BARING-GOULD, SABINE (1834- ), English novelist, was born at Exeter on the 28th of January 1834. After graduating at Clare College, Cambridge, he spent some years in travel, and became in 1864 curate of Horbury, Yorkshire; then perpetual curate of Dalton, in the same county, in 1867; and in 1871 rector of East Mersea, Essex. On his father's death in 1872 he inherited the estate of Lew Trenchard, North Devon, where his family had been settled for nearly three centuries, and he exchanged his Essex living for the rectory of Lew Trenchard in 1881. He had a ready pen, and began publishing books on one subject or another—fiction, travel, history, folk-lore, religion, mythology, from 1854 onwards. His novel Mehalah (1880), the scene of which is laid on the east coast of England, was an excellent story, and among many others may be mentioned John Herring (1883), a tale of the west country; Court Royal (1886); Red Spider (1887); The Pennycomequicks (1889); Cheap Jack Zita (1893); and Broom Squire (1896), a Sussex tale. His contributions to the study of topography, antiquities and folk-lore, while popularly written, were also full of serious research and real learning, notably his Book of Were-wolves (1865), Curious Myths of the Middle Ages (1866), Curious Survivals (1892). He produced at the same time many volumes of sermons and popular theology, and edited (1871-1873) The Sacristy, a quarterly review of ecclesiastical art and literature.
Living the life of the rapidly disappearing English "squarson," and full of cultivated interests, especially in humanizing the local village mind, and investigating and recording the good things of old-time, his many-sided activities were shown in every direction and his literary facility made his work known far and wide. His familiarity with the country-side and his interest in folk-lore were of special utility in recovering and preserving for publication a large mass of English popular song, and in assisting the new English movement for studying and appreciating the old national ballad-music.
BARINGO, a lake of British East Africa, some 30 m. N. of the equator in the eastern rift-valley. It is one of a chain of lakes which stud the floor of the valley and has an elevation of 3325 ft. above the sea. It is about 16 m. long by 9 broad and has an irregular outline, the northern shore being deeply indented. Its waters are brackish. Fed by several small streams it has no outlet. The largest of the rivers which enter it, the Tigrish and the Nyuki, run north through a flat marshy country which extends south of the lake. This district, inhabited by the negro tribe of Njamusi, was by the first explorers called Njemps. It is a fertile grain-growing region containing two considerable villages. The Njamusi are peaceful agriculturists who show marked friendliness to Europeans. N. of the lake rise the Karosi hills; to the E. the land rises in terraces to the edge of the Laikipia escarpment. A characteristic of the country in the neighbourhood of the lake are the "hills" of the termites (white ants). They are hollow columns 10 to 12 ft. high and from 1 ft. to 18 in. broad. The greater kudu, almost unknown elsewhere in East Africa, inhabits the flanks of the Laikipia escarpment to the east of the lake and comes to the foot-hills around Baringo to feed.
The existence of Lake Baringo was first reported in Europe by Ludwig Krapf and J. Rebmann, German missionaries stationed at Mombasa, about 1850; in J. H. Speke's map of the Nile sources (1863) Baringo is confused with Kavirondo Gulf of Victoria Nyanza; it figures in Sir H. M. Stanley's map (1877) as a large sheet of water N.E. of Victoria Nyanza. Joseph Thomson, in his journey through the Masai country in 1883, was the first white man to see the lake and to correct the exaggerated notions as to its size. Native tradition, however, asserts that the lake formerly covered a much larger area.
BARISAL, a town of British India, headquarters of Backergunje district in Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated on a river of the same name. Pop. (1901) 18,978. It is an important centre of river trade, on the steamer route through the Sundarbans [v.03 p.0402] from Calcutta to the Brahmaputra. It contains a first grade college and several schools. There are a public library, established by subscription in 1858; and a students' union, for helping the sick and poor and promoting the intellectual and physical improvement of boys. Barisal has given its name to a curious physical phenomenon, known as the "Barisal guns," the cause of which has not been satisfactorily explained. These are noises, like the report of cannon, frequently heard in the channels of the delta of the Brahmaputra, at the rising of the tide.
BARIUM (symbol Ba, atomic weight 137.37 [O=16]), one of the metallic chemical elements included in the group of the alkaline earths. It takes its name from the Greek [Greek: barus] (heavy) on account of its presence in barytes or heavy spar which was first investigated in 1602 by V. Casciorolus, a shoemaker of Bologna, who found that after ignition with combustible substances it became phosphorescent, and on this account it was frequently called Bolognian phosphorus. In 1774 K. W. Scheele, in examining a specimen of pyrolusite, found a new substance to be present in the mineral, for on treatment with sulphuric acid it gave an insoluble salt which was afterwards shown to be identical with that contained in heavy spar. Barium occurs chiefly in the form of barytes or heavy spar, BaSO4, and witherite, BaCO3, and to a less extent in baryto-calcite, baryto-celestine, and various complex silicates. The metal is difficult to isolate, and until recently it may be doubted whether the pure metal had been obtained. Sir H. Davy tried to electrolyse baryta, but was unsuccessful; later attempts were made by him using barium chloride in the presence of mercury. In this way he obtained an amalgam, from which on distilling off the mercury the barium was obtained as a silver white residue. R. Bunsen in 1854 electrolysed a thick paste of barium chloride and dilute hydrochloric acid in the presence of mercury, at 100deg C., obtaining a barium amalgam, from which the mercury was separated by a process of distillation. A. N. Guntz (Comptes rendus, 1901, 133, p. 872) electrolyses a saturated solution of barium chloride using a mercury cathode and obtains a 3% barium amalgam; this amalgam is transferred to an iron boat in a wide porcelain tube and the tube slowly heated electrically, a good yield of pure barium being obtained at about 1000deg C. The metal when freshly cut possesses a silver white lustre, is a little harder than lead, and is extremely easily oxidized on exposure; it is soluble in liquid ammonia, and readily attacks both water and alcohol.
Three oxides of barium are known, namely, the monoxide, BaO, the dioxide, BaO_2, and a suboxide, obtained by heating BaO with magnesium in a vacuum to 1100deg (Guntz, _loc. cit._, 1906, p. 359). The monoxide is formed when the metal burns in air, but is usually prepared by the ignition of the nitrate, oxygen and oxides of nitrogen being liberated. It can also be obtained by the ignition of an intimate mixture of the carbonate and carbon, and in small quantities by the ignition of the iodate. It is a greyish coloured solid, which combines very energetically with water to form the hydroxide, much heat being evolved during the combination; on heating to redness in a current of oxygen it combines with the oxygen to form the dioxide, which at higher temperatures breaks up again into the monoxide and oxygen.
Barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)_2, is a white powder that can be obtained by slaking the monoxide with the requisite quantity of water, but it is usually made on the large scale by heating heavy spar with small coal whereby a crude barium sulphide is obtained. This sulphide is then heated in a current of moist carbon dioxide, barium carbonate being formed, BaS + H_2O + CO_2 = BaCO_3 + H_2S, and finally the carbonate is decomposed by a current of superheated steam, BaCO_3 + H_2O = Ba(OH)_2 + CO_2, leaving a residue of the hydroxide. It is a white powder moderately soluble in cold water, readily soluble in hot water, the solution possessing an alkaline reaction and absorbing carbon dioxide readily. The solution, known as _baryta-water_, finds an extensive application in practical chemistry, being used in gas-analysis for the determination of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; and also being used in organic chemistry as a hydrolysing agent for the decomposition of complex ureides and substituted aceto-acetic esters, while E. Fischer has used it as a condensing agent in the preparation of [alpha]- and [beta]-acrose from acrolein dibromide. A saturated solution of the hydroxide deposits on cooling a hydrated form Ba(OH)_2 . 8H_2O, as colourless quadratic prisms, which on exposure to air lose seven molecules of water of crystallization.
Barium dioxide, BaO_2, can be prepared as shown above, or in the hydrated condition by the addition of excess of baryta-water to hydrogen peroxide solution, when it is precipitated in the crystalline condition as BaO_2 . 8H_2O. These crystals on heating to 130deg C. lose the water of crystallization and leave a residue of the anhydrous peroxide. In the Brin process for the manufacture of oxygen, barium dioxide is obtained as an intermediate product by heating barium monoxide with air under pressure. It is a grey coloured powder which is readily decomposed by dilute acids with the production of hydrogen peroxide.
Barium chloride, BaCl_2 . 2H_2O, can be obtained by dissolving witherite in dilute hydrochloric acid, and also from heavy spar by ignition in a reverberatory furnace with a mixture of coal, limestone and calcium chloride, the barium chloride being extracted from the fused mass by water, leaving a residue of insoluble calcium sulphide. The chloride crystallizes in colourless rhombic tables of specific gravity 3.0 and is readily soluble in water, but is almost insoluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid and in absolute alcohol. It can be obtained in the anhydrous condition by heating it gently to about 120deg C. It has a bitter taste and is a strong poison. Barium bromide is prepared by saturating baryta-water or by decomposing barium carbonate with hydrobromic acid. It crystallizes as BaBr_2 . 2H_2O isomorphous with barium chloride. Barium bromate, Ba(BrO_3)_2, can be prepared by the action of excess of bromine on baryta-water, or by decomposing a boiling aqueous solution of 100 parts of potassium bromate with a similar solution of 74 parts of crystallized barium chloride. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, and separates from its aqueous solution as Ba(BrO_3)_2 . H_2O. On heating, it begins to decompose at 260-265deg C. Barium chlorate, Ba(ClO_3)_2, is obtained by adding barium chloride to sodium chlorate solution; on concentration of the solution sodium chloride separates first, and then on further evaporation barium chlorate crystallizes out and can be purified by recrystallization. It can also be obtained by suspending barium carbonate in boiling water and passing in chlorine. It crystallizes in monoclinic prisms of composition Ba(ClO_3)_2 . H_2O, and begins to decompose on being heated to 250deg C. Barium iodate, Ba(IO_3)_2, is obtained by the action of excess of iodic acid on hot caustic baryta solution or by adding sodium iodate to barium chloride solution. It crystallizes in monoclinic prisms of composition Ba(IO_3)_2 . H_2O, and is only very sparingly soluble in cold water.
