HotFreeBooks.com
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 3 - "Destructors" to "Diameter"
Author: Various
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

DEWAS, two native states of India, in the Malwa Political Charge of Central India, founded in the first half of the 18th century by two brothers, Punwar Mahrattas, who came into Malwa with the peshwa, Baji Rao, in 1728. Their descendants are known as the senior and junior branches of the family, and since 1841 each has ruled his own portion as a separate state, though the lands belonging to each are so intimately entangled, that even in Dewas, the capital town, the two sides of the main street are under different administrations and have different arrangements for water supply and lighting. The senior branch has an area of 446 sq. m. and a population of 62,312, while the area of the junior branch is 440 sq. m. and its population 54,904.

DEWBERRY, Rubus caesius, a trailing plant, allied to the bramble, of the natural order Rosaceae. It is common in woods, hedges and the borders of fields in England and other countries of Europe. The leaves have three leaflets, are hairy beneath, and of a dusky green; the flowers which appear in June and July are white, or pale rose-coloured. The fruit is large, and closely embraced by the calyx, and consists of a few drupules, which are black, with a glaucous bloom; it has an agreeable acid taste.

DEW-CLAW, the rudimentary toes, two in number, or the "false hoof" of the deer, sometimes also called the "nails." In dogs the dew-claw is the rudimentary toe or hallux (corresponding to the big toe in man) hanging loosely attached to the skin, low down on the hinder part of the leg. The origin of the word is unknown, but it has been fancifully suggested that, while the other toes touch the ground in walking, the dew-claw merely brushes the dew from the grass.

D'EWES, SIR SIMONDS, Bart. (1602-1650), English antiquarian, eldest son of Paul D'Ewes of Milden, Suffolk, and of Cecilia, daughter and heir of Richard Simonds, of Coaxdon or Coxden, Dorsetshire, was born on the 18th of December 1602, and educated at the grammar school of Bury St Edmunds, and at St John's College, Cambridge. He had been admitted to the Middle Temple in 1611, and was called to the bar in 1623, when he immediately began his collections of material and his studies in history and antiquities. In 1626 he married Anne, daughter and heir of Sir William Clopton, of Luton's Hall in Suffolk, through whom he obtained a large addition to his already considerable fortune. On the 6th of December he was knighted. He took an active part as a strong Puritan and member of the moderate party in the opposition to the king's arbitrary government in the Long Parliament of 1640, in which he sat as member for Sudbury. On the 15th of July he was created a baronet by the king, but nevertheless adhered to the parliamentary party when war broke out, and in 1643 took the Covenant. He was one of the members expelled by Pride's Purge in 1648, and died on the 18th of April 1650. He had married secondly Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Willoughby, Bart., of Risley in Derbyshire, by whom he had a son, who succeeded to his estates and title, the latter becoming extinct on the failure of male issue in 1731. D'Ewes appears to have projected a work of very ambitious scope, no less than the whole history of England based on original documents. But though excelling as a collector of materials, and as a laborious, conscientious and accurate transcriber, he had little power of generalization or construction, and died without publishing anything except an uninteresting tract, The Primitive Practice for Preserving Truth (1645), and some speeches. His Journals of all the Parliaments during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, however, a valuable work, was published in 1682. His large collections, including transcripts from ancient records, many of the originals of which are now dispersed or destroyed, are in the Harleian collection in the British Museum. His unprinted Diaries from 1621-1624 and from 1643-1647, the latter valuable for the notes of proceedings in parliament, are often the only authority for incidents and speeches during that period, and are amusing from the glimpses the diarist affords of his own character, his good estimation of himself and his little jealousies; some are in a cipher and some in Latin.

Extracts from his Autobiography and Correspondence from the MSS. in the British Museum were published by J. O. Halliwell-Phillips in 1845, by Hearne in the appendix to his Historia vitae et regni Ricardi II. (1729), and in the Bibliotheca topographica Britannica, No. xv. vol. vi. (1783); and from a Diary of later date, College Life in the Time of James I. (1851). His Diaries have been extensively drawn upon by Forster, Gardiner, and by Sanford in his Studies of the Great Rebellion. Some of his speeches have been reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany and in the Somers Tracts.

DE WET, CHRISTIAN (1854- ), Boer general and politician, was born on the 7th of October 1854 at Leeuwkop, Smithfield district (Orange Free State), and later resided at Dewetsdorp. He served in the first Anglo-Boer War of 1880-81 as a field cornet, and from 1881 to 1896 he lived on his farm, becoming in 1897 member of the Volksraad. He took part in the earlier battles of the Boer War of 1899 in Natal as a commandant and later, as a general, he went to serve under Cronje in the west. His first successful action was the surprise of Sanna's Post near Bloemfontein, which was followed by the victory of Reddersburg a little later. Thenceforward he came to be regarded more and more as the most formidable leader of the Boers in their guerrilla warfare. Sometimes severely handled by the British, sometimes escaping only by the narrowest margin of safety from the columns which attempted to surround him, and falling upon and annihilating isolated British posts, De Wet continued to the end of the war his successful career, striking heavily where he could do so and skilfully evading every attempt to bring him to bay. He took an active part in the peace negotiations of 1902, and at the conclusion of the war he visited Europe with the other Boer generals. While in England the generals sought, unavailingly, a modification of the terms of peace concluded at Pretoria. De Wet wrote an account of his campaigns, an English version of which appeared in November 1902 under the title Three Years' War. In November, 1907 he was elected a member of the first parliament of the Orange River Colony and was appointed minister of agriculture. In 1908-9 he was a delegate to the Closer Union Convention.

DE WETTE, WILHELM MARTIN LEBERECHT (1780-1849), German theologian, was born on the 12th of January 1780, at Ulla, near Weimar, where his father was pastor. He was sent to the gymnasium at Weimar, then at the height of its literary glory. Here he was much influenced by intercourse with Johann Gottfried Herder, who frequently examined at the school. In 1799 he entered on his theological studies at Jena, his principal teachers being J. J. Griesbach and H. E. G. Paulus, from the latter of whom he derived his tendency to free critical inquiry. Both in methods and in results, however, he occupied an almost solitary position among German theologians. Having taken his doctor's degree, he became privat-docent at Jena; in 1807 professor of theology at Heidelberg, where he came under the influence of J. F. Fries (1773-1843); and in 1810 was transferred to a similar chair in the newly founded university of Berlin, where he enjoyed the friendship of Schleiermacher. He was, however, dismissed from Berlin in 1819 on account of his having written a letter of consolation to the mother of Karl Ludwig Sand, the murderer of Kotzebue. A petition in his favour presented by the senate of the university was unsuccessful, and a decree was issued not only depriving him of the chair, but banishing him from the Prussian kingdom. He retired for a time to Weimar, where he occupied his leisure in the preparation of his edition of Luther, and in writing the romance Theodor oder die Weihe des Zweiflers (Berlin, 1822), in which he describes the education of an evangelical pastor. During this period he made his first essay in preaching, and proved himself to be possessed of very popular gifts. But in 1822 he accepted the chair of theology in the university of Basel, which had been reorganized four years before. Though his appointment had been strongly opposed by the orthodox party, De Wette soon won for himself great influence both in the university and among the people generally. He was admitted a citizen, and became rector of the university, which owed to him much of its recovered strength, particularly in the theological faculty. He died on the 16th of June 1849.

De Wette has been described by Julius Wellhausen as "the epoch-making opener of the historical criticism of the Pentateuch." He prepared the way for the Supplement-theory. But he also made valuable contributions to other branches of theology. He had, moreover, considerable poetic faculty, and wrote a drama in three acts, entitled Die Entsagung (Berlin, 1823). He had an intelligent interest in art, and studied ecclesiastical music and architecture. As a Biblical critic he is sometimes classed with the destructive school, but, as Otto Pfleiderer says (Development of Theology, p. 102), he "occupied as free a position as the Rationalists with regard to the literal authority of the creeds of the church, but that he sought to give their due value to the religious feelings, which the Rationalists had not done, and, with a more unfettered mind towards history, to maintain the connexion of the present life of the church with the past." His works are marked by exegetical skill, unusual power of condensation and uniform fairness. Accordingly they possess value which is little affected by the progress of criticism.

The most important of his works are:—Beitraege zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament (2 vols., 1806-1807); Kommentar ueber die Psalmen (1811), which has passed through several editions, and is still regarded as of high authority; Lehrbuch der hebraeisch-juedischen Archaeologie (1814); Ueber Religion und Theologie (1815); a work of great importance as showing its author's general theological position; Lehrbuch der christlichen Dogmatik (1813-1816); Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Einleitung in die Bibel (1817); Christliche Sittenlehre (1819-1821); Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1826); Religion, ihr Wesen, ihre Erscheinungsform, und ihr Einfluss auf das Leben (1827); Das Wesen des christlichen Glaubens (1846); and Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum Neuen Testament (1836-1848). De Wette also edited Luther's works (5 vols., 1825-1828).

