But the much advertised Great Harry was not a mighty prototype of a world-wide-copied class of battleships like the modern Dreadnought. With her lavish decorations, her towering superstructures fore and aft, and her general aping of a floating castle, she was the wonder of all the landsmen in her own age, as she has been the delight of picturesque historians ever since. But she marked no advance in naval architecture, rather the reverse. She was the last great English ship of medieval times. Twenty-five years after the Field of the Cloth of Gold, Henry was commanding another English fleet, the first of modern times, and therefore one in which the out-of-date Great Harry had no proper place at all. She was absurdly top-hampered and over-gunned. And, for all her thousand tons, she must have bucketed about in the chops of the Channel with the same sort of hobby-horse, see-sawing pitch that bothered Captain Concas in 1893 when sailing an exact reproduction of Columbus's flagship, the Santa Maria, across the North Atlantic to the great World's Fair at Chicago.
In her own day the galleon was the 'great ship,' 'capital ship,' 'ship-of-the-line-of-battle,' or 'battleship' on which the main fight turned. But just as our modern fleets require three principal kinds of vessels—battleships, cruisers, and 'mosquito' craft—so did the fleets of Henry and Elizabeth. The galleon did the same work as the old three-decker of Nelson's time or the battleship of to-day. The 'pinnace' (quite different from more modern pinnaces) was the frigate or the cruiser. And, in Henry VIII's fleet of 1545, the 'row-barge' was the principal 'mosquito' craft, like the modern torpedo-boat, destroyer, or even submarine. Of course the correspondence is far from being complete in any class.
The English galleon gradually developed more sail and gun power as well as handiness in action. Broadside fire began. When used against the Armada, it had grown very powerful indeed. At that time the best guns, some of which are still in existence, were nearly as good as those at Trafalgar or aboard the smart American frigates that did so well in '1812.' When galleon broadsides were fired from more than a single deck, the lower ones took enemy craft between wind and water very nicely. In the English navy the portholes had been cut so as to let the guns be pointed with considerable freedom, up or down, right or left. The huge top-hampering 'castles' and other soldier-engineering works on deck were modified or got rid of, while more canvas was used and to much better purpose.
The pinnace showed the same sort of improvement during the same period—from Drake's birth under Henry VIII in 1545 to the zenith of his career as a sea-dog in 1588. This progenitor of the frigate and the cruiser was itself descended from the long-boat of the Norsemen and still used oars as occasion served. But the sea-dogs made it primarily a sailing vessel of anything up to a hundred tons and generally averaging over fifty. A smart pinnace, with its long, low, clean-run hull, if well handled under its Elizabethan fighting canvas of foresail and main topsail, could play round a Spanish galleasse or absurdly castled galleon like a lancer on a well-trained charger round a musketeer astraddle on a cart horse. Henry's pinnaces still had lateen sails copied from Italian models. Elizabeth's had square sails prophetic of the frigate's. Henry's had one or a very few small guns. Elizabeth's had as many as sixteen, some of medium size, in a hundred-tonner.
[4: Fuller in his Worthies (1662) writes: 'Many were the wit-combats betwixt him [Shakespeare] and Ben Jonson, which two I beheld like a Spanish great galleon and an English man-of-war: Master Jonson (like the former) was built far higher in learning, solid but slow in his performances. Shakespeare, like the English man-of-war, lesser in bulk, but lighter in sailing, could turn with all tides, tack about, and take advantage of all winds by the quickness of his wit and invention.']
The 'mosquito' fleet of Henry's time was represented by 'row-barges' of his own invention. Now that the pinnace was growing in size and sail power, while shedding half its oars, some new small rowing craft was wanted, during that period of groping transition, to act as a tender or to do 'mosquito' work in action. The mere fact that Henry VIII placed no dependence on oars except for this smallest type shows how far he had got on the road towards the broadside-sailing-ship fleet. On the 16th of July, 1541, the Spanish Naval Attache (as we should call him now) reported to Charles V that Henry had begun 'to have new oared vessels built after his own design.' Four years later these same 'row-barges'—long, light, and very handy—hung round the sterns of the retreating Italian galleys in the French fleet to very good purpose, plying them with bow-chasers and the two broadside guns, till Strozzi, the Italian galley-admiral, turned back on them in fury, only to see them slip away in perfect order and with complete immunity.