Barium carbide, BaC_2, is prepared by a method similar to that in use for the preparation of calcium carbide (see ACETYLENE). L. Maquenne has also obtained it by distilling a mixture of barium amalgam and carbon in a stream of hydrogen. Barium sulphide, BaS, is obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen over heated barium monoxide, or better by fusion of the sulphate with a small coal. It is a white powder which is readily decomposed by water with the formation of the hydroxide and hydrosulphide. The phosphorescence of the sulphide obtained by heating the thiosulphate is much increased by adding uranium, bismuth, or thorium before ignition (_J. pr. Chem._, 1905, ii. p. 196).
Barium sulphate, BaSO4, is the most abundant of the naturally occurring barium compounds (see BARYTES) and can be obtained artificially by the addition of sulphuric acid or any soluble sulphate to a solution of a soluble barium salt, when it is precipitated as an amorphous white powder of specific gravity 4.5. It is practically insoluble in water, and is only very slightly soluble in dilute acids; it is soluble to some extent, when freshly prepared, in hot concentrated sulphuric acid, and on cooling the solution, crystals of composition BaSO4 . H2SO4 are deposited. It is used as a pigment under the name of "permanent white" or blanc fixe.
Barium nitride, Ba3N2, is obtained as a brownish mass by [v.03 p.0403] passing nitrogen over heated barium amalgam. It is decomposed by water with evolution of hydrogen, and on heating in a current of carbonic oxide forms barium cyanide (L. Maquenne). Barium amide, Ba(NH2)2, is obtained from potassammonium and barium bromide.
Barium nitrate, Ba(NO_3)_2, is prepared by dissolving either the carbonate or sulphide in dilute nitric acid, or by mixing hot saturated solutions of barium chloride and sodium nitrate. It crystallizes in octahedra, having a specific gravity of 3.2, and melts at 597deg C. (T. Carnelley). It is decomposed by heat, and is largely used in pyrotechny for the preparation of green fire. Barium carbonate, BaCO_3, occurs rather widely distributed as witherite (_q.v._), and may be prepared by the addition of barium chloride to a hot solution of ammonium carbonate, when it is precipitated as a dense white powder of specific gravity 4.3; almost insoluble in water.
Barium and its salts can be readily detected by the yellowish-green colour they give when moistened with hydrochloric acid and heated in the Bunsenflame, or by observation of their spectra, when two characteristic green lines are seen. In solution, barium salts may be detected by the immediate precipitate they give on the addition of calcium sulphate (this serves to distinguish barium salts from calcium salts), and by the yellow precipitate of barium chromate formed on the addition of potassium chromate. Barium is estimated quantitatively by conversion into the sulphate. The atomic weight of the element has been determined by C. Marignac by the conversion of barium chloride into barium sulphate, and also by a determination of the amount of silver required to precipitate exactly a known weight of the chloride; the mean value obtained being 136.84; T. W. Richards (Zeit. anorg. Chem., 1893, 6, p. 89), by determining the equivalent of barium chloride and bromide to silver, obtained the value 137.44. For the relation of barium to radium, see RADIOACTIVITY.
BARKER, EDMUND HENRY (1788-1839), English classical scholar, was born at Hollym in Yorkshire. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a scholar in 1807, but left the university without a degree, being prevented by religious scruples from taking the oath then required. He had previously obtained (in 1809) the Browne medal for Greek and Latin epigrams. After acting as amanuensis to the famous Samuel Parr, the vicar of Hatton in Warwickshire, he married and settled down at Thetford in Norfolk, where he lived for about twenty-five years. He was in the habit of adding the initials O. T. N. (of Thetford, Norfolk) to the title-page of his published works. In later life he became involved in a law-suit in connexion with a will, and thus exhausted his means. In 1837-1838 he was a prisoner for debt in the king's bench and in the Fleet. He died in London on the 21st of March 1839. Barker was a prolific writer on classical and other subjects. In addition to contributing to the Classical Journal, he edited portions of several classical authors for the use of schools. He was one of the first commentators to write notes in English instead of Latin. In a volume of letters he disputed the claims of Sir Philip Francis to the authorship of the Letters of Junius; his Parriana (1828) is a vast and ill-digested compilation of literary anecdotes and criticisms. He also saw through the press the English edition of Lempriere's Classical Dictionary (revised by Anthon) and of Webster's English Dictionary. It is as a lexicographer, however, that Barker is chiefly known. While at Hatton, he conceived the design of a new edition of Stephanus's Thesaurus Graecae Linguae. The work was undertaken by A. J. Valpy, and, although not expressly stated, it was understood that Barker was the responsible editor. When a few parts had appeared, it was severely criticized in the Quarterly Review (xxii., 1820) by Blomfield; the result was the curtailment of the original plan of the work and the omission of Barker's name in connexion with it. It was completed in twelve volumes (1816-1828). The strictures of the Quarterly were answered by Barker in his Aristarchus Anti-Blomfieldianus, which, although unconvincing, was in turn answered by Bishop Monk. He also published notes on the Etymologicum Gudianum, and collaborated with Professor Dunbar of Edinburgh in a Greek and English Lexicon (1831). The editio princeps (1820) of the treatise attributed to Arcadius, [Greek: Peri tonon], was published by him from a Paris MS. Continental scholars entertained a more favourable opinion of him than those of his own country. He expressed contempt for the minute verbal criticism of the Porsonian school, in which he was himself deficient.
An account of his life will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine for May 1839; see also Notes and Queries (6th series, xii. p. 443), where a full list of his works is given.
BARKER'S MILL, a mechanical contrivance invented by a Dr Barker about the end of the 17th century. It consisted of a hollow vertical cylinder, provided with a number of horizontal arms fitted with lateral apertures; the contrivance is mounted so as to rotate about the vertical axis. By allowing water to enter the vertical tube, a rotation, due to the discharge through the lateral orifices, is set up.
BARKING, a market-town in the Romford parliamentary division of Essex, England, on the river Roding near its junction with the Thames, 8 m. E. of Fenchurch Street station and Liverpool Street station, London, by the London, Tilbury & Southend and Great Eastern railways. Pop. of urban district of Barking town (1891) 14,301; (1901) 21,547. The church of St Margaret is Norman with perpendicular additions, and contains many monuments of interest. Barking was celebrated for its nunnery, one of the oldest and richest in England, founded about 670 by Erkenwald, bishop of London, and restored in 970 by King Edgar, about a hundred years after its destruction by the Danes. The abbess was a baroness ex officio, and the revenue at the dissolution of the monasteries was L1084. There remains a perpendicular turreted gateway. There is also an ancient market-house, used as a town-hall. Victoria Gardens form a public pleasure-ground, and there are recreation grounds. The Gaslight and Coke Company's works at Beckton are in the parish, and also extensive rubber works. At the mouth of the Roding (Barking Creek) are great sewage works, receiving the Northern Outfall sewer from London. There are also chemical works, and some shipping trade, principally in timber and fish. Barking is a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of St Albans.
BARKLY EAST, a town of Cape province, South Africa, capital of a district of the same name, and 80 m. by rail E.S.E. of Aliwal North. The town lies north of the Drakensberg on the Kraai tributary of the Orange river at an elevation of 5831 ft. The district has an area of 1564 sq. m. and a population (1904) of 8490, of whom 50% are whites. The chief occupation followed is sheep-farming, the pasturage being excellent. Like Barkly West, the town and district are named after Sir Henry Barkly, governor of Cape Colony, 1870-1877.
BARKLY WEST, a town of Cape province, South Africa, 21 m. N.W. of Kimberley, capital of a district and of an electoral division of the same name in Griqualand West. It is built on the right bank of the Vaal, here spanned by a bridge. Pop. (1904) 1037. Originally called Klipdrift, the town was the first founded by the diggers after the discovery in 1867 of diamonds along the valley of the Vaal, and it had for some years a large floating population. On the discovery of the "dry diggings" at Kimberley, the majority of the diggers removed thither. Barkly West remains, however, the centre of the alluvial diamonds industry. The diamonds of this district are noted for their purity and lustre, and are generally associated with other crystals—garnets, agates, quartz and chalcedonies.
Barkly West electoral division includes the whole of Griqualand West save the Kimberley division. It is divided into the fiscal districts of Barkly West, Hay and Herbert, with a total pop. (1904) of 48,388, of whom 12,170 are whites (see GRIQUALAND).
BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT, one of the most popular and widely disseminated of medieval religious romances, which owes its importance and interest to the fact that it is a Christianized version of the story of Gautama Siddharta, the Buddha, with which it agrees not only in broad outline but in essential details.
The Christian story first appears in Greek among the works of John (q.v.) of Damascus, who flourished in the early part of the 8th century, and who, before he adopted the monastic life, had [v.03 p.0404] held high office at the court of the caliph Abū Ja'far al-Mansūr, as his father Sergius is said to have done before him.
The outline of the Greek story is as follows:—St Thomas had converted the people of India, and after the eremitic life originated in Egypt, many Indians adopted it. But a powerful pagan king arose who hated and persecuted the Christians, especially the ascetics. After this king, Abenner by name, had long been childless, a boy greatly desired and matchless in beauty, was born to him and received the name of Josaphat. The king, in his joy, summons astrologers to predict the child's destiny. They foretell glory and prosperity beyond those of all his predecessors. One sage, most learned of all, assents, but intimates that the scene of this glory will be, not the paternal kingdom, but another infinitely more exalted, and that the child will adopt the faith which his father persecutes.
