Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 3 - "Banks" to "Bassoon"
Author: Various
Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

The docks in the strait between Barrow Island and the mainland were constructed in 1867, and named the Devonshire and Buccleuch docks. The Ramsden docks are a subsequent extension. These are 24 ft. in depth. There are also a graving dock 500 ft. long, a depositing dock accommodating vessels of 16 ft. draught, and two electric cranes each able to lift 150 tons. The Furness railway company is the dock authority. Passenger steamers run on weekdays to Belfast.

The town is laid out in rectangular form, and contains several handsome churches, municipal buildings, exchange and other public buildings. An electric tramway service connects the outskirts and the centre. There are statues of Lord Frederick Cavendish (assassinated at Dublin, 1882), in front of the town-hall, and of Sir James Ramsden (d. 1896), managing director of the Furness railway and first mayor of Barrow, to whom, together with the dukes of Devonshire and Buccleuch, the town owed much of its rise in the middle of the 19th century. The cottage inhabited by George Romney the painter from 1742 to 1755 has been preserved from demolition and retained as a memorial. Educational institutions include a school of science and art, a girls' high school and a technical school. Barrow is a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Carlisle. The parliamentary borough (1885), falling within the North Lonsdale division of the county, returns one member. The town was incorporated in 1867, and became a county borough in 1888. The corporation consists of a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors. Area, 11,023 acres.

BARRY, SIR CHARLES (1795-1860), English architect, was born in London on the 23rd of May 1795, the son of a stationer. He was articled to a firm of architects, with whom he remained till 1817, when he set out on a three years' tour in Greece and Italy, Egypt and Palestine for the purpose of studying [v.03 p.0444] architecture. On his return to England in 1820 he settled in London. One of the first works by which his abilities as an architect became generally known was the church of St Peter at Brighton, completed in 1826. He built many other churches; but the marked preference for Italian architecture, which he acquired during his travels, showed itself in various important undertakings of his earlier years. In 1831 he completed the Travellers' Club in Pall Mall, a splendid work in the Italian style and the first of its kind built in London. In the same style and on a grander scale he built in 1837 the Reform Club. He was also engaged on numerous private mansions in London, the finest being Bridgewater House (1847). Birmingham possesses one of his best works in King Edward's grammar school, built in the Tudor style between 1833 and 1836. For Manchester be designed the Royal Institution of Fine Arts (1824) and the Athenaeum (1836); and for Halifax the town-hall. He was engaged for some years in reconstructing the Treasury buildings, Whitehall. But his masterpiece, notwithstanding all unfavourable criticism, is the Houses of Parliament at Westminster (1840-1860). Barry was elected A.R.A. in 1840 and R.A. in the following year. His genius and achievements were recognized by the representative artistic bodies of the principal European nations; and his name was enrolled as a member of the academies of art at Rome, Berlin, St Petersburg, Brussels and Stockholm. He was chosen F.R.S. in 1849 and was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1852. He died suddenly at Clapham near London on the 12th of May 1860, and his remains were interred in Westminster Abbey. As a landscape gardener he was no less brilliant than as an architect, and in connexion with the building of the Houses of Parliament he formed schools of modelling, stone and wood carving, cabinet-making, metal-working, glass and decorative painting, and of encaustic tile-making. In 1867 appeared a life of him by his son Bishop Alfred Barry. A claim was thereupon set up on behalf of Pugin, the famous architect, who was dead and who had been Barry's assistant, to a much larger share in the work of designing the Houses of Parliament than was admitted in Dr Barry's narrative. The controversy raged for a time, but without substantiating Pugin's claim.

His second son, ALFRED BARRY (1826- ), was educated at King's College, London, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was 4th wrangler and gained a first-class in the classical tripos in 1848. He was successively sub-warden of Trinity College, Glenalmond (1849-1854), head-master of Leeds grammar school (1854-1862), principal of Cheltenham College (1862-1868), and principal of King's College, London (1868-1883). He was canon of Worcester from 1871 to 1881, and of Westminster from 1881 to 1884. From 1884 to 1889 he served as bishop of Sydney and primate of Australia, and on his return to England he was assistant bishop in the diocese of Rochester from 1889 to 1891, and rector of St James's, Piccadilly, from 1895 to 1900. He was appointed canon of Windsor in 1891 and assistant bishop in West London in 1897. Besides the life of his father mentioned above, he published numerous theological works.

Another son, EDWARD MIDDLETON BARRY (1830-1880), was also an architect. He acted as assistant to his father during the latter years of Sir Charles's life. On the death of his father, the duty of completing the latter's unfinished work devolved upon him. Amongst other buildings thus completed were the Houses of Parliament at Westminster (see ARCHITECTURE, fig. 91, and Plate X. fig. 118), and Halifax town-hall (Id. fig. 90). In 1861 he was elected an associate of the Royal Academy; and in 1869 a full academician. From 1873 till his death he held the Academy's professorship of architecture. Among other buildings designed by him were Covent Garden theatre, Charing Cross and Cannon Street hotels, the Birmingham and Midland Institute, new galleries for the National Gallery and new chambers for the Inner Temple. He died on the 27th of January, 1880.

The youngest son, SIR JOHN WOLFE WOLFE-BARRY (1836- ), the eminent engineer, who assumed the additional name of Wolfe in 1898, was educated at Glenalmond, and was articled as engineering pupil to Sir John Hawkshaw, with whom he was associated in the building of the railway bridges across the Thames at Charing Cross and Cannon Street. In 1867 he began to practise on his own account, and soon gained an extensive connexion with railway companies, both in Great Britain and in other countries. Among the works on which he was engaged were extensions of the Metropolitan District railway, the St Paul's station and bridge of the London, Chatham & Dover railway, the Barry Docks of the Barry railway company near Cardiff, and the Tower and new Kew bridges over the Thames. On the completion of the Tower Bridge in 1894, he was made a C.B., becoming K.C.B. three years later. He served on several royal commissions, including those on Irish Public Works (1886-1890), Highlands and Islands of Scotland (1889-1890), Accidents to Railway Servants (1899-1900), Port of London (1900-1902), and London Traffic (1903-1905). He was elected president of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1896, and published books on Railway Appliances (1874), and, with Sir F. J. Bramwell, on Railways and Locomotives (1882).

BARRY, ELIZABETH (1658-1713), English actress, of whose early life the details are meagre. At first she was so unsuccessful on the stage as to be more than once dismissed; but she was coached by her lover the earl of Rochester, who had laid a wager that in a short time he would make a first-rate actress of her, and the results confirmed his judgment. Mrs Barry's performance as Isabella, queen of Hungary, in the earl of Orrery's Mustapha, was said to have caused Charles II. and the duke and duchess of York so much delight that the duchess took lessons in English from her, and when she became queen she gave Mrs Barry her coronation robes in which to appear as Elizabeth in Banks's Earl of Essex. Mrs Barry is said to have created over 100 parts, and she was particularly successful in the plays of Thomas Otway. Betterton says that her acting gave "success to plays that would disgust the most patient reader." Dryden pronounced her "always excellent." Cibber is authority for the statement that it was on her behalf that benefits, which up to that time were reserved for authors, were first established for actors by command of James II. Mrs Barry had a child by Lord Rochester and a second by Sir George Etheredge, both of whom were provided for by their fathers. In 1709 she retired from the stage and died on the 7th of November 1713.

BARRY, JAMES (1741-1806), English painter, was born at Cork on the 11th of October 1741. His father had been a builder, and, at one time of his life, a coasting trader between the two countries of England and Ireland. To this business of trader James was destined, and he actually made when a boy several voyages; but he manifested such an aversion to the life and habits of a sailor as to induce his father to suffer him to pursue his own inclinations, which led strongly towards drawing and study. At the schools in Cork to which he was sent he was regarded as a prodigy. About the age of seventeen he first attempted oil-painting, and between that and the age of twenty-two, when he first went to Dublin, he produced several large pictures, which decorated his father's house, such as "Aeneas escaping with his Family from the Flames of Troy," "Susanna and the Elders," "Daniel in the Lions' Den," &c. At this period he also produced the painting which first brought him into public notice, and gained him the acquaintance and patronage of Edmund Burke. The picture was founded on an old tradition of the landing of St Patrick on the sea-coast of Cashel, and of the conversion and baptism of the king of that district by the patron saint of Ireland. It was exhibited in London in 1762 or 1763.

By the liberality of Burke and his other friends, Barry in the latter part of 1765 was enabled to go abroad. He went first to Paris, then to Rome, where he remained upwards of three years, from Rome to Florence and Bologna, and thence home through Venice. His letters to the Burkes, giving an account of Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian and Leonardo da Vinci, show remarkable insight. Barry painted two pictures while abroad, an Adam and Eve, and a Philoctetes, neither of them of any merit. Soon after his return to England in 1771 he produced his picture of Venus, which was compared, though with little justice, to the Galatea of Raphael, the Venus of Titian and the Venus de Medici. In 1773 he exhibited his "Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida." His [v.03 p.0445] "Death of General Wolfe," in which the British and French soldiers are represented in very primitive costumes, was considered as a falling-off from his great style of art. His fondness for Greek costume was assigned by his admirers as the cause of his reluctance to paint portraits. His failure to go on with a portrait of Burke which he had begun caused a misunderstanding with his early patron. The difference between them is said to have been widened by Burke's growing intimacy with Sir Joshua Reynolds, and by Barry's feeling some little jealousy of the fame and fortune of his rival "in a humbler walk of the art." About the same time he painted a pair of classical subjects, Mercury inventing the lyre, and Narcissus looking at himself in the water, the last suggested to him by Burke. He also painted a historical picture of Chiron and Achilles, and another of the story of Stratonice, for which last the duke of Richmond gave him a hundred guineas. In 1773 it was proposed to decorate the interior of St Paul's with historical and sacred subjects; but the plan fell to the ground, from not meeting with the concurrence of the bishop of London and the archbishop of Canterbury. Barry was much mortified at the failure, for he had in anticipation fixed upon the subject he intended to paint—the rejection of Christ by the Jews when Pilate proposes his release. In 1773 he published An Inquiry into the real and imaginary Obstructions to the Acquisition of the Arts in England, vindicating the capacity of the English for the fine arts and tracing their slow progress hitherto to the Reformation, to political and civil dissensions, and lastly to the general direction of the public mind to mechanics, manufactures and commerce. In 1774 a proposal was made through Valentine Green to Reynolds, West, Cipriani, Barry, and other artists to ornament the great room of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce in the Adelphi with historical and allegorical paintings. This proposal was at the time rejected by the artists themselves; but in 1777 Barry made an offer to paint the whole on condition of being allowed the choice of his subjects, and being paid by the society the expenses of canvas, paints and models. His offer was accepted, and he finished the series of pictures at the end of seven years to the entire satisfaction of the members of the society, who granted him two exhibitions, and at different periods voted him 50 guineas, their gold medal and 200 guineas. Of the six paintings making up the series, only one, that of the Olympic Games, shows any artistic power.

