There was a very small barrel-organ in use during the 18th and 19th centuries, known as the bird-organ (Fr. serinette, turlutaine, merline). One of these now in the collection of the Brussels Conservatoire is described by V. C. Mahillon. The instrument is in the form of a book, on the back of which is the title "Le chant des oiseaux, Tome vi." There are ten pewter stopped pipes giving the scale of G with the addition of Fb and A two octaves higher. [Notation: G4 A5.] The whole instrument measures approximately 8 x 5-1/2 x 2-3/4 in. and plays eight tunes. Mozart wrote an Andante for a small barrel-organ.
For an illustration of the construction of the barrel-organ during the 18th century, consult P. M. D. J. Engramelle, La Tonotechnie ou l'art de noter les cylindres et tout ce qui est susceptible de notage dans les instruments de concerts mechaniques (Paris, 1775), with engravings (not in the British Museum); and for a clear diagram of the modern instrument the article on "Automatic Appliances connected with Music," by Dr. E. J. Hopkins, in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. i. (1904), p. 134.
 This practice had evidently not been adopted in Germany, as the following instance will show. The use of barrel-organs (Drehorgeln) in country churches was seriously recommended by an anonymous writer in two German papers at the beginning of the 19th century (Beobachter an der Spree, Berlin, 22nd October 1821, and in Markische Boten, Nos. 138 and 139, 1821). The organist Wilke of Leipzig published in reply an article in the Allgem. musik. Zeitung (1822, pp. 777 et seq.) in which "he very properly repudiated such a laughable recommendation."
 Archives generales du royaume de Belgique, Chambre des Comptes, No. 2, 449 r^o. cf. 52 r^o.; and Edmund van der Straeten, La Musique aux Pays-Bas, vol. vii. pp. 230-232.
 Van der Straeten, op. cit. p. 299.
 Van der Straeten, op. cit. p. 231.
 Solomon de Caus, Les Raisons des forces mouvantes (Frankfort, 1615), problems 25, 28, 29, 30.
 Historia utriusque cosmi (Oppenheim, 1617), t. i., experimentum viii. p. 483.
 Op. cit. problem 29 shows the arrangement of the bellows for the wind-supply. In problem 30 is drawn a large section of the barrel, showing six bars of music represented by the pin tablature, which can be actually deciphered by the help of the keyboard included in the drawing. These diagrams are admirably clear and of real technical value. A copy of this work is in the library of the British Museum.
 See also E. van der Straeten, who has translated Philips' setting into modern notation, op. cit. t. vi. pp. 506 and 510.
 See V. C. Mahillon, Catalogue descriptif (Brussels, 1896), No. 1137, p. 371.
 Tedesco was applied by Italians to both German and Dutch. Count Valdrighi, Musurgiana I. Serandola, Pianoforte, Salterio (Modena, 1879), pp. 27 and 28; and E. van der Straeten, op. cit. vol. vi. p. 122.
 Jedediah Morse American Geography, part ii. p. 334 (Boston, Mass., 1796).
 Knight's London, vol. i. p. 144.
 Hone's Every Day Book, i. p. 1248.
 Collection of all the Dialogues written by Mr Thomas Brown (London, 1704), p. 297.
 Hone's Every Day Book, ii. pp. 1452-1453.
 See Catalogue descriptif (Ghent, 1880), Nos. 461 and 462.
 Breitkopf and Haertel's Critically revised edition of Mozart's Works, series x. no. 10.
BARREN ISLAND, a volcanic island in the Bay of Bengal. It has an irregularly circular form of about 2 m. in diameter, composed of an outer rim rising to a height of from 700 to 1000 ft., with a central cone the altitude of which is 1015 ft. This cone rises from a depth of 800 fathoms below the sea. It was active between 1789 and 1832, but has since been dormant.
BARRES, MAURICE (1862- ), French novelist and politician, was born at Charmes (Vosges) on the 22nd of September 1862; he was educated at the lycee of Nancy, and in 1883 went to Paris to continue his legal studies. He was already a contributor to the monthly periodical, Jeune France, and he now issued a periodical of his own, Les Taches d'encre, which survived for a few months only. After four years of journalism he went to Italy, where he wrote Sous l'oeil des barbares (1888), the first volume of a trilogie du moi, completed by Un Homme libre (1889), and Le Jardin de Berenice (1891). He divided the world into moi and the barbarians, the latter including all those antipathetic to the writer's individuality. These apologies for individualism were supplemented by L'Ennemi des lois (1892), and an admirable volume of impressions of travel, Du sang, de la volupte et de la mort (1893). His early books are written in an elaborate style and are often very obscure. Barres carried his theory of individualism into politics as an ardent partisan of General Boulanger. He directed a Boulangist paper at Nancy, and was elected deputy in 1889, retaining his seat in the legislature until 1893. His play, Une Journee parlementaire, was produced at the Comedie Francaise in 1894. In 1897 he began his trilogy, Le Roman de l'energie nationale, with the publication of Les Deracines. The series is a plea for local patriotism, and for the preservation of the distinctive qualities of the old French provinces. The first narrates the adventures of seven young Lorrainers, who set out to conquer fortune in Paris. Six of them survive in the second novel of the trilogy, L'Appel au soldat (1900), which gives the history of Boulangism; the sequel, Leurs figures (1902), deals with the Panama scandals. Later works are:—Scenes et doctrines du nationalisme (1902); Les Amities francaises (1903), in which he urges the inculcation of patriotism by the early study of national history; Ce que j'ai vu a Rennes (1904); Au service de l'Allemagne (1905), the experiences of an Alsatian conscript in a German regiment; Le Voyage de Sparte (1906). M. Barres was admitted to the French Academy in 1906.
See also R. Doumic, Les Jeunes (1896); J. Lionnet, L'Evolution des idees (1903); Anatole France, La Vie litteraire (4th series, 1892).
BARRETT, LAWRENCE (1838-1891), American actor, was born of Irish parents in Paterson, New Jersey, on the 4th of April 1838. His family name was Brannigan. He made his first stage appearance at Detroit as Murad in The French Spy in 1853. In December 1856 he made his first New York appearance at the Chambers Street theatre as Sir Thomas Clifford in The Hunchback. In 1858 he was in the stock company at the Boston Museum. He served with distinction in the Civil War as captain in the 28th Massachusetts infantry regiment. From 1867 to 1870, with John McCullough, he managed the California theatre, San Francisco. Among his many and varied parts may be mentioned Hamlet, Lear, Macbeth, Shylock, Richard III., Wolsey, Benedick, Richelieu, David Garrick, Hernani, Alfred Evelyn, Lanciotto in George Henry Boker's (1823-1890) Francesca da Rimini, and James Harebell in The Man o' Airlie. He played Othello to Booth's Iago and Cassius to his Brutus. He acted in London in 1867, 1881, 1883 and 1884, his Richelieu in Bulwer Lytton's drama being considered his best part. He wrote a life of Edwin Forrest in the American Actors Series (Boston, 1881), and an admirable sketch of Edwin Booth in Edwin Booth and his Contemporaries (Boston, 1886). He died on the 20th of March 1891.
BARRETT, LUCAS (1837-1862), English naturalist and geologist, was born in London on the 14th of November 1837, and educated at University College school and at Ebersdorf. In 1855 he accompanied R. McAndrew on a dredging excursion from the Shetlands to Norway and beyond the Arctic Circle; and subsequently made other cruises to Greenland and to the coast of Spain. These expeditions laid the foundations of an extensive knowledge of the distribution of marine life. In 1855 he was engaged by Sedgwick to assist in the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge, and during the following three years he aided the professor by delivering lectures. He discovered bones of birds in the Cambridge Greensand, and he also prepared a geological map of Cambridge on the one-inch Ordnance map. In 1859, when twenty-two years of age, he was appointed director of the Geological Survey of Jamaica. He there determined the Cretaceous age of certain rocks which contained Hippurites, the new genus Barrettia being named after him by S. P. Woodward; he also obtained many fossils from the Miocene and newer strata. He was drowned at the early age of twenty-five, on the 18th of December 1862, while investigating the sea-bottom off Kingston, Jamaica.
Obituary by S. P. Woodward in Geologist (Feb. 1863), p. 60.