The boy shows a thoughtful and devout turn. King Abenner, troubled by this and by the remembrance of the prediction, selects a secluded city, in which he causes a splendid palace to be built, where his son should abide, attended only by tutors and servants in the flower of youth and health. No stranger was to have access, and the boy was to be cognizant of none of the sorrows of humanity, such as poverty, disease, old age or death, but only of what was pleasant, so that he should have no inducement to think of the future life; nor was he ever to hear a word of Christ and His religion.
Prince Josaphat grows up in this seclusion, acquires all kinds of knowledge and exhibits singular endowments. At length, on his urgent prayer, the king reluctantly permits him to pass the limits of the palace, after having taken all precautions to keep painful objects out of sight. But through some neglect of orders, the prince one day encounters a leper and a blind man, and asks of his attendants with pain and astonishment what such a spectacle should mean. These, they tell him, are ills to which man is liable. Shall all men have such ills? he asks. And in the end he returns home in deep depression. Another day he falls in with a decrepit old man, and stricken with dismay at the sight, renews his questions and hears for the first time of death. And in how many years, continues the prince, does this fate befall man? and must he expect death as inevitable? Is there no way of escape? No means of eschewing this wretched state of decay? The attendants reply as may be imagined; and Josaphat goes home more pensive than ever, dwelling on the certainty of death and on what shall be thereafter.
At this time Barlaam, an eremite of great sanctity and knowledge, dwelling in the wilderness of Sennaritis, divinely warned, travels to India in the disguise of a merchant, and gains access to Prince Josaphat, to whom he imparts the Christian doctrine and commends the monastic life. Suspicion arises and Barlaam departs. But all attempts to shake the prince's convictions fail. As a last resource the king sends for Theudas, a magician, who removes the prince's attendants and substitutes seductive girls; but all their blandishments are resisted through prayer. The king abandons these efforts and associates his son in the government. The prince uses his power to promote religion, and everything prospers in his hands. At last Abenner himself yields to the faith, and after some years of penitence dies. Josaphat surrenders the kingdom to a friend called Barachias and departs for the wilderness. After two years of painful search and much buffeting by demons he finds Barlaam. The latter dies, and Josaphat survives as a hermit many years. King Barachias afterwards arrives, and transfers the bodies of the two saints to India, where they are the source of many miracles.
Now this story is, mutatis mutandis, the story of Buddha. It will suffice to recall the Buddha's education in a secluded palace, his encounter successively with a decrepit old man, with a man in mortal disease and poverty, with a dead body, and, lastly, with a religious recluse radiant with peace and dignity, and his consequent abandonment of his princely state for the ascetic life in the jungle. Some of the correspondences in the two stories are most minute, and even the phraseology, in which some of the details of Josaphat's history are described, almost literally renders the Sanskrit of the Lalita Vistara. More than that, the very word Joasaph or Josaphat (Arabic, Yūdasatf) is a corruption of Bodisat due to a confusion between the Arabic letters for Y and B, and Bodisatva is a common title for the Buddha in the many birth-stories that clustered round the life of the sage. There are good reasons for thinking that the Christian story did not originate with John of Damascus, and a strong case has been made out by Zotenberg that it reflects the religious struggles and disputes of the early 7th century in Syria, and that the Greek text was edited by a monk of Saint Saba named John, his version being the source of all later texts and translations. How much older than this the Christian story is, we cannot tell, but it is interesting to remember that it embodies in the form of a speech the "Apology" of the 2nd-century philosopher Aristides. After its appearance among the writings of John of Damascus, it was incorporated with Simeon Metaphrastes' Lives of the Saints (c. 950), and thence gained great vogue, being translated into almost every European language. A famous Icelandic version was made for Prince Hakon early in the 13th century. In the East, too, it took on new life and Catholic missionaries freely used it in their propaganda. Thus a Tagala (Philippine) translation was brought out at Manila in 1712. Besides furnishing the early playwrights with material for miracle plays, it has supplied episodes and apologues to many a writer, including Boccaccio, John Gower and Shakespeare. Rudolph of Ems about 1220 expanded it into a long poem of 16,000 lines, celebrating the victory of Christian over heathen teaching. The heroes of the romance have even attained saintly rank. Their names were inserted by Petrus de Natalibus in his Catalogus Sanctorum (c. 1380), and Cardinal Baronius included them in the official Martyrologium authorized by Sixtus V. (1585-1590) under the date of the 27th of November. In the Orthodox Eastern Church "the holy Josaph, son of Abener, king of India" is allotted the 26th of August. Thus unwittingly Gautama the Buddha has come to official recognition as a saint in two great branches of the Catholic Church, and no one will say that he does not deserve the honour. A church dedicated Divo Josaphat in Palermo is probably not the only one of its kind.
The identity of the stories of Buddha and St Josaphat was recognized by the historian of Portuguese India, Diogo do Couto (1542-1616), as may be seen in his history (Dec. v. liv. vi. cap. 2). In modern times the honour belongs to Laboulaye (1859), Felix Liebrecht in 1860 putting it beyond dispute. Subsequent researches have been carried out by Zotenberg, Max Mueller, Rhys Davids, Braunholtz and Joseph Jacobs, who published his Barlaam and Josaphat in 1896.
BAR-LE-DUC, a town of north-eastern France, capital of the department of Meuse, 50 m. E.S.E. of Chalons-sur-Marne, on the main line of the Eastern railway between that town and Nancy. Pop. (1906) 14,624. The lower, more modern and busier part of the town extends along a narrow valley, shut in by wooded or vine-clad hills, and is traversed throughout its length by the Ornain, which is crossed by several bridges. It is limited towards the north-east by the canal from the Marne to the Rhine, on the south-west by a small arm of the Ornain, called the Canal des Usines, on the left bank of which the upper town (Ville Haute) is situated. The Ville Haute, which is reached by staircases and steep narrow thoroughfares, is intersected by a long, quiet street, bordered by houses of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. In this quarter are the remains (16th century) of the chateau of the dukes of Bar, dismantled in 1670, the old clock-tower and the college, built in the latter half of the 16th century. Its church of St Pierre (14th and 15th centuries) contains a skilfully-carved effigy in white stone of a half-decayed corpse, the work of Ligier Richier (1500-1572), a pupil of Michelangelo—erected to the memory of Rene de Chalons (d. 1544). The lower town contains the official buildings and two or three churches, but these are of little interest. Among the statues of distinguished natives of the town is one to Charles Nicolas Oudinot, whose house serves as the hotel-de-ville. Bar-le-Duc has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade arbitrators, a lycee, a training-college for girls, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France and an art museum. The industries of the town include iron-founding and the manufacture of machinery, corsets, hosiery, [v.03 p.0405] flannel goods, jam and wall-paper, and brewing, cotton spinning and weaving, leather-dressing and dyeing. Wine, timber and iron are important articles of commerce.
Bar-le-Duc was at one time the seat of the countship, later duchy, of Bar, the history of which is given below. Though probably of ancient origin, the town was unimportant till the 10th century when it became the residence of the counts.
COUNTS AND DUKES OF BAR. In the middle of the 10th century the territory of Bar (Barrois) formed a dependency of the Empire. In the 11th century its lords were only counts by title; they belonged to the house of Mousson (which also possessed the countships of Montbeliard and Ferrette), and usually fought in the French ranks, while their neighbours, the dukes of Lorraine, adhered to the German side. Theobald I., count of Bar, was an ally of Philip Augustus, as was also his son Henry II., who distinguished himself at the battle of Bouvines in 1214. But sometimes the counts of Bar bore arms against France. In 1301 Henry III. having made an alliance with Edward I. of England, whose daughter he had married, was vanquished by Philip the Fair, who forced him to do homage for a part of Barrois, situated west of the Meuse, which was called Barrois mouvant. In 1354 Robert, count of Bar, who had married the daughter of King John, was made marquis of Pont-a-Mousson by the emperor Charles IV. and took the title of duke of Bar. His successor, Edward III., was killed at Agincourt in 1415. In 1419 Louis of Bar, brother of the last-named, a cardinal and bishop of Chalons, gave the duchy of Bar to Rene of Anjou, the grandson of his sister Yolande, who married Isabella, duchess of Lorraine. Yolande of Anjou, who in 1444 had married Ferri of Lorraine, count of Vaudemont, became heiress of Nicholas of Anjou, duke of Calabria and of Lorraine, in 1473, and of Rene of Anjou, duke of Bar, in 1480; thus Lorraine, with Barrois added to it, once more returned to the family of its ancient dukes. United with Lorraine to France in 1634, Barrois remained, except for short intervals, part of the royal domain. It was granted in 1738 to Stanislaus Leszczynski, ex-king of Poland, and on his death in 1766 was once more attached to the crown of France.
BARLETTA (anc. Barduli), a seaport town and episcopal see of Apulia, Italy, on the E.S.E. coast, in the province of Bari, 34-1/2 m. W.N.W. of Bari by rail. Pop. (1901) 42,022. Its importance dates from the time of the Hohenstaufen. The Gothic church of S. Sepolcro was built at the close of the 12th century, and the Romanesque cathedral was begun at the same period, but added to later. In front of the former church stands a bronze statue, 14 ft. in height, of the emperor Heraclius. The castle behind the cathedral dates from 1537. The harbour is good. It was cleared by 508 sailing-vessels and 461 steamers, the latter with a total tonnage of 364,904 in 1904; the exports were of the value of L180,699 (principally wine, sulphur, oil, tartar and tartaric acid), and the imports L92,486 (coal, timber and sundries).
In the neighbourhood (between Andria and Corato), during the siege of Barletta by the French in 1503, the town being defended by the Spanish army, a combat took place between thirteen picked knights of Italy and France, which resulted in favour of the former: it has been celebrated by Massimo d' Azeglio in his Disfida di Barletta. Seven miles to the N.W. are the salt-works of Barletta, now known under the name of Margherita di Savoia.
