ESSAYS, Political, Economical and Philosophical. Volume 1.
by Benjamin Rumford
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The greatest severity is necessary upon these occasions, otherwise it would be impossible to prevent abuses. An establishment, designed for the encouragement of genius, and for calling forth into public utility talents which would otherwise remain buried and lost in obscurity, would soon become a job for providing for relations and dependants.

One circumstance, relative to the internal arrangement of this Academy, may, perhaps, be though not unworthy of being particularly mentioned, and that is the very moderate expence at which the institution is maintained. By a calculation, founded upon the experience of four years, I find that the whole Academy, consisting of 180 pupils, with professors and masters of every kind, servants, clothing, board, lodging, fire-wood, light, repairs, and every other article, house-rent alone excepted, amounts to no more than 28,000 florins a-year, which is no more than 155 florins, or about fourteen pounds sterling a-year for each pupil; a small sum indeed, considering the manner in which they are kept, and the education they receive.

Though this Academy is called a Military Academy, it is by no means confined to the education of those who are destined for the army; but it is rather an establishment of general education, where the youth are instructed in every science, and taught every bodily exercise, and personal accomplishment, which constitute a liberal education; and which fits them equally for the station of a private gentleman,—for the study of any of the learned professions,—or for any employment, civil or military, under the government.

As this institution is principally designed as a nursery for genius,—as a gymnasium for the formation of men,—for the formation of REAL MEN, possessed of strength and character, as well as talents and accomplishments, and capable of rendering essential service to the state; at all public examinations of the pupils, the heads of all the pupil departments are invited to be present, in order to witness the progress of the pupils, and to mark those who discover talents peculiarly useful in any particular departments or public employment.

How far the influence of this establishment may extend, time must discover. It has existed only six years; but even in that short period, we have had several instances of very uncommon talents having been called forth into public view, from the most obscure situations. I only wish that the institution may be allowed to subsist.

An Account of the Means used to improve the BREED of HORSE, and HORNED CATTLE, in BAVARIA and the PALATINATE.

Through many parts of the Elector's dominions are well adapted for the breeding of fine horses, and great numbers of horses are actually bred[1]; yet no great attention had for many years been paid to the improvement of the breed; and most of the horses of distinction, such as were used by the nobility as saddle-horses and coach-horses, were imported from Holstein and Mecklenburg.

Being engaged in the arrangement of a new military system for the country, it occurred to me that, in providing horses for the use of the army, and particularly for the train of artillery, such measures might be adopted as would tend much to improve the breed of horses throughout the country; and my proposals meeting with the approbation of his Most Serene Electoral Highness, the plan was carried into execution in the following manner:

A number of fine mares were purchased with money take from the military chest, and being marked with an M (the initial of

Militaria), in a circle, upon the left hip, with a hot iron, they were given to such of the peasants, owning or leasing farms proper for breeding good horses, as applied for them. The conditions upon which these brood mares were given away were as follows:

They were, in the first place, given away gratis, and the person who received one of these mares is allowed to consider her as his own property, and use her in any kind of work he thinks proper; he is, however, obliged not only to keep her, and not to sell her, or give her away, but he is also under obligations to keep her as a brood mare, and to have her regularly covered every season, by a stallion pointed out to him by the commissioners, who are put at the head of this establishment. If she dies, he must replace her with another brood mare, which must be approved by the commissioners, and then marked.—If one of these mares should be found not to bring good colts, or to have any blemish, or essential fault or imperfection, she may be changed for another.

The stallions which are provided for these mares, and which are under the care of the commissioners, are provided gratis; and the foals are the sole property of those who keep the mares, and they may sell them, or dispose of them, when and where, and in any way they may think proper, in the same manner as they dispose of any other foal, brought by any other mare.

In case the army should be obliged to take the field, AND IN NO OTHER CASE WHATEVER, those who are in possession of these mares are obliged either to return them, or to furnish, for the use of the army, another horse fit for the service of the artillery.

The advantages of this arrangement to the army are obvious. In the case of an emergency, horses are always at hand, and these horses being bought in time of peace cost much less than it would be necessary to pay for them, were they to be purchased in a hurry upon the breaking out of a war, upon which occasions they are always dear, and sometimes not to be had for money.