BARRETT, WILSON (1846-1904), English actor, manager and playwright, was born in Essex on the 18th of February 1846, the [v.03 p.0435] son of a farmer. He made his first appearance on the stage at Halifax in 1864, and then played in the provinces alone and with his wife, Caroline Heath, in East Lynne. After managerial experiences at Leeds and elsewhere, in 1879 he took the management of the old Court theatre, where he introduced Madame Modjeska to London, in an adaptation of Schiller's Maria Stuart, Adrienne Lecouvreur, La Dame aux camelias and other plays. It was not till 1881, however, when he took the Princess's theatre, that he became well known to the public in the emotional drama, The Lights o' London, by G. R. Sims. The play which made him an established favourite was The Silver King by Henry Arthur Jones, perhaps the most successful melodrama ever staged, produced in 1882 with himself as Wilfred Denver, his brother George (an excellent comedian) in the cast, and E. S. Willard (b. 1853) as the "Spider,"—this being the part in which Mr Willard, afterwards a well-known actor both in America and England, first came to the front. Barrett played this part for three hundred nights without a break, and repeated his London success in W. G. Wills's Claudian which followed. In 1884 he appeared in Hamlet, but soon returned to melodrama, and though he had occasional seasons in London he acted chiefly in the provinces. In 1886 he made his first visit to America, repeated in later years, and in 1898 he visited Australia. During these years the London stage was coming under new influences, and Wilson Barrett's vogue in melodrama had waned. But in 1895 he struck a new vein of success with his drama of religious emotion, The Sign of the Cross, which crowded his theatre with audiences largely composed of people outside the ordinary circle of playgoers. He attempted to repeat the success with other plays of a religious type, but not with equal effect, and several of his later plays were failures. He died on the 22nd of July 1904. Wilson Barrett was a sterling actor of a robust type and striking physique, not remarkable for intellectual finesse, but excelling in melodrama, and very successful as the central figure on his own stage.
BARRHEAD, a police burgh of Renfrewshire, Scotland, situated on the Levern, 7-1/2 m. S.W. of Glasgow by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 9855. Founded in 1773, it has gradually absorbed the villages of Arthurlie, Dovecothall and Grahamston, and become a thriving town. The chief industries include bleaching, calico-printing, cotton-spinning, weaving, iron and brass founding, engineering and the manufacture of sanitary appliances. Neilston (pop. 2668), about 2 m. S.W., has bleachfields and print-works, and 2 m. N. by E. lie Hurlet, where are important manufactures of alum and other chemicals, and Nitshill (pop. 1242) with chemical works, quarries and collieries.
BARRICADE, or BARRICADO (from the Span. barricada, from barrica, a cask, casks filled with earth having been early used to form barricades), an improvised fortification of earth, paving-stones, trees or any materials ready to hand, thrown up, especially across a street, to hinder the advance of an enemy; in the old wooden warships a fence or wooden rail, supported by stanchions and strengthened by various materials, extending across the quarter-deck as a protection during action.
BARRIE, JAMES MATTHEW (1860- ), British novelist and dramatist, was born at Kirriemuir, a small village in Forfarshire, on the 9th of May 1860. He was educated at the Dumfries academy and Edinburgh University. He has told us in his quasi-autobiographical Margaret Ogilvy that he wrote tales in the garret before he went to school, and at Edinburgh wrote the greater part of a three-volume novel, which a publisher presumed was the work of a clever lady and offered to publish for L100. The offer was not accepted, and it was through journalism that he found his way to literature. After a short period of waiting in Edinburgh, he became leader-writer on the Nottingham Journal in February 1883. To this paper he contributed also special articles and notes, which provided an opening and training for his personal talent. He soon began to submit articles to London editors, and on the 17th of November 1884 Mr Frederick Greenwood printed in the St James's Gazette his article on "An Auld Licht Community." With the encouragement of this able editor, more Auld Licht "Idylls" followed; and in 1885 Mr Barrie moved to London. He continued to write for the St James's Gazette and for Home Chimes (edited by Mr F. W. Robinson). He was soon enlisted by Mr Alexander Riach for the Edinburgh Evening Dispatch, which in turn led to his writing (over the signature "Gavin Ogilvy ") for Dr Robertson Nicoll's British Weekly. Later he became a contributor to the Scots (afterwards National) Observer, edited by W. E. Henley, and also to the Speaker, upon its foundation in 1890. In 1887 he published his first book, Better Dead. It was a mere jeu d'esprit, a specimen of his humorous journalism, elaborated from the St James's Gazette. This was followed in 1888 by Auld Licht Idylls, a collection of the Scots village sketches written for the same paper. They portrayed the life and humours of his native village, idealized as "Thrums," and were the fruits of early observation and of his mother's tales. "She told me everything," Mr Barrie has written, "and so my memories of our little red town were coloured by her memories." Kirriemuir itself was not wholly satisfied with the portrait, but "Thrums" took its place securely on the literary map of the world. In the same year he published An Edinburgh Eleven, sketches from the British Weekly of eminent Edinburgh students; also his first long story, When a Man's Single, a humorous transcription of his experiences as journalist, particularly in the Nottingham office. The book was introduced by what was in fact another Thrums "Idyll," on a higher level than the rest of the book. In 1889 came A Window in Thrums. This beautiful book, and the Idylls, gave the full measure of Mr Barrie's gifts of humanity, humour and pathos, with abundant evidence of the whimsical turn of his wit, and of his original and vernacular style. In 1891 he made a collection of his lighter papers from the St James's Gazette and published them as My Lady Nicotine. In 1891 appeared his first long novel, The Little Minister, which had been first published serially in Good Words. It introduced, not with unmixed success, extraneous elements, including the winsome heroine Babbie, into the familiar life of Thrums, but proved the author's possession of a considerable gift of romance. In 1894 he published Margaret Ogilvy, based on the life of his mother and his own relations with her, most tenderly conceived and beautifully written, though too intimate for the taste of many. The book is full of revelations of great interest to admirers of Mr Barrie's genius. The following year came Sentimental Tommy, a story tracing curiously the psychological development of the "artistic temperament" in a Scots lad of the people. R. L. Stevenson supposed himself to be portrayed in the hero, but it may be safely assumed that the author derived his material largely from introspection. The story was completed by a sequel, Tommy and Grizel, published in 1900. The effect of this story was somewhat marred by the comparative failure of the scenes in society remote from Thrums. In 1902 he published The Little White Bird, a pretty fantasy, wherein he gave full play to his whimsical invention, and his tenderness for child life, which is relieved by the genius of sincerity from a suspicion of mawkishness. This book contained the episode of "Peter Pan," which afterwards suggested the play of that name. In the meantime Mr Barrie had been developing his talent as a dramatist. In 1892 Mr Toole had made a great success at his own theatre of Barrie's Walker, London, a farce founded on a sketch in When a Man's Single. In 1893 Mr Barrie married Miss Ansell (divorced in 1909), who had acted in Walker, London. In this year he wrote, with Sir A. Conan Doyle, a play called Jane Annie. He found more success, however, in The Professor's Love-Story in 1895; and in 1897 the popularity of his dramatized version of The Little Minister probably confirmed him in a predilection for drama, evident already in some of his first sketches in the Nottingham Journal. In 1900 Mr Bourchier produced The Wedding Guest, which was printed as a supplement to the Fortnightly Review in December of the same year. After the publication of The Little White Bird, Mr Barrie burst upon the town as a popular and prolific playwright. The struggling journalist of the early 'nineties had now become one of the most prosperous literary men of the day. In 1903 no fewer than three plays from his hand held the stage—Quality Street, The Admirable [v.03 p.0436] Crichton and Little Mary. The year 1904 produced Peter Pan, a kind of poetical pantomime, in which the author found scope for some of his most characteristic and permanently delightful gifts. In 1905 Alice-Sit-by-the-Fire and in 1908 What Every Woman Knows were added to the list. As dramatist Mr Barrie brought, to a sphere rather ridden by convention, a method wholly unconventional and a singularly fresh fancy, seasoned by a shrewd touch of satirical humour; and in Peter Pan he proved himself a Hans Andersen of the stage. In literature, the success of "Thrums" produced a crop of imitations, christened in derision by W. E. Henley the "Kailyard School," though the imitations were by no means confined to Scotland. In this school the Auld Licht Idylls and A Window in Thrums remained unsurpassed and unapproached. The Scots village tale was no novelty in literature—witness John Gait, the Chronicles of Carlingford and George MacDonald. Yet Mr Barrie, in spite of a dialect not easy to the Southron, contrived to touch a more intimate and more responsive chord. With the simplest materials he achieved an almost unendurable pathos, which yet is never forced; and the pathos is salted with humour, while about the moving homeliness of his humanity play the gleams of a whimsical wit. Stevenson, in a letter to Mr Henry James, in December 1892, said justly of Barrie that "there was genius in him, but there was a journalist on his elbow." This genius found its most perfect and characteristic expression in the humanity of "Thrums" and the bizarre and tender fantasy of Peter Pan.
See also J. M. Barrie and His Books, by J. A. Hamerton (Horace Marshall, 1902); and for bibliography up to May 1903, English Illustrated Magazine, vol. xxix. (N.S.), p. 208.
(W. P. J.)
BARRIE, the capital of Simcoe county, Ontario, Canada, 56 m. N. of Toronto, on Lake Simcoe, an important centre on the Grand Trunk railway. It contains several breweries, carriage factories, boat-building and railway shops, and manufactories of woollens, stoves and leather. It is also a summer resort and the starting-point for the numerous Lake Simcoe steamers. Pop. (1901) 5949.