BARLEY (Hordeum sativum), a member of the grass family, and an important cereal which belongs peculiarly to temperate regions. It originated from a wild species, H. spontaneum, a native of western Asia and has been cultivated from the earliest times. Three subspecies or races are recognized, (i.) H. sativum, subsp. distichum (described by Linnaeus as a distinct species, H. distichon), two-rowed barley. Only the middle spikelet of each triplet is fertile; the ear has therefore only two longitudinal rows of grain, and the spikes are strongly compressed laterally. This approaches most nearly to the wild stock, from which it is distinguished by the non-jointed axis and somewhat shorter awns. This is the race most commonly grown in the British Isles and in central Europe, and includes a large number of sub-races and varieties among which are the finest malting-barleys. The chief sub-races are (a) peacock, fan or battledore barley, described by Linnaeus as a distinct species, H. zeocriton, with erect short ears about 2-1/2 in. long, broad at the base and narrow at the tip, suggesting an open fan or peacock's tail; (b) erect-eared barleys (var. erectum) with erect broad ears and closely-packed plump grains; (c) nodding barleys (var. nutans). The ripe ears of the last hang so as to become almost parallel with the stem; they are narrower and longer than in (b), owing to the grains being placed farther apart on the rachis; it includes the Chevalier variety, one of the best for malting purposes, (ii.) H. sativum, subsp. hexastichum, six-rowed barley (the H. hexastichon of Linnaeus). All the flowers of each triplet of spikelets on both sides of the rachis are fertile and produce ripe fruits; hence the ear produces six longitudinal rows of grain. The ears are short, erect, and the grain thin and coarse; the straw is also short. It is a hardy race, but owing to the poor quality of the grain is rarely met with in Great Britain, (iii.) H. sativum, subsp. vulgare, bere, bigg or four-rowed barley (the H. vulgare of Linnaeus). All the flowers of each triplet are fertile as in (ii.), but the rows are not arranged regularly at equal distances round the rachis. The central fruits of each triplet form two regular rows, but the lateral spikelets form not four straight single rows as in (ii.), but two regular double rows, the whole ear appearing irregularly four-rowed. This race seems to be of later origin than the others. The ears are erect, about 2-1/2 in. long, the grains thinner and longer than in the two-rowed race, and the awns stiff and firmly adhering to the flowering glume. The var. pallidum is the barley most frequently cultivated in northern Europe and northern Asia. This race was formerly used for malt and beer, but owing to its larger amount of gluten as compared with starch it is less adapted for brewing than the two-rowed sorts. To this belong the varieties naked barley (H. coeleste and H. nudum) and Himalayan barley (H. trifurcatum and H. aegiceras). In both the fruits fall out freely from the glume, and in the latter the awns are three-pronged and shorter than the grain.
Barley is the most hardy of all cereal grains, its limit of cultivation extending farther north than any other; and, at the same time, it can be profitably cultivated in sub-tropical countries. The opinion of Pliny, that it is the most ancient aliment of mankind, appears to be well-founded, for no less than three varieties have been found in the lake dwellings of Switzerland, in deposits belonging to the Stone Period. According to Professor Heer these varieties are the common two-rowed (H. distichum), the large six-rowed (H. hexastichum, var. densum), and the small six-rowed (H. hexastichum, var. sanctum). The last variety is both the most ancient and the most commonly found, and is the sacred barley of antiquity, ears of which are frequently represented plaited in the hair of the goddess Ceres, besides being figured on ancient coins. The cultivation of barley in ancient Egypt is indicated in Exod. ix. 31. Till within recent times barley formed an important source of food in northern countries, and barley cakes are still to some extent eaten. Owing, however, to its poverty in that form of nitrogenous compound called gluten, so abundant in wheat, barley-flour cannot be baked into vesiculated bread; still it is a highly-nutritious substance, the salts it contains having a high proportion of phosphoric acid. The following is the composition of barley-meal according to Von Bibra, omitting the salts:—
Water . . . . 15 per cent. Nitrogenous compounds . 12.981 " Gum . . . . 6.744 " Sugar . . . . 3.200 " Starch . . . . 59.950 " Fat . . . . 2.170 "
Barley is now chiefly cultivated for malting (see MALT) to prepare spirits and beer (see BREWING), but it is also largely employed in domestic cookery. For the latter purpose the hard, somewhat flinty grains are preferable, and they are prepared by grinding off the outer cuticle which forms "pot barley." When the attrition is carried further, so that the grain is reduced to small round pellets, it is termed "pearl barley." Patent barley is either pot or pearl barley reduced to flour. Under the name decoctum hordei, a preparation of barley is included in the [v.03 p.0406] British Pharmacopoeia, which is of value as a demulcent and emollient drink in febrile and inflammatory disorders.
Cultivation.—Apart from the growth-habits of the plant itself, the consideration that chiefly determines the routine of barley cultivation is the demand on the part of the maltster for uniformity of sample. Less care is required in its cultivation when it is intended for feeding live-stock. It is essential that the grains on the maltster's floor should germinate simultaneously, hence at the time of reaping, the whole crop must be as nearly as possible in the same stage of maturity. On rich soils the crop is liable to grow too rapidly and yield a coarse, uneven sample, consequently the best barley is grown on light, open and preferably calcareous soils, while if the condition of the soil is too high it is often reduced by growing wheat before the barley.
Barley (see AGRICULTURE, Crops and Cropping) is a rapidly-growing and shallow-rooted plant. The upper layer of the soil must therefore be free from weeds, finely pulverized and stocked with a readily-available supply of nutriment. In most rotations barley is grown after turnips, or some other "cleaning" crop, with or without the interposition of a wheat crop. The roots are fed off by sheep during autumn and early winter, after which the ground is ploughed to a depth of 3 or 4 in. only in order not to put the layer of soil fertilized by the sheep beyond reach of the plant. The ground is then left unworked and open to the crumbling influence of frost till towards the end of winter, when it is stirred with the cultivator followed by the harrows, or in some cases ploughed with a shallow furrow. The seed, which should be plump, light in colour, with a thin skin covered by fine wrinkles, is sown in March and early April at the rate of from 8 to 12 pecks to the acre and lightly harrowed in. As even distribution at a uniform depth is necessary, the drill is preferred to the broadcast-seeder for barley sowing. In early districts seeding may take place as early as February, provided a fine tilth is obtainable, but it rarely extends beyond the end of April. If artificial manures are used, a usual dressing consists of 2 or 3 cwt. of superphosphate to the acre at the time of sowing, followed, if the ground is in poor condition, by 1 cwt. of nitrate of soda when the plant is showing. Nitrogen must, however, be applied with caution as it makes the barley rich in albumen, and highly albuminous barley keeps badly and easily loses its germinating capacity. Farm-yard manure should also be avoided. After-cultivation may comprise rolling, harrowing (to preserve the fineness of the tilth) and in some districts hoeing. Barley is cut, either with scythe or machine, when it is quite ripe with the ears bending over. The crop is often allowed to lie loose for a day or two, owing to the belief that sunshine and dews or even showers mellow it and improve its colour. It may even be stacked without tying into sheaves, though this course involves greater expenditure of labour in carrying and afterwards in threshing. There is a prejudice against the use of the binder in reaping barley, as it is impossible to secure uniformity of colour in the grain when the stalks are tightly tied in the sheaf, and the sun has not free access to those on the inside. In any case it must not be stacked while damp, and if cut by machine is therefore sometimes tied in sheaves and set up in stocks as in the case of wheat. The above sketch indicates the general principles of barley-cultivation, but in practice they are often modified by local custom or farming exigencies.
Barley is liable to smut and the other fungus diseases which attack wheat (q.v.), and the insect pests which prey on the two plants are also similar. The larvae of the ribbon-footed corn-fly (Chlorops taeniopus) caused great injury to the barley crop in Great Britain in 1893, when the plant was weakened by extreme drought. A fair crop of barley yields about 36 bushels (56 lb to the bushel) per acre, but under the best conditions 40 and 50 bushels may be obtained. The yield of straw is from 15 to 20 cwt. per acre. Barley-straw is considered inferior both as fodder and litter.
 Barley is occasionally sown in autumn to provide keep for sheep in the following spring.
BARLEY-BREAK, an old English country game frequently mentioned by the poets of the 17th and 18th centuries. It was played by three pairs composed of one of each sex, who were stationed in three bases or plots, contiguous to each other. The couple occupying the middle base, called hell or prison, endeavoured to catch the other two, who, when chased, might break to avoid being caught. If one was overtaken, he and his companion were condemned to hell. From this game was taken the expression "the last couple in hell," often used in old plays.
BARLEY-CORN, a grain of barley, and thus a measure taken from the length of a grain of barley, three of which (sometimes four) were considered to make up an inch. The barley-corn has been personified as representing the malt liquor made from barley, as in Burns's song "John Barleycorn."
BARLOW, SIR GEORGE HILARO (1762-1847), Anglo-Indian statesman, was appointed to the Bengal Civil Service in 1778, and in 1788 carried into execution the permanent settlement of Bengal. When the marquess of Cornwallis died in 1805, Sir George Barlow was nominated provisional governor-general, and his passion for economy and retrenchment in that capacity has caused him to be known as the only governor-general who diminished the area of British territory; but his nomination was rejected by the home government, and Lord Minto was appointed. Subsequently Barlow was created governor of Madras, where his want of tact caused a mutiny of officers in 1809, similar to that which had previously occurred under Clive. In 1812 he was recalled, and lived in retirement until his death in February 1847. He was created a baronet in 1803.