See K. R. Hagenbach in Herzog's Realencyklopaedie; G. C. F. Luecke's W. M. L. De Wette, zur freundschaftlicher Erinnerung (1850); and D. Schenkel's W. M. L. De Wette und die Bedeutung seiner Theologie fuer unsere Zeit (1849). Rudolf Staehelin, De Wette nach seiner theol. Wirksamkeit und Bedeutung (1880); F. Lichtenberger, History of German Theology in the Nineteenth Century (1889); Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology (1890), pp. 97 ff.; T. K. Cheyne, Founders of the Old Testament Criticism, pp. 31 ff.

DEWEY, DAVIS RICH (1858- ), American economist and statistician, was born at Burlington, Vermont, U.S.A., on the 7th of April 1858. He was educated at the university of Vermont and at Johns Hopkins University, and afterwards became professor of economics and statistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was chairman of the state board on the question of the unemployed (1895), member of the Massachusetts commission on public, charitable and reformatory interests (1897), special expert agent on wages for the 12th census, and member of a state commission (1904) on industrial relations. He wrote an excellent Syllabus on Political History since 1815 (1887), a Financial History of the U.S. (1902), and National Problems (1907).

DEWEY, GEORGE (1837- ), American naval officer, was born at Montpelier, Vermont, on the 26th of December 1837. He studied at Norwich University, then at Norwich, Vermont, and graduated at the United States Naval Academy in 1858. He was commissioned lieutenant in April 1861, and in the Civil War served on the steamsloop "Mississippi" (1861-1863) during Farragut's passage of the forts below New Orleans in April 1862, and at Port Hudson in March 1863; took part in the fighting below Donaldsonville, Louisiana, in July 1863; and in 1864-1865 served on the steam-gunboat "Agawam" with the North Atlantic blockading squadron and took part in the attacks on Fort Fisher in December 1864 and January 1865. In March 1865 he became a lieutenant-commander. He was with the European squadron in 1866-1867; was an instructor in the United States Naval Academy in 1868-1869; was in command of the "Narragansett" in 1870-1871 and 1872-1875, being commissioned commander in 1872; was light-house inspector in 1876-1877; and was secretary of the light-house board in 1877-1882. In 1884 he became a captain; in 1889-1893 was chief of the bureau of equipment and recruiting; in 1893-1895 was a member of the light-house board; and in 1895-1897 was president of the board of inspection and survey, being promoted to the rank of commodore in February 1896. In November 1897 he was assigned, at his own request, to sea service, and sent to Asiatic waters. In April 1898, while with his fleet at Hong Kong, he was notified by cable that war had begun between the United States and Spain, and was ordered to "capture or destroy the Spanish fleet" then in Philippine waters. On the 1st of May he overwhelmingly defeated the Spanish fleet under Admiral Montojo in Manila Bay, a victory won without the loss of a man on the American ships (see SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR). Congress, in a joint resolution, tendered its thanks to Commodore Dewey, and to the officers and men under his command, and authorized "the secretary of the navy to present a sword of honor to Commodore George Dewey, and cause to be struck bronze medals commemorating the battle of Manila Bay, and to distribute such medals to the officers and men of the ships of the Asiatic squadron of the United States." He was promoted rear-admiral on the 10th of May 1898. On the 18th of August his squadron assisted in the capture of the city of Manila. After remaining in the Philippines under orders from his government to maintain control, Dewey received the rank of admiral (March 3, 1899)—that title, formerly borne only by Farragut and Porter, having been revived by act of Congress (March 2, 1899),—and returned home, arriving in New York City, where, on the 3rd of October 1899, he received a great ovation. He was a member (1899) of the Schurman Philippine Commission, and in 1899 and 1900 was spoken of as a possible Democratic candidate for the presidency. He acted as president of the Schley court of inquiry in 1901, and submitted a minority report on a few details.

DEWEY, MELVIL (1851- ), American librarian, was born at Adams Center, New York, on the 10th of December 1851. He graduated in 1874 at Amherst College, where he was assistant librarian from 1874 to 1877. In 1877 he removed to Boston, where he founded and became editor of The Library Journal, which became an influential factor in the development of libraries in America, and in the reform of their administration. He was also one of the founders of the American Library Association, of which he was secretary from 1876 to 1891, and president in 1891 and 1893. In 1883 he became librarian of Columbia College, and in the following year founded there the School of Library Economy, the first institution for the instruction of librarians ever organized. This school, which was very successful, was removed to Albany in 1890, where it was re-established as the State Library School under his direction; from 1888 to 1906 he was director of the New York State Library and from 1888 to 1900 was secretary of the University of the State of New York, completely reorganizing the state library, which he made one of the most efficient in America, and establishing the system of state travelling libraries and picture collections. His "Decimal System of Classification" for library cataloguing, first proposed in 1876, is extensively used.

DEWING, THOMAS WILMER (1851- ), American figure painter, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 4th of May 1851. He was a pupil of Jules Lefebvre in Paris from 1876 to 1879; was elected a full member of the National Academy of Design in 1888; was a member of the society of Ten American Painters, New York; and received medals at the Paris Exhibition (1889), at Chicago (1893), at Buffalo (1901) and at St Louis (1904). His decorative genre pictures are notable for delicacy and finish. Among his portraits are those of Mrs Stanford White and of his own wife. Mrs Dewing (b, 1855), nee Maria Oakey, a figure and flower painter, was a pupil of John La Farge in New York, and of Couture in Paris.

DE WINT, PETER (1784-1849), English landscape painter, of Dutch extraction, son of an English physician, was born at Stone, Staffordshire, on the 21st of January 1784. He studied art in London, and in 1809 entered the Academy schools. In 1812 he became a member of the Society of Painters in Watercolours, where he exhibited largely for many years, as well as at the Academy. He married in 1810 the sister of William Hilton, R.A. He died in London on the 30th of January 1849. De Wint's life was devoted to art; he painted admirably in oils, and he ranks as one of the chief English water-colourists. A number of his pictures are in the National Gallery and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

DE WINTER, JAN WILLEM (1750-1812), Dutch admiral, was born at Kampen, and in 1761 entered the naval service at the age of twelve years. He distinguished himself by his zeal and courage, and at the revolution of 1787 he had reached the rank of lieutenant. The overthrow of the "patriot" party forced him to fly for his safety to France. Here he threw himself heart and soul into the cause of the Revolution, and took part under Dumouriez and Pichegru in the campaigns of 1792 and 1793, and was soon promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. When Pichegru in 1795 overran Holland, De Winter returned with the French army to his native country. The states-general now utilized the experience he had gained as a naval officer by giving him the post of adjunct-general for the reorganization of the Dutch navy. In 1796 he was appointed vice-admiral and commander-in-chief of the fleet. He spared no efforts to strengthen it and improve its condition, and on the 11th of October 1797 he ventured upon an encounter off Camperdown with the British fleet under Admiral Duncan. After an obstinate struggle the Dutch were defeated, and De Winter himself was taken prisoner. He remained in England until December, when he was liberated by exchange. His conduct in the battle of Camperdown was declared by a court-martial to have nobly maintained the honour of the Dutch flag.

From 1798 to 1802 De Winter filled the post of ambassador to the French republic, and was then once more appointed commander of the fleet. He was sent with a strong squadron to the Mediterranean to repress the Tripoli piracies, and negotiated a treaty of peace with the Tripolitan government. He enjoyed the confidence of Louis Bonaparte, when king of Holland, and, after the incorporation of the Netherlands in the French empire, in an equal degree of the emperor Napoleon. By the former he was created marshal and count of Huessen, and given the command of the armed forces both by sea and land. Napoleon gave him the grand cross of the Legion of Honour and appointed him inspector-general of the northern coasts, and in 1811 he placed him at the head of the fleet he had collected at the Texel. Soon afterwards De Winter was seized with illness and compelled to betake himself to Paris, where he died on the 2nd of June 1812. He had a splendid public funeral and was buried in the Pantheon. His heart was enclosed in an urn and placed in the Nicolaas Kerk at Kampen.

DE WITT, CORNELIUS (1623-1672), brother of JOHN DE WITT (q.v.), was born at Dort in 1623. In 1650 he became burgomaster of Dort and member of the states of Holland and West Friesland. He was afterwards appointed to the important post of ruwaard or governor of the land of Putten and bailiff of Beierland. He associated himself closely with his greater brother, the grand pensionary, and supported him throughout his career with great ability and vigour. In 1667 he was the deputy chosen by the states of Holland to accompany Admiral de Ruyter in his famous expedition to Chatham. Cornelius de Witt on this occasion distinguished himself greatly by his coolness and intrepidity. He again accompanied De Ruyter in 1672 and took an honourable part in the great naval fight at Sole Bay against the united English and French fleets. Compelled by illness to leave the fleet, he found on his return to Dort that the Orange party were in the ascendant, and he and his brother were the objects of popular suspicion and hatred. An account of his imprisonment, trial and death, is given below.

