity —— long and is kind; charity —— all things.

I follow thee, safe guide, the path Thou lead'st me, and to the hand of heav'n ——.

For there was never yet philosopher That could —— the toothache patiently.

* * * * *

ENEMY (page 151).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an enemy? an adversary? 2. What distinction is there between the two words as to the purpose implied? 3. What is an antagonist? an opponent? a competitor? a rival? 4. How does foe compare with enemy?

EXAMPLES.

He makes no friend who never made a ——.

This friendship that possesses the whole soul, ... can admit of no ——.

Mountains interposed Make —— of nations who had else, Like kindred drops been molded into one.

He that wrestles with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill. Our —— is our helper.

* * * * *

ENMITY (page 152).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is enmity? 2. How does animosity differ from enmity? 3. What is hostility? What is meant by hostilities between nations? 4. What is bitterness? acrimony? 5. How does antagonism compare with the words above mentioned?

EXAMPLES.

Let all ——, and wrath, and anger, and clamor, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice.

But their ——, tho smothered for a while, burnt with redoubled violence.

The carnal mind is —— against God, for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

* * * * *

ENTERTAIN (page 152).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is it to entertain mentally? to amuse? 2. What is the distinctive sense of divert? 3. Can one be amused or entertained who is not diverted? 4. What is it to recreate? to beguile?

EXAMPLES.

Books can not always ——, however good; Minds are not ever craving for their food.

Who God doth late and early pray More of his grace than gifts to lend; And —— the harmless day With a religious book or friend.

* * * * *

ENTERTAINMENT (page 153).

QUESTIONS.

1. What do entertainment and recreation imply? How, accordingly, do they rank among the lighter matters of life? 2. How do amusement and pastime differ? 3. On what plane are sports? How do they compare with entertainment and recreation? 4. How do amusement and enjoyment compare?

EXAMPLES.

At Christmas play, and make good ——, For Christmas comes but once a year.

It is as —— to fools to do mischief.

No true heart can find —— in another's pain or grief.

The Puritans hated bear-baiting, not because it gave pain to the bear, but because it gave —— to the spectators.

As Tammie glowered, amazed and curious, The mirth and —— grew fast and furious.

And so, if I might be judge, God never did make a more calm, quiet, innocent —— than angling.

* * * * *

ENTHUSIASM (page 153).

QUESTIONS.

1. In what sense was enthusiasm formerly used? 2. What is now its prevalent and controlling meaning? 3. How does zeal differ from enthusiasm?

EXAMPLES.

An ardent —— leads to great results in exposing certain evils.

His —— was contagious and they rushed into battle.

The precept had its use; it could make men feel it right to be humane, and desire to be so, but it could never inspire them with an —— of humanity.

* * * * *

ENTRANCE (page 154).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what does entrance refer? 2. What do admittance and admission add to the meaning of entrance? 3. To what does admittance refer? To what additional matters does admission refer? Illustrate. 4. What is the figurative use of entrance?

EXAMPLES.

—— was obtained by a side-door, and a good position secured to the crowded hall.

No —— except on business.

He was never so engrossed with cares of state that the needy could not have —— to him.

However carefully church-membership may be guarded, unworthy members will sometimes gain ——.

* * * * *

ENVIOUS (page 155).

QUESTIONS.

1. What do we mean when we say that a person is envious? 2. What is the difference between envious and jealous? 3. Is an envious spirit ever good? 4. Is jealous capable of being used in a good sense? 5. In what sense is suspicious used?

EXAMPLES.

Neither be thou —— against the workers of iniquity.

—— in honor, sudden and quick in quarrel.

* * * * *

EQUIVOCAL (page 155).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the derivation and the original signification of equivocal? of ambiguous? How do the two words compare in present use? 2. What is the meaning of enigmatical? 3. How do doubtful and dubious compare? 4. In what sense is questionable used? suspicious?

EXAMPLES.

These sentences, to sugar or to gall, Being strong on both sides, are ——.