BARRIERE, THEODORE (1823-1877), French dramatist, was born in Paris in 1823. He belonged to a family of map engravers which had long been connected with the war department, and spent nine years in that service himself. The success of a vaudeville he had performed at the Beaumarchais and which was immediately snapped up for the repertory of the Palais Royal, showed him his real vocation. During the next thirty years he signed, alone or in collaboration, over a hundred plays; among the most successful were: La Vie de boheme (1849), adapted from Henri Murger's book with the novelist's help; Manon Lescaut (1851); Les Filles de marbre (1853); L'Heritage de Monsieur Plumet (1858); Les Faux Bonshommes (1856) with Ernest Capendu; Malheureux vaincus (1865), which was forbidden by the censor; Le Gascon (1878). Barriere died in Paris on the 16th of October 1877.
See also Revue des deux mondes (March 1859).
BARRIER TREATY, the name given first to the treaty signed on 29th of October 1709 between Great Britain and the states-general of the United Netherlands, by which the latter engaged to guarantee the Protestant succession in England in favour of the house of Hanover; while Great Britain undertook to procure for the Dutch an adequate barrier on the side of the Netherlands, consisting of the towns of Furnes, Nieuport, Ypres, Menin, Lille, Tournai, Conde, Valenciennes, Maubeuge, Charleroi, Namur, Halle, Damme, Dendermond and the citadel of Ghent. The treaty was based on the same principle of securing Holland against French aggression that had inspired that of Ryswick in 1698, by the terms of which the chief frontier fortresses of the Netherlands were to be garrisoned by Dutch troops. A second Barrier Treaty was signed between Great Britain and Holland on 29th of January 1713, by which the strong places designed for the barrier were reduced to Furnes, the fort of Knocke, Ypres, Menin, Tournai, Mons, Charleroi and the citadel of Ghent, and certain fortresses in the neighbourhood of that city and of Bruges; Great Britain undertaking to obtain the right for the Dutch to garrison them from the future sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands. Its terms were included in the treaty of Rastatt, between the emperor and France, signed on the 7th of March 1714. A third Barrier Treaty was signed in November 1715.
See Jean Dumont, Corps universel diplomatique, &c. (1726-1731), vol. viii.
BARRILI, ANTONIO GIULIO (1836- ), Italian novelist, was born at Savona, and was educated for the legal profession, which he abandoned for journalism in Genoa. He was a volunteer in the campaign of 1859 and served with Garibaldi in 1866 and 1867. From 1865 (Capitan Dodero) onwards he published a large number of books of fiction, which had wide popularity, his work being commonly compared with that of Victor Cherbuliez. Some of the best of the later ones are Santa Cecilia (1866), Come un Sogno (1875), and L'Olmo e l' Edera (1877). His Raggio di Dio appeared in 1899. Barrili also wrote two plays and various volumes of criticism, including Il rinnovamento letterario italiano (1890). He was elected to the Italian chamber of deputies in 1876; and in 1889 became professor of Italian literature at Genoa.
BARRING-OUT, a custom, formerly common in English schools, of barring the master out of the school premises. A typical example of this practice was at Bromfield school, Cumberland, where William Hutchinson says "it was the custom, time out of mind, for the scholars, at Fasting's Even (the beginning of Lent) to depose and exclude the master from the school for three days." During this period the school doors were barricaded and the boys armed with mock weapons. If the master's attempts to re-enter were successful, extra tasks were inflicted as a penalty, and willingly performed by the boys. On the third day terms of capitulation, usually in Latin verse, were signed, and these always conceded the immediate right to indulge in football and a cockfight. The custom was long retained at Eton and figures in many school stories.
BARRINGTON, DAINES (1727-1800), English lawyer, antiquary and naturalist, was born in 1727, fourth son of the first Viscount Barrington. He was educated for the profession of the law, and after filling various posts, was appointed a Welsh judge in 1757 and afterwards second justice of Chester. Though an indifferent judge, his Observations on the Statutes, chiefly the more ancient, from Magna Charta to 21st James I., cap. 27, with an appendix, being a proposal for new-modelling the Statutes (1766), had a high reputation among historians and constitutional antiquaries. In 1773 he published an edition of Orosius, with Alfred's Saxon version, and an English translation with original notes. His Tracts on the Probability of reaching the North Pole (1775) were written in consequence of the northern voyage of discovery undertaken by Captain C. J. Phipps, afterwards Lord Mulgrave (1744-1792). Barrington's other writings are chiefly to be found in the publications of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, of both of which he was long a member, and of the latter vice-president. Many of these were collected by him in a quarto volume entitled Miscellanies on various Subjects (1781). He contributed to the Philosophical Transactions for 1780 an account of Mozart's visit at eight years of age to London. In his Miscellanies on varied subjects he included this with accounts of four other prodigies, namely, Crotch, Charles and Samuel Wesley, and Garrett Wellesley, Lord Mornington. Among the most curious and ingenious of his papers are his Experiments and Observations on the Singing of Birds, and his Essay on the Language of Birds. He died on the 14th of March 1800 and was buried in the Temple church.
BARRINGTON, GEORGE (b. 1755), an Irishman with a curious history, was born at Maynooth on the 14th of May 1755, the son of a working silversmith named Waldron. In 1771 he robbed his schoolmaster at Dublin and ran away from school, becoming a member of a touring theatrical company under the assumed name of Barrington. At Limerick races he joined the manager of the company in pocket-picking. The manager was detected and sentenced to transportation, and Barrington fled to London, where he assumed clerical dress and continued his pocket-picking. At Covent Garden theatre he robbed the Russian prince Orlov of a snuff-box, said to be worth L30,000. He was [v.03 p.0437] detected and arrested, but as Prince Orlov declined to prosecute, was discharged, though subsequently he was sentenced to three years' hard labour for pocket-picking at Drury Lane theatre. On his release he was again caught at his old practices and sentenced to five years' hard labour, but influence secured his release on the condition that he left England. He accordingly went for a short time to Dublin, and then returned to London, where he was once more detected pocket-picking, and, in 1790, sentenced to seven years' transportation. On the voyage out to Botany Bay a conspiracy was hatched by the convicts on board to seize the ship. Barrington disclosed the plot to the captain, and the latter, on reaching New South Wales, reported him favourably to the authorities, with the result that in 1792 Barrington obtained a warrant of emancipation (the first issued), becoming subsequently superintendent of convicts and later high constable of Paramatta. In 1796 a theatre was opened at Sydney, the principal actors being convicts, and Barrington wrote the prologue to the first production. This prologue has obtained a wide publicity. It begins:—
"From distant climes, o'er widespread seas, we come, Though not with much eclat or beat of drum; True patriots we, for, be it understood, We left our country for our country's good."
Barrington died at a ripe old age at Paramatta, but the exact date is not on record. He was the author of A Voyage to Botany Bay (London, 1801); The History of New South Wales (London, 1802); The History of New Holland (London, 1808).
BARRINGTON, JOHN SHUTE, 1ST VISCOUNT (1678-1734), English lawyer and theologian, was the son of Benjamin Shute, merchant, and was born at Theobalds, in Hertfordshire, in 1678. He received part of his education at the university of Utrecht; and, after returning to England in 1698, studied law in the Inner Temple. In 1701 he published several pamphlets in favour of the civil rights of Protestant dissenters, to which class he belonged. On the recommendation of Lord Somers he was employed to induce the Presbyterians in Scotland to favour the union of the two kingdoms, and in 1708 he was rewarded for this service by being appointed to the office of commissioner of the customs. From this, however, he was removed on the change of administration in 1711; but his fortune had, in the meantime, been improved by the bequest of two considerable estates,—one of them left him by Francis Barrington of Tofts, whose name he assumed by act of parliament, the other by John Wildman of Becket. Barrington now stood at the head of the dissenters. On the accession of George I. he was returned to parliament for Berwick-upon-Tweed; and in 1720 the king raised him to the Irish peerage, with the title of Viscount Barrington of Ardglass. But having unfortunately engaged in the Harburg lottery, one of the bubble speculations of the time, he was expelled from the House of Commons in 1723,—a punishment which was considered much too severe, and was thought to be due to personal malice of Walpole. In 1725 he published his principal work, entitled Miscellanea Sacra or a New Method of considering so much of the History of the Apostles as is contained in Scripture, 2 vols. 8vo,—afterwards reprinted with additions and corrections, in 3 vols. 8vo, 1770, by his son Shute. In the same year he published An Essay on the Several Dispensations of God to Mankind. He died on the 14th of December 1734.
BARRINGTON, SAMUEL (1720-1800), British admiral, was the fourth son of the 1st Viscount Barrington. He entered the navy at an early age and in 1747 had worked his way to a post-captaincy. He was in continuous employment during the peace of 1748-1756, and on the outbreak of the Seven Years' War served with Hawke in the Basque roads in command of the "Achilles" (60). In 1759 the "Achilles" captured a powerful French privateer, after two hours' fighting. In the Havre-de-Grace expedition of the same year Barrington's ship carried the flag of Rear-Admiral Rodney, and in 1760 sailed with John Byron to destroy the Louisburg fortifications. At the peace in 1763 Barrington had been almost continuously afloat for twenty-two years. He was next appointed in 1768 to the frigate "Venus" as governor to the duke of Cumberland, who remained with him in all ranks from midshipman to rear-admiral. In 1778 the duke's flag-captain became rear-admiral and went to the West Indies, while in conjunction with the army he took the island of Santa Lucia from the French, and repulsed the attempt of the Comte d'Estaing to retake it. Superseded after a time by Byron, he remained as that officer's second-in-command and was present at Grenada and St. Kitts (6th and 22nd of July 1779). On his return home, he was offered, but refused, the command of the Channel fleet. His last active service was the relief of Gibraltar in October 1782. As admiral he flew his flag for a short time in 1790, but was not employed in the French revolutionary wars. He died in 1800.