DE WITT, JOHN (1625-1672), Dutch statesman, was born at Dort, on the 24th of September 1625. He was a member of one of the old burgher-regent families of his native town. His father, Jacob de Witt, was six times burgomaster of Dort, and for many years sat as a representative of the town in the states of Holland. He was a strenuous adherent of the republican or oligarchical states-right party in opposition to the princes of the house of Orange, who represented the federal principle and had the support of the masses of the people. John was educated at Leiden, and early displayed remarkable talents, more especially in mathematics and jurisprudence. In 1645 he and his elder brother Cornelius visited France, Italy, Switzerland and England, and on his return he took up his residence at the Hague, as an advocate. In 1650 he was appointed pensionary of Dort, an office which made him the leader and spokesman of the town's deputation in the state of Holland. In this same year the states of Holland found themselves engaged in a struggle for provincial supremacy, on the question of the disbanding of troops, with the youthful prince of Orange, William II. William, with the support of the states-general and the army, seized five of the leaders of the states-right party and imprisoned them in Loevestein castle; among these was Jacob de Witt. The sudden death of William, at the moment when he had crushed opposition, led to a reaction. He left only a posthumous child, afterwards William III. of Orange, and the principles advocated by Jacob de Witt triumphed, and the authority of the states of Holland became predominant in the republic.

At this time of constitutional crisis such were the eloquence, sagacity and business talents exhibited by the youthful pensionary of Dort that on the 23rd of July 1653 he was appointed to the office of grand pensionary (Raadpensionaris) of Holland at the age of twenty-eight. He was re-elected in 1658, 1663 and 1668, and held office until his death in 1672. During this period of nineteen years the general conduct of public affairs and administration, and especially of foreign affairs, such was the confidence inspired by his talents and industry, was largely placed in his hands. He found in 1653 his country brought to the brink of ruin through the war with England, which had been caused by the keen commercial rivalry of the two maritime states. The Dutch were unprepared, and suffered severely through the loss of their carrying trade, and De Witt resolved to bring about peace as soon as possible. The first demands of Cromwell were impossible, for they aimed at the absorption of the two republics into a single state, but at last in the autumn of 1654 peace was concluded, by which the Dutch made large concessions and agreed to the striking of the flag to English ships in the narrow seas. The treaty included a secret article, which the states-general refused to entertain, but which De Witt succeeded in inducing the states of Holland to accept, by which the provinces of Holland pledged themselves not to elect a stadtholder or a captain-general of the union. This Act of Seclusion, as it was called, was aimed at the young prince of Orange, whose close relationship to the Stuarts made him an object of suspicion to the Protector. De Witt was personally favourable to this exclusion of William III. from his ancestral dignities, but there is no truth in the suggestion that he prompted the action of Cromwell in this matter.

The policy of De Witt after the peace of 1654 was eminently successful. He restored the finances of the state, and extended its commercial supremacy in the East Indies. In 1658-59 he sustained Denmark against Sweden, and in 1662 concluded an advantageous peace with Portugal. The accession of Charles II. to the English throne led to the rescinding of the Act of Seclusion; nevertheless De Witt steadily refused to allow the prince of Orange to be appointed stadtholder or captain-general. This led to ill-will between the English and Dutch governments, and to a renewal of the old grievances about maritime and commercial rights, and war broke out in 1665. The zeal, industry and courage displayed by the grand pensionary during the course of this fiercely contested naval struggle could scarcely have been surpassed. He himself on more than one occasion went to sea with the fleet, and inspired all with whom he came in contact by the example he set of calmness in danger, energy in action and inflexible strength of will. It was due to his exertions as an organizer and a diplomatist quite as much as to the brilliant seamanship of Admiral de Ruyter, that the terms of the treaty of peace signed at Breda (July 31, 1667), on the principle of uti possidetis, were so honourable to the United Provinces. A still greater triumph of diplomatic skill was the conclusion of the Triple Alliance (January 17, 1668) between the Dutch Republic, England and Sweden, which checked the attempt of Louis XIV. to take possession of the Spanish Netherlands in the name of his wife, the infanta Maria Theresa. The check, however, was but temporary, and the French king only bided his time to take vengeance for the rebuff he had suffered. Meanwhile William III. was growing to manhood, and his numerous adherents throughout the country spared no efforts to undermine the authority of De Witt, and secure for the young prince of Orange the dignities and authority of his ancestors.

In 1672 Louis XIV. suddenly declared war, and invaded the United Provinces at the head of a splendid army. Practically no resistance was possible. The unanimous voice of the people called William III. to the head of affairs, and there were violent demonstrations against John de Witt. His brother Cornelius was (July 24) arrested on a charge of conspiring against the prince. On the 4th of August John de Witt resigned the post of grand pensionary that he had held so long and with such distinction. Cornelius was put to the torture, and on the 19th of August he was sentenced to deprivation of his offices and banishment. He was confined in the Gevangenpoort, and his brother came to visit him in the prison. A vast crowd on hearing this collected outside, and finally burst into the prison, seized the two brothers and literally tore them to pieces. Their mangled remains were hung up by the feet to a lamp-post. Thus perished, by the savage act of an infuriated mob, one of the greatest statesmen of his age.

John de Witt married Wendela Bicker, daughter of an influential burgomaster of Amsterdam, in 1655, by whom he had two sons and three daughters.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.—J. Geddes, History of the Administration of John de Witt, (vol. i. only, London, 1879); A. Lefevre-Pontalis, Jean de Witt, grand pensionnaire de Hollande (2 vols., Paris, 1884); P. Simons, Johan de Witt en zijn tijd (3 vols., Amsterdam, 1832-1842); W. C. Knottenbelt, Geschiedenis der Staatkunde van J. de Witt (Amsterdam, 1862); J. de Witt, Brieven ... gewisselt tusschen den Heer Johan de Witt ... ende de gevolgmaghtigden v. d. staedt d. Vereen. Nederlanden so in Vranckryck, Engelandt, Sweden, Denemarken, Poolen, enz. 1652-69 (6 vols., The Hague, 1723-1725); Brieven ... 1650-1657 (1658) eerste deel bewerkt den R. Fruin uitgegeven d., C. W. Kernkamp (Amsterdam, 1906).

DEWLAP (from the O.E. laeppa, a lappet, or hanging fold; the first syllable is of doubtful origin and the popular explanation that the word means "the fold which brushes the dew" is not borne out, according to the New English Dictionary, by the equivalent words such as the Danish doglaeb, in Scandinavian languages), the loose fold of skin hanging from the neck of cattle, also applied to similar folds in the necks of other animals and fowls, as the dog, turkey, &c. The American practice of branding cattle by making a cut in the neck is known as a "dewlap brand." The skin of the neck in human beings often becomes pendulous with age, and is sometimes referred to humorously by the same name.

DEWSBURY, a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on the river Calder, 8 m. S.S.W. of Leeds, on the Great Northern, London & North-Western, and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways. Pop. (1901) 28,060. The parish church of All Saints was for the most part rebuilt in the latter half of the 18th century; the portions still preserved of the original structure are mainly Early English. The chief industries are the making of blankets, carpets, druggets and worsted yarn; and there are iron foundries and machinery works. Coal is worked in the neighbourhood. The parliamentary borough includes the adjacent municipal borough of Batley, and returns one member. The municipal borough, incorporated in 1862, is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 1471 acres. Paulinus, first archbishop of York, about the year 627 preached in the district of Dewsbury, where Edwin, king of Northumbria, whom he converted to Christianity, had a royal mansion. At Kirklees, in the parish, are remains of a Cistercian convent of the 12th century, in an extensive park, where tradition relates that Robin Hood died and was buried.

DEXIPPUS, PUBLIUS HERENNIUS (c. A.D. 210-273), Greek historian, statesman and general, was an hereditary priest of the Eleusinian family of the Kerykes, and held the offices of archon basileus and eponymus in Athens. When the Heruli overran Greece and captured Athens (269), Dexippus showed great personal courage and revived the spirit of patriotism among his degenerate fellow-countrymen. A statue was set up in his honour, the base of which, with an inscription recording his services, has been preserved (Corpus Inscrr. Atticarum, iii. No. 716). It is remarkable that the inscription is silent as to his military achievements. Photius (cod. 82) mentions three historical works by Dexippus, of which considerable fragments remain: (1) [Greek: Ta met' Alexandron], an epitome of a similarly named work by Arrian; (2) [Greek: Skuthika], a history of the wars of Rome with the Goths (or Scythians) in the 3rd century; (3) [Greek: Chronike historia], a chronological history from the earliest times to the emperor Claudius Gothicus (270), frequently referred to by the writers of the Augustan history. The work was continued by Eunapius of Sardis down to 404. Photius speaks very highly of the style of Dexippus, whom he places on a level with Thucydides, an opinion by no means confirmed by the fragments (C. W. Mueller, F.H.G. iii. 666-687).