Soon after his return from the continent Barry had been chosen a member of the Royal Academy; and in 1782 he was appointed professor of painting in the room of Mr Penny with a salary of L30 a year. Among other things, he insisted on the necessity of purchasing a collection of pictures by the best masters as models for the students, and proposed several of those in the Orleans collection. This recommendation was not relished, and in 1799 Barry was expelled from the academy, soon after the appearance of his Letter to the Dilettanti Society, a very amusing but eccentric publication, full of enthusiasm for his art and at the same time of contempt for the living professors of it. After the loss of his salary, a subscription was set on foot by the earl of Buchan to relieve him from his difficulties, and to settle him in a larger house to finish his picture of Pandora. The subscription amounted to L1000, with which an annuity was bought, but on the 6th of February 1806 he was seized with illness and died on the 22nd of the same month. On the 14th of March his remains were interred in St Paul's.

As an artist, Barry was more distinguished for the strength of his conceptions, and for his resolute and persistent determination to apply himself only to great subjects, than for his skill in designing or for beauty in his colouring. His drawing is rarely good, his colouring frequently wretched. He was extremely impulsive and unequal; sometimes morose, sometimes sociable and urbane; jealous of his contemporaries, and yet capable of pronouncing a splendid eulogy on Reynolds.

BARRY, SIR REDMOND (1813-1880), British colonial judge, son of Major-General H. G. Barry, of Ballyclough, Co. Cork, was educated at a military school in Kent, and at Trinity College, Dublin, and was called to the Irish bar in 1838. He emigrated to Australia, and after a short stay at Sydney went to Melbourne, with which city he was ever afterwards closely identified. After practising his profession for some years, he became commissioner of the court of requests, and after the creation in 1851 of the colony of Victoria, out of the Port Phillip district of New South Wales, was the first solicitor-general with a seat in the legislative and executive councils. Subsequently he held the offices of judge of the Supreme Court, acting chief-justice and administrator of the government. He represented Victoria at the London International Exhibition of 1862 and at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876. He was knighted in 1860 and was created K.C.M.G. in 1877. Sir Redmond Barry was the first person in Victoria to take an interest in higher education, and induced the local government to expend large sums of money upon that object. He was the founder of the university of Melbourne (1853), of which he was the first chancellor, was president of the Melbourne public library (1854), national gallery and museum, and was one of the first to foster the volunteer movement in Australia. To his exertions is due the prosperity of the two institutions with which his memory is identified.

BARRY, SPRANGER (1719-1777), British actor, was born in Dublin on the 23rd of November 1719, the son of a silversmith, to whose business he was brought up. His first appearance on the stage was at the Smock Alley theatre on the 5th of February 1744, and his engagement at once increased its prosperity. His first London appearance was made in 1746 as Othello at Drury Lane. Here his talents were speedily recognized, and in Hamlet and Macbeth he alternated with Garrick, arousing the latter's jealousy by his success as Romeo. This resulted in his leaving Drury Lane for Covent Garden in 1750, accompanied by Mrs Cibber, his Juliet. Both houses now at once put on Romeo and Juliet for a series of rival performances, and Barry's impersonation was preferred by the critics to Garrick's. In 1758 Barry built the Crow Street theatre, Dublin, and later a new theatre in Cork, but he was not successful as a manager and returned to London to play at the Haymarket, then under the management of Foote. As his second wife, he married in 1768 the actress Mrs Dancer (1734-1801), and he and Mrs Barry played under Garrick's management, Barry appearing in 1767, after ten years' absence from the stage, in Othello, his greatest part. In 1774 they both moved to Covent Garden, where Barry remained until his death on the 10th of January 1777. He was a singularly handsome man, with the advantage of height which Garrick lacked.

His second wife, ANN STREET BARRY, was born in Bath in 1734, the daughter of an apothecary. Early in life she married an actor of the name of Dancer, and it was as Mrs Dancer that she made her first recorded appearance in 1758 as Cordelia to Spranger Barry's Lear at the Crow Street theatre. During the next nine years she played all the leading tragic parts, but without any great success, and it was not until she came to Drury Lane with Barry that her reputation advanced to the high point at which it afterwards stood. After his death, she remained at Covent Garden and married a man much younger than herself, named Crawford, being first billed as Mrs Crawford in 1778. Her last appearance is said to have been as Lady Randolph in Douglas at Covent Garden in 1798. This part, and that of Desdemona, were among her great impersonations; in both she was considered by some critics superior to Mrs Siddons, who expressed her fear of her in one of her letters. She died on the 29th of November 1801 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

BARRY, an urban district and seaport of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the Bristol Channel, 153 m. by rail from London and 8 m. S.W. from Cardiff. Its station is a terminus on the Barry railway, which starts at Hafod in the Rhondda Valley, where it joins the Taff Vale railway, having also junctions with the same line for Aberdare and Merthyr at Treforest, and for Cardiff and Penarth at Cogan, and with the Great Western main line at Peterstone and St Fagans. A branch from the main line at Tyn-y-caeau connects with the Rhymney railway, the London & North-Western railway, and the Brecon & Merthyr railway. The Vale of Glamorgan railway (which is worked by [v.03 p.0446] the Barry company and has a junction with the Great Western railway at Bridgend) affords a direct route to Barry from the Llynvi, Ogmore and Garw coalfields. The urban district of Barry, with a population in 1901 of 27,030, comprises the ecclesiastical parishes of Barry, Cadoxton, Merthyr-Dovan, and a portion of Sully in which is included Barry Island (194 acres), now, however, joined to the mainland. The total population of this area in 1881 was only about 500, that of Barry village alone being only 85. A small brook named Barri runs here into the sea, whence the place was formerly known in Welsh as Aber-Barri, but the name of both the river and the island is supposed to be derived from Baruch, a Welsh saint of the 7th century, who had a cell on the island. His chapel (which still existed in Leland's time) was a place of pilgrimage in the middle ages. According to Giraldus, his own family derived its name de Barri from the island which they once owned. One of the followers of Fitzhamon settled at Barry about the end of the 11th century, building there a castle of which only a gateway remains. Besides the small old parish churches of Merthyr-Dovan and Cadoxton, and the rebuilt parish church of Barry, there are four modern churches (in one of which Welsh services are held). There are about thirty nonconformist chapels, in nearly a third of which the services are Welsh. There are also a Roman Catholic church, and one for German and Scandinavian seamen. The other public buildings are a county intermediate school for 250 boys and girls, built in 1896, a free library (opened in 1892) with four branch reading-rooms, a seamen's institute, the Barry market, built in 1890 at a cost of L3500 (but now used as a concert-hall), and Romilly hall for public meetings.

Barry owes its seaport to the determination of a number of colliery owners to secure an alternative port to Cardiff, with an independent railway to it from the coalfields. After failing in 1883, they obtained parliamentary powers for this purpose in 1884, and the first sod of the new dock at Barry was cut in November of that year. The docks are 114 acres in extent, and have accommodation for the largest vessels afloat. Dock No. 1, opened on the 18th of July 1889, is 73 acres (with a basin of 7 acres) and occupies the eastern side of the old channel between the island and the mainland, having a well-sheltered deep-sea entrance. There is good anchorage between Barry and Sully islands. Dock No. 2 (34 acres) was opened on the 10th of October 1898. There are 41 acres of timber-ponds and three large graving-docks. For loading the coal there are thirty fixed and seven movable coal-hoists. The total tonnage of the exports in 1906 was 9,757,380 (all of which, except 26,491 tons, was coal), and of the imports 506,103 tons.

BAR-ṢALĪBĪ, JACOB or DIONYSIUS,[1] the best-known and most voluminous writer in the Syrian Jacobite church of the 12th century, was, like Bar-Hebraeus, a native of Malatia on the Upper Euphrates. In 1154 he was created bishop of Mar'ash by the patriarch Athanasius VIII.; a year later the diocese of Mabbōg was added to his charge. In 1166 Michael I., the successor of Athanasius, transferred him to the metropolitan see of Āmid in Mesopotamia, and there he remained till his death in 1171. A long account of his writings, with copious extracts from some of them, has been given by Assemani (Bibl. Orient. ii. pp. 156-211); and W. Wright (Syriac Literature, pp. 246-250) has added further particulars as to the MSS. in which they are contained. Probably the most important are his exhaustive commentaries on the text of the Old and New Testaments, in which he has skilfully interwoven and summarized the interpretations of previous writers such as Ephrem, Chrysostom, Cyril, Moses Bar-Kēphā and John of Dārā, whom he mentions together in the preface to his commentary on St Matthew. Among his other main works are a treatise against heretics, containing inter alia a polemic against the Jews and the Mahommedans; liturgical treatises, epistles and homilies. His commentaries on the Gospels were to some extent used by Dudley Loftus in the 17th century. But the systematic editing of his works was only begun in 1903 with H. Labourt's edition and translation of his Exposition of the Liturgy (Paris). His commentaries on the Gospels have been edited and translated by J. Sedlaček and J. B. Chabot (Fasc. I., Paris, 1906), and the Syriac text of the treatise against the Jews has been edited by J. de Zwaan (Leiden, 1906). Bar-Ṣalībī was undoubtedly an able theologian; his vigour combined with terseness in argument is well seen, for instance, in the introductory sections of his commentary on St Matthew. Of his originality it is hard to judge, as he does not usually indicate in detail the sources of his arguments and interpretations. He does not, however, claim for himself to be more than a compiler, at least in his commentaries. His Syriac style is good, considering the lateness of the period at which he wrote.

(N. M.)

[1] Jacob was his baptismal name; Dionysius he assumed when consecrated to the bishopric.

BARSI, a town of British India, in the Sholapur district of Bombay, lying within a tract entirely surrounded by the Nizam's dominions. Pop. (1901) 24,242. Barsi is a flourishing centre of trade, exporting to Bombay large quantities of cotton and oil-seeds. It has several factories for ginning and pressing cotton—some on a large scale. It is connected with the main line of the Great Indian Peninsula railway by a light railway.

BAR-SUR-AUBE, a town of north-eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Aube, 34 m. E. by S. of Troyes on the main line of the Eastern railway between that town and Belfort. Pop. (1906) 4276. Bar-sur-Aube lies at the foot of hills on the right bank of the Aube at its confluence with the Bresse. A circle of boulevards occupies the site of the old ramparts, fragments of which still remain. Of the ecclesiastical buildings, the most noteworthy are St Pierre and St Maclou, both dating mainly from the end of the 12th century. St Pierre has wooden exterior galleries and two fine Gothic porches. The sacristy of St Maclou is conjectured to have formed the chapel of the castle of the counts of Bar, of which the square tower flanking the north side of the church formed the entrance. The town is the seat of a sub-prefect, and the public institutions include a tribunal of first instance and a communal college. Flour-milling, tanning, and the manufacture of brandy, hosiery and agricultural implements are carried on. The wine of the district is much esteemed.