By the time of the Armada the mosquito fleet had outgrown these little rowing craft and had become more oceanic. But names, types, and the evolution of one type from another, with the application of the same name to changed and changing types, all tend to confusion unless the subject is followed in such detail as is impossible here.
The fleets of Henry VIII and of Elizabeth did far more to improve both the theory and practice of naval gunnery than all the fleets in the world did from the death of Drake to the adoption of rifled ordnance within the memory of living men. Henry's textbook of artillery, republished in 1588, the year of the Armada, contains very practical diagrams for finding the range at sea by means of the gunner's half circle—yet we now think range-finding a very modern thing indeed. There are also full directions for making common and even something like shrapnel shells, 'star shells' to light up the enemy at night, armor-piercing arrows shot out of muskets, 'wild-fire' grenades, and many other ultra-modern devices.
Henry established Woolwich Dockyard, second to none both then and now, as well as Trinity House, which presently began to undertake the duties it still discharges by supervising all aids to navigation round the British Isles. The use of quadrants, telescopes, and maps on Mercator's projection all began in the reign of Elizabeth, as did many other inventions, adaptations, handy wrinkles, and vital changes in strategy and tactics. Taken together, these improvements may well make us of the twentieth century wonder whether we are so very much superior to the comrades of Henry, Elizabeth, Shakespeare, Bacon, Raleigh, and Drake.
A complete bibliography concerned with the first century of Anglo-American affairs (1496-1596) would more than fill the present volume. But really informatory books about the sea-dogs proper are very few indeed, while good books of any kind are none too common.
Taking this first century as a whole, the general reader cannot do better than look up the third volume of Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America (1884) and the first volume of Avery's History of the United States and its People (1904). Both give elaborate references to documents and books, but neither professes to be at all expert in naval or nautical matters, and a good deal has been written since.
THE CABOTS. Cabot literature is full of conjecture and controversy. G.P. Winship's Cabot Bibliography (1900) is a good guide to all but recent works. Nicholls' Remarkable Life of Sebastian Cabot (1869) shows more zeal than discretion. Harrisse's John Cabot and his son Sebastian (1896) arranges the documents in scholarly order but draws conclusions betraying a wonderful ignorance of the coast. On the whole, Dr. S.E. Dawson's very careful monographs in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada (1894, 1896, 1897) are the happiest blend of scholarship and local knowledge. Neither the Cabots nor their crews appear to have written a word about their adventures and discoveries. Consequently the shifting threads of hearsay evidence soon became inextricably tangled. Biggar's Precursors of Cartier is an able and accurate work.
ELIZABETH. Turning to the patriot queen who had to steer England through so many storms and tortuous channels, we could find no better short guide to her political career than Beesley's volume about her in 'Twelve English Statesmen.' But the best all-round biography is Queen Elizabeth by Mandell Creighton, who also wrote an excellent epitome, called The Age of Elizabeth, for the 'Epochs of Modern History.' Shakespeare's England, published in 1916 by the Oxford University Press, is quite encyclopaedic in its range.
LIFE AFLOAT. The general evolution of wooden sailing craft may be traced out in Part I of Sir George Holmes's convenient little treatise on Ancient and Modern Ships. There is no nautical dictionary devoted to Elizabethan times. But a good deal can be picked up from the two handy modern glossaries of Dana and Admiral Smyth, the first being an American author, the second a British one. Smyth's Sailor's Word Book has no alternative title. But Dana's Seaman's Friend is known in England under the name of The Seaman's Manual. Technicalities change so much more slowly afloat than ashore that even the ultra-modern editions of Paasch's magnificent polyglot dictionary, From Keel to Truck, still contain many nautical terms which will help the reader out of some of his difficulties.