It may perhaps be objected, that the money being laid out so long before the horses are wanted, the loss of the interest of the purchase-money ought to be taken into account; but as large sums of money must always be kept in readiness in the military chest, to enable the army to take the field suddenly, in case it should be necessary; and as a part of this money must be employed in the purchase of horses; it may as well be laid out beforehand, as to lie dead in the military chest till the horses are actually wanted; consequently the objection is not founded.

I wish I could say, that this measure had been completely successful; but I am obliged to own, that it has not answered my expectations. Six hundred mares only were at first ordered to be purchased and distributed; but I had hopes of seeing that number augmented soon to as many thousands; and I had even flattered myself with an idea of the possibility of placing in this manner among the peasants, and consequently having constantly in readiness, without any expence, a sufficient number of horses for the whole army; for the cavalry as well as for the artillery and baggage; and I had formed a plan for collecting together and exercising, every year, such of these horses as were destined for the service of the cavalry, and for permitting their riders to go on furlough with their horses: in short, my views went to the forming of an arrangement, very economical, and in many respects similar to that of the ancient feudal military system; but the obstinacy of the peasantry prevented these measures being carried into execution. Very few of them could be prevailed upon to accept of these horses; and in proportion as the terms upon which they were offered to them were apparently advantageous, their suspicions were increased, and they never would be persuaded that there was not some trick at the bottom of the scheme to over-reach them.

It is possible that their suspicions were not a little increased by the malicious insinuations of persons, who, from motives too obvious to require any explanation, took great pains at that time to render abortive every public undertaking in which I was engaged. But be that as it may, the fact is, I could never find means to remove these suspicions entirely, and I met with so much difficulty in carrying the measure into execution, that I was induced at last to abandon it, or rather to postpone its execution to a more favourable moment. Some few mares (two or three hundred) were placed in different parts of the country; and some very fine colts have been produced from them, during the six years that have elapsed since this institution was formed; but these slow advances do not satisfy the ardour of my zeal for improvement; and if means are not found to accelerate them, Bavaria, with all her natural advantages for breeding fine horses, must be obliged, for many years to come, to continue to import horses from foreign countries.

My attempts to improve the breed of horned cattle, though infinitely more confined, have been proportionally much more successful. Upon forming the public garden at Munich, as the extent of the grounds is very considerable, the garden being above six English miles in circumference, and the soil being remarkably good, I had an opportunity of making, within the garden, a very fine and a very valuable farm; and this farm being stocked with about thirty of the finest cows that could be procured from Switzerland, Flanders, Tyrol, and other places upon the Continent famous for a good breed of horned cattle; and this flock being refreshed annually with new importations of cows as well as bulls, all the cows which are produced, are distributed in the country, being sold to any person of the country who applies for them, AND WITH PROMISE TO REAR THEM, at the same low prices at which the most ordinary calves of the common breed of the country are sold to the butchers.

Though this establishment has existed only about six years, it is quite surprising what a change it has produced in the country. As there is a great resort to Munich from all parts of the country, it being the capital, and the residence of the Sovereign, the new English garden (as it is called), which begins upon the ramparts of the town, and extends near two English miles in length, and is always kept open, is much frequented, and there are few who go into the garden without paying a visit to the cows, which are always at home. Their stables, which are concealed in a thick wood behind a public coffee-house or tavern in the middle of the garden, are elegantly fitted up and kept with great care; and the cows, which are not only large, and remarkably beautiful, but are always kept perfectly clean, and in the highest condition, are an object of public curiosity. Those who are not particularly interested in the improvement of cattle, go to see them as beautiful and extraordinary animals; but farmers and connoisseurs go to EXAMINE them,—to compare them with each other,—and with the common breed of the country, and to get information with respect to the manner of feeding them, and the profits derived from them; and so rapidly has the flame of improvement spread throughout every part of Bavaria from this small spark, that I have no doubt but in a very few years the breed of horned cattle will be quite changed.

Not satisfied with the scanty supply furnished from the farm in the English garden, several of the nobility, and some of the most wealthy and enterprising of the farmers, are sending to Switzerland, and other distant countries famous for fine cattle, for cows and bulls; and the good effects of these exertions are already visible in many parts of the country.