See Ralfe, Naval Biographies, i. 120; Charnock, Biographia Navalis, vi. 10.
BARRINGTON, SHUTE (1734-1826), youngest son of the 1st Viscount Barrington, was educated at Eton and Oxford, and after holding some minor dignities was made bishop of Llandaff in 1769. In 1782 he was translated to Salisbury and in 1791 to Durham. He was a vigorous Protestant, though willing to grant Roman Catholics "every degree of toleration short of political power and establishment." He published several volumes of sermons and tracts, and wrote the political life of his brother, Viscount Barrington.
BARRINGTON, WILLIAM WILDMAN SHUTE, 2ND VISCOUNT (1717-1793), eldest son of the 1st Viscount Barrington, was born on the 15th of January 1717. Succeeding to the title in 1734, he spent some time in travel, and in March 1740 was returned to parliament as member for Berwick-upon-Tweed. Having taken his seat in the Irish House of Lords in 1745, he was appointed one of the lords commissioners of the admiralty in 1746, and was one of the "managers" of the impeachment of Simon, Lord Lovat. In 1754 he became member of parliament for Plymouth, in 1755 was made a privy councillor and secretary at war, and in 1761 was transferred to the office of chancellor of the exchequer. In 1762 he became treasurer of the navy, and in 1765 returned to his former position of secretary at war. He retained this office until December 1778, and during four months in 1782 was joint postmaster-general. He married in 1740 Mary, daughter of Mr Henry Lovell, but left no children. He died at Becket on the 1st of February 1793, and was buried in Shrivenham church.
See Shute Barrington, Political Life of William Wildman, Viscount Barrington (London, 1814).
BARRISTER, in England and Ireland the term applied to the highest class of lawyers who have exclusive audience in all the superior courts, the word being derived from the "bar" (q.v.) in the law courts. Every barrister in England must be a member of one of the four ancient societies called Inns of Court, viz. Lincoln's Inn, the Inner and Middle Temples, and Gray's Inn, and in Ireland, of the King's Inns. The existence of the English societies as schools can be traced back to the 13th century, and their rise is attributed to the clause in Magna Carta, by which the Common Pleas were fixed at Westminster instead of following the king's court, and the professors of law were consequently brought together in London. Associations of lawyers acquired houses of their own in which students were educated in the common law, and the degrees of barrister (corresponding to apprentice or bachelor) and sergeant (corresponding to doctor) were conferred. These schools of law are now represented by the Inns of Court (q.v.).
Students are admitted as members of the Inns of Court, on paying certain fees and on passing a general (elementary) examination or (alternatively) producing evidence of having passed a public examination at a university; their subsequent call to the bar depends on their keeping twelve terms (of which there are four in each year), and passing certain further examinations (see ENGLISH LAW ad fin.). A term is "kept" by dining six times (three for a student whose name is on the books of a university) in hall. This is a relic of the older system in which examinations were not included, the only requisite being a certificate from a barrister that the student had read for twelve months in his chambers. Dining in hall then applied a certain social test, which has now become unmeaning. The profession of barrister is open to almost every one; but no person connected [v.03 p.0438] with the law in any inferior capacity or who is a chartered or professional accountant, can enter an Inn of Court as a student until he has entirely and bona fide ceased to act or practise in such capacity. Some of the Inns also make a restriction that their members shall not be engaged in trade. A form of admission has to be filled up, containing a declaration to this effect, and mentioning inter alia the age, nationality, condition in life and occupation of the applicant. Previous to the student's call this declaration must be repeated, and he must further declare that he is not in holy orders, has not held any clerical preferment and has not performed any clerical functions during the year preceding. Subject to the above, practising solicitors of not less than five years' standing may be called to the bar without keeping any terms, upon passing the necessary examinations, and, per contra, a barrister of the same standing may, without any period of apprenticeship, become a solicitor upon passing the final examination for solicitors. Irish barristers of three years' standing may be called to the English bar without passing any examination upon keeping three terms, and so also may barristers of those colonies where the professions of barrister and solicitor are still kept distinct. No one can become a barrister till he is twenty-one years old.
The benchers of the different Inns of Court have the right of rejecting any applicant for membership with or without cause assigned; and for sufficient reasons, subject to an appeal to the common-law judges as visitors of the Inns, they may refuse to call a student to the bar, or may expel from their society or from the profession ("dis-bar" or "dis-bench") even barristers or benchers. The benchers appear to take cognizance of any kind of misconduct, whether professional or not, which they may deem unworthy of the rank of barrister. The grade of barrister comprehends the attorney-general and solicitor-general (appointed by and holding office solely at the will of the government of the day), who rank as the heads of the profession, king's counsel and ordinary practitioners, sometimes technically known as "utter barristers."
The peculiar business of barristers is the advocacy of causes in open court, but in England a great deal of other business falls into their hands. They are the chief conveyancers, and the pleadings (i.e. the counter statements of parties previous to joining issue) are in all but the simplest cases drafted by them. There was formerly, indeed, a separate class of conveyancers and special pleaders, being persons who kept the necessary number of terms qualifying for a call but who, instead of being called, took out licences, granted for one year only, but renewable, to practise under the bar, but now conveyancing and special pleading form part of the ordinary work of a junior barrister. The higher rank among barristers is that of king's or queen's counsel. They lead in court, and give opinions on cases submitted to them, but they do not accept conveyancing or pleading, nor do they admit pupils to their chambers. Precedence among king's counsel, as well as among outer barristers, is determined by seniority. The old order of serjeants-at-law (q.v.) who ranked after king's counsel, is now extinct. Although every barrister has a right to practise in any court in England, each special class of business has its own practitioners, so that the bar may almost be said to be divided into several professions. The most marked distinction is that between barristers practising in chancery and barristers practising in the courts of common law. The fusion of law and equity brought about by the Judicature Acts 1873 and 1875 was expected in course of time to break down this distinction; but to a large extent the separation between these two great branches of the profession remains. There are also subordinate distinctions in each branch. Counsel at common law attach themselves to one or other of the circuits into which England is divided, and may not practise elsewhere unless under special conditions. In chancery the king's counsel for the most part restrict themselves to one or other of the courts of the chancery division. Business before the court of probate, divorce and admiralty, the privy council and parliamentary committees, exhibits, though in a less degree, the same tendency to specialization. In some of the larger provincial towns there are also local bars of considerable strength. The bar of Ireland exhibits in its general arrangements the same features as the bar of England. For the Scottish bar, see under ADVOCATES, FACULTY OF. There is no connexion whatever between the Scottish and English bars. A distinctive dress is worn by barristers when attending the courts, consisting of a stuff gown, exchanged for one of silk (whence the expression "to take silk") when the wearer has attained the rank of king's counsel, both classes also having wigs dating in pattern and material from the 18th century.
Counsel is not answerable for anything spoken by him relative to the cause in hand and suggested in the client's instructions, even though it should reflect on the character of another and prove absolutely groundless, but if he mention an untruth of his own invention, or even upon instructions if it be impertinent to the matter in hand, he is then liable to an action from the party injured. Counsel may also be punished by the summary power of the court or judge as for a contempt, and by the benchers of the inn to which he may belong on cause shown.
The rank of barrister is a necessary qualification for nearly all offices of a judicial character, and a very usual qualification for other important appointments. Not only the judgeships in the superior courts of law and equity in England and in her colonies, but nearly all the magistracies of minor rank—recorderships, county court judgeships, &c.—are restricted to the bar. The result is a unique feature in the English system of justice, viz. the perfect harmony of opinion and interest between the bar as a profession and all degrees of the judicial bench. Barristers have the rank of esquires, and are privileged from arrest whilst in attendance on the superior courts and on circuit, and also from serving on juries whilst in active practice.
Revising Barristers are counsel of not less than seven years' standing appointed to revise the lists of parliamentary voters.
Barristers cannot maintain an action for their fees, which are regarded as gratuities, nor can they, by the usage of the profession, undertake a case without the intervention of a solicitor, except in criminal cases, where a barrister may be engaged directly, by having a fee given him in open court, nor is it competent for them to enter into any contract for payment by their clients with respect to litigation.
See J. R. V. Marchant, Barrister-at-law: an Essay on the legal position of Counsel in England (1905).