Traces of a Roman settlement have been found on hills to the south of the town. Under the domination of the counts of Champagne, it became the scene of important fairs which did not cease till 1648. In 1814 several actions between the French and the army of the allies took place at Bar-sur-Aube (see NAPOLEONIC WARS).

BAR-SUR-SEINE, a town of eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Aube, on the left bank of the Seine, 20 m. S.E. of Troyes by the Eastern railway. Pop. (1906) 2812. The town lies at the foot of a wooded hill on which stand the ruins of the castle of the counts of Bar, and is composed chiefly of one long street, bordered in places by houses of the 16th century. Its principal building is the church of St Etienne, of the 16th and 17th centuries, which contains some fine stained glass. Bar-sur-Seine has a sub-prefecture and a tribunal of first instance. Tanning, dyeing, flour-milling, brandy-distilling and the manufacture of glass are among the industries. The Canal de la Haute-Seine begins at this point. The town was devastated in 1359 by the English, when, according to Froissart, no fewer than 900 mansions were burnt. Afterwards it suffered greatly in the religious wars of the 16th century.

BART, JEAN (1651-1702), French naval commander, son of a fisherman, was born in Dunkirk on the 21st of October 1651. He served when young in the Dutch navy, but when war broke out between Louis XIV. and Holland in 1672 he entered the French service. He gained great distinction in the Mediterranean, where he held an irregular sort of commission, not being then able from his low birth to receive a command in the navy. His success was so great, however, that he was made a lieutenant in 1679. He rose rapidly to the rank of captain and then to that of admiral. The peace of Ryswick put a close to his active service. Many anecdotes are narrated of the courage and bluntness of the uncultivated sailor, who became the popular hero [v.03 p.0447] of the French naval service. The town of Dunkirk has honoured his memory by a statue and by naming a public square after him.

See Richer, Vie de Jean Bart (1780), and many editions since; Vanderest, Histoire de Jean Bart.

BARTAN, more correctly BARTIN, a town in the vilayet of Kastamuni, Asiatic Turkey, retaining the name of the ancient village Parthenia and situated near the mouth of the Bartan-su (anc. Parthenius), which formed part of the boundary between Bithynia and Paphlagonia. Various aetiological explanations of the name Parthenius were given by the ancients, e.g. that the maiden Artemis hunted on its banks, or that the flow of its waters was gentle and maiden-like. The town, which is the residence of a kaimakam, is built on two low limestone hills and its streets are paved with limestone blocks. It is noted for the fine boxwood grown in the vicinity, is a port of call for Black Sea coasting steamers and carries on a considerable trade with Constantinople which might be increased were it not for the obstruction of the harbour by a bar. Pop. 8677, according to Cuinet, La Turquie d'Asie (1894).

BARTELS, HANS VON (1856- ), German painter, was born in Hamburg, the son of Dr N. F. F. von Bartels, a Russian government official. He studied first under the marine painter R. Hardorff in Hamburg, then under C. Schweitzer in Duesseldorf and C. Oesterley in Hamburg, and finally at the Berlin School of Art. After travelling extensively, especially in Italy, he settled in Munich in 1885 and was appointed professor of painting in 1891. An oil painter of great power, he is one of the leading German water-colour painters, mainly of marines and scenes of fishing life, painted with rude vigour and a great display of technical skill. He excels in storm scenes and in depicting the strong, healthy fishing-folk of the northern coasts. He became an honorary member of leading English, German, Dutch, Belgian and Austrian art societies. Among his principal works are:—"Sturmflut" (Berlin Gallery); "Lonely Beach" (Hungarian National Gallery); "Potato Harvest—Ruegen" (Prague); "Storm—Bornholm" (German emperor's collection); and "Moonlight on the Zuyder Zee" (New Pinakothek, Munich).

BARTENSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the Alle, 34 m. S. of Koenigsberg by rail. Pop. (1900) 6805. It has a considerable trade in corn and live stock, and its industries comprise founding and carriage-building, tanneries, breweries and potteries. Bartenstein is celebrated for the treaty concluded here on the 26th of April 1807, between Prussia and Russia.

BARTER (from Fr. barater, to truck, to exchange), the exchange of commodities for commodities, in contra-distinction to the exchange of commodities for money. Barter was the simplest form of trading among primitive communities, but its inconveniences led, at an early stage of civilization, to the adoption of metals as mediums of exchange. Barter, however, is still very common in dealings with uncivilized peoples, and traders in many countries find that the most satisfactory method of effecting exchange is to furnish themselves with such commodities as weapons, tools and ornaments, which are more readily taken than money.

For the history of barter and the steps by which a system of currency was gradually evolved, see MONEY. Consult also W. S. Jevons, Money and the Mechanism of Exchange; A. Marshall, Economics; W. Ridgeway, Origin of Currency and Weight Standards.

BARTET (REGNAULT), JEANNE JULIA (1854- ), French actress, was born in Paris and trained at the Conservatoire. In 1872 she began a successful career at the Vaudeville, and in 1879 was engaged at the Comedie Francaise, of which she became a societaire in 1880. For many years she played the chief parts both in tragedy and comedy, her grand style and exquisite finesse making her supreme among the younger actresses on the French stage. She had a season in London in 1908, when her consummate art was displayed in a number of parts.

BARTH, HEINRICH (1821-1865), German explorer, was born at Hamburg on the 16th of February 1821, and educated at Berlin University, where he graduated in 1844. He had already visited Italy and Sicily and had formed a plan to journey through the Mediterranean countries. After studying Arabic in London he set out on his travels in 1845. From Tangier he made his way overland throughout the length of North Africa, visiting the sites of the ancient cities of Barbary and Cyrenaica. He also travelled through Egypt, ascending the Nile to Wadi Halfa and crossing the desert to Berenice. While in Egypt he was attacked and wounded by robbers. Crossing the Sinai peninsula he traversed Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Turkey and Greece, everywhere examining the remains of antiquity; and returned to Berlin in 1847. For a time he was engaged there as Privat-docent, and in preparing for publication the narrative of his Wanderungen durch die Kuestenlaender des Mittelmeeres, which appeared in 1849.

At the instance of Bunsen and other scientists, Barth and Adolf Overweg, a Prussian astronomer, were appointed colleagues of James Richardson, an explorer of the Sahara who had been selected by the British government to open up commercial relations with the states of the central and western Sudan. The party left Tripoli early in 1850, but the deaths of Richardson (March 1851) and Overweg (September 1852) left Barth to early on the mission alone. He returned to Europe in September 1855, after one of the most fruitful expeditions ever undertaken in inner Africa. In addition to journeys across the Sahara, Barth traversed the country from Lake Chad and Bagirmi on the east to Timbuktu on the west and Cameroon on the south, making prolonged sojourns in the ancient sultanates or emirates of Bornu, Kano, Nupe, Sokoto and Gando and at Timbuktu. He studied minutely the topography, history, civilizations and resources of the countries he visited. The story of his travels was published simultaneously in English and German, under the title Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa (1857-1858, 5 vols.). For accuracy, interest, variety and extent of information Barth's Travels have few rivals among works of the kind. It is a book that will always rank as a standard authority on the regions in question, of which a great part, under the name of Nigeria, has since come under British rule. Except a C.B., Barth himself received no recognition of his services from the British government. He returned to Germany, where he prepared a collection of Central African vocabularies (Gotha, 1862-1866). In 1858 he undertook another journey in Asia Minor, and in 1862 visited Turkey in Europe. In the following year he was appointed professor of geography at Berlin University and president of the Geographical Society. He died at Berlin on the 25th of November 1865.

See Schubert's Heinrich Barth, der Bahnbrecher der deutschen Afrikaforschung (Berlin, 1897). An edition of the Travels in two volumes was published in London in 1890 (Minerva Library of Famous Books).

BARTH, KASPAR VON (1587-1658), German philologist, was born at Kuestrin in the province of Brandenburg on the 21st of June 1587. He was an extremely precocious child, and was looked upon as a marvel of learning. After studying at Gotha, Eisenach, Wittenberg and Jena, he travelled extensively, visiting most of the countries of Europe. Too independent to accept any regular post, he lived alternately at Halle and on his property at Sellerhausen near Leipzig. In 1636, his library and MSS. at Sellerhausen having been destroyed by fire, he removed to the Paulinum at Leipzig, where he died on the 17th of September 1658. Barth was a very voluminous writer; his works, which were the fruits of extensive reading and a retentive memory, are unmethodical and uncritical and marred by want of taste and of clearness. He appears to have been excessively vain and of an unamiable disposition. Of his writings the most important are; Adversaria (1624), a storehouse of miscellaneous learning, dealing not only with classical but also with medieval and modern writers; and commentaries on Claudian (1612, 1650) and Statius (1664).

BARTH, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the Barther Bodden, a lake connecting with the Baltic, 15 m. N.W. from Stralsund by rail. Pop. (1900) 7070. It contains a fine Gothic Protestant church (St Mary's) dating from the 13th century and has several educational establishments, notably a [v.03 p.0448] school of seamanship. Its industries comprise iron-founding, ship-building, brewing, and the manufacture of cigars, leather and tinned fish. There is an active export trade in grain.

BARTHELEMY, ANATOLE JEAN-BAPTISTE ANTOINE DE (1821-1904), French archaeologist and numismatist, was born at Reims on the 1st of July 1821, and died at Ville d'Avray on the 27th of June 1904. In collaboration with J. Geslin de Bourgogne he published Etudes sur la revolution en Bretagne in 1858, and between 1855 and 1879 an exhaustive work in six volumes on the Anciens eveches de Bretagne; histoire et monuments. In 1880 appeared the Choix de documents inedits sur l'histoire de la ligue en Bretagne, by himself alone. But it was, above all, his numismatical work which established his reputation. This included several popular publications, such as the Nouveau manuel complet de numismatique ancienne (1851; second edition, revised, 1890), and the Nouveau manuel complet de numismatique du moyen age et moderne (1853; new edition revised by Adrien Planchet), and a large number of monographs and articles in the technical reviews. The following may be specially mentioned: Numismatique merovingienne (1865); Essai sur la monnaie parisis (1874); Note sur l'origine de la monnaie tournoise (1896); and in the series of instructions issued by the Comite des travaux historiques et scientifiques he edited the number on La Numismatique de la France (1891). In 1897 he was elected a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres.

His younger brother, EDOUARD MARIE, comte de Barthelemy, who was born in Angers in 1830, has published a number of documents upon the ancient French nobility and upon the history of Champagne.