The life of the sea-dogs, gentlemen-adventurers, and merchant-adventurers should be studied in Hakluyt's collection of Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques, and Discoveries; though many of his original authors were landsmen while a few were civilians as well. This Elizabethan Odyssey, the great prose epic of the English race, was first published in a single solemn folio the year after the Armada—1589. In the nineteenth century the Hakluyt Society reprinted and edited these Navigations and many similar works, though not without employing some editors who had no knowledge of the Navy or the sea. In 1893 E.J. Payne brought out a much handier edition of the Voyages of the Elizabethan Seamen to America which gives the very parts of Hakluyt we want for our present purpose, and gives them with a running accompaniment of pithy introductions and apposite footnotes. Nearly all historians are both landsmen and civilians whose sins of omission and commission are generally at their worst in naval and nautical affairs. But James Anthony Froude, whatever his other faults may be, did know something of life afloat, and his English Seamen in the Sixteenth Century, despite its ultra-Protestant tone, is well worth reading.
HAWKINS. The Hawkins Voyages, published by the Hakluyt Society, give the best collection of original accounts. They deal with three generations of this famous family and are prefaced by a good introduction. A Sea-Dog of Devon, by R.A.J. Walling (1907) is the best recent biography of Sir John Hawkins.
DRAKE. Politics, policy, trade, and colonization were all dependent on sea power; and just as the English Navy was by far the most important factor in solving the momentous New-World problems of that awakening age, so Drake was by far the most important factor in the English Navy. The Worlde Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake and Sir Francis Drake his Voyage, 1595, are two of the volumes edited by the Hakluyt Society. But these contemporary accounts of his famous fights and voyages do not bring out the supreme significance of his influence as an admiral, more especially in connection with the Spanish Armada. It must always be a matter of keen, though unavailing, regret that Admiral Mahan, the great American expositor of sea power, began with the seventeenth, not the sixteenth, century. But what Mahan left undone was afterwards done to admiration by Julian Corbett, Lecturer in History to the (British) Naval War College, whose Drake and the Tudor Navy (1912) is absolutely indispensable to any one who wishes to understand how England won her footing in America despite all that Spain could do to stop her. Corbett's Drake (1890) in the 'English Men of Action' series is an excellent epitome. But the larger book is very much the better. Many illuminative documents on The Defeat of the Spanish Armada were edited in 1894 by Corbett's predecessor, Sir John Laughton. The only other work that need be consulted is the first volume of The Royal Navy: a History, edited by Sir William Laird Clowes (1897). This is not so good an authority as Corbett; but it contains many details which help to round the story out, besides a wealth of illustration.
RALEIGH. Gilbert, Cavendish, Raleigh, and the other gentlemen-adventurers, were soldiers, not sailors; and if they had gone afloat two centuries later they would have fought at the head of marines, not of blue-jackets; so their lives belong to a different kind of biography from that concerned with Hawkins, Frobisher. and Drake. Edwards's Life of Sir Walter Raleigh (1868) contains all the most interesting letters and is a competent work of its own kind. Oldys' edition of Raleigh's Works still holds the field though its eight volumes were published so long ago as 1829. Raleigh's Discovery of Guiana is the favorite for reprinting. The Hakluyt Society has produced an elaborate edition (1847) while a very cheap and handy one has been published in Cassell's National Library. W.G. Gosling's Life of Sir Humphry Gilbert (1911) is the best recent work of its kind.
The likeliest of all the Hakluyt Society's volumes, so far as its title is concerned, is one which has hardly any direct bearing on the subject of our book. Yet the reader who is disappointed by the text of Divers Voyages to America because it is not devoted to Elizabethan sea-dogs will be richly rewarded by the notes on pages 116-141. These quaint bits of information and advice were intended for quite another purpose, But their transcriber's faith in their wider applicability is fully justified. Here is the exact original heading under which they first appeared: Notes in Writing besides More Privie by Mouth that were given by a Gentleman, Anno 1580, to M. Arthure Pette and to M. Charles Jackman, sent by the Marchants of the Muscovie Companie for the discouerie of the northeast strayte, not all together vnfit for some other enterprises of discouerie hereafter to bee taken in hande.
See also in The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Ed. the articles on Henry VIII, Elizabeth, Drake, Raleigh, etc.
Alva, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, 98 et seq.