DEXTER, HENRY MARTYN (1821-1890), American clergyman and author, was born in Plympton, Massachusetts, on the 13th of August 1821. He graduated at Yale in 1840 and at the Andover Theological Seminary in 1844; was pastor of a Congregational church in Manchester, New Hampshire, in 1844-1849, and of the Berkeley Street Congregational church, Boston, in 1849-1867; was an editor of the Congregationalist in 1851-1866, of the Congregational Quarterly in 1859-1866, and of the Congregationalist, with which the Recorder was merged, from 1867 until his death in New Bedford, Mass., on the 13th of November 1890. He was an authority on the history of Congregationalism and was lecturer on that subject at the Andover Theological Seminary in 1877-1879; he left his fine library on the Puritans in America to Yale University. Among his works are: Congregationalism, What it is, Whence it is, How it works, Why it is better than any other Form of Church Government, and its consequent Demands (1865), The Church Polity of the Puritans the Polity of the New Testament (1870), As to Roger Williams and His "Banishment" from the Massachusetts Colony (1876), Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years, as seen in its Literature (1880), his most important work, A Handbook of Congregationalism (1880), The True Story of John Smyth, the "Se-Baptist" (1881), Common Sense as to Woman Suffrage (1885), and many reprints of pamphlets bearing on early church history in New England, especially Baptist controversies. His The England and Holland of the Pilgrims was completed by his son, Morton Dexter (b. 1846), and published in 1905.

DEXTER, TIMOTHY (1747-1806), American merchant, remarkable for his eccentricities, was born at Malden, Massachusetts, on the 22nd of February 1747. He acquired considerable wealth by buying up quantities of the depreciated continental currency, which was ultimately redeemed by the Federal government at par. He assumed the title of Lord Dexter and built extraordinary houses at Newburyport, Mass., and Chester, New Hampshire. He maintained a poet laureate and collected inferior pictures, besides erecting in one of his gardens some forty colossal statues carved in wood to represent famous men. A statue of himself was included in the collection, and had for an inscription "I am the first in the East, the first in the West, and the greatest philosopher in the Western World." He wrote a book entitled Pickle for the Knowing Ones. It was wholly without punctuation marks, and as this aroused comment, he published a second edition, at the end of which was a page displaying nothing but commas and stops, from which the readers were invited to "peper and solt it as they plese." He beat his wife for not weeping enough at the rehearsal of his funeral, which he himself carried out in a very elaborate manner. He died at Newburyport on the 26th of October 1806.

DEXTRINE (BRITISH GUM, STARCH GUM, LEIOCOME), (C{6}H{10}O{5}){x}, a substance produced from starch by the action of dilute acids, or by roasting it at a temperature between 170 deg. and 240 deg. C. It is manufactured by spraying starch with 2% nitric acid, drying in air, and then heating to about 110 deg. Different modifications are known, e.g. amylodextrine, erythrodextrine and achroodextrine. Its name has reference to its powerful dextrorotatory action on polarized light. Pure dextrine is an insipid, odourless, white substance; commercial dextrine is sometimes yellowish, and contains burnt or unchanged starch. It dissolves in water and dilute alcohol; by strong alcohol it is precipitated from its solutions as the hydrated compound, C{6}H{10}O{5}.H{2}O. Diastase converts it eventually into maltose, C{12}H{22}O{11}; and by boiling with dilute acids (sulphuric, hydrochloric, acetic) it is transformed into dextrose, or ordinary glucose, C{6}H{12}O{6}. It does not ferment in contact with yeast, and does not reduce Fehling's solution. If heated with strong nitric acid it gives oxalic, and not mucic acid. Dextrine much resembles gum arabic, for which it is generally substituted. It is employed for sizing paper, for stiffening cotton goods, and for thickening colours in calico printing, also in the making of lozenges, adhesive stamps and labels, and surgical bandages.

See Otto Lueger, Lexikon der gesamten Technik.

DEY (an adaptation of the Turk, dāi, a maternal uncle), an honorary title formerly bestowed by the Turks on elderly men, and appropriated by the janissaries as the designation of their commanding officers. In Algeria the deys of the janissaries became in the 17th century rulers of that country (see ALGERIA: HISTORY). From the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century the ruler of Tunisia was also called dey, a title frequently used during the same period by the sovereigns of Tripoli.

DHAMMAPĀLA, the name of one of the early disciples of the Buddha, and therefore constantly chosen as their name in religion by Buddhist novices on their entering the brotherhood. The most famous of the Bhikshus so named was the great commentator who lived in the latter half of the 5th century A.D. at the Badara Tittha Vihāra, near the east coast of India, just a little south of where Madras now stands. It is to him we owe the commentaries on seven of the shorter canonical books, consisting almost entirely of verses, and also the commentary on the Netti, perhaps the oldest Pāli work outside the canon. Extracts from the latter work, and the whole of three out of the seven others, have been published by the Pāli Text Society. These works show great learning, exegetical skill and sound judgment. But as Dhammapāla confines himself rigidly either to questions of the meaning of words, or to discussions of the ethical import of his texts, very little can be gathered from his writings of value for the social history of his time. For the right interpretation of the difficult texts on which he comments, they are indispensable. Though in all probability a Tamil by birth, he declares, in the opening lines of those of his works that have been edited, that he followed the tradition of the Great Minster at Anurādhapura in Ceylon, and the works themselves confirm this in every respect. Hsuean Tsang, the famous Chinese pilgrim, tells a quaint story of a Dhammapāla of Kānchipura (the modern Konjevaram). He was a son of a high official, and betrothed to a daughter of the king, but escaped on the eve of the wedding feast, entered the order, and attained to reverence and distinction. It is most likely that this story, whether legendary or not (and Hsuean Tsang heard the story at Kānchipura nearly two centuries after the date of Dhammapāla), referred to this author. But it may also refer, as Hsuean Tsang refers it, to another author of the same name. Other unpublished works, besides those mentioned above, have been ascribed to Dhammapāla, but it is very doubtful whether they are really by him.

AUTHORITIES.—T. Watters, On Yuan Chwang (ed. Rhys Davids and Bushell, London, 1905), ii. 169, 228; Edmund Hardy in Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlaendischen Gesellschaft (1898), pp. 97 foll.; Netti (ed. E. Hardy, London, Pāli Text Society, 1902), especially the Introduction, passim; Theri Gāthā Commentary, Peta Vatthu Commentary, and Vimāna Vatthu Commentary, all three published by the Pāli Text Society. (T. W. R. D.)

DHANIS, FRANCIS, BARON (1861-1909), Belgian administrator, was born in London in 1861 and passed the first fourteen years of his life at Greenock, where he received his early education. He was the son of a Belgian merchant and of an Irish lady named Maher. The name Dhanis is supposed to be a variation of D'Anvers. Having completed his education at the Ecole Militaire he entered the Belgian army, joining the regiment of grenadiers, in which he rose to the rank of major. As soon as he reached the rank of lieutenant he volunteered for service on the Congo, and in 1887 he went out for a first term. He did so well in founding new stations north of the Congo that, when the government decided to put an end to the Arab domination on the Upper Congo, he was selected to command the chief expedition sent against the slave dealers. The campaign began in April 1892, and it was not brought to a successful conclusion till January 1894. The story of this war has been told in detail by Dr Sydney Hinde, who took part in it, in his book The Fall of the Congo Arabs. The principal achievements of the campaign were the captures in succession of the three Arab strongholds at Nyangwe, Kassongo and Kabambari. For his services Dhanis was raised to the rank of baron, and in 1895 was made vice-governor of the Congo State. In 1896 he took command of an expedition to the Upper Nile. His troops, largely composed of the Batetela tribes who had only been recently enlisted, and who had been irritated by the execution of some of their chiefs for indulging their cannibal proclivities, mutinied and murdered many of their white officers. Dhanis found himself confronted with a more formidable adversary than even the Arabs in these well-armed and half-disciplined mercenaries. During two years (1897-1898) he was constantly engaged in a life-and-death struggle with them. Eventually he succeeded in breaking up the several bands formed out of his mutinous soldiers. Although the incidents of the Batetela operations were less striking than those of the Arab war, many students of both think that the Belgian leader displayed the greater ability and fortitude in bringing them to a successful issue. In 1899 Baron Dhanis returned to Belgium with the honorary rank of vice governor-general. He died on the 14th of November 1909.