BARTHELEMY, AUGUSTE MARSEILLE (1796-1867), French satirical poet, was born at Marseilles in 1796. His name can hardly be separated from that of his friend and compatriot, J. P. A. Mery (1798-1866), with whom he carried on so intimate a collaboration that it is not possible to distinguish their personalities in their joint works. After having established some local reputation as a poet, Barthelemy went to Paris, where by one of his first efforts, Le Sacre de Charles X (1825) he gained the favour of the court. His energies, however, were soon enlisted in the service of the opposition party. In 1825 appeared a clever political satire, Les Sidiennes, followed by La Villeliade ou la prise du chateau de Rivoli (1827), La Corbiereide (1827), La Peyronneide (1827), the joint productions of Barthelemy and Mery. The success was immediate and pronounced; fifteen editions of the Villeliade were called for during the year. A rapid succession of political squibs and satires was now poured forth by the authors, among the most remarkable being Biographie des quarante de l'academie francaise (1826) and Napoleon en Egypte (1828), which passed through nearly a dozen editions in a year. In 1829 Barthelemy was imprisoned and fined 1000 francs for the publication of their Fils de l'homme, a poem on the duke of Reichstadt, Napoleon's son. The Revolution of 1830 liberated him; and in company with Mery, he celebrated the triumph of the people in one of their most brilliant efforts, L'Insurrection. From March 1831 to April 1832 they produced a series of verse satires issued weekly, the Nemesis, attacking the government and ministers of Louis Philippe. The small pension of which Barthelemy was the recipient was stopped. When the publication ceased there was a strong suspicion that Barthelemy had been paid for his silence. In 1832 he published an anonymous poem, supporting some acts of the government which were peculiarly obnoxious to the Liberal party. This change of front destroyed his influence and his later writings passed unnoticed. For the next few years he enjoyed a handsome pension from the government and refrained from all satirical writing. He again resumed his old style in 1844 but without the former success. From that date he contented himself with merely occasional poems. Barthelemy died on the 23rd of August 1867 at Marseilles. Joseph Mery was an ardent romanticist and wrote a great number of stories now forgotten. He produced several pieces at the Paris theatres, and also collaborated with Gerard de Nerval in adaptations from Shakespeare and in other plays. He received a pension from Napoleon III. and died in Paris on the 16th of June 1866.

The Oeuvres of Barthelemy and Mery were collected, with a notice by L. Reybaud, in 1831 (4 vols.). See also Barthelemy et Mery etudies specialement dans leurs rapports avec la legende napoleonienne, by Jules Garsou in vol. lviii. of the Memoires of the Academie Royale ... de Belgique, which contains full information on both authors.

BARTHELEMY, FRANCOIS, MARQUIS DE (1747 or 1750-1830), French politician, was educated by his uncle the abbe Jean Jacques Barthelemy for a diplomatic career, and after serving as secretary of legation in Sweden, in Switzerland and in England, was appointed minister plenipotentiary in Switzerland, in which capacity he negotiated the treaties of Basel with Prussia and Spain (1795). Elected a member of the Directory in May 1797, through royalist influence, he was arrested at the coup d'etat of the 18 Fructidor (17th of September 1797) and deported to French Guiana, but escaped and made his way to the United States and then to England. He returned to France after the 18 Brumaire, entered the senate in February 1800 and contributed to the establishment of the consulship for life and the empire. In 1814 he abandoned Napoleon, took part in the drawing up of the constitutional charter and was named peer of France. During the Hundred Days he lived in concealment, and after the second Restoration obtained the title marquis, and in 1819 introduced a motion in the chamber of peers tending to render the electoral law more aristocratic.

His Papiers have been published by J. Kaulek, 4 vols. (Paris, 1886-1888). See A. Sorel, L'Europe et la Revolution francaise, iv. (Paris, 1892); L. Sciout, Le Directoire (Paris, 1895).

BARTHELEMY, JEAN JACQUES (1716-1795) French writer and numismatist, was born on the 20th of January 1716 at Cassis, in Provence. He was educated first at the college of the Oratory in Marseilles, and afterwards at that of the Jesuits in the same city. While studying for the priesthood, which he intended to join, he devoted much attention to oriental languages, and was introduced by his friend M. Gary of Marseilles to the study of classical antiquities, particularly in the department of numismatics. In 1744 he went to Paris with a letter of introduction to M. Gros de Boze, perpetual secretary of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-lettres and keeper of the royal collection of medals. He became assistant to de Boze, on whose death (1753) he became keeper of the medals. In 1755 he accompanied the French ambassador, M. de Stainville, afterwards duc de Choiseul, to Italy, where he spent three years in archaeological research. Choiseul had a great regard for Barthelemy, and on his return to France, Barthelemy became an inmate of his house, and received valuable preferments from his patron. In 1789, after the publication of his Voyage du jeune Anacharsis, he was elected a member of the French Academy. During the Revolution Barthelemy was arrested as an aristocrat. The Committee of Public Safety, however, were no sooner informed by the duchess of Choiseul of the arrest, than they gave orders for his immediate release, and in 1793 he was nominated librarian of the Bibliotheque Nationale. He refused this post but resumed his old functions as keeper of medals, and enriched the national collection by many valuable accessions. Barthelemy died on the 30th of April 1795.

Barthelemy was the author of a number of learned works on antiquarian subjects, but the great work on which his fame rests is Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grece, vers le milieu du quatrieme siecle avant l'ere chretienne (4 vols., 1787). He had begun it in 1757 and had been working on it for thirty years. The hero, a young Scythian descended from the famous philosopher Anacharsis, is supposed to repair to Greece for instruction in his early youth, and after making the tour of her republics, colonies and islands, to return to his native country and write this book in his old age, after the Macedonian hero had overturned the Persian empire. In the manner of modern travellers, he gives an account of the customs, government and antiquities of the country he is supposed to have visited; a copious introduction supplies whatever may be wanting in respect to historical details; whilst various dissertations on the music of the Greeks, on the literature of the Athenians, and on the economy, pursuits, ruling passions, manners and customs of the surrounding states supply ample [v.03 p.0449] information on the subjects of which they treat. Modern scholarship has superseded most of the details in the Voyage, but the author himself did not imagine his book to be a register of accurately ascertained facts; he rather intended to afford to his countrymen, in an interesting form, some knowledge of Greek civilization. The Charicles of W. A. Becker is an attempt in a similar direction, but, though superior in scholarship, it wants the charm of style of the Anacharsis.

Barthelemy's correspondence with Paolo Paciaudi, chiefly on antiquarian subjects, was edited with the Correspondance inedite du comte de Caylus in 1877 by Ch. Nisard; his letters to the comte de Caylus were published by Antoine Serieys as Voyage en Italie (1801); and his letters to Mme du Deffand, with whom he was on intimate terms, in the Correspondance complete de Mme du Deffand avec la duchesse de Choiseul, l'abbe Barthelemy et M. Craufurt (3 vols., 1866), edited by the marquis de Sainte-Aulaire. See also Memoires sur la vie de l'abbe Barthelemy, ecrits par lui-meme (1824), with a notice by Lalande. His Oeuvres completes (4 vols. 1821), contain a notice by Villenave.

BARTHELEMY SAINT-HILAIRE, JULES (1805-1895), French philosopher and statesman, was born at Paris on the 19th of August 1805. In his early years he was an active political journalist, and from 1826 to 1830 opposed the reactionary policy of the king in Le Globe. At the revolution of 1830 he signed the protestation of the journalists on the 28th of July 1830. After 1830 he contributed to different newspapers—Le Constitutionnel, Le National and the Courrier francais—until 1833, when he gave up politics in order to devote himself to the history of ancient philosophy, undertaking a translation of Aristotle, which occupied him the greater part of his life (1837-1892). The reputation which he gained from this work won for him the chair of ancient philosophy at the College de France (1838) and a seat at the Academy of Moral and Political Science (1839). After the revolution of 1848 he was elected as a republican deputy; but was obliged to withdraw after the coup d'etat of Louis Napoleon. In 1855 he went as member of the international commission to Egypt to report on the possibility of the proposed Suez canal, and by the articles which he wrote he contributed largely to making the project popular in France. Elected deputy again in 1869, he joined the opposition to the Empire, and in 1871 bent all his efforts to the election of Thiers as president of the republic, acting afterwards as his secretary. Appointed senator for life in 1875, he took his place among the moderate republicans, and from September 1880 to November 1881 was minister of foreign affairs in the cabinet of Jules Ferry. The most important event of his administration was the annexation of Tunis under the form of a French protectorate, which he actively promoted. He died on the 24th of November 1895. His principal works, besides the translation of Aristotle and a number of studies connected with the same subject, are Des Vedas (1854), Du Bouddhisme (1856) and Mahomet et le Coran (1865).

BARTHEZ, or BARTHES, PAUL JOSEPH (1734-1806), French physician, was born on the 11th of December 1734 at Montpellier. He was educated at Narbonne and Toulouse, and began the study of medicine at Montpellier in 1750, taking his doctor's degree in 1753. In 1756 he obtained the appointment of physician to the military hospital in Normandy attached to the army of observation commanded by Marshal d'Estrees, but a severe attack of hospital fever compelled him to leave this post. In 1757 his services were required in the medical staff of the army of Westphalia, where he had the rank of consulting physician, and on his return to Paris he acted as joint editor of the Journal des savants and the Encyclopedie methodique. In 1759 he obtained a medical professorship at Montpellier, and in 1774 he was created joint chancellor of the university. In 1778 he published his most famous work, Nouveaux elemens de la science de l'homme, in which he employs the expression "vital principle" as a convenient term for the cause of the phenomena of life, without committing himself to either a spiritualistic or a materialistic view of its nature. Taking the degree of doctor of civil law in 1780, he secured the appointment of counsellor to the Supreme Court of Aids at Montpellier, but he soon took up his residence in Paris, having been nominated consulting physician to the king.

On the outbreak of the French Revolution he lost much of his fortune and retired to Carcassonne, where he devoted himself to the study of theoretical medicine. It was from this retreat that he gave to the world his Nouvelle mecanique des mouvemens de l'homme et des animaux, which appeared in 1798. In 1802 he published his Traitement des maladies goutteuses, and he afterwards occupied himself in preparing for the press a new edition of his Elemens de la science de l'homme, of which he just lived to see the publication. His health had been declining for some years before his death, which took place soon after his removal to Paris, on the 15th of October 1806. He bequeathed his books and manuscripts to J. Lordat, who published two volumes of his Consultations de medecine in 1810. His Traite du beau was also published posthumously in 1807.

BARTHOLINUS, GASPARD [CASPAR BERTHELSEN], (1585-1629), physician, was born in 1585 at Malmo, in Sweden. His precocity was extraordinary; at three years of age he was able to read, and in his thirteenth year he composed Greek and Latin orations and delivered them in public. When he was about eighteen he went to the university of Copenhagen and afterwards studied at Rostock and Wittenberg. He then travelled through Germany, the Netherlands, England, France and Italy, and was received with marked respect at the different universities he visited. In 1613 he was chosen professor of medicine in the university of Copenhagen, and filled that office for eleven years, when, falling into a dangerous illness, he made a vow that if he should recover he would apply himself solely to the study of divinity. He fulfilled his vow by becoming professor of divinity at Copenhagen and canon of Roskilde. He died on the 13th of July 1629 at Soro in Zeeland.