Amadas, in America (1584), 151, 210
America; an obstacle to the circumnavigation of the world, 11; as a reputed source of gold and silver, 65
Angel, The, ship, 86
Anton, Senor Juan de, 133
Antonio, Don, pretender to the throne of Portugal, 164; and the English at Lisbon, 194
Antwerp, 98, 99, 100
Armada, 145, 150, 153, 156, 164, 165, 172, 191, 214
Aviles, Don Pedro Menendez de, 86
Azores, 150, 169, 194
Baber, Sultan in the Moluccas, 141
Bacon, Francis, Lord, 62, 210
Balboa crosses Isthmus of Panama (1513), 19
Barlow, in America (1584), 151, 210
Baskerville, Sir Thomas, 224, 227 et seq.
Bazan, Don Alonzo de, 197, 200
Bible, authorized version of, 49, 216
'Bond of Association,' 152 Brazil, voyage of Hawkins to, 33-4
Bristol, Cabot settles in, 3
Burleigh, Lord, 87, 119, 144, 156, 162, 167, 206
Cabot, John, transfers allegiance from Genoa to Venice (1476), 1; Cabottaggio, 2; reaches Cape Breton (1497), 7; returns to Bristol, 7; receives a present of L10 from Henry VII, 8; disappears at sea (1498),8-9, 14; believes America the eastern limit of the Old World, 11; bibliography, 241
Cabot, Sebastian, second son of John, 9; takes command of expedition to America, 9; leaves men to explore Newfoundland, 9; coasts Greenland, 12; explores Atlantic Coast, 12; enters service of Ferdinand of Spain as Captain of the Sea,' 15; Charles V makes him 'Chief Pilot and Examiner of Pilots,' 15; determines longitude of Moluccas, 15; voyage to South America, 15; makes a map of the world, 15; leaves Spain for England(1548), 16; receives pension from Edward VI, 16; feasts at Gravesend with the Serchthrift, 16-17; Governor of Muscovy Company, 16, 31; sailing of the Serchthrift, 32; bibliography, 241
Cadiz, 165 et seq.
California, 137, 138, 212
Canaries, 157, 226
Cape Breton, Cabot reaches (1497), 7
Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama sails around, 18
Cape St. Vincent, Drake plans to capture, 167
Caribs, 80, 158
Carleill, 154, 156, 157, 160
Cartagena, 88, 108 et seq., 156, 159
Cartier, Jacques, second voyage (1535), 12; discovers St. Lawrence, 71
Cathay, Sebastian Cabot searches for passage to, 11; Sir Hugh Willoughby tries to find Northeast passage to, 30
Cavendish, Thomas, 212
Cecil, Sir Robert, 206
Charles V of Spain, maritime rival of Henry VIII, 22-25; his dominions, 23; feud with France, 23-24; hostile to England, 29; Spanish dominion, 71; father of Don John of Austria, 117
Chesapeake Bay, 220
Cockeram, Martin, 34
Coligny, Admiral, 207
Columbus, Christopher, citizen of Genoa, 1-2; visit to Iceland, 3; fame eclipses that of the Cabots, 13; reasons for his significance, 13; 400th anniversary of his discovery, 14; replica of the Santa Maria, 235
Complaynt of Scotland, The, 42
Cordial Advice, 40
Corunna, 178, 192
Cosa, Juan de la, makes first dated (1500) map of America, 14
Croatoan Island, 213 et seq.