 A king's counsel is appointed by letters patent to be "one of His Majesty's counsel learned in the law." The appointment rests with the lord chancellor, to whom the barrister desiring a silk gown makes application. There is no definite time required to elapse between "call" and application for a seat within the bar, but it is generally understood that a barrister must be of at least ten years' standing before he is appointed a king's counsel. The first king's counsel was Sir Francis Bacon, who was appointed by Queen Elizabeth "queen's counsel extraordinary," and received a payment, by way of "pledge and fee," of L40 a year, payable half-yearly. Succeeding king's counsel received a similar payment, until its abolition in 1831. There was not another appointment of a king's counsel until 1668, when Lord Chancellor Francis North was so honoured. From 1775 king's counsel may be said to have become a regular order. Their number was very small so late as the middle of the 19th century (20 in 1789; 30 in 1810; 28 in 1850), but at the beginning of the 20 century there were over 250. A king's counsel may not, unless by special licence, take a brief against the crown, but such a licence is never refused unless the crown desires his services in the case.
BARROIS, CHARLES (1851- ), French geologist, was born at Lille on the 21st of April 1851, and educated at the college in that town, where he studied geology under Prof. Jules Gosselet and qualified as D. es Sc. To this master he dedicated his first comprehensive work, Recherches sur le terrain cretace superieur de l'Angleterre et de l'Irlande, published in the Memoires de la societe geologique du Nord in 1876. In this essay the palaeontological zones in the Chalk and Upper Greensand of Britain were for the first time marked out in detail, and the results of Dr Barrois's original researches have formed the basis of subsequent work, and have in all leading features been confirmed. In 1876 Dr Barrois was appointed a collaborateur to the French Geological Survey, and in 1877 professor of geology in the university [v.03 p.0439] of Lille. In other memoirs, among which may be mentioned those on the Cretaceous rocks of the Ardennes and of the Basin of Oviedo, Spain; on the (Devonian) Calcaire d'Erbray; on the Palaeozoic rocks of Brittany and of northern Spain; and on the granitic and metamorphic rocks of Brittany, Dr Barrois has proved himself an accomplished petrologist as well as palaeontologist and field-geologist. In 1881 he was awarded the Bigsby medal, and in 1901 the Wollaston medal by the Geological Society of London. He was chosen member of the Institute (Academy of Sciences) in 1904.
BARROS, JOAO DE (1496-1570), called the Portuguese Livy, may be said to have been the first great historian of his country. Educated in the palace of King Manoel, he early conceived the idea of writing history, and, to prove his powers, composed, at the age of twenty, a romance of chivalry, the Chronicle of the Emperor Clarimundo, in which he is said to have had the assistance of Prince John, afterwards King John III. The latter, on ascending the throne, gave Barros the captaincy of the fortress of St George of Elmina, whither he proceeded in 1522, and he obtained in 1525 the post of treasurer of the India House, which he held until 1528. The pest of 1530 drove him from Lisbon to his country house near Pombal, and there he finished a moral dialogue, Rhopica Pneuma, which met with the applause of the learned Juan Luis Vives. On his return to Lisbon in 1532 the king appointed Barros factor of the India and Mina House—positions of great responsibility and importance at a time when Lisbon was the European emporium for the trade of the East. Barros proved a good administrator, displaying great industry and a disinterestedness rare in that age, with the result that he made but little money where his predecessors had amassed fortunes. At this time, John III., wishful to attract settlers to Brazil, divided it up into captaincies and gave that of Maranhao to Barros, who, associating two partners in the enterprise with himself, prepared an armada of ten vessels, carrying nine hundred men, which set sail in 1539. Owing to the ignorance of the pilots, the whole fleet suffered shipwreck, which entailed serious financial loss on Barros, yet not content with meeting his own obligations, he paid the debts of those who had perished in the expedition. During all these busy years he had continued his studies in his leisure hours, and shortly after the Brazilian disaster he offered to write a history of the Portuguese in India, which the king accepted. He began work forthwith, but, before printing the first part, he again proved his pen by publishing a Portuguese grammar (1540) and some more moral Dialogues. The first of the Decades of his Asia appeared in 1552, and its reception was such that the king straightway charged Barros to write a chronicle of King Manoel. His many occupations, however, prevented him from undertaking this book, which was finally composed by Damiao de Goes (q.v.). The Second Decade came out in 1553 and the Third in 1563, but the Fourth and final one was not published until 1615, long after the author's death. In January 1568 Barros retired from his remunerative appointment at the India House, receiving the rank of fidalgo together with a pension and other pecuniary emoluments from King Sebastian, and died on the 20th of October 1570. A man of lofty character, he preferred leaving his children an example of good morals and learning to bequeathing them a large pecuniary inheritance, and, though he received many royal benefactions, they were volunteered, never asked for. As an historian and a stylist Barros deserves the high fame he has always enjoyed. His Decades contain the early history of the Portuguese in Asia and reveal careful study of Eastern historians and geographers, as well as of the records of his own country. They are distinguished by clearness of exposition and orderly arrangement. His style has all the simplicity and grandeur of the masters of historical writing, and the purity of his diction is incontestable. Though, on the whole, impartial, Barros is the narrator and apologist of the great deeds of his countrymen, and lacks the critical spirit and intellectual acumen of Damiao de Goes. Diogo do Couto continued the Decades, adding nine more, and a modern edition of the whole appeared in Lisbon in 14 vols. in 1778-1788. The title of Barros's work is Da Asia de Joao de Barros, dos feitos que os Portuguezes fizeram no descubrimento e conquista dos mares e terras do Oriente, and the edition is accompanied by a volume containing a life of Barros by the historian Manoel Severim de Faria and a copious index of all the Decades. An Italian version in 2 vols. appeared in Venice in 1561-1562 and a German in 5 vols. in 1821. Clarimundo has gone through the following editions: 1522, 1555, 1601, 1742, 1791 and 1843, all published in Lisbon. It influenced Francisco de Moraes (q.v.); cf. Purser, Palmerin of England, Dublin, 1904, pp. 440 et seq.
The minor works of Barros are described by Innocencio da Silva: Diccionario Bibliographico Portuguez, vol. iii. pp. 320-323 and vol. x. pp. 187-189, and in Severim de Faria's Life, cited above. A compilation of Barros's Varia was published by the visconde de Azevedo (Porto, 1869).
BARROT, CAMILLE HYACINTHE ODILON (1791-1873), French politician, was born at Villefort (Lozere) on the 19th of September 1791. He belonged to a legal family, his father, an advocate of Toulouse, having been a member of the Convention who had voted against the death of Louis XVI. Odilon Barrot's earliest recollections were of the October insurrection of 1795. He was sent to the military school of Saint-Cyr, but presently removed to the Lycee Napoleon to study law and was called to the Parisian bar in 1811. He was placed in the office of the conventionel Jean Mailhe, who was advocate before the council of state and the court of cassation and was proscribed at the second restoration. Barrot eventually succeeded him in both positions. His dissatisfaction with the government of the restoration was shown in his conduct of some political trials. For his opposition in 1820 to a law by which any person might be arrested and detained on a warrant signed by three ministers, he was summoned before a court of assize, but acquitted. Although intimate with Lafayette and others, he took no actual share in their schemes for the overthrow of the government, but in 1827 he joined the association known as Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera. He presided over the banquet given by the society to the 221 deputies who had signed the address of March 1830 to Charles X., and threatened to reply to force by force. After the ordinances of the 26th of July 1830, he joined the National Guard and took an active part in the revolution. As secretary of the municipal commission, which sat at the hotel-de-ville and formed itself into a provisional government, he was charged to convey to the chamber of deputies a protest embodying the terms which the advanced Liberals wished to impose on the king to be elected. He supported the idea of a constitutional monarchy against the extreme Republicans, and he was appointed one of the three commissioners chosen to escort Charles X. out of France. On his return he was nominated prefect of the department of the Seine. His concessions to the Parisian mob and his extreme gentleness towards those who demanded the prosecution of the ministers of Charles X. led to an unflattering comparison with Jerome Petion under similar circumstances. Louis Philippe's government was far from satisfying his desires for reform, and he persistently urged the "broadening of the bases of the monarchy," while he protested his loyalty to the dynasty. He was returned to the chamber of deputies for the department of Eure in 1831. The day after the demonstration of June 1832 on the occasion of the funeral of General Lamarque, he made himself indirectly the mouthpiece of the Democrats in an interview with Louis Philippe, which is given at length in his Memoires. Subsequently, in pleading before the court of cassation on behalf of one of the rioters, he secured the annulling of the judgments given by the council of war. The death of the duke of Orleans in 1842 was a blow to Barrot's party, which sought to substitute the regency of the duchess of Orleans for that of the duke of Nemours in the event of the succession of the count of Paris. In 1846 Barrot made a tour in the Near East, returning in time to take part a second time in the preliminaries of revolution. He organized banquets of the disaffected in the various cities of France, and demanded electoral reform to avoid revolution. He did not foresee the strength of the outbreak for which his eloquence had prepared the way, and clung to the programme of 1830. He tried to support the regency of the duchess in the chamber on the 24th of February, only to find that the time was past for [v.03 p.0440] half-measures. He acquiesced in the republic and gave his adhesion to General Cavaignac. He became the chief of Louis Napoleon's first ministry in the hope of extracting Liberal measures, but was dismissed in 1849 as soon as he had served the president's purpose of avoiding open conflict. After the coup d'etat of December 1851 he was one of those who sought to accuse Napoleon of high treason. He was imprisoned for a short time and retired from active politics for some ten years. He was drawn once more into affairs by the hopes of reform held out by Emile Ollivier, accepting in 1869 the presidency of an extra-parliamentary committee on decentralization. After the fall of the empire he was nominated by Thiers, whom he had supported under Louis Philippe, president of the council of state. But his powers were now failing, and he had only filled his new office for about a year when he died at Bougival on the 6th of August 1873. He had been sufficiently an optimist to believe in the triumph of the liberal but non-republican institutions dear to him under the restoration, under Louis Philippe and Louis Napoleon successively. He was unable to foresee and unwilling to accept the consequences of his political agitation in 1830 and 1848, and in spite of his talents and acknowledged influence he thus failed to secure the honours won by more uncompromising politicians. He was described by Thureau-Dangin as "le plus solennel des indecis, le plus meditatif des irreflechis, le plus heureux des ambitieux, le plus austere des courtisans de la foule."