Of his sons, Thomas (1616-1680) was born at Copenhagen, where, after a long course of study in various universities of Europe, he was appointed successively professor of mathematics (1647) and anatomy (1648). During his tenure of the latter chair he distinguished himself by observations on the lymphatics. In 1661 he retired to Hagestaed. In 1670 his house and library were burnt, and in consideration of his loss he was appointed physician to the king, with a handsome salary, and librarian to the university of Copenhagen. He died at Hagestaed in 1680. Another son, Erasmus (1625-1698), born at Roskilde, spent ten years in visiting England, Holland, Germany and Italy, and filled the chairs of mathematics and medicine at Copenhagen. He discovered double refraction in Iceland spar (Experimenta crystalli islandici disdiaclastici, Copenhagen, 1669). He died at Copenhagen in 1698. In the third generation Caspar Thomeson (1655-1738), son of Thomas, also taught anatomy at Copenhagen, his name being associated with the description of one of the ducts of the sublingual gland and of the glandulae Bartholini, while his younger brother, Thomas (1659-1690), was a student of northern antiquities who published Antiquitatum Danicarum libri tres in 1689.

BARTHOLOMEW, SAINT, one of the twelve apostles, regarding whose early life we know nothing, unless in accordance with a widely-spread belief he is to be identified with Nathanael (q.v.). If so, Bartholomew is probably a patronymic, the apostle's full name being Nathanael Bartolmai, i.e. the son of Tolmai. On the other hand, according to a Syrian tradition, Bartholomew's original name was Jesus, which he dropped owing to its being the name of the Master Himself. In the synoptic gospels Bartholomew is never mentioned except in the lists of the apostles, where his name always appears after Philip's. He is said to have gone, after the ascension of the Lord, on a missionary tour to India (then a very wide geographical designation) where, according to a story in Eusebius (H.E. v. 10), he left behind him a copy of St Matthew's gospel. According to the traditional account he was flayed alive and then crucified with his head downwards, at Albanopolis in Armenia, or, according to Nicephorus, at Urbanopolis in Cilicia. In works of art he is generally represented with a large knife, the instrument of his martyrdom, or, as in Michelangelo's "Last Judgment," with his own skin hanging over his arm. The festival of St Bartholomew is celebrated on the 24th of August.

[v.03 p.0450] Dr. Nestle has drawn attention to the fact that in the Syriac translation of Eusebius' history the name Tolmai, i.e. Bartholomew, takes the place of Matthias, the apostle who was appointed in place of Judas (i. 12, cf. ii. 1, iii. 25 and 29). If this identification can be made out there would, in the list of apostles as finally constituted, be two men who bore the patronymic Bartholomew. See further Expository Times, ix. pp. 566 ff. (1898).

BARTHOLOMEW, JOHN (1831-1893), Scottish cartographer, was born at Edinburgh on the 25th of December 1831. His father had a cartographical establishment there and he was educated in the work. He was subsequently assistant to the German geographer August Petermann, until in 1856 he took up the management of his father's firm. For this establishment, now known as the Edinburgh Geographical Institute, Bartholomew built up a reputation unsurpassed in Great Britain for the production of the finest cartographical work. Among his numerous publications mention may be specially made of the series of maps of Great Britain reduced from the Ordnance Survey to scales of 1/2 in. and 1/4 in. to 1 m., with relief shown by contours and a systematic scale of colours. The 1/2 in. series, which was extended (and its principles applied to many other works) by Mr. J. G. Bartholomew, who succeeded his father in the business, is the finest of its kind ever produced. John Bartholomew died in London on the 29th of March 1893.

BARTHOLOMEW FAIR, a fair held in West Smithfield, London, on St Bartholomew's Day (24th of August, O.S.) from 1133 to 1855. The charter authorizing its holding was granted by Henry I. to his former minstrel, Rahere, who had taken orders and had founded the priory of St Bartholomew close by. For many centuries the fair lasted a fortnight, but in 1691 it was shortened to four days only. In 1641 it had become so large that it involved no less than four parishes: Christ Church, Great and Little St Bartholomew's and St Sepulchre's. It was customary for the lord mayor of London to open the fair formally on St Bartholomew's Eve, and on his way to stop at Newgate where he received from the governor a cup of sack. In 1753, owing to the change in the calendar, the fair was proclaimed on the 3rd of September. During its earlier history the fair grew to be a vast national market and the chief cloth sale in the kingdom. Down to 1854 it was usual for the representative of the Merchant Taylors' Gild to proceed to the cloth fair which formed part of Bartholomew fair, and test the measures used for selling cloth there by the company's silver yard. The fair was finally closed in 1855.

For a full account see Prof. H. Morley, Memoirs of Bartholomew Fair (1859).

BARTIZAN (according to the New English Dictionary, from bertizene, a Scottish corruption of "bratticing" or "brattishing," from O. Fr. bretesche, and meaning a battlemented parapet; apparently first used by Sir Walter Scott), a small battlemented turret, corbelled out at the angle of a wall or tower to protect a warder and enable him to see around him. Bartizans generally are furnished with oylets or arrow-slits.

BARTLETT, JOHN (1820-1905), American publisher and compiler, was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the 14th of June 1820. He became a bookseller and publisher in Cambridge, Mass., and from 1865 to 1889, when he retired, was a member of the bookselling and publishing firm of Little, Brown & Co., in Boston. In 1855 he published the first edition of his Familiar Quotations, subsequently greatly expanded and long the best-known collection of the sort, and in 1894 (although it had been copyrighted five years before), after many years' labour, he published his New and Complete Concordance or Verbal Index to Words, Phrases and Passages in the Dramatic Works of Shakespeare; with a Supplementary Concordance to the Poems—surpassing any of its predecessors in the number and fulness of its citations from the poet's writings.. In all of his work he was greatly assisted by his wife, a daughter of Sidney Willard (1780-1856), professor of Hebrew at Harvard from 1807 to 1831. Bartlett died at Cambridge, Mass., on the 3rd of December 1905.

BARTLETT, JOHN RUSSELL (1805-1886), American historical and linguistic student, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 23rd of October 1805. From his first to his eighteenth year he lived in Kingston, Canada; he was then in turn, from 1824 to 1836, a clerk in a dry goods store, a book-keeper and a bank cashier at Providence, and for more than ten years after 1836 he was a bookseller in New York City, returning to Providence in 1850. In 1850-1853 he was the commissioner on the part of the United States for the survey of the boundary between the United States and Mexico, but owing to the lack of funds did not finish the work. After being superseded by another commissioner upon the accession of President Franklin Pierce, he published A Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora and Chihuahua (2 vols., 1854), which contains much valuable scientific and historical material concerning the south-west. From 1855 to 1872 he was secretary of state of Rhode Island, and while serving in this capacity thoroughly re-arranged and classified the state records, and prepared various bibliographies and compilations, relating chiefly to the history of the state. He is chiefly remembered however, for his Dictionary of Americanisms (1848), a pioneer work, which, although later dialect changes have, of course, deprived it of completeness or final authoritativeness, is still of value to students of language and remains the chief contribution to the subject. He died in Providence on the 28th of May 1886.

BARTLETT, PAUL WAYLAND (1865- ), American sculptor, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Truman H. Bartlett, an art critic and sculptor. When fifteen he began to study at Paris under Fremiet, modelling from animals in the Jardin des Plantes. He won a medal at the Paris Salon of 1887. Among his principal works are: "The Bear Tamer," in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; the equestrian statue of Lafayette, in the Place du Carrousel, Paris, presented to the French Republic by the school children of America; the powerful and virile Columbus and Michelangelo, in the Congressional Library, Washington, D.C.; the "Ghost Dancer," in the Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia; the "Dying Lion"; the equestrian statue of McClellan in Philadelphia; and a statue of Joseph Warren in Boston, Massachusetts. His bronze patinas of reptiles, insects and fish are also remarkable.

BARTOLI, DANIELLO (1608-1685), Italian Jesuit priest, was born at Ferrara and entered the Society of Jesus in 1623. Debarred from the foreign mission field, he attained high distinction as a preacher and as a teacher of rhetoric in Genoa, Florence and Rome. He wrote (in Italian) a book called The Learned Man as a counterblast to the widespread reading of romances, and also a history of his order in 6 vols. (Rome, 1650-1673), which is particularly informing with regard to the early work of the society in Asia. He died at Rome.

A collected edition of his works, in 12 vols., was published by Marietti at Turin, 1825-1856; another in 50 vols. at Florence in 1826.

BARTOLINI, LORENZO (1777-1850), Italian sculptor, was born in Vernio in Tuscany. After acquiring great skill and reputation as a modeller in alabaster, he went in 1797 to Paris, where he studied painting under Desmarets, and afterwards sculpture under F. F. Lemot. The bas-relief "Cleobis and Biton," with which he gained the second prize of the Academy in 1803, at once established his fame as a sculptor and gained for him a number of influential patrons. He executed many minor pieces for Denon, besides busts of Mehul and Cherubini. His great patron, however, was Napoleon, for whom he executed a colossal bust, and who sent him to Carrara to found a school of sculpture. Here he remained till after the fall of Napoleon, and then took up his residence in Florence, where he resided till his death. His works are varied and include an immense number of busts. The best are, perhaps, the group of Charity, the "Hercules and Lichas" and the "Faith in God," which exemplify the highest types of Bartolini's style. Popular opinion in Italy associates his qualities as a sculptor with those of Thorwaldsen and Canova.

