Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 3 - "Destructors" to "Diameter"
Author: Various
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DIALYSIS (from the Gr. [Greek: dia], through, [Greek: luein], to loosen), in chemistry, a process invented by Thomas Graham for separating colloidal and crystalline substances. He found that solutions could be divided into two classes according to their action upon a porous diaphragm such as parchment. If a solution, say of salt, be placed in a drum provided with a parchment bottom, termed a "dialyser," and the drum and its contents placed in a larger vessel of water, the salt will pass through the membrane. If the salt solution be replaced by one of glue, gelatin or gum, it will be found that the membrane is impermeable to these solutes. To the first class Graham gave the name "crystalloids," and to the second "colloids." This method is particularly effective in the preparation of silicic acid. By adding hydrochloric acid to a dilute solution of an alkaline silicate, no precipitate will fall and the solution will contain hydrochloric acid, an alkaline chloride, and silicic acid. If the solution be transferred to a dialyser, the hydrochloric acid and alkaline chloride will pass through the parchment, while the silicic acid will be retained.

DIAMAGNETISM. Substances which, like iron, are attracted by the pole of an ordinary magnet are commonly spoken of as magnetic, all others being regarded as non-magnetic. It was noticed by A. C. Becquerel in 1827 that a number of so-called non-magnetic bodies, such as wood and gum lac, were influenced by a very powerful magnet, and he appears to have formed the opinion that the influence was of the same nature as that exerted upon iron, though much feebler, and that all matter was more or less magnetic. Faraday showed in 1845 (Experimental Researches, vol. iii.) that while practically all natural substances are indeed acted upon by a sufficiently strong magnetic pole, it is only a comparatively small number that are attracted like iron, the great majority being repelled. Bodies of the latter class were termed by Faraday diamagnetics. The strongest diamagnetic substance known is bismuth, its susceptibility being—0.000014, and its permeability 0.9998. The diamagnetic quality of this metal can be detected by means of a good permanent magnet, and its repulsion by a magnetic pole had been more than once recognized before the date of Faraday's experiments. The metals gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony and mercury are all diamagnetic; tin, aluminium and platinum are attracted by a very strong pole. (See MAGNETISM.)

DIAMANTE, FRA, Italian fresco painter, was born at Prato about 1400. He was a Carmelite friar, a member of the Florentine community of that order, and was the friend and assistant of Filippo Lippi. The Carmelite convent of Prato which he adorned with many works in fresco has been suppressed, and the buildings have been altered to a degree involving the destruction of the paintings. He was the principal assistant of Fra Filippo in the grand frescoes which may still be seen at the east end of the cathedral of Prato. In the midst of the work he was recalled to Florence by his conventual superior, and a minute of proceedings of the commune of Prato is still extant, in which it is determined to petition the metropolitan of Florence to obtain his return to Prato,—a proof that his share in the work was so important that his recall involved the suspension of it. Subsequently he assisted Fra Filippo in the execution of the frescoes still to be seen in the cathedral of Spoleto, which Fra Diamante completed in 1470 after his master's death in 1469. Fra Filippo left a son ten years old to the care of Diamante, who, having received 200 ducats from the commune of Spoleto, as the balance due for the work done in the cathedral, returned with the child to Florence, and, as Vasari says, bought land for himself with the money, giving but a small portion to the child. The accusation of wrong-doing, however, would depend upon the share of the work executed by Fra Diamante, and the terms of his agreement with Fra Filippo. Fra Diamante must have been nearly seventy when he completed the frescoes at Spoleto, but the exact year of his death is not known.

DIAMANTE, JUAN BAUTISTA (1640?-1684?), Spanish dramatist, was born at Castillo about 1640, entered the army, and began writing for the stage in 1657. He became a knight of Santiago in 1660; the date of his death is unknown, but no reference to him as a living author occurs after 1684. Like many other Spanish dramatists of his time, Diamante is deficient in originality, and his style is riddled with affectations; La Desgraciada Raquel, which was long considered to be his best play, is really Mira de Amescua's Judia de Toledo under another title; and the earliest of Diamante's surviving pieces, El Honrador de su padre (1658), is little more than a free translation of Corneille's Cid. Diamante is historically interesting as the introducer of French dramatic methods into Spain.

DIAMANTINA (formerly called Tejuco), a mining town of the state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, in the N.E. part of the state, 3710 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1890) 17,980. Diamantina is built partly on a steep hillside overlooking a small tributary of the Rio Jequitinhonha (where diamond-washing was once carried on), and partly on the level plain above. The town is roughly but substantially built, with broad streets and large squares. It is the seat of a bishopric, with an episcopal seminary, and has many churches. Its public buildings are inconspicuous; they include a theatre, military barracks, hospitals, a lunatic asylum and a secondary school. There are several small manufactures, including cotton-weaving, and diamond-cutting is carried on. The surrounding region, lying on the eastern slopes of one of the lateral ranges of the Serra do Espinhaco, is rough and barren, but rich in minerals, principally gold and diamonds. Diamantina is the commercial centre of an extensive region, and has long been noted for its wealth. The date of the discovery of diamonds, upon which its wealth and importance chiefly depend, is uncertain, but the official announcement was made in 1729, and in the following year the mines were declared crown property, with a crown reservation, known as the "forbidden district," 42 leagues in circumference and 8 to 16 leagues in diameter. Gold-mining was forbidden within its limits and diamond-washing was placed under severe restrictions. There are no trustworthy returns of the value of the output, but in 1849 the total was estimated up to that date at 300,000,000 francs (see DIAMOND). The present name of the town was assumed (instead of Tejuco) in 1838, when it was made a cidade.

DIAMANTINO, a small town of the state of Matto Grosso, Brazil, near the Diamantino river, about 6 m. above its junction with the Paraguay, in 14 deg. 24' 33" S., 56 deg. 8' 30" W. Pop. (1890) of the municipality 2147, mostly Indians. It stands in a broken sterile region 1837 ft. above sea-level and at the foot of the great Matto Grosso plateau. The first mining settlement dates from 1730, when gold was found in the vicinity. On the discovery of diamonds in 1746 the settlement drew a large population and for a time was very prosperous. The mines failed to meet expectations, however, and the population has steadily declined. Ipecacuanha and vanilla beans are now the principal articles of export.

DIAMETER (from the Gr. [Greek: dia], through, [Greek: metron], measure), in geometry, a line passing through the centre of a circle or conic section and terminated by the curve; the "principal diameters" of the ellipse and hyperbola coincide with the "axes" and are at ... (continued in volume 8, slice 4, page 0158.)

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Corrections made to printed original.

DETERMINANT, formula = ab'c" - ab"c' + a'b"c - a'bc" - a"bc' - a"b'c. changed to = ab'c" - ab"c' + a'b"c - a'bc" + a"bc' - a"b'c.

DETMOLD, added missing comma after 'Detmold possesses a natural history museum'.

DEVENTER, 'The "Athenaeum" disappeared' corrected from the original 'disappered'.

DEVIL, replaced comma with a period after 'according to 1 Chron. xxi'.

DEVONSHIRE, EARLS AND DUKES OF, 'In November 1684' originally 'Novembr'.

DIAGRAM, 'found to be of use especially' originally 'epsecially'.

DIAL, table angles on the dial, column IX. A.M. III. P.M. bottom entry corrected from '45 45' to '40 45'.

DIAGRAM, missing closing parenthesis added after 'to mark out by lines'.


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