His personal relations with Louis Philippe and Napoleon, with his views on the events in which he was concerned, are described in the four volumes of his Memoires, edited by Duvergier de Hauranne in 1875-1876. See also Thureau-Dangin, Hist. de la monarchie de juillet.
BARROW, ISAAC (1630-1677), English mathematician and divine, was the son of Thomas Barrow, a linen-draper in London, belonging to an old Suffolk and Cambridgeshire family. His uncle was Bishop Isaac Barrow of St Asaph (1614-1680). He was at first placed for two or three years at the Charterhouse school. There, however, his conduct gave but little hopes of his ever succeeding as a scholar. But after his removal from this establishment to Felsted school in Essex, where Martin Holbeach was master, his disposition took a happier turn; and having soon made considerable progress in learning, he was in 1643 entered at St Peter's College, and afterwards at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he applied himself to the study of literature and science, especially of natural philosophy. He at first intended to adopt the medical profession, and made some progress in anatomy, botany and chemistry, after which he studied chronology, geometry and astronomy. He then travelled in France and Italy, and in a voyage from Leghorn to Smyrna gave proofs of great personal bravery during an attack made by an Algerine pirate. At Smyrna he met with a kind reception from the English consul, Mr Bretton, upon whose death he afterwards wrote a Latin elegy. From this place he proceeded to Constantinople, where he received similar civilities from Sir Thomas Bendish, the English ambassador, and Sir Jonathan Dawes, with whom he afterwards contracted an intimate friendship. While at Constantinople he read and studied the works of St Chrysostom, whom he preferred to all the other Fathers. He resided in Turkey somewhat more than a year, after which he proceeded to Venice, and thence returned home through Germany and Holland in 1659.
Immediately on his reaching England he received ordination from Bishop Brownrig, and in 1660 he was appointed to the Greek professorship at Cambridge. When he entered upon this office he intended to have prelected upon the tragedies of Sophocles; but he altered his intention and made choice of Aristotle's rhetoric. His lectures on this subject, having been lent to a friend who never returned them, are irrecoverably lost. In July 1662 he was elected professor of geometry in Gresham College, on the recommendation of Dr John Wilkins, master of Trinity College and afterwards bishop of Chester; and in May 1663 he was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society, at the first election made by the council after obtaining their charter. The same year the executors of Henry Lucas, who, according to the terms of his will, had founded a mathematical chair at Cambridge, fixed upon Barrow as the first professor; and although his two professorships were not inconsistent with each other, he chose to resign that of Gresham College, which he did on the 20th of May 1664. In 1669 he resigned his mathematical chair to his pupil, Isaac Newton, having now determined to renounce the study of mathematics for that of divinity. Upon quitting his professorship Barrow was only a fellow of Trinity College; but his uncle gave him a small sinecure in Wales, and Dr Seth Ward, bishop of Salisbury, conferred upon him a prebend in that church. In the year 1670 he was created doctor in divinity by mandate; and, upon the promotion of Dr Pearson to the see of Chester, he was appointed to succeed him as master of Trinity College by the king's patent, bearing the date of the 13th of February 1672. In 1675 Dr Barrow was chosen vice-chancellor of the university. He died on the 4th of May 1677, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, where a monument, surmounted by his bust, was soon after erected by the contributions of his friends.
By his English contemporaries Barrow was considered a mathematician second only to Newton. Continental writers do not place him so high, and their judgment is probably the more correct one. He was undoubtedly a clear-sighted and able mathematician, who handled admirably the severe geometrical method, and who in his Method of Tangents approximated to the course of reasoning by which Newton was afterwards led to the doctrine of ultimate ratios; but his substantial contributions to the science are of no great importance, and his lectures upon elementary principles do not throw much light on the difficulties surrounding the border-land between mathematics and philosophy. (See INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS.) His Sermons have long enjoyed a high reputation; they are weighty pieces of reasoning, elaborate in construction and ponderous in style.
His scientific works are very numerous. The most important are:—Euclid's Elements; Euclid's Data; Optical Lectures, read in the public school of Cambridge; Thirteen Geometrical Lectures; The Works of Archimedes, the Four Books of Apollonius's Conic Sections, and Theodosius's Spherics, explained in a New Method; A Lecture, in which Archimedes' Theorems of the Sphere and Cylinder are investigated and briefly demonstrated; Mathematical Lectures, read in the public schools of the university of Cambridge. The above were all written in Latin. His English works have been collected and published in four volumes folio.
See Ward, Lives of the Gresham Professors, and Whewell's biography prefixed to the 9th volume of Napier's edition of Barrow's Sermons.
BARROW, SIR JOHN (1764-1848), English statesman, was born in the village of Dragley Beck in the parish of Ulverston in Lancashire, on the 19th of June 1764. He started in life as superintending clerk of an iron foundry at Liverpool and afterwards taught mathematics at a school in Greenwich. Through the interest of Sir George Staunton, to whose son he taught mathematics, he was attached on the first British embassy to China as comptroller of the household to Lord Macartney. He soon acquired a good knowledge of the Chinese language, on which he subsequently contributed interesting articles to the Quarterly Review; and the account of the embassy published by Sir George Staunton records many of Barrow's valuable contributions to literature and science connected with China.
Although Barrow ceased to be officially connected with Chinese affairs after the return of the embassy in 1794, he always took much interest in them, and on critical occasions was frequently consulted by the British government. In 1797 he accompanied Lord Macartney, as private secretary, in his important and delicate mission to settle the government of the newly acquired colony of the Cape of Good Hope. Barrow was entrusted with the task of reconciling the Boers and Kaffirs and of reporting on the country in the interior. On his return from his journey, in the course of which he visited all parts of the colony, he was appointed auditor-general of public accounts. He now decided to settle in South Africa, married Anne Maria Trueter, and in 1800 bought a house in Cape Town. But the surrender of the colony at the peace of Amiens (1802) upset this plan. He returned to England in 1804, was appointed by Lord Melville second secretary to the admiralty, a post which he held for [v.03 p.0441] forty years. He enjoyed the esteem and confidence of all the eleven chief lords who successively presided at the admiralty board during that period, and more especially of King William IV. while lord high admiral, who honoured him with tokens of his personal regard. Barrow was a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1821 received the degree of LL.D. from Edinburgh University. A baronetcy was conferred on him by Sir Robert Peel in 1835. He retired from public life in 1845 and devoted himself to writing a history of the modern Arctic voyages of discovery (1846), of which he was a great promoter, as well as his autobiography, published in 1847. He died suddenly on the 23rd of November 1848.
Besides the numerous articles in the Quarterly Review already mentioned, Barrow published among other works, Travels in China (1804); Travels into the Interior of South Africa (1806); and lives of Lord Macartney (1807), Lord Anson (1839), Lord Howe (1838). He was also the author of several valuable contributions to the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
See Memoir of John Barlow, by G. F. Staunton (1852).
BARROW, a river of south-eastern Ireland. It rises in the Slieve Bloom mountains, and flows at first easterly and then almost due south, until, on joining the Suir, it forms the estuary of the south coast known as Waterford Harbour. Including the 12 m. of the estuary, the length of its valley is rather more than 100 m., without counting the lesser windings of the river. The total area of drainage to Waterford Harbour (including the basin of the Suir) is 3500 sq. m., and covers the whole of the county Kilkenny, with parts of Waterford, Cork and Limerick, Tipperary, Carlow, King's and Queen's counties. The chief towns on the banks of the Barrow are Athy (where it becomes navigable and has a junction with the Grand Canal), Carlow, Bagenalstown and New Ross. The chief affluent is the Nore, which it receives from the north-west a little above New Ross. The scenery on its banks is in parts very beautiful.