BARTOLOMMEI, MARQUIS FERDINANDO (1821-1869), Italian revolutionist and statesman, who played an important part in the political events of Tuscany from 1848 to 1860. From the beginning of the revolutionary movement Bartolommei was always an ardent Liberal, and although belonging to an old and [v.03 p.0451] noble Florentine family his sympathies were with the democratic party rather than with the moderately liberal aristocracy. In 1847-1848 his house was a centre of revolutionary committees, and during the brief constitutional regime he was much to the fore. After the return of the grand duke Leopold II. in 1849 under Austrian protection, Bartolommei was present at a requiem service in the church of Santa Croce for those who fell in the late campaign against Austria; on that occasion disorders occurred and he was relegated to his country estate in consequence (1851). Shortly afterwards he was implicated in the distribution of seditious literature and exiled from Tuscany for a year. He settled at Turin for a time and established relations with Cavour and the Piedmontese liberals. He subsequently visited France and England, and like many Italian patriots became enamoured of British institutions. He returned to Florence in 1853; from that time onward he devoted himself to the task of promoting the ideas of Italian independence and unity among the people, and although carefully watched by the police, he kept a secret printing-press in his palace in Florence. Finding that the nobility still hesitated at the idea of uncompromising hostility to the house of Lorraine, he allied himself more firmly with the popular party, and found an able lieutenant in the baker Giuseppe Dolfi (1818-1869), an honest and whole-hearted enthusiast who had great influence with the common people. As soon as war between Piedmont and Austria appeared imminent, Bartolommei organized the expedition of Tuscan volunteers to join the Piedmontese army, spending large sums out of his own pocket for the purpose, and was also president of the Tuscan branch of the Societa Nazionale (see under LA FARINA and CAVOUR). He worked desperately hard conspiring for the overthrow of the grand duke, assisted by all the liberal elements, and on the 27th of April 1859, Florence rose as one man, the troops refused to fire on the people, and the grand duke departed, never to return. Sapristi! pas un carreau casse! was the comment of the French minister to Tuscany on this bloodless revolution. A provisional government was formed and Bartolommei elected gonfaloniere. He had much opposition to encounter from those who still believed that the retention of the grand duke as a constitutional sovereign and member of an Italian confederation was possible. In the summer elections were held, and on the meeting of parliament Bartolommei's Unitarian views prevailed, the assembly voting the resolution that the house of Lorraine had forfeited its rights and that Tuscany must be united to Italy under King Victor Emmanuel. Bartolommei was made senator of the Italian kingdom and received various other honours. His last years were spent in educational and philanthropic work. He died on the 15th of June 1869, leaving a widow and two daughters.

The best biography of Bartolommei is contained in Il Rivolgimento Toscano e l'azione popolare, by his daughter Matilde Gioli (Florence, 1905), but the author attributes perhaps an undue preponderance to her father in the Tuscan revolution, and is not quite fair towards Bettino Ricasoli (q.v.) and other leaders of the aristocratic party. Cf. Lettere e documenti di B. Ricasoli (Florence, 1887-1896), and D. Zanichelli's Lettere politiche di B. Ricasoli, U. Peruzzi, N. Corsini, e C. Ridolfi (Bologna, 1898).

BARTOLOMMEO DI PAGHOLO, FRA (1475-1517), the Italian historical and portrait painter,—known also as BACCIO (short for Bartolommeo) BELLA PORTA (because he lived near the Porta Romana) was born at Soffignano, near Florence, in 1475, and died at Florence in 1517. He received the first elements of his artistic education from Cosimo Roselli; and after leaving him, devoted himself to the study of the great works of Leonardo da Vinci. Of his early productions, which are distinguished for their grace and beauty, the most important is the fresco of the Last Judgment, in which he was assisted by his friend Mariotto Albertinelli. While he was engaged upon some pieces for the convent of the Dominican friars, he made the acquaintance of Savonarola, who quickly acquired great influence over him, and Bartolommeo was so affected by his cruel death, that he soon after entered the convent, and for some years gave up his art. He had not long resumed it, in obedience to his superior, when Raphael came to Florence and formed a close friendship with him. Bartolommeo learned from the younger artist the rules of perspective, in which he was so skilled, while Raphael owes to the frate the improvement in his colouring and handling of drapery, which was noticeable in the works he produced after their meeting. Some years afterwards he visited Rome, and was struck with admiration and a feeling of his own inferiority when he contemplated the masterpieces of Michelangelo and Raphael. With the latter, however, he remained on the most friendly terms, and when he departed from Rome, left in his hands two unfinished pictures which Raphael completed. Fra Bartolommeo's figures had generally been small and draped. These qualities were alleged against him as defects, and to prove that his style was not the result of want of power, he painted the magnificent figure of St Mark (his masterpiece, at Florence), and the undraped figure of St Sebastian. The latter was so well designed, so naturally and beautifully coloured, and so strongly expressive of suffering and agony, that it was found necessary to remove it from the place where it had been exhibited in the chapel of a convent. The majority of Bartolommeo's compositions are altar-pieces. They are remarkable for skill in the massing of light and shade, richness and delicacy of colouring, and for the admirable style in which the drapery of the figures is handled, Bartolommeo having been the first to introduce and use the lay-figure with joints.

BARTOLOZZI, FRANCESCO (1725-1815), Italian engraver, was born at Florence. He was originally destined to follow the profession of his father, who was a gold- and silver-smith; but he manifested so much skill and taste in designing that he was placed under the superintendence of two Florentine artists, who instructed him in painting. After devoting three years to that art, he went to Venice and studied engraving. He made very rapid progress, and executed some works of considerable importance at Venice.. He then removed for a short time to Rome, where he completed a set of engravings representing events from the life of St Nilus, and, after returning to Venice, set out for London in 1764. For nearly forty years he resided in London, and produced an enormous number of engravings, the best being those of Clytie, after Annibale Caracci, and of the Virgin and Child, after Carlo Dolce. A great proportion of them are from the works of Cipriani and Angelica Kauffmann. Bartolozzi also contributed a number of plates to Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery. In 1802 he was invited to Lisbon as director of the National Academy. He remained in Portugal till his death. His son Gaetano Stephano (1757-1821), also an engraver, was the father of Madame Vestris.

BARTOLUS (1314-1357), Italian jurist, professor of the civil law at the university of Perugia, and the most famous master of the dialectical school of jurists, was born in 1314, at Sassoferrato, in the duchy of Urbino, and hence is generally styled Bartolus de Saxoferrato. His father was Franciscus Severi, and his mother was of the family of the Alfani. He studied the civil law first of all under Cinus at Perugia, and afterwards under Oldradus and Jacobus de Belvisio at Bologna, where he was promoted to the degree of doctor of civil law in 1334. His great reputation dates from his appointment to a chair of civil law in the university of Perugia, 1343, where he lectured for many years, raising the character of the law school of Perugia to a level with that of Bologna. He died in 1357 at Perugia, where a magnificent monument recorded the interment of his remains in the church of San Francisco, by the simple inscription of "Ossa Bartoli." Bartolus left behind him a great reputation, and many writers have sought to explain the fact by attributing to him the introduction of the dialectical method of teaching law; but this method had been employed by Odofredus, a pupil of Accursius, in the previous century, and the successors of Odofredus had abused it to an extent which has rendered their writings in many instances unprofitable to read, the subject matter being overlaid with dialectical forms. It was the merit of Bartolus, on the other hand, that he employed the dialectical method with advantage as a teacher, and discountenanced the abuse of it; but his great reputation was more probably owing to the circumstance that he revived the exegetical system of teaching law (which had been [v.03 p.0452] neglected since the ascendancy of Accursius) in a spirit which gave it new life, whilst he imparted to his teaching a practical interest, from the judicial experience which he had acquired while acting as assessor to the courts at Todi and at Pisa before he undertook the duties of a professorial chair. His treatises On Procedure and On Evidence are amongst his most valuable works, whilst his Commentary on the Code of Justinian has been in some countries regarded as of equal authority with the code itself.

BARTON, BENJAMIN SMITH (1766-1815), American naturalist, was born at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1766, studied for two years at Edinburgh, and afterwards graduated at Goettingen. He settled at Philadelphia, and soon obtained a considerable practice. In 1789 he was appointed professor of botany and natural history in the College of Philadelphia, now the University of Pennsylvania; he was made professor of materia medica in 1795, and on the death of Dr Benjamin Rush in 1813 he obtained the chair of practical medicine. In 1802 he was chosen president of the American Philosophical Society, of which he was a strong supporter. Barton was the author of various works on natural history, botany and materia medica, his Elements of Botany (1803) being the best known. He died at Philadelphia on the 19th of December 1815.

BARTON, BERNARD (1784-1849), English poet, was born at Carlisle on the 31st of January 1784. His parents were Quakers, and he was commonly known as the Quaker poet. After some experience of business, he became, in 1809, clerk to Messrs Alexander's bank at Woodbridge, Suffolk, and retained this post till his death. His first volume of verse—Metrical Effusions—was published in 1812. It brought him into correspondence with Southey, and shortly afterwards, through the medium of a set of complimentary verses, he made the acquaintance of Hogg. From this time onwards to 1828 Barton published various volumes of verse. After 1828 his work appeared but rarely in print, but his Household Verses published in 1845 secured him, on the recommendation of Sir Robert Peel, a Civil List pension of L100 a year, L1200 having already been raised for him by some members of the Society of Friends. Barton is chiefly remembered for his friendship with Charles Lamb, which arose, curiously enough, out of a remonstrance addressed by him to the author of Essays of Elia on the freedom with which the Quakers had been handled in that volume. When Barton contemplated resigning his bank clerkship and supporting himself entirely by literature, Lamb strongly dissuaded him. "Keep to your bank," he wrote, "and the bank will keep you." Barton died at Woodbridge on 19th February 1849. His daughter Lucy married Edward FitzGerald.

See Poems and Letters of Bernard Barton, selected by Lucy Barton, with a biographical notice by Edward FitzGerald (1849).

BARTON, CLARA (1821- ), American philanthropist, was born in Oxford, Massachusetts, in 1821. She was educated at the Clinton Liberal Institute (then in Clinton, New York). Ill-health compelled her to give up the profession of teaching, which she had taken up when she was only sixteen years old, and from 1854 to 1857 she was a clerk in the Patent Office at Washington. During the Civil War she distributed large quantities of supplies for the relief of wounded soldiers; and at its close she organized at Washington a bureau of records to aid in the search of missing men for whom inquiries were made. In connexion with this work, which was continued for about four years, she identified and marked the graves of more than twelve thousand soldiers in the National Cemetery at Andersonville, Georgia. In 1869 she went for her health to Switzerland. Upon her arrival at Geneva she was visited by members of the International Committee of the Red Cross, who sought her co-operation in the work of their society. The United States had declined to become a party to the treaty of Geneva on the basis of which the Red Cross Society was founded, but upon the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War Miss Barton went with members of this society to the seat of hostilities and assisted them in organizing their military hospitals. In 1871 she superintended the distribution of relief to the poor in Strassburg, and in 1872 performed a like service in Paris. For her services she was decorated with the Iron Cross by the German emperor. In 1873 she returned to the United States, where she at once began her efforts to effect the organization of the United States branch of the Red Cross and to bring her country into the treaty of Geneva, which efforts were successful in 1881-1882. She was the first president of the American Red Cross, holding the position until 1904: and represented the United States at the International conference held at Geneva, 1884; Karlsruhe, 1887; Rome, 1892; Vienna, 1897; and St Petersburg, 1903. She was the author of the American amendment to the constitution of the Red Cross which provides that the society shall distribute relief not only in war but in times of such other calamities as famines, floods, earthquakes, cyclones, and pestilence, and in accordance with this amended constitution, she conducted the society's relief for sufferers from the yellow fever in Florida (1887), the flood at Johnstown, Pennsylvania (1889), the famine in Russia (1891), the hurricane along the coast of South Carolina (1893), the massacre in Armenia (1896), the Spanish-American War in Cuba (1898), the hurricane at Galveston, Texas (1900), and several other calamities. Upon her retirement from the Red Cross she incorporated and became president of "The National First Aid of America" for "first aid to the injured." She wrote An Official History of the Red Cross (1882), The Red Cross in Peace and War (1898), A Story of the Red Cross (1904), and Story of my Childhood (1907).