DHAR, a native state of India, in the Bhopawar agency, Central India. It includes many Rajput and Bhil feudatories, and has an area of 1775 sq. m. The raja is a Punwar Mahratta. The founder of the present ruling family was Anand Rao Punwar, a descendant of the great Paramara clan of Rajputs who from the 9th to the 13th century, when they were driven out by the Mahommedans, had ruled over Malwa from their capital at Dhar. In 1742 Anand Rao received Dhar as a fief from Baji Rao, the peshwa, the victory of the Mahrattas thus restoring the sovereign power to the family which seven centuries before had been expelled from this very city and country. Towards the close of the 18th and in the early part of the 19th century, the state was subject to a series of spoliations by Sindia and Holkar, and was only preserved from destruction by the talents and courage of the adoptive mother of the fifth raja. By a treaty of 1819 Dhar passed under British protection, and bound itself to act in subordinate co-operation. The state was confiscated for rebellion in 1857, but in 1860 was restored to Raja Anand Rao Punwar, then a minor, with the exception of the detached district of Bairusia, which was granted to the begum of Bhopal. Anand Rao, who received the personal title Maharaja and the K.C.S.I. in 1877, died in 1898, and was succeeded by Udaji Rao Punwar. In 1901 the population was 142,115. The state includes the ruins of Mandu, or Mandogarh, the Mahommedan capital of Malwa.

THE TOWN OF DHAR is 33 m. W. of Mhow, 908 ft. above the sea. Pop. (1901) 17,792. It is picturesquely situated among lakes and trees surrounded by barren hills, and possesses, besides its old walls, many interesting buildings, Hindu and Mahommedan, some of them containing records of a great historical importance. The Lat Masjid, or Pillar Mosque, was built by Dilawar Khan in 1405 out of the remains of Jain temples. It derives its name from an iron pillar, supposed to have been originally set up at the beginning of the 13th century in commemoration of a victory, and bearing a later inscription recording the seven days' visit to the town of the emperor Akbar in 1598. The pillar, which was 43 ft. high, is now overthrown and broken. The Kamal Maula is an enclosure containing four tombs, the most notable being that of Shaikh Kamal Maulvi (Kamal-ud-din), a follower of the famous 13th-century Mussulman saint Nizam-ud-din Auliya.[1] The mosque known as Raja Bhoj's school was built out of Hindu remains in the 14th or 15th century: its name is derived from the slabs, covered with inscriptions giving rules of Sanskrit grammar, with which it is paved. On a small hill to the north of the town stands the fort, a conspicuous pile of red sandstone, said to have been built by Mahommed ben Tughlak of Delhi in the 14th century. It contains the palace of the raja. Of modern institutions may be mentioned the high school, public library, hospital, and the chapel, school and hospital of the Canadian Presbyterian mission. There is also a government opium depot for the payment of duty, the town being a considerable centre for the trade in opium as well as in grain.

The town, the name of which is usually derived from Dhara Nagari (the city of sword blades), is of great antiquity, and was made the capital of the Paramara chiefs of Malwa by Vairisinha II., who transferred his headquarters hither from Ujjain at the close of the 9th century. During the rule of the Paramara dynasty Dhar was famous throughout India as a centre of culture and learning; but, after suffering various vicissitudes, it was finally conquered by the Mussulmans at the beginning of the 14th century. At the close of the century Dilawar Khan, the builder of the Lat Masjid, who had been appointed governor in 1399, practically established his independence, his son Hoshang Shah being the first Mahommedan king of Malwa. Under this dynasty Dhar was second in importance to the capital Mandu. Subsequently, in the time of Akbar, Dhar fell under the dominion of the Moguls, in whose hands it remained till 1730, when it was conquered by the Mahrattas.

See Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, 1908).

[1] Nizam-ud-din, whose beautiful marble tomb is at Indarpat near Delhi, was, according to some authorities, an assassin of the secret society of Khorasan. By some modern authorities he is supposed to have been the founder of Thuggism, the Thugs having a special reverence for his memory.

DHARAMPUR, a native state of India, in the Surat political agency division of Bombay, with an area of 704 sq. m. The population in 1901 was 100,430, being a decrease of 17% during the decade; the estimated gross revenue is L25,412; and the tribute L600. Its chief is a Sesodia Rajput. The state has been surveyed for land revenue on the Bombay system. It contains one town, Dharampur (pop. in 1901, 63,449), and 272 villages. Only a small part of the state, the climate of which is very unhealthy, is capable of cultivation; the rest is covered with rocky hills, forest and brushwood.

DHARMSALA, a hill-station and sanatorium of the Punjab, India, situated on a spur of the Dhaola Dhar, 16 m. N.E. of Kangra town, at an elevation of some 6000 ft. Pop. (1901) 6971. The scenery of Dharmsala is of peculiar grandeur. The spur on which it stands is thickly wooded with oak and other trees; behind it the pine-clad slopes of the mountain tower towards the jagged peaks of the higher range, snow-clad for half the year; while below stretches the luxuriant cultivation of the Kangra valley. In 1855 Dharmsala was made the headquarters of the Kangra district of the Punjab in place of Kangra, and became the centre of a European settlement and cantonment, largely occupied by Gurkha regiments. The station was destroyed by the earthquake of April 1905, in which 1625 persons, including 25 Europeans and 112 of the Gurkha garrison, perished (Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908).

DHARWAR, a town and district of British India, in the southern division of Bombay. The town has a station on the Southern Mahratta railway. The population in 1901 was 31,279. It has several ginning factories and a cotton-mill; two high schools, one maintained by the Government and the other by the Basel German Mission.

The DISTRICT OF DHARWAR has an area of 4602 sq. m. In the north and north-east are great plains of black soil, favourable to cotton-growing; in the south and west are successive ranges of low hills, with flat fertile valleys between them. The whole district lies high and has no large rivers.

In 1901 the population was 1,113,298, showing an increase of 6% in the decade. The most influential classes of the community are Brahmans and Lingayats. The Lingayats number 436,968, or 46% of the Hindu population; they worship the symbol of Siva, and males and females both carry this emblem about their person in a silver case. The principal crops are millets, pulse and cotton. The centres of the cotton trade are Hubli and Gadag, junctions on the Southern Mahratta railway, which traverses the district in several directions.

The early history of the territory comprised within the district of Dharwar has been to a certain extent reconstructed from the inscription slabs and memorial stones which abound there. From these it is clear that the country fell in turn under the sway of the various dynasties that ruled in the Deccan, memorials of the Chalukyan dynasty, whether temples or inscriptions, being especially abundant. In the 14th century the district was first overrun by the Mahommedans, after which it was annexed to the newly established Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, an official of which named Dhar Rao, according to local tradition, built the fort at Dharwar town in 1403. After the defeat of the king of Vijayanagar at Talikot (1565), Dharwar was for a few years practically independent under its Hindu governor; but in 1573 the fort was captured by the sultan of Bijapur, and Dharwar was annexed to his dominions. In 1685 the fort was taken by the emperor Aurangzeb, and Dharwar, on the break-up of the Mogul empire, fell under the sway of the peshwa of Poona. In 1764 the province was overrun by Hyder Ali of Mysore, who in 1778 captured the fort of Dharwar. This was retaken in 1791 by the Mahrattas. On the final overthrow of the peshwa in 1817, Dharwar was incorporated with the territory of the East India Company.

DHOLPUR, a native state of India, in the Rajputana agency, with an area of 1155 sq. m. It is a crop-producing country, without any special manufactures. All along the bank of the river Chambal the country is deeply intersected by ravines; low ranges of hills in the western portion of the state supply inexhaustible quarries of fine-grained and easily-worked red sandstone. In 1901 the population of Dholpur was 270,973, showing a decrease of 3% in the decade. The estimated revenue is L83,000. The state is crossed by the Indian Midland railway from Jhansi to Agra. In recent years it has suffered severely from drought. In 1896-1897 the expenditure on famine relief amounted to L8190.

The town of Dholpur is 34 m. S. of Agra by rail. Pop. (1901) 19,310. The present town, which dates from the 16th century, stands somewhat to the north of the site of the older Hindu town built, it is supposed, in the 11th century by the Tonwar Rajput Raja Dholan (or Dhawal) Deo, and named after him Dholdera or Dhawalpuri. Among the objects of interest in the town may be mentioned the fortified sarai built in the reign of Akbar, within which is the fine tomb of Sadik Mahommed Khan (d. 1595), one of his generals. The town, from its position on the railway, is growing in importance as a centre of trade.