BARLOW, JOEL (1754-1812), American poet and politician, born in Redding, Fairfield county, Connecticut, on the 24th of March 1754. He graduated at Yale in 1778, was a post-graduate student there for two years, and from September 1780 until the close of the revolutionary war was chaplain in a Massachusetts brigade. He then, in 1783, removed to Hartford, Connecticut, established there in July 1784 a weekly paper, the American Mercury, with which he was connected for a year, and in 1786 was admitted to the bar. At Hartford he was a member of a group of young writers including Lemuel Hopkins, David Humphreys, and John Trumbull, known in American literary history as the "Hartford Wits." He contributed to the Anarchiad, a series of satirico-political papers, and in 1787 published a long and ambitious poem, The Vision of Columbus, which gave him a considerable literary reputation and was once much read. In 1788 he went to France as the agent of the Scioto Land Company, his object being to sell lands and enlist immigrants. He seems to have been ignorant of the fraudulent character of the company, which failed disastrously in 1790. He had previously, however, induced the company of Frenchmen, who ultimately founded Gallipolis, Ohio, to emigrate to America. In Paris he became a liberal in religion and an advanced republican in politics. He remained abroad for several years, spending much of his time in London; was a member of the obnoxious "London Society for Constitutional Information"; published various radical essays, including a volume entitled Advice to the Privileged Orders (1792), which was proscribed by the British government; and was made a citizen of France in 1792. He was American consul at Algiers in 1795-1797, securing the release of American prisoners held for ransom, and negotiating a treaty with Tripoli (1796). He returned to America in 1805, and lived near Washington, D.C., until 1811, when he became American plenipotentiary to France, charged with negotiating a commercial treaty with Napoleon, and with securing the restitution of confiscated American property or indemnity therefor. He was summoned for an interview with Napoleon at Wilna, but failed to see the emperor there; became involved in the retreat of the French army; and, overcome by exposure, died at the Polish village of Zarnowiec on the 24th of December 1812. In 1807 he had published in a sumptuous volume the Columbiad, an enlarged edition of his Vision of Columbus, more pompous even than the original; but, though it added to his reputation in some quarters, on the whole it was not well received, and it has subsequently been much ridiculed. The poem for which he is now best known is his mock heroic Hasty Pudding (1793). Besides the writings mentioned above, he published Conspiracy of Kings, a Poem addressed to [v.03 p.0407] the Inhabitants of Europe from another Quarter of the Globe (1792); View of the Public Debt, Receipts and Expenditure of the United States (1800); and the Political Writings of Joel Barlow (2nd ed., 1796). He also published an edition, "corrected and enlarged," of Isaac Watt's Imitation of the Psalms of David (1786).
See C. B. Todd's Life and Letters of Joel Barlow (New York and London, 1886); and a chapter, "The Literary Strivings of Joel Barlow," in M. C. Tyler's Three Men of Letters (New York and London, 1895).
BARLOW, PETER (1776-1862), English writer on pure and applied mathematics, was born at Norwich in 1776 and died on the 1st of March 1862. In 1806 he was appointed mathematical master in the Woolwich Academy, and filled that post for forty-one years. In 1823 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society, and two years later received the Copley medal. Steam locomotion received much attention at his hands, and he sat on the railway commissions of 1836, 1839, 1842, 1845. He received many distinctions from British and foreign scientific societies. Barlow's principal works are—Elementary Investigation of the Theory of Numbers (1811); New Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary (1814); Essay on Magnetic Attractions (1820). The investigations on magnetism led to the important practical discovery of a means of rectifying or compensating compass errors in ships. Besides compiling numerous useful tables, he contributed largely to the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana.
BARM (a word common to Teutonic languages), the scum formed on the top of malt liquor when fermenting; yeast used to leaven bread, or to set up fermentation in liquor.
BARMECIDES, more accurately BARMAKIDS, a noble Persian family which attained great power under the Abbasid caliphs. Barmak, the founder of the family, was a Persian fire-worshipper, and is supposed to have been a native of Khorasan. According to tradition, his wife was taken for a time into the harem of Abdallah, brother of Kotaiba the conqueror of Balkh, and became the mother of Khalid b. Barmak the Barmecide. Barmak subsequently (about A.D. 736) rebuilt and adorned his native city of Balkh after the rebellion of Harith. The family prospered, and his grandson Yaḥyā b. Khalid was the vizier of the caliph Mahdi and tutor of Harūn al-Rashid. His sons Fadl and Ja'far (the Giafar of the Arabian Nights) both occupied high offices under Harūn. The story of their disgrace, though romantic, is not improbable. Harūn, it is said, found his chief pleasure in the society of his sister 'Abbāsa and Ja'far, and in order that these two might be with him continuously without breach of etiquette, persuaded them to contract a purely formal marriage. The conditions were, however, not observed and Harūn, learning that 'Abbāsa had borne a son, caused Ja'far suddenly to be arrested and beheaded, and the rest of the family except Mahommed, Yaḥyā's brother, to be imprisoned and deprived of their property. It is probable, however, that Harūn's anger was caused to a large extent by the insinuations of his courtiers that he was a mere puppet in the hands of a powerful family. See further CALIPHATE, section C, ss. 4, 5.
The expression "Barmecide Feast," to denote an imaginary banquet, is drawn from one of the tales ("The Barber's Tale of his Sixth Brother") in the Arabian Nights, in which a series of empty dishes is served up to a hungry man to test his sense of humour by one of the Barmecides (see edition by L. C. Smithers, Lond., 1894, vol. i. 317).
BARMEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province and the governmental district of Duesseldorf. Pop. (1816) 19,030; (1890) 116,144; (1905) 156,148. It is served by the main railway from Berlin to Aix-la-Chapelle, and lies immediately east of Elberfeld, with which it virtually forms one town. It stretches for some 4 m. along the narrow valley of the river Wupper, which, within the municipal boundaries, is crossed by twenty bridges. High wooded hills surround it. It is divided into three main districts, Upper, Middle and Lower Barmen, and is connected, throughout its length, with Elberfeld, by railway, tramway, and a suspended trolley line, hanging over the bed of the Wupper. It contains nine Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches, a stately modern town hall, a Hall of Fame (Ruhmeshalle), with statues of the emperors William I. and Frederick III., a theatre, a picture-gallery, an ethnographical museum, and an exchange. There are many public monuments, one to Bismarck another to the poet Emil Rittershaus (1834-1897), a native of the town, and one commemorative of the Franco-German War of 1870-71. There are several high-grade public schools, academies of technical science, engineering and textile industry, and a missionary theological seminary. Barmen is one of the most important manufacturing centres of Germany. The rapid development of its commercial activity only dates from the beginning of the 19th century. It is the chief seat of ribbon weaving in Germany, and manufactures thread, lace, braids, cotton and cloth goods, carpets, silks, machinery, steel wares, plated goods and buttons, the last industry employing about 15,000 hands. There are numerous bleaching-fields, print-fields and dyeworks famous for their Turkey-red, soap works, chemical works and potteries. There are also extensive breweries. Its export trade, particularly to the United States, is very considerable. The hills lying S. of the town are laid out in public grounds. Here are a health resort, a tower commanding an extensive view, and numerous villas. Barmen, although mentioned in chronicles in the 11th century, did not attain civic rights until 1808, when it was formed into a municipality by the grand-duke of Berg.
See A. Shadwell, Industrial Efficiency (1906), for a good description of the industrial aspect.
BARMOTE COURT (also written BERGHMOTE, BARGHMOTE, BARGEMOTE, BARMOOT), a name applied to courts held in the lead-mining districts of Derbyshire, England, for the purpose of determining the customs peculiar to the industry and also for the settlements of any disputes which may arise in connexion therewith. Barmote courts are of very ancient origin, having been in existence in the reign of Edward I. Their jurisdiction extends both to the crown lands in the duchy of Lancaster and to those under individual ownership, comprising seven clearly defined districts. Owing to the progress made in modern mining, many of the customs and much of the procedure had become obsolete, and their powers were regulated by the High Peak Mining Customs and Mineral Courts Act 1851. An appeal from the jurisdiction of the courts lies by way of certiorari.
BARMOUTH (Abermaw, mouth of the Maw, or Mawddach, in Cardigan Bay, the only haven in Merionethshire, North Wales), a small seaport on the north of the estuary. Pop. of urban district (1901), 2214. The ride to Dolgelley (Dolgellau) is fine. The parish church, Llanaber, 1-1/2 m. from Barmouth, is on a cliff overlooking the sea. Barmouth is a favourite bathing place, on the Cambrian railway. It is a centre for coaching in summer, especially to and through the Vale of Llangollen.