An —— statement may result from the thoughtless use of a single word that is capable of more than one meaning.

* * * * *

ESTEEM, n. (page 157).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the difference between esteem and estimate? 2. Is esteem now used of concrete valuation? 3. What is its chief present use? 4. What is its meaning in popular use as said of persons?

EXAMPLES.

They please, are pleas'd; they give to get ——, Till seeming blest, they grow to what they seem.

The loss of conscience or honor is one that can not be ——.

* * * * *

ETERNAL (page 157).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of eternal in the fullest sense? 2. To what being, in that sense, may it be applied? 3. In what does everlasting fall short of the meaning of eternal? 4. How does endless agree with and differ from everlasting? 5. In what inferior senses are everlasting and interminable used? 6. Is eternal, in good speech or writing, ever brought down to such inferior use?

EXAMPLES.

Truth crushed to earth shall rise again, The —— years of God are hers.

Whatever may befall thee, it was preordained for thee from ——.

It were better to be eaten to death with a rust than to be scoured to nothing with —— motion.

Here comes the lady! Oh, so light a foot Will ne'er wear out the —— flint.

* * * * *

EVENT (page 158).

QUESTIONS.

1. How do event and incident differ etymologically? 2. Which is the greater and more important? Give examples. 3. How does circumstance compare with incident? 4. What is the primary meaning of occurrence? 5. What is an episode? 6. How does event differ from end? 7. What meaning does event often have when applied to the future?

EXAMPLES.

Fate shall yield To fickle ——, and Chaos judge the strife.

Men are the sport of —— when The —— seem the sport of men.

Coming —— cast their shadows before.

Where an equal poise of hope and fear Does arbitrate the ——, my nature is That I incline to hope rather than fear, And gladly banish squint suspicion.

* * * * *

EVERY (page 158).

QUESTIONS.

1. In what are all and both alike? any, each, and every? 2. How does any differ from each and every? 3. How do each and every differ from all? 4. How does each compare with every? with both? 5. What does either properly denote? In what other sense is it often used? What is the objection to the latter use?

EXAMPLES.

—— person in the room arose to his feet.

A free pardon was offered to —— who should instantly lay down their arms.

As the garrison marched out, the victorious troops stood in arms on —— side of the way.

In order to keep his secret inviolate, he revealed it privately to —— of his most intimate friends.

—— person giving such information shall be duly rewarded.

* * * * *

EVIDENT (page 159).

QUESTIONS.

1. How do apparent and evident compare? 2. What is the special sense of manifest? How does it compare in strength with evident? 3. What is the sense of obvious? 4. How wide is the range of visible? 5. How does discernible compare with visible? What does it imply as to the observer's action? 6. What is the sense of palpable and tangible? conspicuous?

EXAMPLES.

A paradox is a real truth in the guise of an —— absurdity or contradiction.

The prime minister was —— by his absence.

The statement is a —— absurdity.

On a comparison of the two works the plagiarism was ——.

Yet from those flames No light; but only darkness ——.

These lies are like the father that begets them; gross as a mountain, open, ——.

* * * * *

EXAMPLE (page 160).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the etymological meaning of example? 2. What two contradictory meanings does example derive from this primary sense? 3. How does example differ from sample? 4. How does it compare with model? with pattern? 5. How does exemplar agree with, and differ from example? 6. What is an exemplification? an ensample?

EXAMPLES.

I bid him look into the lives of men as tho himself a mirror, and from others to take an —— for himself.

We sleep, but the loom of life never stops and the —— which was weaving when the sun went down is weaving when it comes up to-morrow.

History is an —— of philosophy.

The commander was resolved to make an —— to deter others from the like offense.

* * * * *

EXCESS (page 160).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is excess? Is it used in the favorable or unfavorable sense? 2. What is extravagance? 3. What is exorbitance? 4. What kind of excess do overplus and superabundance denote? lavishness and profusion? 5. Is surplus used in the favorable or unfavorable sense? 6. To what do redundance and redundancy chiefly refer? 7. What words are used as synonyms of excess in the moral sense?