Little is known of the early history of the country forming the state of Dholpur. Local tradition affirms that it was ruled by the Tonwar Rajputs, who had their seat at Delhi from the 8th to the 12th century. In 1450 it had a raja of its own; but in 1501 the fort of Dholpur was taken by the Mahommedans under Sikandar Lodi and in 1504 was transferred to a Mussulman governor. In 1527, after a strenuous resistance, the fort was captured by Baber and with the surrounding country passed under the sway of the Moguls, being included by Akbar in the province of Agra. During the dissensions which followed the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dholpur, and his family retained it till 1761, after which it was taken successively by the Jat raja, Suraj Mal of Bharatpur, by Mirza Najaf Khan in 1775, by Sindhia in 1782, and in 1803 by the British. It was restored to Sindhia by the treaty of Sarji Anjangaon, but in consequence of new arrangements was again occupied by the British. Finally, in 1806, the territories of Dholpur, Bari and Rajakhera were handed over to the maharaj rana Kirat Singh, ancestor of the present chiefs of Dholpur, in exchange for his state of Gohad, which was ceded to Sindhia.

The maharaj rana of Dholpur belongs to the clan of Bamraolia Jats, who are believed to have formed a portion of the Indo-Scythian wave of invasion which swept over northern India about A.D. 100. An ancestor of the family appears to have held certain territories at Bamraoli near Agra c. 1195. His descendant in 1505, Singhan Deo, having distinguished himself in an expedition against the freebooters of the Deccan, was rewarded by the sovereignty of the small territory of Gohad, with the title of rana. In 1779 the rana of Gohad joined the British forces against Sindhia, under a treaty which stipulated that, at the conclusion of peace between the English and Mahrattas, all the territories then in his possession should be guaranteed to him, and protected from invasion by Sindhia. This protection was subsequently withdrawn, the rana having been guilty of treachery, and in 1783 Sindhia succeeded in recapturing the fortress of Gwalior, and crushed his Jat opponent by seizing the whole of Gohad. In 1804, however, the family were restored to Gohad by the British government; but, owing to the opposition of Sindhia, the rana agreed in 1805 to exchange Gohad for his present territory of Dholpur, which was taken under British protection, the chief binding himself to act in subordinate co-operation with the paramount power, and to refer all disputes with neighbouring princes to the British government. Kirat Singh, the first maharaj rana of Dholpur, was succeeded in 1836 by his son Bhagwant Singh, who showed great loyalty during the Mutiny of 1857, was created a K.C.S.I., and G.C.S.I. in 1869. He was succeeded in 1873 by his grandson Nihal Singh, who received the C.B. and frontier medal for services in the Tirah campaign. He died in 1901, and was succeeded by his eldest son Ram Singh (b. 1883).

See Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, 1908) and authorities there given.

DHOW, the name given to a type of vessel used throughout the Arabian Sea. The language to which the word belongs is unknown. According to the New English Dictionary the place of origin may be the Persian Gulf, assuming that the word is identical with the tava mentioned by Athanasius Nikitin (India in the 15th Century, Hakluyt Society, 1858). Though the word is used generally of any craft along the East African coast, it is usually applied to the vessel of about 150 to 200 tons burden with a stem rising with a long slope from the water; dhows generally have one mast with a lateen sail, the yard being of enormous length. Much of the coasting trade of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf is carried on by these vessels. They were the regular vessels employed in the slave trade from the east coast of Africa.

DHRANGADRA, a native state of India, in the Gujarat division of Bombay, situated in the north of the peninsula of Kathiawar. Its area is 1156 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 70,880. The estimated gross revenue is L38,000 and the tribute L3000. A state railway on the metre gauge from Wadhwan to the town of Dhrangadra, a distance of 21 m., was opened for traffic in 1898. Some cotton is grown, although the soil is as a whole poor; the manufactures include salt, metal vessels and stone hand-mills. The chief town, Dhrangadra, has a population (1901) of 14,770.

The chief of Dhrangadra, who bears the title of Raj Sahib, with the predicate of His Highness, is head of the ancient clan of Jhala Rajputs, who are said to have entered Kathiawar from Sind in the 8th century. Raj Sahib Sir Mansinghji Ranmalsinghji (b. 1837), who succeeded his father in 1869, was distinguished for the enlightened character of his administration, especially in the matter of establishing schools and internal communications. He was created a K.C.S.I in 1877. He died in 1900, and was succeeded by his grandson Ajitsinghji Jaswatsinghji (b. 1872).

DHULEEP SINGH (1837-1893), maharaja of Lahore, was born in February 1837, and was proclaimed maharaja on the 18th of September 1843, under the regency of his mother the rani Jindan, a woman of great capacity and strong will, but extremely inimical to the British. He was acknowledged by Ranjit Singh and recognized by the British government. After six years of peace the Sikhs invaded British territory in 1845, but were defeated in four battles, and terms were imposed upon them at Lahore, the capital of the Punjab. Dhuleep Singh retained his territory, but it was administered to a great extent by the British government in his name. This arrangement increased the regent's dislike of the British, and a fresh outbreak occurred in 1848-49. In spite of the valour of the Sikhs, they were utterly routed at Gujarat, and in March 1849 Dhuleep Singh was deposed, a pension of L40,000 a year being granted to him and his dependants. He became a Christian and elected to live in England. On coming of age he made an arrangement with the British government by which his income was reduced to L25,000 in consideration of advances for the purchase of an estate, and he finally settled at Elvedon in Suffolk. While passing through Alexandria in 1864 he met Miss Bamba Mueller, the daughter of a German merchant who had married an Abyssinian. The maharaja had been interested in mission work by Sir John Login, and he met Miss Mueller at one of the missionary schools where she was teaching. She became his wife on the 7th of June 1864, and six children were the issue of the marriage. In the year after her death in 1890 the maharaja married at Paris, as his second wife, an English lady, Miss Ada Douglas Wetherill, who survived him. The maharaja was passionately fond of sport, and his shooting parties were celebrated, while he himself became a persona grata in English society. The result, however, was financial difficulty, and in 1882 he appealed to the government for assistance, making various claims based upon the alleged possession of private estates in the Punjab, and upon the surrender of the Koh-i-nor diamond to the British Crown. His demand was rejected, whereupon he started for India, after drawing up a proclamation to his former subjects. But as it was deemed inadvisable to allow him to visit the Punjab, he remained for some time as a guest at the residency at Aden, and was allowed to receive some of his relatives to witness his abjuration of Christianity, which actually took place within the residency itself. As the climate began to affect his health, the maharaja at length left Aden and returned to Europe. He stayed for some time in Russia, hoping that his claim against England would be taken up by the Russians; but when that expectation proved futile he proceeded to Paris, where he lived for the rest of his life on the pension allowed him by the Indian government. His death from an attack of apoplexy took place at Paris on the 22nd of October 1893. The maharaja's eldest son, Prince Victor Albert Jay Dhuleep Singh (b. 1866), was educated at Trinity and Downing Colleges, Cambridge. In 1888 he obtained a commission in the 1st Royal Dragoon Guards. In 1898 he married Lady Anne Coventry, youngest daughter of the earl of Coventry. (G.F.B.)

DHULIA, a town of British India, administrative headquarters of West Khandesh district in Bombay, on the right bank of the Panjhra river. Pop. (1901) 24,726. Considerable trade is done in cotton and oil-seeds, and weaving of cotton. A railway connects Dhulia with Chalisgaon, on the main line of the Great Indian Peninsula railway.

DIABASE, in petrology, a rock which is a weathered form of dolerite. It was long widely accepted that the pre-Tertiary rocks of this group differed from their Tertiary and Recent representatives in certain essential respects, but this is now admitted to be untenable, and the differences are known to be merely the result of the longer exposure to decomposition, pressure and shearing, which the older rocks have experienced. Their olivine tends to become serpentinized; their augite changes to chlorite and uralite; their felspars are clouded by formation of zeolites, calcite, sericite and epidote. The rocks acquire a green colour (from the development of chlorite, uralite and epidote); hence the older name of "greenstones," which is now little used. Many of them become somewhat schistose from pressure ("greenstone-schists," meta-diabase, &c.). Although the original definition of the group can no longer be justified, the name is so well established in current usage that it can hardly be discarded. The terms diabase and dolerite are employed really to designate distinct facies of the same set of rocks.

The minerals of diabase are the same as those of dolerite, viz. olivine, augite, and plagioclase felspar, with subordinate quantities of hornblende, biotite, iron oxides and apatite.