Crowndale, Drake's birthplace, 95
Cumberland, Earl of, 197
Cuttyhunk Island, 216
Dare, Virginia, 215
Delight, The, ship, 209
De Soto, 19, 81
Doughty, Thomas, 116, 120, 123 et seq., 127
Dragon, The, ship, 101
Drake, Sir Francis, born the same year as modern sea-power (1545), 28; on the Minion, 92; Son of Edmund Drake, 95; boyhood, 96 et seq.; as lieutenant, on escort to wool-fleet, 100; marries Mary Newman, 100; sails on Nombre de Dios expedition, 101 et seq.; Drake and Nombre de Dios, 104; sees the Pacific, 110; attacks a Spanish treasure train, 111 et seq.; returns to England (1573), 114; goes to Ireland, 115; recalled for consultation, 118; audience with the Queen, 119; plans to raid the Pacific, 119; sails ostensibly for Egypt, 120; his Famous Voyage (1577), 121; has trouble with Doughty, 124; whom he puts to death, 125; winters in Patagonia, 125; overcomes disaffection of his men, 126; sails through Straits of Magellan, 128; enters Pacific, 128; takes the Grand Captain of the South, 129; scours the Pacific taking prizes, 130; at Lima, 130; pursues Spanish treasure ship, 131; captures Don Juan de Anton, 133; sails north, 137; considered a god by the Indians, 138 et seq.; arrives at Moluccas, 141; lays foundation of English diplomacy in Eastern seas, 142; Golden Hind aground, 142; uncertainty at home as to his fate, 144; arrives at Plymouth, 145; knighted by Elizabeth, 148; plans a raid on New Spain, 151; prepares for Indies voyage of 1585, 153; calls at Vigo, 155; plans a raid on New Spain, 156; captures Santiago and San Domingo, 157; takes Cartagena, 159; calls at Roanoke, 162; arrives at Plymouth, (1580), 162; expedition to Cadiz, 165; arrests Borough, 167; conquers Sagres Castle, 167; takes Spanish treasure ship, 169; defeats the Armada, 172-191; undertakes Lisbon expedition (1589), 192; his achievement, 201; in disfavor, 223; in unhappy combination with Hawkins, 224; West Indies voyage, 225; seizes La Hacha, Santa Marta, and Nombre de Dios, 227; his last days, 228; his death, 229; bibliography, 243-4
Drake, Edmund, 95
Drake, Jack, 121, 132
Drake's Bay, 138
East India Company, 63, 171, 215
Edward VI, 29, 50
Elizabeth, the England of, 48 et seq.; early life, 50; and Mary, 51; and Anne of Cleves, 51; ascends the throne, 52; difficulty of her position, 53; and finance, 55; her court, 68; her love of luxury, 68-69; commandeers Spanish gold, 99; deposed by Pope, 100; tortuous Spanish policy, 117; consults Drake, 119; receives Drake on his return, 146; banquets on the Golden Hind, 148; knights Drake, 148; Babington Plot again, 163; beheads Mary Queen of Scots, 165; the Armada, 176 et seq.; the Lisbon expedition, 192; dies, 216; bibliography, 242
Elizabeth, The, ship, 121
Essex, Earl of, 116, 118
Field of the Cloth of Gold, 234
Fleming, Captain, 179, 190
Fletcher, Chaplain, 125, 128, 143
Fletcher of Rye, discovers the art of tacking, 26; as a shipwright, 233
Florida, 81, 82, 162
Francis I, of France, maritime rival of Henry VIII, 22, 24, 71
Frobisher, Martin, 120, 154, 160, 220
Fuller, Thomas, author of The Worthies of England, 101, 237
Gamboa, Don Pedro Sarmiento de, 135
Genoa, the home of Cabot and Columbus, 2
George Noble, The, ship, 198
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, 208-210
Gilbert, Raleigh, 219
God Save the King! 95
Golden Hind, The, ship, 121, 127, 129, 132 et seq., 136, 141, 142, 144, 145, 147, 154, 179
Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, 217
Gosnold, Bartholomew, 216
Grand Captain of the South, The, ship, 129
Gravelines, battle at, 32, 190
Great Harry, The, ship, 234
Grenville, Sir Richard, 195 et seq., 220
Gresham, Sir Thomas, 60
Hakluyt's Voyages, 33
Hakluyt Society, 242 et seq.