EXAMPLES.

Saving requires self-denial, and —— is the death of self-denial.

Where there is great —— there usually follows corresponding ——.

—— of wealth is cause of covetousness.

Haste brings ——, and —— brings want.

The —— of the demand caused unfeigned surprise.

More of the present woes of the world are due to —— than to any other single cause.

—— of language often weakens the impression of what would be impressive in sober statement.

* * * * *

EXECUTE (page 161).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of execute? of administer? of enforce? 2. How are the words applied in special cases? Give instances. 3. What secondary meaning has administer?

EXAMPLES.

It is the place of the civil magistrate to —— the laws.

The pasha gave a signal and three attendants seized the culprit, and promptly —— the bastinado.

I can not illustrate a moral duty without at the same time ——ing a precept of our religion.

* * * * *

EXERCISE (page 162).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of exercise apart from all qualifying words? 2. How does exercise in that sense differ from exertion? 3. How may exercise be brought up to the full meaning of exertion? 4. What is practise? How does it differ from exercise? 5. How is practise discriminated from such theory or profession? 6. What is drill?

EXAMPLES.

Regular —— tends to keep body and mind in the best working order.

—— in time becomes second nature.

By constant —— the most difficult feats may be done with no apparent ——.

* * * * *

EXPENSE (page 162).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is cost? expense? 2. How are these words now commonly differentiated? 3. What is the meaning of outlay? of outgo?

EXAMPLES.

Which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the ——, whether he have sufficient to finish it.

The entire receipts have not equaled the ——.

When the —— is more than the income, if the income can not be increased, it becomes an absolute necessity to reduce the ——.

* * * * *

EXPLICIT (page 162).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what are explicit and express alike opposed? 2. How do the two words differ from each other?

EXAMPLES.

I came here at this critical juncture by the —— order of Sir John St. Clare.

The language of the proposition was too —— to admit of doubt.

Now the Spirit speaketh ——ly that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith.

* * * * *

EXTEMPORANEOUS (page 163).

QUESTIONS.

1. What did extemporaneous originally mean? 2. What has it now come to signify in common use? 3. What is the original meaning of impromptu? The present meaning? 4. How does the impromptu remark often differ from the extemporaneous? 5. How does unpremeditated compare with the words above mentioned?

EXAMPLES.

In —— prayer, what men most admire, God least regardeth.

As a speaker, he excelled in —— address, while his opponent was at a loss to answer him because not gifted in the same way.

No more on prancing palfrey borne, He carolled light as lark at morn, And poured to lord and lady gay The —— lay.

* * * * *

EXTERMINATE (page 163).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the derivation, and what is the original meaning of exterminate? eradicate? extirpate? 2. To what are these words severally applied?

EXAMPLES.

Since the building of the Pacific railroads in the United States, the buffalo has been quite ——.

The evil of intemperance is one exceedingly difficult to ——.

No inveterate improver should ever tempt me to —— the dandelions from the green carpet of my lawn.

* * * * *

FAINT (page 164).

QUESTIONS.

1. What are the chief meanings of faint? 2. How is faint a synonym of feeble or purposeless? of irresolute or timid? of dim, faded, or indistinct?

EXAMPLES.

Great is the strength of —— arms combined, And we can combat even with the brave.

In his right hand a tipped staffe he held, With which his —— steps he stayed still; For he was —— with cold, and weak with eld; That scarce his loosed limbs he hable was to weld.

* * * * *

FAITH (page 164).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is belief? 2. How does credence compare with belief? 3. What is conviction? assurance? 4. What is an opinion? 5. How does a persuasion compare with an opinion? 6. What is a doctrine? a creed? 7. What are confidence and reliance? 8. What is trust? 9. What elements are combined in faith? 10. How is belief often used in popular language as a precise equivalent of faith? 11. How is belief discriminated from faith in the strict religious sense?