There are olivine-diabases and diabases without olivine; quartz-diabases, analcite-diabases (or teschenites) and hornblende diabases (or proterobases). Hypersthene (or bronzite) is characteristic of another group. Many of them are ophitic, especially those which contain olivine, but others are intersertal, like the intersertal dolerites. The last include most quartz-diabases, hypersthene-diabases and the rocks which have been described as tholeites. Porphyritic structure appears in the diabase-porphyrites, some of which are highly vesicular and contain remains of an abundant fine-grained or partly glassy ground-mass (diabas-mandelstein, amygdaloidal diabase). The somewhat ill-defined spilites are regarded by many as modifications of diabase-porphyrite. In the intersertal and porphyrite diabases, fresh or devitrified glassy base is not infrequent. It is especially conspicuous in some tholeites (hyalo-tholeites) and in weisselbergites. These rocks consist of augite and plagioclase, with little or no olivine, on a brown, vitreous, interstitial matrix. Devitrified forms of tachylyte (sordawilite, &c.) occur at the rapidly chilled margins of dolerite sills and dikes, and fine-grained spotted rocks with large spherulites of grey or greenish felspar, and branching growths of brownish-green augite (variolites).

To nearly every variety in composition and structure presented by the diabases, a counterpart can be found among the Tertiary dolerites. In the older rocks, however, certain minerals are more common than in the newer. Hornblende, mostly of pale green colours and somewhat fibrous habit, is very frequent in diabase; it is in most cases secondary after pyroxene, and is then known as uralite; often it forms pseudomorphs which retain the shape of the original augite. Where diabases have been crushed or sheared, hornblende readily develops at the expense of pyroxene, sometimes replacing it completely. In the later stages of alteration the amphibole becomes compact and well crystallized; the rocks consist of green hornblende and plagioclase felspar, and are then generally known as epidiorites or amphibolites. At the same time a schistose structure is produced. But transition forms are very common, having more or less of the augite remaining, surrounded by newly formed hornblende which at first is rather fibrous and tends to spread outwards through the surrounding felspar. Chlorite also is abundant both in sheared and unsheared diabases, and with it calcite may make its appearance, or the lime set free from the augite may combine with the titanium of the iron oxide and with silica to form incrustations or borders of sphene around the original crystals of ilmenite. Epidote is another secondary lime-bearing mineral which results from the decomposition of the soda lime felspars and the pyroxenes. Many diabases, especially those of the teschenite sub-group, are filled with zeolites.

Diabases are exceedingly abundant among the older rocks of all parts of the globe. Popular names for them are "whinstone," "greenstone," "toadstone" and "trap." They form excellent road-mending stones and are much quarried for this purpose, being tough, durable and resistant to wear, so long as they are not extremely decomposed. Many of them are to be preferred to the fresher dolerites as being less brittle. The quality of the Cornish greenstones appears to have been distinctly improved by a smaller amount of recrystallization where they have been heated by contact with intrusive masses of granite. (J. S. F.)

DIABETES (from Gr. [Greek: dia], through, and [Greek: bainein], to pass), a constitutional disease characterized by a habitually excessive discharge of urine. Two forms of this complaint are described, viz. Diabetes Mellitus, or Glycosuria, where the urine is not only increased in quantity, but persistently contains a greater or less amount of sugar, and Diabetes Insipidus, or Polyuria, where the urine is simply increased in quantity, and contains no abnormal ingredient. This latter, however, must be distinguished from the polyuria due to chronic granular kidney, lardaceous disease of the kidney, and also occurring in certain cases of hysteria.

Diabetes mellitus is the disease to which the term is most commonly applied, and is by far the more serious and important ailment. It is one of the diseases due to altered metabolism (see METABOLIC DISEASES). It is markedly hereditary, much more prevalent in towns and especially modern city life than in more primitive rustic communities, and most common among the Jews. The excessive use of sugar as a food is usually considered one cause of the disease, and obesity is supposed to favour its occurrence, but many observers consider that the obesity so often met with among diabetics is due to the same cause as the disease itself. No age is exempt, but it occurs most commonly in the fifth decade of life. It attacks males twice as frequently as females, and fair more frequently than dark people.

The symptoms are usually gradual in their onset, and the patient may suffer for a length of time before he thinks it necessary to apply for medical aid. The first symptoms which attract attention are failure of strength, and emaciation, along with great thirst and an increased amount and frequent passage of urine. From the normal quantity of from 2 to 3 pints in the 24 hours it may be increased to 10, 20 or 30 pints, or even more. It is usually of pale colour, and of thicker consistence than normal urine, possesses a decidedly sweet taste, and is of high specific gravity (1030 to 1050). It frequently gives rise to considerable irritation of the urinary passages.

By simple evaporation crystals of sugar may be obtained from diabetic urine, which also yields the characteristic chemical tests of sugar, while the amount of this substance can be accurately estimated by certain analytical processes. The quantity of sugar passed may vary from a few ounces to two or more pounds per diem, and it is found to be markedly increased after saccharine or starchy food has been taken. Sugar may also be found in the blood, saliva, tears, and in almost all the excretions of persons suffering from this disease. One of the most distressing symptoms is intense thirst, which the patient is constantly seeking to allay, the quantity of liquid consumed being in general enormous, and there is usually, but not invariably, a voracious appetite. The mouth is always parched, and a faint, sweetish odour may be evolved from the breath. The effect of the disease upon the general health is very marked, and the patient becomes more and more emaciated. He suffers from increasing muscular weakness, the temperature of his body is lowered, and the skin is dry and harsh. There is often a peculiar flush on the face, not limited to the malar eminences, but extending up to the roots of the hair. The teeth are loosened or decay, there is a tendency to bleeding from the gums, while dyspeptic symptoms, constipation and loss of sexual power are common accompaniments. There is in general great mental depression or irritability.

Diabetes as a rule advances comparatively slowly except in the case of young persons, in whom its progress is apt to be rapid. The complications of the disease are many and serious. It may cause impaired vision by weakening the muscles of accommodation, or by lessening the sensitiveness of the retina to light. Also cataract is very common. Skin affections of all kinds may occur and prove very intractable. Boils, carbuncles, cellulitis and gangrene are all apt to occur as life advances, though gangrene is much more frequent in men than in women. Diabetics are especially liable to phthisis and pneumonia, and gangrene of the lungs may set in if the patient survives the crisis in the latter disease. Digestive troubles of all kinds, kidney diseases and heart failure due to fatty heart are all of common occurrence. Also patients seem curiously susceptible to the poison of enteric fever, though the attack usually runs a mild course. The sugar temporarily disappears during the fever. But the most serious complication of all is known as diabetic coma, which is very commonly the final cause of death. The onset is often insidious, but may be indicated by loss of appetite, a rapid fall in the quantity of both urine and sugar, and by either constipation or diarrhoea. More rarely there is most acute abdominal pain. At first the condition is rather that of collapse than true coma, though later the patient is absolutely comatose. The patient suffers from a peculiar kind of dyspnoea, and the breath and skin have a sweet ethereal odour. The condition may last from twenty-four hours to three days, but is almost invariably the precursor of death.

Diabetes is a very fatal form of disease, recovery being exceedingly rare. Over 50% die of coma, another 25% of phthisis or pneumonia, and the remainder of Bright's disease, cerebral haemorrhage, gangrene, &c. The most favourable cases are those in which the patient is advanced in years, those in which it is associated with obesity or gout, and where the social conditions are favourable. A few cures have been recorded in which the disease supervened after some acute illness. The unfavourable cases are those in which there is a family history of the disease and in which the patient is young. Nevertheless much may be done by appropriate treatment to mitigate the severity of the symptoms and to prolong life.

There are two distinct lines of treatment, that of diet and that of drugs, but each must be modified and determined entirely by the idiosyncrasy of the patient, which varies in this condition between very wide limits. That of diet is of primary importance inasmuch as it has been proved beyond question that certain kinds of food have a powerful influence in aggravating the disease, more particularly those consisting largely of saccharine and starchy matter; and it may be stated generally that the various methods of treatment proposed aim at the elimination as far as possible of these constituents from the diet. Hence it is recommended that such articles as bread, potatoes and all farinaceous foods, turnips, carrots, parsnips and most fruits should be avoided; while animal food and soups, green vegetables, cream, cheese, eggs, butter, and tea and coffee without sugar, may be taken with advantage. As a substitute for ordinary bread, which most persons find it difficult to do without for any length of time, bran bread, gluten bread and almond biscuits. A patient must never pass suddenly from an ordinary to a carbohydrate-free diet. Any such sudden transition is extremely liable to bring on diabetic coma, and the change must be made quite gradually, one form of carbohydrate after another being taken out of the diet, whilst the effect on the quantity of sugar passed is being carefully noted meanwhile. The treatment may be begun by excluding potatoes, sugar and fruit, and only after several days is the bread to be replaced by some diabetic substitute. When the sugar excretion has been reduced to its lowest point, and maintained there for some time, a certain amount of carbohydrate may be cautiously allowed, the consequent effect on the glycosuria being estimated. The best diet can only be worked out experimentally for each individual patient. But in every case, if drowsiness or any symptom suggesting coma supervene, all restrictions must be withdrawn, and carbohydrate freely allowed. The question of alcohol is one which must be largely determined by the previous history of the patient, but a small quantity will help to make up the deficiencies of a diet poor in carbohydrate. Scotch and Irish whisky, and Hollands gin, are usually free from sugar, and some of the light Bordeaux wines contain very little. Fat is beneficial, and can be given as cream, fat of meat and cod-liver oil. Green vegetables are harmless, but the white stalks of cabbages and lettuces and also celery and endive yield sugar. Laevulose can be assimilated up to 1 1/2 ozs. daily without increasing the glycosuria, and hence apples, cooked or raw, are allowable, as the sugar they contain is in this form. The question of milk is somewhat disputed; but it is usual to exclude it from the rigid diet, allowing a certain quantity when the diet is being extended. Thirst is relieved by anything that relieves the polyuria. But hypodermic injections of pilocarpine stimulate the flow of saliva, and thus relieve the dryness of the mouth. Constipation appears to increase the thirst, and must always be carefully guarded against. The best remedies are the aperient mineral waters.