Harriot, Thomas, 212
Harrison's description of England, 69-70
Hatton, Sir Christopher, 127, 146
Hawkins, Sir John, son of William Hawkins, 34; enters slave trade with New Spain (1562), 74; takes 300 slaves at Sierra Leona, 75; second expedition (1564), 75; issues sailing orders, 76; John Sparke's account, 77; at Teneriffe, 77; meets Peter de Ponte, 78; Arbol Santo tree, 78; takes many Sapies, 79; at Sambula, 79; island of the Cannibals, 80; makes for Florida, 80; finds French settlement, 82 et seq.; sells the Tiger, 85; sails north to Newfoundland, 85; arrives at Padstow, Cornwall (1565), 85; a favorite at court, 85; watched by Spain, 86; sets out on third voyage (1567), 86; begins the sea-dog fighting with Spain, 86; Drake joins the expedition, 86; disasters, 87; crosses from Africa to West Indies, 88; clashes with Spaniards at Rio de la Hacha, 88; at Cartagena, 89; at St. John de Ulua, 89; fight with the Spaniards, 90 et seq.; parted from Drake in a storm, 93; leaves part of his men ashore, 93; voyage ends in disaster, 94; strikes another blow at Spain (1595), 223; unhappily combined with Drake, 224; sails for New Spain 226; dies, 226; bibliography, 243
Hawkins, Sir Richard, grandson of William Hawkins, 35
Hawkins, William, story of, in Hakluyt Voyages, 33 et seq.; father of Sir John Hawkins, 34; grandfather of Sir Richard Hawkins, 35, and of the second William Hawkins, 35
Hawkins, William, the Second, grandson of William Hawkins, 35
Henry IV of France, 223
Henry VII, Cabot enters service of, 3; refuses to patronize Columbus, 4; gives patent to the Cabots, 4-6
Henry VIII, the monarch of the sea, 20; establishes a modern fleet and the office of the Admiralty, 21; a patron of sailors, 22; menaced by Scotland, France, and Spain, 25; defies the Pope, 25; defies Francis I, 26; birth of modern sea-power (1545), 28; and the voyage of Hawkins, 33-34; as a patron of the Navy, 232 et seq.
Henry Grace a Dieu, The, ship, 234
Honduras, 156, 228
Hore, his voyage to America, 33 et seq.
Hortop, Job, 94
Howard of Effingham, Lord, 31, 176, 189, 197
Hudson Strait, Sebastian Cabot misses, 12
India, Sebastian Cabot searches for passage to, 11
Ingram, David, 94
Inquisition, Spanish, 29, 73
Ireland, 147, 191
James I of England, 216, 218
Jefferys, Thomas, 66
Jesus, The, ship, see Jesus of Lubeck
Jesus of Lubeck, The, ship, 75, 76, 86, 89, 91 et seq.
Judith, The, ship, 86, 92 et seq., 98
La Dragontea, by Lope de Vega, 157
La Hacha, 156, 227
Lane, Ralph, 162, 196, 212
La Rochelle, 100
Laudonniere, Rene de, 82 et seq.
Leicester, Earl, of, 146, 164, 176
Lepanto, 117, 185
Lima, 130, 135, 144
Lines of Torres Vedras, 194
Lisbon, 144, 168, 192, 223 et seq.
London merchants, 144, 140, 171, 218
Lope de Vega, 157
Madrid, 86, 172
Magellan, Strait of, 120, 127, 128
Manoa, 221, 222
Map, Juan de la Cosa's earliest dated (1500) map of America, 14; of world by Sebastian Cabot (1544), 15; of America by Thomas Jefferys, 66
Marigold, The, ship, 121, 126, 128, 129
Martin, Don, 134, 153
Mary, Queen of Scots, 31, 50 et seq., 117, 121, 149, 152, 163, 164, 216
Matthew, The, ship, 7
Medina Sidonia, Duke of, 175
Menendez, 115, 150
Middleton, Captain, 197
Minion, The, ship, 86, 91 et seq.
Monopoly, 58, 66
Moone, Tom, 129, 154, 161
Mosquito, Lopez de, 141
Mountains of Bright Stones, 86, 221, 222
Muscovy Company, 16, 31
Navigation, encouraged by Henry VIII, 21, 25, 27; art of tacking discovered, 26; birth of modern sea-power, 28; sea-songs, 37 et seq.; nautical terms, 42 et seq.; Pette and Jackman's advice to traders, 122-123 ftn.; Francisco de Zarate's account of Drake's Golden Hind, 136-137; appendix; note on Tudor shipping, 231-239; bibliography, 242
New Albion, 136, 140
Newfoundland fisheries, Bacon on, 62
New France, 72, 205
Nombre de Dios, 101 et seq., 12O, 135, 156, 227
Norreys, Sir John, 176, 193
Northwest Passage, 120, 137
Oxenham, John, 105, 109, 116, 144
Pacific Ocean, taken possession of by Balboa (1513), 18; Drake enters, 128 et seq.