BARNABAS, in the New Testament, the surname, according to Acts iv. 36, given by the apostles (possibly in contrast to Joseph Barsabbas, Acts i. 23) to Joseph, "a Levite, a man of Cyprus by birth," who, though like Paul not of the Twelve, came like him to rank as an apostle (Acts xiv. 4, 14, 1 Cor. ix. 6; see APOSTLE). The Greek rendering of this Semitic name [Greek: huios parakleseos]) may be translated "son of consolation" (as in the A.V.), or "son of exhortation" (as in the R.V.). But there is an initial difficulty about the Greek rendering itself, as no satisfactory etymology of Bar-nabas in this sense has as yet been suggested. The one at present in favour on the ground of philological analogy (see Z.N.T.W., 1906, p. 91 for a fresh instance), viz. Bar-Nebo, lacks intrinsic fitness for a Jew and a Levite, and of course does not accord with the statement in Acts itself. Hence it still seems best to assume some unknown Aramaic form equivalent to [Greek: paraklesis], and then to take the latter in the sense of comfort or encouragement. This rendering, rather than "exhortation" in the sense of eloquence, best suits the usage of Acts, which suggests such comfort as is given by encouraging rather than rousing words (ix. 31, xi. 23, xiii. 15, xv. 31 f.; cf. Luke ii. 25, vi. 24). All we hear of Barnabas points to goodness of heart ("a good man," xi. 24) as his distinctive quality, giving fineness of perception (ix. 27, xi. 25 f.) and large insight into essentials (xi. 23 f.). It was probably the practically helpful and encouraging form that his gift as a "prophet" took (Acts xiii. i, [v.03 p.0408] with 1 Cor. xiv. 3). It is perhaps significant that his first appearance is of the generously helpful kind described in Acts iv. 36 f. Yet we must beware of regarding Barnabas as merely a fine character; he plays too prominent a part in the New Testament for any such limitation. Thus, he next appears as braving the suspicions which dogged the ex-persecutor Saul (Paul)—possibly an old acquaintance in Hellenist circles at Jerusalem (cf. vi. 9, ix. 29)—and introducing him to the older apostles (ix. 27). More suggestive still of high repute as a man of insight and authority is his mission from the Jerusalem Church to inspect and judge of the new departure in the Gospel at Antioch, in Acts xi. 22. This means very much, though his modesty led him to call in the aid of his friend Saul to cope with the new and expanding situation (25 f.). After their brief joint visit to Judaea and Jerusalem (xi. 30, xii. 25) we next get a glimpse of Barnabas as still chief among the spiritual leaders of the Antiochene Church, and as called by the Spirit, along with Saul, to initiate the wider mission of the Gospel, outside Syria even, in regions beyond (xiii. 2, 4). He led the way to his native Cyprus; but in the crucial struggle with the magician Bar-Jesus, in the presence of the governor of the island (xiii. 7 ff.), Saul seems to have come so decisively to the front, that henceforth, for the author of Acts he takes the lead, and Barnabas appears as his colleague (see xiii. 13, "Paul and his company," and note the turning back of Mark, the kinsman of Barnabas). The fact that at Lystra the natives styled Barnabas, Zeus, and Paul, Hermes, while suggesting that Barnabas was the man of nobler mien, proves that Paul was the chief speaker (xiv. 12); and the notices in the Pauline epistles fully bear out the view that "the gospel of the Gentiles" which they preached was in conception Paul's (Gal. ii. 1-9). Indeed, Barnabas's vacillation at Antioch, as recorded in Gal. ii. 11 ff. (whether it preceded or followed their mission in Acts xiii.-xiv.), shows that, while gifted with true intuitions, he was not strong in thinking out his position to all its issues on principle, and that it was here that Paul was so immensely his superior. But what Barnabas did see with full reasoned conviction, he was staunch in upholding; thus he upheld the general cause of Gentile freedom from the obligation of circumcision (as distinct from perfect religious equality with Jewish believers) at the Jerusalem conference (Acts xv.). With this stand for principle, however, his main work, as a great link in the transition of the Gospel from its Jewish to its universal mission, reached its climax; and Acts transfers its attention wholly to Paul, after explaining how their roads parted under rather painful circumstances (xv. 37 ff.).
When Barnabas sails away with Mark to resume work in Cyprus, the mists of history hide him from our sight. Only now and again do we catch fugitive and increasingly doubtful glimpses of him and his work. We learn from 1 Cor. ix. 6 that he adhered to Paul's principle of self-support in his mission work, and from Col. iv. 10 that his name was well known and respected at Colossae about A.D. 60. Tradition, which early regards him as one of the seventy (Clem. Alex.), carries him, plausibly enough, to Alexandria (Clem. Hom. i. 8, ii. 4; cf. the ascription to him of the Alexandrine Epistle of Barnabas). But the evidence for his having visited Rome (later tradition says also Milan) is stronger because more varied (Clem. Recog. i. 7, cf. Hom. i. 7; the early Actus Petri Vercellenses; and the late Cypriot Encomium), especially if we might trust the Western ascription to him of the epistle to the Hebrews, which begins with Tertullian (De Pud. 20). But this may itself be mere inference from its self-description (xiii. 22), as a "word of exhortation," to the "son of exhortation" (Acts iv. 36) as its author. The legend of his missionary labours in Cyprus, including martyrdom at Salamis, is quite late and untrustworthy. The date of his death is uncertain, but he was probably no longer living when Acts was written (c. A.D. 75-80).
His was essentially a mediating role. He filled a position intermediate between Jewish and Pauline Christianity—one characteristic of Christian Hellenists generally. Hence he is spoken of with respect in the Clementines; while Paul, as a radical in relation to the Law, is discountenanced. If we could confidently credit him with the authorship of the epistle to the Hebrews, we could conceive his theological standpoint more exactly. But, in any case, the Barnabas of history was a greater man than the Barnabas of modern tradition.
See W. Cunningham, Epistle of Barnabas, pp. xlvii.-lxii.; O. Braunsberger, Der Apostel Barnabas, sein Leben ... (Mainz, 1876); articles s.v. in Ency. Biblica and Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible.
THE EPISTLE OF BARNABAS is one of the apocryphal books of the New Testament. At the end of the Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century, as a sort of appendix to the New Testament, there stands an "Epistle of Barnabas." Here it is followed by the Shepherd of Hermas, while in an 11th-century MS., which contains also the Didachē, it is followed by two writings which themselves form an appendix to the New Testament in the Codex Alexandrinus. This means that it once enjoyed quasi-canonical authority, a fact amply borne out by what Eusebius (H. E. iii. 25) says as to its standing in the ancient Church. It was at Alexandria that its authority was greatest. Clement comments on it, as on the canonical scriptures, in his Hypotyposes; Origen cites it in the same spirit as scripture (C. Celsum, i. 63, De Princ. iii. 2, 4, 7). Clement, too, ascribes it to "the apostle" or "the prophet" Barnabas (Strom. ii. 6, 31, cf. ii. 20, 116), with explicit reference to Paul's fellow-apostle. Internal evidence makes this ascription impossible, nor does the epistle itself lay any claim to such authorship. Lightfoot, indeed, suggests that its author was "some unknown namesake" of the famous Barnabas: but it is simpler to suppose that it was fathered upon the latter by the Alexandrian Church, ready to believe that so favourite a writing was of apostolic origin.
"That Alexandria, the place of its earliest reception, was also the place of its birth, is borne out by the internal evidence of style and interpretation, which is Alexandrian throughout" (Lightfoot). The picture, too, which it gives of the danger lest the Christianity of its readers should be unduly Judaic in feeling and practice, suits well the experiences of a writer living in Alexandria, where Judaism was immensely strong. Further, he shows an "astonishing familiarity with the Jewish rites," in the opinion of a modern Jew (Kohler in the Jewish Encycl.); so much so, that the latter agrees with another Jewish scholar in saying that "the writer seems to have been a converted Jew, whose fanatic zeal rendered him a bitter opponent of Judaism within the Christian Church." These opinions must overrule the view of some Christian scholars that the writer often blunders in Jewish matters, the fact being that his knowledge is derived from the Judaism of Alexandria rather than Palestine. But we need not therefore regard the author as of Jewish birth. It is enough, and more in keeping with the thought as a whole, to regard him as having been in close contact with Judaism, possibly as a proselyte. He now uses his knowledge to warn his readers, with intense passion, against all compromise between Judaism and the Gospel. In this he goes so far as to deny any historical connexion between the two, maintaining with all the devices of an extravagant allegorism, including the Rabbinic Gematria based on the numerical values of letters (ix. 7 f.), that the Law and Prophecy, as meant by God, had never been given to Israel as a people. The Divine oracles had ever pointed to the Christian Covenant, and had been so understood by the men of God in Israel, whereas the apostate people had turned aside to keep the ceremonial letter of the Law at the instigation of an evil angel (ix. 4). In this way he takes in succession the typical Jewish institutions—Circumcision, Foods, Ablutions, Covenant, Sabbath, Temple—showing their spiritual counterpart in the New People and its ordinances, and that the Cross was prefigured from the first. Such insight (gnosis) into the reality of the case he regards as the natural issue of Christian faith; and it is his main object to help his readers to attain such spirituality—the more so that, by similar insight applied to the signs of the times, he knows and can show that the end of the present age is imminent (i. 5, 7-iv.). The burden of his epistle, then, is, "Let us become [v.03 p.0409] spiritual, a perfect temple unto God" (iv. 11); and that not only by theoretic insight, but also by practical wisdom of life. In order to enforce this moral, he passes to "another sort of gnosis and instruction" (xviii. i), viz. the precepts of the "Two Ways," cited in a slightly different form from that found in the first part of the Teaching of the Apostles. The modifications, however, are all in a more spiritual direction, in keeping with the genuinely evangelic spirit which underlies and pervades even the allegorical ingenuities of the epistle.
Its opening shows it to have been addressed to a Church, or rather a group of Churches, recently visited by the writer, who, while not wishing to write as an authoritative "teacher" so much as one who has come to love them as a friend (i. 8, cf. ix. 9), yet belongs to the class of "teachers" with a recognized spiritual gift (charisma), referred to e.g. in the Didachē. He evidently feels in a position to give his gnosis with some claim to a deferential hearing. This being so, the epistle was probably written, not to Alexandria, but rather by a "teacher" of the Alexandrine Church to some body of Christians in Lower Egypt among whom he had recently been visiting. This would explain the absence of specific address, so that it appears as in form a "general epistle," as Origen styles it. Its date has been much debated. But Lightfoot's reading of the apocalyptic passage in ch. iv.—with a slight modification suggested by Sir W. M. Ramsay—is really conclusive for the reign of Vespasian (A.D. 70-79). The main counter-view, in favour of a date about A.D. 130, can give no natural account of this passage, while it misconstrues the reference in ch. xvi. to the building of the spiritual temple, the Christian Church. Thus this epistle is the earliest of the Apostolic Fathers, and as such of special interest. Its central problem, the relation of Judaism and Christianity—of the Old and the New forms of a Covenant which, as Divine, must in a sense abide the same—was one which gave the early Church much trouble; nor, in absence of a due theory of the education of the race by gradual development, was it able to solve it satisfactorily.