BARTON, ELIZABETH (c. 1506-1534), "the maid of Kent," was, according to her own statement, born in 1506 at Aldington, Kent. She appears to have been a neurotic girl, subject to epilepsy, and an illness in her nineteenth year resulted in hysteria and religious mania. She was at the time a servant in the house of Thomas Cobb, steward of an estate near Aldington owned by William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury. During her convalescence she passed into trances lasting for days at a time, and in this state her ravings were of such "marvellous holiness in rebuke of sin and vice" that the country folk believed her to be inspired. Cobb reported the matter to Richard Masters, the parish priest, who in turn acquainted Archbishop Warham. The girl having recovered, and finding herself the object of local admiration, was cunning enough, as she confessed at her trial, to feign trances, during which she continued her prophecies. Her fame steadily growing, the archbishop in 1526 instructed the prior of Christ Church, Canterbury, to send two of his monks to hold an inquiry into the case. One of these latter, Edward Bocking, obtained her admission as a nun to St Sepulchre's convent, Canterbury. Under Bocking's instruction Barton's prophecies became still more remarkable, and attracted many pilgrims, who believed her to be, as she asserted, in direct communication with the Virgin Mary. Her utterances were cunningly directed towards political matters, and a profound and widespread sensation was caused by her declaration that should Henry persist in his intention of divorcing Catherine he "should no longer be king of this realm ... and should die a villain's death." Even such men as Fisher, bishop of Rochester, and Sir Thomas More, corresponded with Barton. On his return from France in 1532 Henry passed through Canterbury and is said to have allowed the nun to force herself into his presence, when she made an attempt to terrify him into abandoning his marriage. After its solemnization in May 1533. her utterances becoming still more treasonable, she was examined before Cranmer (who had in March succeeded to the archbishopric on Warham's death) and confessed. On the 25th of September Bocking and another monk, Hadley, were arrested, and in November, Masters and others were implicated. The maid and her fellow prisoners were examined before the Star Chamber, and were by its order publicly exposed at St Paul's Cross, where they each read a confession. In January 1534 by a bill of attainder the maid and her chief accomplices were condemned to death, and were executed at Tyburn on the 20th of April. It has been held that her confession was extracted by force, and therefore valueless, but the evidence of her imposture seems conclusive.

See Froude, History of England; Burnet, History of the Reformation; Lingard, History of England; F. A. Gasquet, Henry VIII. [v.03 p.0453] and the English Monasteries (ch. iii. 1899 ed.); T. E. Bridgett, Life of Blessed John Fisher (1888); vols. vi. and vii. of Letters and Papers of Henry VIII.; James Gairdner, The English Church in the 16th Century (1899); Strype, Memorials, I. i. 271, and Cranmer; a detailed account of the case is contained in the published Act of Attainder 25 Henry VIII. c. 12.

BARTON BEDS, in geology, the name given to a series of softish grey and brown clays, with layers of sand, of Upper Eocene age, which are found in the Hampshire Tertiary basin, where they are particularly well exposed in the cliffs of Barton, Hordwell, and in the Isle of Wight. Above the highly fossiliferous Barton Clay there is a sandy series with few fossils; these are the Headon Hill or Barton Sands. Either of these names is preferable to the term "Upper Bagshot Beds," which has been applied to these sands. The Barton Beds are absent from the London basin, and the Upper Bagshot Sands of that area are probably at a lower horizon than the Barton Sands. The term "Bartonien" was introduced by Mayer-Eymar in 1857 for the continental equivalents of the series.

Hampshire basin and Paris Basin. Isle of Wight.

Barton Sands 140-200 ft. } { Limestone of St. Ouen. Barton Clay 162-255 ft. } Bartonien { Sands of Beauchamp { (sables moyen).

Fusus longaevus, Volutilithes luctatrix, Ostrea gigantea, Pectunculus (Glycimeris) deleta are characteristic fossils; fishes (Lamna, Arius, &c.) and a crocodile (Diplocynodon) are also found in the Barton Clay. The sands are very pure and are used in glass making.

See "Geology of the Isle of Wight," Mem. Geol. Survey (2nd ed., 1889); and "The Geology of the Country around Southampton," Mem. Geol. Survey (1902).

(J. A. H.)

BARTON-UPON-HUMBER, a market town in the N. Lindsey or Brigg parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England, the terminus of a branch of the Great Central railway, 44 m. N. by E. of Lincoln. Pop. of urban district (1901) 5671. It lies beneath low hills, on flat ground bordering the Humber, but the centre of the town is a mile from the river. The church of St Peter has a remarkable west tower of pre-Conquest workmanship, excepting the early Norman top storey. Against the western face is a low building of the date of the lower tower-storeys, measuring 15 ft. by 12, with rude, deeply-splayed windows. The tower itself is arcaded in the two lower storeys, having round arches in the lower and triangular in the upper, and there is a round-headed S. doorway and a triangular-headed N. doorway. The rest of the church is Decorated and Perpendicular. The church of St Mary is fine Early English with Perpendicular clerestory. Industries include brick-making, malting, and rope-making. Barton appears in Domesday, when the ferry over the Humber existed. As a port, moreover, it subsequently rose into some importance, for it was able to supply eight ships and men to the expedition of Edward III. to Brittany.

BARUCH, the name (meaning "Blessed" in Hebrew) of a character in the Old Testament (Jer. xxxvi., xxxvii., xliii.), associated with the prophet Jeremiah, and described as his secretary and spokesman.

BOOK OF BARUCH. This deutero-canonical book of the Old Testament is placed by the LXX. between Jeremiah and Lamentations, and in the Vulgate after Lamentations. It consists of several parts, which cohere so badly that we are obliged to assume plurality of authorship.

Contents.—The book consists of the following parts:—

i. 1-14. The historical preface with a description of the origin and purpose of the book.

i. 15-ii. 5. A confession of sin used by the Palestinian Remnant. This confession was according to i. 14 sent from Babylon (i. 4, 7) to Jerusalem to be read "on the day of the feast and on the days of the solemn assembly." The confession is restricted to the use of the remnant at home (see next paragraph). In this confession there is a national acknowledgment of sin and a recognition of the Exile as a righteous judgment.

ii. 6-iii. 8. A confession of the captives in Babylon and a prayer for restoration. This confession opens as the former (in i. 15) with the words found also in Daniel ix. 7, "To the Lord our God belongeth righteousness, &c." The confession is of the Exiles and not of the remnant in Palestine, as Marshall has pointed out. Thus it is the Exiles clearly who are speaking in ii. 13, "We are but a few left among the heathen where thou hast scattered us"; ii. 14, "Give us favour in the sight of them which have led us away captive"; iii. 7, "We will praise thee in our captivity"; iii. 8, "We are yet this day in our captivity where thou hast scattered us." On the other hand the speakers in the confession in i. 15-ii. 5 are clearly the remnant in Jerusalem. i. 15, "To the Lord our God belongeth righteousness, but unto us confusion of face ... to the men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem." The Exiles are mentioned by way of contrast to the speakers; ii. 4, 5, "He hath given them to be in subjection to all the kingdoms that are round about us to be a reproach among all the people round about where the Lord hath scattered them. Thus were they cast down ... because we sinned against the Lord our God."[1]

iii. 9-iv. 4. The glorification of wisdom, that is, of the Law. Israel is bidden to walk in the light of it; it is the glory of Israel and is not to be given to another.

iv. 5-v. 9. Consolation of Israel with the promise of deliverance and lasting happiness and blessing to Jerusalem.

Integrity.—From the foregoing description it seems clear that the book is derived from a plurality of authors. Most scholars, such as Fritzsche, Hitzig, Kneucker, Hilgenfeld, Reuss, agree in assuming that i.-iii. 8 and iii. 9-v. 9 are from distinct writers. But some critics have gone farther. Thus Rothstein (Kautzsch, Apok. und Pseud. i. 213-215) holds that there is no unity in iii. 9-v. 9, but that it is composed of two independent writings—iii. 9-iv. 4 and iv. 5-v. 9. Marshall (Hastings' Bible Dictionary, i. 251-254) gives a still more complex analysis. He finds in it the work of four distinct writers: i. 1-14, i. 15-iii. 8, iii. 9-iv. 4, iv. 5-v. 9. The evidence for a fourfold authorship is strong though not convincing. In any case i.-iii. 8 and iii. 9-v. 9 must be ascribed to different authors.

Original Language.—(1) Some scholars, as Ewald, Kneucker, Davidson, Rothstein and Koenig, believe that the whole book was originally written in Hebrew; (2) Fritzsche, Hilgenfeld, Reuss, Gifford, Schuerer, and Toy advocate a Hebrew original of i.-iii. 8 and a Greek original of the rest; (3) Marshall argues that i.-iii. 8 is translated from a Hebrew original, iii. 9-iv. 4 from an Aramaic, and the rest from the Greek; (4) and lastly, Bertholdt, Havernick and Noeldeke regard the Greek as the primitive text. The last view must be put aside as unworkable. For the third no convincing evidence has been adduced, nor does it seem likely that any can be. We have therefore to decide between the two remaining theories. In any case we can hardly err in admitting a Hebrew original of i.-iii. 8. For (1) we have such Hebraisms as [Greek: hou ... ep' autoi] = [Hebrew: 'SHR ... 'LYW] (ii. 26); [Greek: hou ... ekei] = [Hebrew: 'SHR ... SHM] (ii. 4, 13, 29; iii. 8); [Greek: hon ... to pneuma auton] = [Hebrew: 'SHR ... RWCHM] (ii. 7). (2) We have meaningless expressions which are really mistranslations of the Hebrew. It is noteworthy that these mistranslations are for the most part found in Jeremiah—a fact which has rightly drawn scholars to the conclusion that we owe the LXX of Baruch i.-iii. 8, and of Jeremiah to the same translator. Thus in i. 9 we have [Greek: desmotes], "prisoner," where the text had [Hebrew: MASGEIR] and the Greek should have been rendered "locksmith." The same mistranslation is found in Jer. xxiv. 1, xxxvi. (xxix.) 2. Next in ii. 4 we have [Greek: abaton], "wilderness," where the text had [Hebrew: SHMH] and the translation should have [Greek: ekstasin]. The same misrendering is found several times in Jeremiah. Again [Greek: ergazesthai] is used in i. 22, ii. 21, 22, 24 as a translation of [Hebrew: 'BD] in the sense of "serving," where [Greek: douleuein] ought to have been the rendering. So also in Jer. xxxiv. (xxvii.) 11, xxxvii. (xxx.) 8, &c. Again in [Greek: poleon Iouda kai exothen Ierousalem] the [Greek: exothen] is a misrendering of [Hebrew: BCHWTSWT] as in Jer. xi. 6, xl. [v.03 p.0454] (xxxiii.) 10, &c., where the translator should have given [Greek: plateion].[2] For [Greek: bombesis] (ii. 29) [Hebrew: HMWN] we should have [Greek: plethos]. (3) Finally there are passages where by re-translation we discover that the translator either misread his text or had a corrupt text before him. Thus [Greek: manna] in i. 10 is a corrupt translation of [Hebrew: MNCHH] as elsewhere in a dozen passages of the LXX. In iii. 4 [Greek: tethnekoton] = [Hebrew: MEITEIY]—which the translator should have read as [Hebrew: MTEIY] = [Greek: anthropon].