Panama, 19, 103, 108, 120, 132, 135, 156, 227
Parma, 172 et seq., 189
Pascha, The, ship, 101, 106, 109, 114
Pedro de Valdes, Don, 188
Pelican, The, ship, 121, 127
Philip of Spain, marries Queen Mary, 31; protests against Drake's actions, 87; plans to seize Scilly Isles, 115; soldiers sack Antwerp, 116; seizes Portugal, 144; prepares a fleet, 150; Paris plot with Mary, 150; seizes English merchant fleet, 152; duped by Hawkins, 153; his credit low, 163; resumes mobilization, 172; prepares the Armada, 174 et seq.
Philippines, Vasco da Gama reaches, 19; Drake sails to, 141
Pines, Isle of, 103
Plymouth, 96, 98, 114, 145, 162, 178-180, 217, 225
Plymouth Company, 218
Pole of Plimmouth, The, ship, 33
Ponte, Peter de, 78
Popham, George, 219
Porto Rico, 225, 226
Potosi, 28, 73, 95, 130
Primrose, The, ship, 152
Pring, Martin, 217
Puerto Bello. 229
Purchas, Samuel, 203
Ralegh, City of, in Virginia, 213
Raleigh, The, ship, 209
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 195, 205-222; bibliography, 244-245
Ranse, 103, 108
Revenge, The, ship, 188, 192-204
Ribaut, Jean, 82
Roanoke Island, 162, 210 et seq.
Sagres Castle, 167
St. Augustine, 86, 162
San Domingo, 156, 157, 161
San Felipe, The, ship, 197 et seq.
San Francisco, 137, 138
San Juan de Ulua, 89, 98, 99, 153
Santa Anna, The, ship, 212
Santa Cruz, 150, 172 et seq.
Santa Marta, 156, 227
Scilly Isles, 114, 115, 153
Serchthrift, The, ship, 16-17, 32
Shipping, note on Tudor, 231-239
Sidney, Sir Philip, 155, 164, 195
Slave Trade, 74 et seq.
Solomon, The, ship, 76
Somerset, 29-30, 53, 96
Southampton, Earl of, 217
Spain, rights of discovery, 6; Spanish Inquisition, 29, 73; breach with England, 72; Spanish gold in London, 73; Spaniards in Florida, 81-82; the 'Spanish Fury' of 1576, 116; Drake clips the wings of Spain, 149-171; Drake and the Spanish Armada, 172-191; Lisbon expedition, 192 et seq.; the last fight of the Revenge, 197 et seq.
Sparke, John, his account of Sir John Hawkins's Voyage to Florida, 77 et seq.
Spitfire, The, ship, 132
Squirrel, The, ship, 210
Swallow, The, ship, 86
Swan, The, ship, 101, 106, 109, 121, 129
Ternate, Island of, 141, 142
Tetu, Capt., 112 et seq.
Throgmorton, Elizabeth, 220
Tiger, The, ship, 60, 85, 154
Torres Vedras, Lines of, 194
Vasco da Gama finds sea route to India (1498), 18
Venice, importance in trade, 2; Cabot becomes a citizen of, 2
Venta Cruz, 111
Vera Cruz, 89
Virginia, 62, 151. 196, 205, 210, 219
Walsingham, Sir Francis, 118, 146
West Indies, 84, 157, 201, 208, 219, 225 et seq.
Westward Ho! Kingsley's, 105
Weymouth, George, 218
White, John, 212 et seq.
William and John, The, ship, 86
William of Orange, 152, 207.
Willoughby, Sir Hugh, tries to find Northwest Passage, 30; dies in Lapland, 30
Woolwich, 153, 238
Worthies of England, The, by Thomas Fuller, 101, 237
Zarate, Don Francisco de, 136