EXAMPLES.

—— is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.

Put not your —— in princes, nor in the son of man, in whom there is no help.

—— is largely involuntary; a mathematical demonstration can not be doubted by a sane mind capable of understanding the terms and following the steps.

Every one of us, whatever our speculative ——, knows better than he practises, and recognizes a better law than he obeys.

There are few greater dangers for an army in the face of an enemy than undue ——.

* * * * *

FAITHFUL (page 165).

QUESTIONS.

1. In what sense may a person be called faithful? 2. In what sense may one be called trusty? 3. Is faithful commonly said of things as well as persons? is trusty? 4. What is the special difference of meaning between the two words? Give examples.

EXAMPLES.

Be thou —— unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.

Thy purpose —— is equal to the deed: Who does the best his circumstance allows Does well, acts nobly; angels could no more.

* * * * *

FAME (page 166).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is fame? Is it commonly used in the favorable or unfavorable sense? 2. What are reputation and repute, and in which sense commonly used? 3. What is notoriety? 4. From what do eminence and distinction result? 5. How does celebrity compare with fame? 6. How does renown compare with fame? 7. What is the import of honor? of glory?

EXAMPLES.

Saying, Amen: Blessing and ——, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and ——, and power and might, be unto our God for ever and ever.

A good —— is more valuable than money.

Great Homer's birthplace seven rival cities claim, Too mighty such monopoly of ——.

Do good by stealth, and blush to find it ——.

Seeking the bubble —— Even in the cannon's mouth.

* * * * *

FANATICISM (page 166).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is fanaticism? bigotry? 2. What do fanaticism and bigotry commonly include? 3. What is intolerance? 4. What is the distinctive meaning of superstition? 5. What is credulity? Is it distinctively religious?

EXAMPLES.

—— is a senseless fear of God.

The fierce —— of the Moslems was the mainspring of their early conquests.

The —— that will believe nothing contrary to a creed is often joined with a blind —— that will believe anything in favor of it.

* * * * *

FANCIFUL (page 167).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the meaning of fanciful? 2. What does fantastic add to the meaning of fanciful? 3. How does grotesque especially differ from the fanciful or fantastic? 4. How does visionary differ from fanciful?

EXAMPLES.

Come see the north wind's masonry, ... his wild work; So ——, so savage, naught cares he For number or proportion.

What —— tints the year puts on, When falling leaves falter through motionless air Or numbly cling and shiver to be gone!

Plays such —— tricks before high heaven As make the angels weep.

* * * * *

FANCY (page 167).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is an intellectual fancy? 2. How does a conceit differ from a fancy? a conception from both? 3. What is an emotional or personal fancy? 4. What is fancy as a faculty of the mind?

EXAMPLES.

Tell me where is —— bred; Or in the heart or in the head?

Elizabeth united the occasional —— of her sex with that sense and sound policy in which neither man nor woman ever excelled her.

That fellow seems to me to possess but one ——, and that is a wrong one.

If she were to take a —— to anybody in the house, she would soon settle, but not till then.

* * * * *

FAREWELL (page 168).

QUESTIONS.

1. To what language do farewell and good-by belong etymologically? How do they differ? 2. From what language have adieu and conge been adopted into English? 3. What is the special significance of conge? 4. What are valediction and valedictory?

EXAMPLES.

—— my paper's out so nearly I've only room for yours sincerely.

The train from out the castle drew, But Marmion stopped to bid ——.

——! a word that must be, and hath been— A sound which makes us linger;—yet———.

* * * * *

FEAR (page 168).

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the generic term of this group? 2. What is fear? Is it sudden or lingering? In view of what class of dangers? 3. What is the etymological meaning of horror? What does the word signify in accepted usage? 4. What are the characteristics of affright, fright, and terror? 5. How is fear contrasted with fright and terror in actual or possible effects? 6. What is panic? What of the numbers affected by it? 7. What is dismay? How does it compare with fright and terror?

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