From the above instances, which could be multiplied, we have no hesitation in postulating a Hebrew original of i.-iii. 8.

As regards iii. 9-v. 9 the case is different. This section is free from such notable Hebraisms as we have just dealt with, and no convincing grounds have been advanced to prove that it is a translation from a Semitic original.

Date.—The dates of the various constituents of the book are quite uncertain. Ewald, followed by Gifford and Marshall, assigns i.-iii. 8 to the period after the conquest of Jerusalem by Ptolemy I. in 320 B.C.; Reuss to some decades later; and Fritzsche, Schrade, Keil and Toy to the time of the Maccabees. Hitzig, Kneucker and Schuerer assume that it was written after A.D. 70. Ryle and James (Pss. of Solomon, pp. lxxii.-lxxvii.) hold that iv. 31-v. 9 is dependent on the Greek version of Ps. xi., and that, accordingly, Baruch was reduced to its present form after A.D. 70. The most probable of the above dates appears to be that maintained by Fritzsche, that is, if we understand by the Maccabean times the early decades of the 2nd cent. B.C. For during the palmy days of the Maccabean dynasty the Twelve tribes were supposed to be in Palestine. The idea that the Jewish Kingdom embraced once again the entire nation easily arose when the Maccabees extended their dominion northwards over Samaria and Galilee and eastwards beyond the Jordan. This belief displaced the older one that the nine and a half tribes were still in captivity. With the downfall of the Maccabean dynasty, however, the older idea revived in the 1st cent. A.D. To the beginnings of the 2nd cent. A.D. the view of the dead given in ii. 17 would point, where it is said that those whose spirits had been taken from their bodies would not give glory unto the Lord. The statement as to the desolate condition of the Temple in ii. 26^a is with Kneucker to be rejected as an interpolation.

Canonicity.—The Book of Baruch was never accepted as canonical by the Palestinian Jews (Baba Batra 14^b), though the Apostolic Constitutions, v. 10, state that it was read in public worship on the 10th day of the month Gorpiaeus, but this statement can hardly be correct. It was in general use in the church till its canonicity was rejected by the Protestant churches and accepted by the Roman church at the council of Trent.

Literature. Versions and Editions.—The versions are the two Latin, a Syriac, and an Arabic. The Latin one in the Vulgate belongs to a time prior to Jerome, and is tolerably literal. Another, somewhat later, was first published by Jos. Maria Caro in 1688, and was reprinted by Sabatier, side by side with the ante-Hieronymian one, in his Bibliorum Sacrorum Latinae Versiones Antiquae. It is founded upon the preceding one, and is less literal. The Syriac and Arabic versions, printed in the London Polyglot, are literal. The Hexaplar-Syriac version made by Paul, bishop of Tella, in the beginning of the 7th century has been published by Ceriani.

The most convenient editions of the Greek text are Tischendorf's in the second volume of his Septuagint, and Swete's in vol. iii.; Fritzsche's in Libri Apocryphi Veteris Testamenti Graece (1871). The best editions of the book are Kneucker's Das Buch Baruch (1879); Gifford's in the Speaker's Apoc. ii. See also the articles in the Encyc. Biblica, Hastings' Bible Dictionary; Schuerer, History of Jewish People.

APOCALYPSE OF BARUCH. The discovery of this long lost apocalypse was due to Ceriani. This apocalypse has survived only in the Syriac version of which Ceriani discovered a 6th century MS. in the Milan library. Of this he published a Latin translation in 1866 (Monumenta Sacra, I. ii. 73-98), which Fritzsche reproduced in 1871 (Libri Apocryphi V. T., pp.654-699), and the text in 1871 (Mon. Sacra. V. ii. 113-180), and subsequently in photo-lithographic facsimile in 1883. Chaps. lxxviii.-lxxxvi., indeed, of this book have long been known. These constitute Baruch's epistle to the nine and a half tribes in captivity, and have been published in Syriac and Latin in the London and Paris Polyglots, and in Syriac alone from one MS. in Lagarde's Libri V. T. Apocryphi Syr. (1861); and by Charles from ten MSS. (Apocalypse of Baruch, 1896, pp. 124-167). The entire book was translated into English by the last-named writer (op. cit. pp. 1-167), and into German by Ryssel (Kautzsch's Apok. und Pseud., 1900, ii. pp. 413-446).

The Syriac is translated from the Greek; for Greek words are occasionally transliterated, and passages can be explained only on the hypothesis that the wrong alternative meanings of certain Greek words were followed by the translator. The Greek in turn is derived from the Hebrew, for unintelligible expressions in the Syriac can be explained and the text restored by retranslation into Hebrew. Thus in xxi. 9, 11, 12, xxiv. 2, lxii. 7 we have an unintelligible antithesis, "those who sin and those who are justified." The source of the error can be discovered by retranslation. The Syriac in these passages is a stock rendering of [Greek: dikaiousthai], and this in turn of [Hebrew: TSDQ]. But [Hebrew: TSDQ] means not only [Greek: dikaiousthai] but also [Greek: dikaios einai], and this is the very meaning required by the context in the above passages: "those who sin and those who are righteous."[3] Again xliv. 12 the text reads: "the new world which does not turn to corruption those who depart on its beginning and has no mercy on those who depart to torment." Here "on its beginning" is set over antithetically against "to torment," whereas the context requires "to its blessedness." The words "on its beginning"—[Hebrew: KR'SHW], a corruption of [Hebrew: B'SHRW]—"to its blessedness." Again in lvi. 6 it is said that the fall of man brought grief, anguish, pain, trouble and boasting into the world. The term "boasting" in this connexion cannot be right. The word = [Greek: kauchema] = [Hebrew: THLH](?), corrupt for [Hebrew: MCHLH], "disease." A further ground for inferring a Hebrew original is to be found in the fact that paronomasiae not infrequently discover themselves in the course of retranslation into Hebrew. One instance will suffice. In xlviii. 35, "Honour will be turned into shame, strength humiliated into contempt ... and beauty will become a scorn" contains three such:


(see Charles, Apoc. Bar. pp. xliv.-liii). The necessity of postulating a Hebrew original was first shown by the present writer, and has since been maintained by Wellhausen (Skizzen u. Vorarbeiten, vi. 234), by Ryssel (Apok. und Pseudepig. A. T., 1900, ii. 411), and Ginzberg (Jewish Encyclopaedia, ii. 555).

Different Elements in the Book and their Dates.—As there are undoubtedly conflicting elements in the book, it is possible to assume either a diversity of authorship or a diversity of sources. The latter view is advocated by Ryssel and Ginzberg, the former by Kabisch, de Faye, R. H. Charles and Beer (Herzog's Realenc., art. "Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments," p. 250). A short summary may here be given of the grounds on which the present writer has postulated a diversity of authorship. If the letter to the tribes in captivity (lxxviii.-lxxxvi.) be disregarded, the book falls into seven sections separated by fasts, save in one case (after xxxv.) where the text is probably defective. These sections, which are of unequal length, are—(1) i.-v. 6; (2) v. 7-viii.; (3) ix.-xii. 4; (4) xii. 5-xx.; (5) xxi.-xxxv.; (6) xxxvi.-xlvi.; (7) xlvii.-lxxvii. These treat of the Messiah and the Messianic kingdom, the woes of Israel in the past and the destruction of Jerusalem in the present, as well as of theological questions relating to original sin, free will, works, the number of the saved, the nature of the resurrection body, &c. The views expressed on several of the above subjects are often conflicting. In one class of passages there is everywhere manifest a vigorous optimism as to Israel's ultimate well-being on earth, and the blessedness of the chosen people in the Messianic kingdom is sketched in glowing and sensuous colours (xxix., xxxix.-xl., lxiii.-lxxiv.). Over against these passages stand others of a hopelessly pessimistic character, wherein, alike as to Israel's [v.03 p.0455] present and future destiny on earth, there is written nothing save "lamentation, and mourning, and woe." The world is a scene of corruption, its evils are irremediable, its end is nigh, and the advent of the new and spiritual world at hand. The first to draw attention to the composite elements in this book was Kabisch (Jahrbuecher f. protest. Theol., 1891, pp. 66-107). This critic regarded xxiv. 3-xxix., xxxvi.-xl. and liii.-lxxiv. as independent sources written before the fall of Jerusalem, A.D. 70, and his groundwork, which consists of the rest of his book, with the exception of a few verses, as composed after that date. All these elements were put together by a Christian contemporary of Papias. Many of these conclusions were arrived at independently by a French scholar, De Faye (Les Apocalypses juives, 1892, pp. 25-28, 76-103, 192-204). The present writer (Apocalypse of Baruch, 1896, pp. liii.-lxvii.), after submitting the book to a fresh study, has come to the following conclusions:—The book is of Pharisaic authorship and composed of six independent writings—A^1, A^2, A^3, B^1, B^2, B^3. The first three were composed when Jerusalem was still standing and the Messiah and the Messianic kingdom were expected: A^1, a mutilated apocalypse = xxvii.-xxx. 1; A^2, the Cedar and Vine Vision = xxxvi.-xl.; A^3, the Cloud Vision = liii.-lxxiv. The last three were written after A.D. 70, and probably before 90. Thus B^3 = lxxxv. was written by a Jew in exile, who, despairing of a national restoration, looked only for a spiritual recompense in heaven. The rest of the book is derived from B^1 and B^2, written in Palestine after A.D. 70. These writings belong to very different types of thought. In B^1 the earthly Jerusalem is to be rebuilt, but not so in B^2; in the former the exiles are to be restored, but not in the latter; in the former a Messianic kingdom without a Messiah is expected, but no earthly blessedness of any kind in the latter, &c. B^1 = i.-ix. 1, xxxii. 2-4, xliii.-xliv. 7, xlv.-xlvi., lxxvii.-lxxxii., lxxxiv., lxxxvi.-lxxxvii. B^2 = ix.-xxv., xxx. 2-xxxv., xli.-xlii., xliv. 8-15, xlvii.-lii., lxxv.-lxxvi., lxxxiii. The final editor of the work wrote in the name of Baruch the son of Neriah.

Previous Part     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16     Next Part
Home - Random Browse