LITERATURE.—Besides collected editions of the Apostolic Fathers, see O. Braunsberger, Der Apostel Barnabas, ... u. der ihm beigelegte Brief (Mainz, 1876); W. Cunningham, Epistle of Barnabas (1877); sections in J. Donaldson, The Apostolic Fathers; E. Reuss, Theologie chretienne, vol. ii., and in M. von Engelhardt, Das Christenthum Justins des Martyrers; and Lightfoot's fragmentary essay in his Clement of Rome, ii. 503-512. See also APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE, section "New Testament."
GOSPEL OF BARNABAS.—We read in antiquity, e.g. in the Decretum Gelasii, of an apocryphal Gospel of Barnabas (see APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE), but we have no knowledge of its contents. There exists, however, in a single MS. in Italian a longish gospel with this title, written from a Mahommedan standpoint, but probably embodying materials partly Gnostic in character and origin. The Italian MS. was found by the Deist, John Toland, in a private collection at Amsterdam (see his Nazarenus, 1718); subsequently it came into the possession of Prince Eugene of Savoy, and finally was obtained with Eugene's library by the imperial library at Vienna. It has been edited, with an English translation (1907) by (Rev.) Lonsdale and Laura Ragg, who hold that it was the work of a Christian renegade to Mahommedanism about the 13th-16th century. See also preliminary notice in the Journal of Theol. Studies, vi. 424 ff. The old view held by Toland and others that the Italian was a translation from the Arabic is demonstrably wrong. The Arabic marginal notes are apparently partly pious ejaculations, partly notes for the aid of Arabic students. The work is highly imaginative and often grotesque, but it is pervaded by an unusually high ethical enthusiasm.
(J. V. B.)
 His reference to the wide prevalence of circumcision beyond Israel (ix. 6) is perhaps simply an exaggeration, more or less conscious.
BARNACLE, a name applied to Crustacea of the division Cirripedia or Thyrostraca. Originally, the name was given to the stalked barnacles (Lepadidae of C. Darwin), which attach themselves in great numbers to drift-wood and other objects floating in the sea and are one of the chief agents in the fouling of ships' bottoms during long voyages. The sessile barnacles (Balanidae of Darwin) or "acorn-shells" are found in myriads, encrusting the rocks between tide-marks on all coasts. One of the most extraordinary and persistent myths of medieval natural history, dating back to the 12th century at least, was the cause of transferring to these organisms the name of the barnack or bernacle goose (Bernicla branta). This bird is a winter visitor to Britain, and its Arctic nesting-places being then unknown, it was fabled to originate within the shell-like fruit of a tree growing by the sea-shore. In some variants of the story this shell is said to grow as a kind of mushroom on rotting timber in the sea, and is obviously one of the barnacles of the genus Lepas. Even after the scientific study of zoology had replaced the fabulous tales of medieval writers, it was a long time before the true affinities of the barnacles were appreciated, and they were at first classed with the Mollusca, some of which they closely resemble in external appearance. It was not till Vaughan Thompson demonstrated, in 1830, their development from a free-swimming and typically Crustacean larva that it came to be recognized that, in Huxley's graphic phrase, "a barnacle may be said to be a Crustacean fixed by its head and kicking the food into its mouth with its legs." For a systematic account of the barnacles and their allies, see the article THYROSTRACA.
(W. T. CA.)
BARNARD, LADY ANNE (1750-1825), author of the ballad "Auld Robin Gray," the eldest daughter of James Lindsay, 5th earl of Balcarres, was born at Balcarres House, Fife, on the 12th of December 1750. She was married in 1793 to Andrew Barnard, a son of the bishop of Limerick, for whom she obtained from Henry Dundas (1st Viscount Melville) an appointment as colonial secretary at the Cape of Good Hope. Thither the Barnards went in March 1797, Lady Anne remaining at the Cape until January 1802. A remarkable series of letters written by Lady Anne thence to Dundas, then secretary for war and the colonies, was published in 1901 under the title South Africa a Century Ago. In 1806, on the reconquest of the Cape by the British, Barnard was reappointed colonial secretary, but Lady Anne did not accompany him thither, where he died in 1807. The rest of her life was passed in London, where she died on the 6th of May 1825. "Auld Robin Gray" was written by her in 1772, to music by the Rev. William Leeves (1748-1828), as he admitted in 1812. It was published anonymously in 1783, Lady Anne only acknowledging the authorship of the words two years before her death in a letter to Sir Walter Scott, who subsequently edited it for the Bannatyne Club with two continuations.
See the memoir by W. H. Wilkins, together with the original text of "Auld Robin Gray," prefixed to South Africa a Century Ago.
BARNARD, FREDERICK AUGUSTUS PORTER (1809-1889), American scientist and educationalist, was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, on the 5th of May 1809. In 1828 he graduated, second on the honour list, at Yale. He was then in turn a tutor at Yale, a teacher (1831-1832) in the American Asylum for the [v.03 p.0410] Deaf and Dumb at Hartford, Connecticut, and a teacher (1832-1838) in the New York Institute for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. From 1838 to 1848 he was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, and from 1848 to 1854 was professor of chemistry and natural history in the University of Alabama, for two years, also, filling the chair of English literature. In 1854 he was ordained as deacon in the Protestant Episcopal Church. In the same year he became professor of mathematics and natural philosophy in the University of Mississippi, of which institution he was chancellor from 1856 until the outbreak of the Civil War, when, his sympathies being with the North, he resigned and went to Washington. There for some time he was in charge of the map and chart department of the United States Coast Survey. In 1864 he became the tenth president of Columbia College (now Columbia University) in New York City, which position he held until the year before his death, his service thus being longer than that of any of his predecessors. During this period the growth of the college was rapid; new departments were established; the elective system was greatly extended; more adequate provision was made for graduate study and original research, and the enrolment was increased from about 150 to more than 1000 students. Barnard strove to have educational privileges extended by the university to women as well as to men, and Barnard College, for women (see COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY), established immediately after his death, was named in his honour. He died in New York City on the 27th of April 1889. Barnard was a versatile man, of catholic training, a classical and English scholar, a mathematician, a physicist, and a chemist, a good public speaker, and a vigorous but somewhat prolix writer on various subjects, his annual reports to the Board of Trustees of Columbia being particularly valuable as discussions of educational problems. Besides being the editor-in-chief, in 1872, of Johnson's Universal Cyclopaedia, he published a Treatise on Arithmetic (1830); an Analytical Grammar with Symbolic Illustration (1836); Letters on Collegiate Government (1855); and Recent Progress in Science (1869).
See John Fulton's Memoirs of Frederick A. P. Barnard (New York, 1896).
BARNARD, GEORGE GREY (1863- ), American sculptor, was born at Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, on the 24th of May 1863. He first studied at the Art Institute, Chicago, and in 1883-1887 worked in P. T. Cavelier's atelier at Paris. He lived in Paris for twelve years, returning to America in 1896; and with his first exhibit at the Salon of 1894 he scored a great success. His principal works include, "The Boy" (1885); "Cain" (1886), later destroyed; "Brotherly Love," sometimes called "Two Friends" (1887); the allegorical "Two Natures" (1894, in the Metropolitan Museum, New York City); "The Hewer" (1902, at Cairo, Illinois); "Great God Pan" (in Central Park, New York City); the "Rose Maiden"; the simple and graceful "Maidenhood"; and sculptural decorations for the new Capitol building for the state of Pennsylvania at Harrisburg.
BARNARD, HENRY (1811-1900), American educationalist, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 24th of January 1811. He graduated at Yale in 1830, and in 1835 was admitted to the Connecticut bar. In 1837-1839 he was a member of the Connecticut legislature, effecting in 1838 the passage of a bill, framed and introduced by himself, which provided for "the better supervision of the common schools" and established a board of "commissioners of common schools" in the state. Of this board he was the secretary from 1838 till its abolition in 1842, and during this time worked indefatigably to reorganize and reform the common school system of the state, thus earning a national reputation as an educational reformer. In 1843 he was appointed by the governor of Rhode Island agent to examine the public schools of the state, and recommended improvements; and his work resulted in the reorganization of the school system two years later. From 1845 to 1849 he was the first commissioner of public schools in the state, and his administration was marked by a decided step in educational progress. Returning to Connecticut, he was, from 1851 to 1855, "superintendent of common schools," and principal of the State Normal School at New Britain, Conn. From 1859 to 1860 he was chancellor of the University of Wisconsin and agent of the board of regents of the normal school fund; in 1866 he was president of St John's College, Annapolis, Maryland; and from 1867 to 1870 he was the first United States commissioner of education, and in this position he laid the foundation for the subsequent useful work of the Bureau of Education. His chief service to the cause of education, however, was rendered as the editor, from 1855 to 1881, of the American Journal of Education, the thirty-one volumes of which are a veritable encyclopaedia of education, one of the most valuable compendiums of information on the subject ever brought together through the agency of any one man. He also edited from 1838 to 1842, and again from 1851 to 1854, the Connecticut Common School Journal, and from 1846 to 1849 the Journal of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction. He died at Hartford, Conn., on the 5th of July 1900. Among American educational reformers, Barnard is entitled to rank next to Horace Mann of Massachusetts.
See a biographical sketch by A. D. Mayo in the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1896-1897 (Washington, 1898), and W. S. Monroe's Educational Labours of Henry Barnard (Syracuse, 1893).
BARNARD, JOHN, English musician, was a minor canon of St Paul's in the reign of Charles I. He was the first to publish a collection of English cathedral music. It contains some of the finest 16th-century masterpieces, ranging from the "faux-bourdon" style of Tallis's Pieces and Responses to the most developed types of full anthem. The text, however, is not trustworthy.