BARROW (from A.S. beorh, a mount or hillock), a word found occasionally among place-names in England applied to natural eminences, but generally restricted in its modern application to denote an ancient grave-mound. The custom of constructing barrows or mounds of stone or earth over the remains of the dead was a characteristic feature of the sepulchral systems of primitive times. Originating in the common sentiment of humanity, which desires by some visible memorial to honour and perpetuate the memory of the dead, it was practised alike by peoples of high and of low development, and continued through all the stages of culture that preceded the introduction of Christianity. The primary idea of sepulture appears to have been the provision of a habitation for the dead; and thus, in its perfect form, the barrow included a chamber or chambers where the tenant was surrounded with the prized possessions of his previous life. A common feature of the earlier barrows is the enclosing fence, which marked off the site from the surrounding ground. When the barrow was of earth, this was effected by an encircling trench or a low vallum. When the barrow was a stone structure, the enclosure was usually a circle of standing stones. Sometimes, instead of a chamber formed above ground, the barrow covered a pit excavated for the interment under the original surface. In later times the mound itself was frequently dispensed with, and the interments made within the enclosure of a trench, a vallum or a circle of standing stones. Usually the great barrows occupy conspicuous sites; but in general the external form is no index to the internal construction and gives no definite indication of the nature of the sepulchral usages. Thus, while the long barrow is characteristic of the Stone Age, it is impossible to tell without direct examination whether it may be chambered or unchambered, or whether the burials within it may be those of burnt or of unburnt bodies.
In England the long barrow usually contains a single chamber, entering by a passage underneath the higher and wider end of the mound. In Denmark the chambers are at irregular intervals along the body of the mound, and have no passages leading into them. The long barrows of Great Britain are often from 200 to 400 ft. in length by 60 to 80 ft. wide. Their chambers are rudely but strongly built, with dome-shaped roofs, formed by overlapping the successive courses of the upper part of the side walls. In Scandinavia, on the other hand, such dome-roofed chambers are unknown, and the construction of the chambers as a rule is megalithic, five or six monoliths supporting one or more capstones of enormous size. Such chambers, denuded of the covering mound, or over which no covering mound has been raised, are popularly known in England as "cromlechs" and in France as "dolmens" (see STONE MONUMENTS). The prevailing mode of sepulture in all the different varieties of these structures is by the deposit of the body in a contracted position, accompanied by weapons and implements of stone, occasionally by ornaments of gold, jet or amber. Vessels of clay, more or less ornate in character, which occur with these early interments of unburnt bodies, have been regarded as food-vessels and drinking-cups, differing in character and purpose from the cinerary urns of larger size in which the ashes of the dead were deposited after cremation.
The custom of burning the body commenced in the Stone Age, before the long barrow or the dolmen had passed out of use. While cremation is rare in the long barrows of the south of England, it is the rule in those of Yorkshire and the north of Scotland. In Ireland, where the long barrow form is all but unknown, the round barrow or chambered cairn prevailed from the earliest Pagan period till the introduction of Christianity. The Irish barrows occur in groups in certain localities, some of which seem to have been the royal cemeteries of the tribal confederacies, whereof eight are enumerated in an ancient Irish manuscript, the Leabhar na h-Uidhri, compiled c. A.D. 1100. The best-known of these is situated on the banks of the Boyne above Drogheda, and consists of a group of the largest cairns in Ireland. One, at New Grange, is a huge mound of stones and earth, over 300 ft. in diameter and 70 ft. in height. Around its base are the remains of a circle of large standing stones. The chamber, which is 20 ft. high in the centre, is reached by a passage about 70 ft. in length. In the Loughcrew Hills, Co. Meath, there is a group of about thirty stone barrows or cairns, mostly chambered, their bases measuring from 5 or 6 to 60 yds. in diameter. They are unusually interesting from the fact that many of the exposed slabs in the walls of the chambers are ornamented with spirals and other devices, rudely incised. As in the case of the long barrows, the traditional form of the circular, chambered barrow was retained through various changes in the sepulchral customs of the people. It was the natural result of the practice of cremation, however, that it should induce a modification of the barrow structure. The chamber, no longer regarded as a habitation to be tenanted by the deceased, became simply a cist for the reception of the urn which held his ashes. The degradation of the chamber naturally produced a corresponding degradation of the mound which covered it, and the barrows of the Bronze Age, in which cremation was common, are smaller and less imposing than those of the Stone Age, but often surprisingly rich in the relics of the life and of the art workmanship of the time. In addition to the varied and beautiful forms of implements and weapons—frequently ornamented with a high degree of artistic taste—armlets and other personal ornaments in gold, amber, jet and bronze are not uncommon. The barrows of the bronze period, like some of those of the Stone Age, appear to have been used as tribal or family cemeteries. In Denmark as many as seventy deposits of burnt interments have been observed in a single mound, indicating its use as a burying-place throughout a long succession of years.
In the Iron Age there was less uniformity in the burial customs. In some of the barrows in central France, and in the wolds of Yorkshire, the interments include the arms and accoutrements of a charioteer, with his chariot, harness and horses. In Scandinavia a custom, alluded to in the sagas, of burying the viking in his ship, drawn up on land, and raising a barrow over it, is exemplified by the ship-burials discovered in Norway. The ship found in the Gokstad mound was 78 ft. long, and had a mast and sixteen pairs of oars. In a chamber abaft the mast the viking had been laid, with his weapons, and together with him were [v.03 p.0442] buried twelve horses, six dogs and a peacock. An interesting example of the great timber-chambered barrow is that at Jelling in Jutland, known as the barrow of Thyre Danebod, queen of King Gorm the Old, who died about the middle of the 10th century. It is a mound about 200 ft. in diameter, and over 50 ft. in height, containing a chamber 23 ft. long, 8 ft. wide and 5 ft. high, formed of massive slabs of oak. Though it had been entered and plundered in the middle ages, a few relics were found when it was reopened, among which were a silver cup, ornamented with the interlacing work characteristic of the time and some personal ornaments. It is highly illustrative of the tenacity with which the ancient sepulchral usages were retained even after the introduction of Christianity that King Harold, son and successor of Gorm the Old, who is said to have christianized all Denmark and Norway, followed the pagan custom of erecting a chambered tumulus over the remains of his father, on the summit of which was placed a rude pillar-stone, bearing on one side the memorial inscription in runes, and on the other a representation of the Saviour of mankind distinguished by the crossed nimbus surrounding the head. The so-called Kings' Hows at Upsala in Sweden rival those of Jelling in size and height. In the chamber of one, opened in 1829, there was found an urn full of calcined bones; and along with it were ornaments of gold showing the characteristic workmanship of the 5th and 6th centuries of the Christian era. Along with the calcined human bones were bones of animals, among which those of the horse and the dog were distinguished.
Comparing the results of the researches in European barrows with such notices of barrow-burial as may be gleaned from early writings, we find them mutually illustrative.
The Homeric account of the building of the barrow of Hector (Il. xxiv.) brings vividly before us the scene so often suggested by the examination of the tumuli of prehistoric times. During nine days wood was collected and brought, in carts drawn by oxen, to the site of the funeral pyre. Then the pyre was built and the body laid upon it. After burning for twenty-four hours the smouldering embers were extinguished with libations of wine. The white and calcined bones were then picked out of the ashes by the friends and placed in a metallic urn, which was deposited in a hollow grave or cist and covered over with large well-fitting stones. Finally, a barrow of great magnitude was heaped over the remains and the funeral feast was celebrated. The obsequies of Achilles, as described in the Odyssey, were also celebrated with details which are strikingly similar to those observed in tumuli both of the Bronze and Iron Ages. The body was brought to the pile in an embroidered robe and jars of unguents and honey were placed beside it. Sheep and oxen were slaughtered at the pile. The incinerated bones were collected from the ashes and placed in a golden urn along with those of Patroclus, Achilles's dearest friend. Over the remains a great and shapely mound was raised on the high headland, so that it might be seen from afar by future generations of men.
Herodotus, describing the funeral customs of the Scythians, states that, on the death of a chief, the body was placed upon a couch in a chamber sunk in the earth and covered with timber, in which were deposited all things needful for the comfort of the deceased in the other world. One of his wives was strangled and laid beside him, his cup-bearer and other attendants, his charioteer and his horses were killed and placed in the tomb, which was then filled up with earth and an enormous mound raised high over all. The barrows which cover the plains of ancient Scythia attest the truth of this description. A Siberian barrow, described by Demidov, contained three contiguous chambers of unhewn stone. In the central chamber lay the skeleton of the ancient chief, with his sword, his spear, his bow and a quiver full of arrows. The skeleton reclined upon a sheet of pure gold, extending the whole length of the body, which had been wrapped in a mantle broidered with gold and studded with precious stones. Over it was extended another sheet of pure gold. In a smaller chamber at the chief's head lay the skeleton of a female, richly attired, extended upon a sheet of pure gold and similarly covered with a sheet of the same metal. A golden chain adorned her neck and her arms were encircled with bracelets of pure gold. In a third chamber, at the chief's feet, lay the skeleton of his favourite horse with saddle, bridle and stirrups.