Numerous medicinal substances have been employed in diabetes, but few of them are worthy of mention as possessed of any efficacy. Opium is often found of great service, its administration being followed by marked amelioration in all the symptoms. Morphia and codeia have a similar action. In the severest cases, however, these drugs appear to be of little or no use, and they certainly increase the constipation. Heroin hydrochloride has been tried in their place, but this seems to have more power over slight than over severe cases. Salicylate of sodium and aspirin are both very beneficial, causing a diminution in the sugar excretion without counterbalancing bad effects.

In diabetes insipidus there is constant thirst and an excessive flow of urine, which, however, is not found to contain any abnormal constituent. Its effects upon the system are often similar to those of diabetes mellitus, except that they are much less marked, the disease being in general very slow in its progress. In some cases the health appears to suffer very slightly. It is rarely a direct cause of death, but from its debilitating effects may predispose to serious and fatal complications. It is best treated by tonics and generous diet. Valerian has been found beneficial, the powdered root being given in 5-grain doses.

DIABOLO, a game played with a sort of top in the shape of two cones joined at their apices, which is spun, thrown, and caught by means of a cord strung to two sticks. The idea of the game appears originally to have come from China, where a top (Kouengen), made of two hollow pierced cylinders of metal or wood, joined by a rod—and often of immense size,—was made by rotation to hum with a loud noise, and was used by pedlars to attract customers. From China it was introduced by missionaries to Europe; and a form of the game, known as "the devil on two sticks," appears to have been known in England towards the end of the 18th century, and Lord Macartney is credited with improvements in it. But its principal vogue was in France in 1812, where the top was called "le diable." Amusing old prints exist (see Fry's Magazine, March and December 1907), depicting examples of the popular craze in France at the time. The diable of those days resembled a globular wooden dumb-bell with a short waist, and the sonorous hum when spinning—the bruit du diable—was a pronounced feature. At intervals during the century occasional attempts to revive the game of spinning a top of this sort on a string were made, but it was not till 1906 that the sensation of 1812 began to be repeated. A French engineer, Gustave Phillipart, discovering some old implements of the game, had experimented for some time with new forms of top with a view to bringing it again into popularity; and having devised the double-cone shape, and added a miniature bicycle tire of rubber round the rims of the two ends of the double-cone, with other improvements, he named it "diabolo." The use of celluloid in preference to metal or wood as its material appears to have been due to a suggestion of Mr C. B. Fry, who was consulted by the inventor on the subject. The game of spinning, throwing and catching the diabolo was rapidly elaborated in various directions, both as an exercise of skill in doing tricks, and in "diabolo tennis" and other ways as an athletic pastime. From Paris, Ostend and the chief French seaside resorts, where it became popular in 1906, its vogue spread in 1907 so that in France and England it became the fashionable "rage" among both children and adults.

The mechanics of the diabolo were worked out by Professor C. V. Boys in the Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), Nov. 1907.

DIACONICON, in the Greek Church, the name given to a chamber on the south side of the central apse, where the sacred utensils, vessels, &c., of the church were kept. In the reign of Justin II. (565-574), owing to a change in the liturgy, the diaconicon and protheses were located in apses at the east end of the aisles. Before that time there was only one apse. In the churches in central Syria of slightly earlier date, the diaconicon is rectangular, the side apses at Kalat-Seman having been added at a later date.

DIADOCHI (Gr. [Greek: diadechesthai], to receive from another), i.e. "Successors," the name given to the Macedonian generals who fought for the empire of Alexander after his death in 323 B.C. The name includes Antigonus and his son Demetrius Poliorcetes, Antipater and his son Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy, Eumenes and Lysimachus. The kingdoms into which the Macedonian empire was divided under these rulers are known as Hellenistic. The chief were Asia Minor and Syria under the SELEUCID DYNASTY (q.v.), Egypt under the PTOLEMIES (q.v.), Macedonia under the successors of Antigonus Gonatas, PERGAMUM (q.v.) under the Attalid dynasty. Gradually these kingdoms were merged in the Roman empire. (See MACEDONIAN EMPIRE.)

DIAGONAL (Gr. [Greek: dia], through, [Greek: gonia], a corner), in geometry, a line joining the intersections of two pairs of sides of a rectilinear figure.

DIAGORAS, of Melos, surnamed the Atheist, poet and sophist, flourished in the second half of the 5th century B.C. Religious in his youth and a writer of hymns and dithyrambs, he became an atheist because a great wrong done to him was left unpunished by the gods. In consequence of his blasphemous speeches, and especially his criticism of the Mysteries, he was condemned to death at Athens, and a price set upon his head (Aristoph. Clouds, 830; Birds, 1073 and Schol.). He fled to Corinth, where he is said to have died. His work on the Mysteries was called [Greek Phrygioi logoi] or [Greek: Apopyrgizontes], in which he probably attacked the Phrygian divinities.

DIAGRAM (Gr. [Greek: diagramma], from [Greek: diagraphein], to mark out by lines), a figure drawn in such a manner that the geometrical relations between the parts of the figure illustrate relations between other objects. They may be classed according to the manner in which they are intended to be used, and also according to the kind of analogy which we recognize between the diagram and the thing represented. The diagrams in mathematical treatises are intended to help the reader to follow the mathematical reasoning. The construction of the figure is defined in words so that even if no figure were drawn the reader could draw one for himself. The diagram is a good one if those features which form the subject of the proposition are clearly represented.

Diagrams are also employed in an entirely different way—namely, for purposes of measurement. The plans and designs drawn by architects and engineers are used to determine the value of certain real magnitudes by measuring certain distances on the diagram. For such purposes it is essential that the drawing be as accurate as possible. We therefore class diagrams as diagrams of illustration, which merely suggest certain relations to the mind of the spectator, and diagrams drawn to scale, from which measurements are intended to be made. There are some diagrams or schemes, however, in which the form of the parts is of no importance, provided their connexions are properly shown. Of this kind are the diagrams of electrical connexions, and those belonging to that department of geometry which treats of the degrees of cyclosis, periphraxy, linkedness and knottedness.

Diagrams purely Graphic and mixed Symbolic and Graphic.—Diagrams may also be classed either as purely graphical diagrams, in which no symbols are employed except letters or other marks to distinguish particular points of the diagrams, and mixed diagrams, in which certain magnitudes are represented, not by the magnitudes of parts of the diagram, but by symbols, such as numbers written on the diagram. Thus in a map the height of places above the level of the sea is often indicated by marking the number of feet above the sea at the corresponding places on the map. There is another method in which a line called a contour line is drawn through all the places in the map whose height above the sea is a certain number of feet, and the number of feet is written at some point or points of this line. By the use of a series of contour lines, the height of a great number of places can be indicated on a map by means of a small number of written symbols. Still this method is not a purely graphical method, but a partly symbolical method of expressing the third dimension of objects on a diagram in two dimensions.

In order to express completely by a purely graphical method the relations of magnitudes involving more than two variables, we must use more than one diagram. Thus in the arts of construction we use plans and elevations and sections through different planes, to specify the form of objects having three dimensions. In such systems of diagrams we have to indicate that a point in one diagram corresponds to a point in another diagram. This is generally done by marking the corresponding points in the different diagrams with the same letter. If the diagrams are drawn on the same piece of paper we may indicate corresponding points by drawing a line from one to the other, taking care that this line of correspondence is so drawn that it cannot be mistaken for a real line in either diagram. (See GEOMETRY: Descriptive.)

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6     Next Part
Home - Random Browse