BARNARD CASTLE, a market-town in the Barnard Castle parliamentary division of Durham, England, 17 m. W. of Darlington by a branch of the North Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 4421. It is beautifully situated on the steep left bank of the Tees. A noteworthy building in the town is the octagonal town-hall, dating from 1747. There are a few picturesque old houses, and a fragment of an Augustinian convent. St Mary's church, in a variety of styles from Norman onward, contains some curious monuments; but the building of chief interest is the castle, which gives the town its name, and is the principal scene of Sir Walter Scott's Rokeby. The remains extend over a space of more than six acres. A remarkable building known as the Bowes' Mansion and Museum, bequeathed in 1874 to the town by a descendant of Sir George Bowes, contains a valuable collection of works of art. In the vicinity of the town are Egglestone Abbey, beautifully situated on the Yorkshire bank of the river, Rokeby Park on the same bank, at the confluence of the Greta, and the massive 14th century castle of Raby to the north-east. The principal manufacture is shoe-thread. The corn-market is important.
As part of the lordship of Gainford, Barnard Castle is said to have been granted by William Rufus to Guy Baliol Bernard, son of Guy Baliol, who built the castle, and called it after himself, Castle Bernard. To the men of the town which grew up outside the castle walls he gave, about the middle of the 12th century, a charter making them burgesses and granting them the same privileges as the town of Richmond in Yorkshire. This charter was confirmed by Bernard Baliol, son of the above Bernard. Other confirmation charters were granted to the town by Hugh, John, and Alexander Baliol. The castle and lordship remained in the hands of the Baliols until John Baliol, king of Scotland, forfeited them with his other English estates in 1296. Barnard Castle was then seized by Anthony, bishop of Durham, as being within his palatinate of Durham. Edward I., however, denied the bishop's rights and granted the castle and town to Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, whose descendants continued to hold them until they passed to the crown by the marriage of Anne Nevill with Richard III., then duke of Gloucester. In 1630 Barnard Castle was sold to Sir Henry Vane, and in the same year the castle is said to have been unroofed and dismantled for the sake of the materials of which it was built. Tanning leather was formerly one of the chief industries of the town. In 1614 an act for "knights and burgesses to have place in parliament for the county palatine and city of Durham and borough of Barnard [v.03 p.0411] Castle" was brought into the House of Commons, but when the act was finally passed for the county and city of Durham, Barnard Castle was not included.
BARNARDO, THOMAS JOHN (1845-1905), English philanthropist, and founder and director of homes for destitute children, was born at Dublin, Ireland, in 1845. His father was of Spanish origin, his mother being an Englishwoman. With the intention of qualifying for medical missionary work in China, he studied medicine at the London hospital, and later at Paris and Edinburgh, where he became a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. His medical work in the east end of London during the epidemic of cholera in 1865 first drew his attention to the great numbers of homeless and destitute children in the cities of England. Encouraged by the support of the seventh earl of Shaftesbury and the first Earl Cairns, he gave up his early ambition of foreign missionary labour, and began what was to prove his life's work. The first of the "Dr Barnardo's Homes" was opened in 1867 in Stepney Causeway, London, where are still the headquarters of the institution. From that time the work steadily increased until, at the time of the founder's death, in 1905, there were established 112 district "Homes," besides mission branches, throughout the United Kingdom. The object for which these institutions were started was to search for and to receive waifs and strays, to feed, clothe, educate, and, where possible, to give an industrial training suitable to each child. The principle adopted has been that of free and immediate admission; there are no restrictions of age or sex, religion or nationality; the physically robust and the incurably diseased are alike received, the one necessary qualification being destitution. The system under which the institution is carried on is broadly as follows:—the infants and younger girls and boys are chiefly "boarded out" in rural districts; girls above fourteen years of age are sent to the industrial training homes, to be taught useful domestic occupations; boys above seventeen years of age are first tested in labour homes and then placed in employment at home, sent to sea or emigrated; boys of between thirteen and seventeen years of age are trained for the various trades for which they may be mentally or physically fitted. Besides the various branches necessary for the foregoing work, there are also, among others, the following institutions:—a rescue home for girls in danger, a convalescent seaside home, and a hospital for sick waifs. In 1872 was founded the girls' village home at Barkingside, near Ilford, with its own church and sanatorium, and between sixty and seventy cottage homes, forming a real "garden city"; and there Barnardo himself was buried. In 1901, through the generosity of Mr E. H. Watts, a naval school was started at North Elmham, near Norwich, to which boys are drafted from the homes to be trained for the navy and the mercantile marine. Perhaps the most useful of all the varied work instituted by Barnardo is the emigration system, by which means thousands of boys and girls have been sent to British colonies, chiefly to Canada, where there are distributing centres at Toronto and Winnipeg, and an industrial farm of some 8000 acres near Russell in Manitoba. The fact that in Canada less than 2% of the children sent out proved failures confirmed Barnardo's conviction that "if the children of the slums can be removed from their surroundings early enough, and can be kept sufficiently long under training, heredity counts for little, environment for almost everything." In 1899 the various institutions and organizations were legally incorporated under the title of "The National Association for the reclamation of Destitute Waif Children," but the institution has always been familiarly known as "Dr Barnardo's Homes." Barnardo laid great stress on the religious teaching of the children under his care. Each child is brought up under the influence and teaching of the denomination of the parents. The homes are divided into two sections for religious teaching, Church of England and Nonconformists; children of Jewish and Roman Catholic parentage are, where possible, handed over to the care of the Jewish Board of Guardians in London, and to Roman Catholic institutions, respectively. From the foundation of the homes in 1867 to the date of Barnardo's death, nearly 60,000 children had been rescued, trained and placed out in life. Barnardo died of angina pectoris in London on the 19th of September 1905. A national memorial was instituted to form a fund of L250,000 to relieve the various institutions of all financial liability and to place the entire work on a permanent basis. Dr William Baker, formerly the chairman of the council, was selected to succeed the founder of the homes as director. Barnardo was the author of many books dealing with the charitable work to which he devoted his life.
His biography (1907) was written by his wife (the daughter of Mr William Elmslie) and J. Marchant.
BARNAUL, a town of Asiatic Russia, government of Tomsk, standing in a plain bounded by offshoots of the Altai Mountains, and on the Barnaulka river, at its confluence with the Ob, in lat. 53deg 20' N. and long. 83deg 46' E., 220 m. S. of Tomsk. It is the capital of the Altai mining districts, and besides smelting furnaces possesses glassworks, a bell-foundry and a mint. It has also a meteorological observatory, established in 1841, a mining school and a museum with a rich collection of mineral and zoological specimens. Barnaul was founded in 1730 by A. Demidov, to whose memory a monument has been erected. Pop. (1900) 29,850.
BARNAVE, ANTOINE PIERRE JOSEPH MARIE (1761-1793), one of the greatest orators of the first French Revolution, was born at Grenoble in Dauphine, on the 22nd of October 1761. He was of a Protestant family. His father was an advocate at the parlement of Grenoble, and his mother was a woman of high birth, superior ability and noble character. He was educated by his mother because, being a Protestant, he could not attend school, and he grew up at once thoughtful and passionate, studious and social, handsome in person and graceful in manners. He was brought up to the law, and at the age of twenty-two made himself favourably known by a discourse pronounced before the local parlement on the division of political powers. Dauphine was one of the first of the provinces to feel the excitement of the coming revolution; and Barnave was foremost to give voice to the general feeling, in a pamphlet entitled Esprit des edits enregistres militairement le 20 mai 1788. He was immediately elected deputy, with his father, to the states of Dauphine, and took a prominent part in their debates. A few months later he was transferred to a wider field of action. The states-general were convoked at Versailles for the 5th of May 1789, and Barnave was chosen deputy of the tiers etat for his native province. He soon made an impression on the Assembly, became the friend of most of the leaders of the popular party, and formed with Adrien Duport and Alexandre Lameth (q.v.) the group known during the Constituent Assembly as "the triumvirate." He took part in the conference on the claims of the three orders, drew up the first address to the king, and supported the proposal of Sieyes that the Assembly should declare itself National. Until 1791 he was one of the principal members of the club known later as the Jacobins, of which he drew up the manifesto and first rules (see JACOBINS). Though a passionate lover of liberty, he hoped to secure the freedom of France and her monarchy at the same time. But he was almost unawares borne away by the mighty currents of the time, and he took part in the attacks on the monarchy, on the clergy, on church property, and on the provincial parlements. With the one exception of Mirabeau, Barnave was the most powerful orator of the Assembly. On several occasions he stood in opposition to Mirabeau. After the fall of the Bastille he wished to save the throne. He advocated the suspensory veto, and the establishment of trial by jury in civil causes, but voted with the Left against the system of two chambers. His conflict with Mirabeau on the question of assigning to the king the right to make peace or war (from the 16th to the 23rd of May 1791) was one of the most striking scenes in the Assembly. In August 1790, after a vehement debate, he fought a duel with J. A. M. de Cazales, in which the latter was slightly wounded. About the close of October 1790 Barnave was called to the presidency of the Assembly. On the death of Mirabeau a few months later, Barnave paid a high tribute to his worth and public services, designating him the Shakespeare of oratory. On the arrest of the king and the royal family at Varennes, while attempting to escape from France, Barnave was [v.03 p.0412] one of the three appointed to conduct them back to Paris. On the journey he was deeply affected by the mournful fate of Marie-Antoinette, and resolved to do what he could to alleviate their sufferings. In one of his most powerful speeches he maintained the inviolability of the king's person. His public career came to an end with the close of the Constituent Assembly, and he returned to Grenoble at the beginning of 1792. His sympathy and relations with the royal family, to whom he had submitted a plan for a counter-revolution, and his desire to check the downward progress of the Revolution, brought on him suspicion of treason. Denounced (15th of August 1792) in the Legislative Assembly, he was arrested and imprisoned for ten months at Grenoble, then transferred to Fort Barraux, and in November 1793 to Paris. The nobility of his character was proof against the assaults of suffering. "Better to suffer and to die," he said, "than lose one shade of my moral and political character." On the 28th of November he appeared before the Revolutionary Tribunal. He was condemned on the evidence of papers found at the Tuileries and executed the next day, with Duport-Dutertre.