So curiously alike in their general features were the sepulchral usages connected with barrow-burial over the whole of Europe, that we find the Anglo-Saxon Saga of Beowulf describing the chambered tumulus with its gigantic masonry "held fast on props, with vaults of stone," and the passage under the mound haunted by a dragon, the guardian of the treasures of heathen gold which it contained. Beowulf's own burial is minutely described in terms which have a strong resemblance to the parallel passages in the Iliad and Odyssey. There is first the preparation of the pile, which is hung round with helmets, shields and coats of mail. Then the corpse is brought and laid in the midst; the pile is kindled and the roaring flame rises, mingled with weeping, till all is consumed. Then, for ten long days, the warriors labour at the rearing of his mighty mound on the headland, high and broad, to be seen afar by the passers-by on land and sea.
The pyramids of Egypt, the mausolea of the Lydian kings, the circular, chambered sepulchres of Mycenae, and the Etruscan tombs at Caere and Volci, are lineally descended from the chambered barrows of prehistoric times, modified in construction according to the advancement of architectural art at the period of their erection. There is no country in Europe destitute of more or less abundant proofs of the almost universal prevalence of barrow-burial in early times. It can also be traced on both sides of the basin of the Mediterranean, and from Asia Minor across the continent to India, China and Japan.
In the new world as well as in the old, similar customs prevailed from a very remote period. In the great plains of North America the dead were buried in barrows of enormous magnitude, which occasionally present a remarkable similarity to the barrows of Great Britain. In these mounds cremation appears more frequently than inhumation; and both are accompanied by implements, weapons and ornaments of stone and bone. The pottery accompanying the remains is often elaborately ornamented, and the mound builders were evidently possessed of a higher development of taste and skill than is evinced by any of the modern aboriginal races, by whom the mounds and their contents are regarded as utterly mysterious.
It is not to be wondered at that customs so widely spread and so deeply rooted as those connected with barrow-burial should have been difficult to eradicate. In fact, compliance with the Christian practice of inhumation in the cemeteries sanctioned by the church, was only enforced in Europe by capitularies denouncing the punishment of death on those who persisted in burying their dead after the pagan fashion or in the pagan mounds. Yet even in the middle ages kings of Christian countries were buried with their swords and spears, and queens with their spindles and ornaments; the bishop was laid in his grave with his crozier and comb; the priest with his chalice and vestments; and clay vessels filled with charcoal (answering to the urns of heathen times) are found in the churches of France and Denmark.
AUTHORITIES.—Canon W. Greenwell, British Barrows (London, 1877); Dr J. Thurnam, "On Ancient British Barrows," in Archaeologia, vols. 42, 43 (1869); J. R. Mortimer, Forty Years' Researches in Burial Mounds of East Yorkshire (London, 1905); J. Anderson, Scotland in Pagan Times (Edinburgh, 1886); Dr T. H. Bryce, "Records of Explorations among the Cairns of Arran and Bute," in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vols. 36, 37, 38 (1901-1903); W. C. Borlase, The Dolmens of Ireland (London, 1897); Dictionnaire archeologique de la Gaule (Paris, 1875); A. P. Madsen, Gravhoie og Gravfund fra Stenalderen i Danmark (Copenhagen, 1900); S. Mueller, Nordische Altertumskunde aus Daenemark und Schleswig (Strassburg, 1897); O. Montelius, The Civilization of Sweden in Heathen Times (London, 1888), and Der Orient und Europa (Stockholm, 1899); E. Cartailhac, Les Ages prehistoriques de l'Espagne et du Portugal (Paris, 1886); W. Gowland, "The Dolmens and Burial Mounds in Japan," in Archaeologia, vol. 55 (1897); C. Thomas, "Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology" (Twelfth Annual Report for 1890-1891, Washington, 1894.)
BARROWE, HENRY (?1550-1593), English Puritan and Separatist, was born about 1550, at Shipdam, Norfolk, of a family related by marriage to the lord keeper Bacon, and [v.03 p.0443] probably to Aylmer, bishop of London. He matriculated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, in November 1566, and graduated B.A. in 1569-1570. Afterwards he "followed the court" for some time, leading a frivolous if not licentious life. He was a member of Gray's Inn for a few years from 1576, but was never called to the bar. About 1580 or 1581 he was deeply impressed by a sermon, whereupon he retired to the country, and was led by study and meditation to the strictest form of Puritanism. Subsequently, in what manner is not known, he came into intimate relations with John Greenwood, the Separatist leader, whose views (probably due, in part at least, to Browne's influence) he adopted without reserve. Though not strictly resident in London at this time, he was associated with "the brethren of the Separation" there, in whose secret meetings his natural earnestness and eloquence made him conspicuous. Greenwood having been imprisoned in the Clink, Barrowe came from the country to visit him, and on the 19th of November 1586 was detained by the gaoler and brought before Archbishop Whitgift. He insisted on the illegality of this arrest, refused either to take the ex officio oath or to give bail for future appearance, and was committed to the Gatehouse. After nearly six months' detention and several irregular examinations before the high commissioners, he and Greenwood were formally indicted (May 1587) for recusancy under an act originally directed against Papists. They were ordered to find heavy bail for comformity, and to remain in the Fleet Prison until it was forthcoming. Barrowe continued a prisoner for the remainder of his life, nearly six years, sometimes in close confinement, sometimes having "the liberty of the prison." He was subjected to several more examinations, once before the privy council at Whitehall on the 18th of March 1588, as a result of petition to the queen. On these occasions he vigorously maintained the principle of separatism, denouncing the prescribed ritual of the Church as "a false worship," and the bishops as oppressors and persecutors. During his imprisonments he was engaged in written controversy with Robert Browne (down to 1588), who had yielded a partial submission to the established order, and whom he therefore accounted a renegade. He also wrote several vigorous treatises in defence of separatism and congregational independency, the most important being:—A True Description of the Visible Congregation of the Saints, &c. (1589); A Plain Refutation of Mr Gifford's Booke, intituled A Short Treatise Gainst the Donatistes of England (1590-1591), and A Brief Discovery of the False Church (1591). Others were written in conjunction with his fellow-prisoner, Greenwood. These writings were taken charge of by friends and mostly printed in Holland. By 1590 the bishops thought it advisable to try other means of convincing or silencing these indomitable controversialists, and sent several conforming Puritan ministers to confer with them, but without effect. At length it was resolved to proceed on a capital charge of "devising and circulating seditious books," for which, as the law then stood, it was easy to secure a conviction. They were tried and sentenced to death on the 23rd of March 1593. What followed is, happily, unique in the history of English misrule. The day after sentence they were brought out as if for execution and respited. On the 31st of March they were taken to the gallows, and after the ropes had been placed about their necks were again respited. Finally they were hanged early on the morning of the 6th of April. The motive of all this is obscure, but there is some evidence that the lord treasurer Burghley endeavoured to save their lives, and was frustrated by Whitgift and other bishops.
The opinions of Browne and Barrowe had much in common, but were not identical. Both maintained the right and duty of the Church to carry out necessary reforms without awaiting the permission of the civil power; and both advocated congregational independency. But the ideal of Browne was a spiritual democracy, towards which separation was only a means. Barrowe, on the other hand, regarded the whole established church order as polluted by the relics of Roman Catholicism, and insisted on separation as essential to pure worship and discipline (see further CONGREGATIONALISM). Barrowe has been credited by H. M. Dexter and others with being the author of the "Marprelate Tracts"; but this is improbable.
AUTHORITIES.—H. M. Dexter, The Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years; F. J. Powicke, Henry Barrowe and the Exiled Church. See also B. Brook, Lives of the Puritans; and Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigienses (1861), vol. ii.
BARROW-IN-FURNESS, a seaport and municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, 264-1/2 m. N.W. by N. from London, on the Furness railway. Pop. (1891) 51,712; (1901) 57,586. It lies on the seaward side of the hammer-shaped peninsula forming part of the district of Furness, between the estuary of the Duddon and Morecambe Bay, where a narrow channel intervenes between the mainland and the long low island of Walney, on which the erection of a strong fort was undertaken by the War Office in 1904. In 1905 the connexion of Walney with the mainland by a bridge was undertaken. In the channel is Barrow Island (among others) which is connected with the mainland, reclamation having been carried on until only a narrow channel was left, which was utilized as docks. Barrow is of modern and remarkably rapid growth. Its rise was dependent primarily on the existence and working of the veins of pure haematite iron ore in the district of Furness (q.v.). At the outset Barrow merely exported the ore to the furnaces of South Wales and the midlands. At the beginning of the 19th century this export amounted at most to a few thousand tons, and though by the middle of the century it had reached some 50,000 in 1847 the population of Barrow was only 325. In 1846 the first section of the Furness railway was opened, connecting Barrow with the mines near Dalton; in the ensuing years a great increase in trade justified the opening of further communications, and in 1859 the iron works of Messrs Schneider & Hannay were instituted. The Barrow Haematite Steel Company (1866) absorbed this company, and a great output of steel produced by the Bessemer process was begun. Other industries followed. Of these the shipbuilding works have surpassed the steel works in importance, the celebrated firm of Vickers, Sons & Maxim having a yard where they construct numerous vessels of war as well as others. There are also a petroleum storage establishment, a paper-pulp factory, jute works, and engineering and wagon works.