How very easy would it be by similar means to introduce a spirit of improvement in any country! and where sovereigns do not make public gardens to bring together a concourse of people, individuals might do it by private subscription, or at least they might unite together and rent a large farm in the neighbourhood of the capital, for the purpose of making useful experiments. If such a farm were well managed, the produce of it would be more than sufficient to pay all the expenses attending it; and if the grounds and fields were laid out with taste—if good roads for carriages and for those who ride on horseback were made round it, and between all the fields—if the stables were elegantly fitted up—filled with beautiful cattle, kept perfectly clean and neat; and if a handsome inn were erected near the buildings of the farm, where those who visited it might be furnished with refreshment, it would soon become a place of public resort and improvements in agriculture would become A FASHIONABLE AMUSEMENT; the ladies even would take pleasure in viewing from their carriages the busy and most interesting scenes of rural industry, and it would no longer be thought vulgar to understand the mysteries of Ceres.

Why should not Parliament purchase, or rent such a farm in the neighbourhood of London, and put it under the direction of the Board of Agriculture? The expence would be but a mere trifle, if any thing, and the institution would not only be useful, but extremely interesting; and it would be an inexhaustible source of rational and innocent amusement, as well as of improvement to vast numbers of the most respectable inhabitants of this great metropolis.

In former times, statesmen considered the amusement of the public as an object of considerable importance, and pains were taken to render the public amusements useful in forming the national character.

An Account of the Measures adopted for putting an End to USURY at MUNICH.

Another measure, more limited in its operations than those before mentioned, but which notwithstanding was productive of much good, was adopted, in which a part of the treasure which was lying dead in the military chest was usefully employed for the relief of a considerable number of individuals, employed in subordinate stations under the government, who stood in great need of assistance.

A practice productive of much harm to the public service, as well as to individuals, had prevailed for many years in Bavaria in almost all the public departments of the state, that of appointing a great number of supernumerary clerks, secretaries, counsellors, etc. who, serving without pay, or with only small allowances, were obliged, in order to subsist till such time as they should come into the receipt of the regulated salaries annexed to their offices, to contract debts to a considerable amount; and as many of them had no other security to give for the sums borrowed, than their promise to repay them when it should be in their power, no money-lender who contented himself with legal interest for his money would trust them; and of course they were obliged to have recourse to Jews and other usurers, who did not afford them the temporary assistance they required, but upon the most exorbitant and ruinous conditions; so that these unfortunate people, instead of finding themselves at their ease upon coming into possession of the emoluments of their offices, were frequently so embarrassed in their circumstances as to be obliged to mortgage their salaries for many months to come, to raise money to satisfy their clamorous creditors; and from this circumstance, and from the general prevalence of luxury and dissipation among all ranks of society, the anticipation of salaries had become so prevalent, and the conditions upon which money was advanced upon such security was so exorbitant, that this alarming evil called for the most serious attention of the government.

The interest commonly paid for money, advanced upon receipts for salaries, was 5 PER CENT. PER MONTH, or three creutzers, for the florin; and there were instances of even much larger interest being given.

The severest laws had been made to prevent these abuses, but means were constantly found to evade them; and, instead of putting an end to the evil, they frequently served rather to increase it.

It occurred to me, that as any tradesman may be ruined by another who can afford to undersell him, so it might be possible to ruin the usurers, by setting up the business in opposition to them, and furnishing money to borrowers upon more reasonable terms. In order to make this experiment, a caise of advance (Vorschuss Cassa), containing 30,000 florins, was established at the military pay-office, where any person in the actual receipt of a salary or pension under government, in any department of the state, civil or military, might receive in advance, upon his personal application, his salary or pension for one or for two months upon a deduction of interest at the rate of 5 PER CENT. PER ANNUM, or one twelfth part of the interest commonly extorted by the Jews and other usurers upon those occasions.

The great number of persons who have availed themselves of the advantages held out to them by this establishment, and who still continue to avail themselves of them, shows how effectually the establishment has been to remedy the evil it was designed to eradicate.

The number of persons who apply to this chest for assistance each month, is at a medium from 300 to 400, and the sums actually in advance, amount in general to above 20,000 florins.

As no money is advanced from this chest but upon government securities that is to say, upon receipts for salaries, and pensions, there is no risque attending the operation; and as the interest arising from the money advanced, is more than sufficient to defray the expence of carrying on the business, there is no loss whatever attending it.

An Account of a SCHEME for employing the SOLDIERY in BAVARIA in repairing the Highways and Public Roads.

I had formed a plan, which, if it had been executed, would have rendered the military posts or patroles of cavalry established in all parts of the Elector's dominions much more interesting, and more useful[2]. I wished to have employed the soldiery exclusively in the repairs of all the highways in the country, and to have united this undertaking with the establishment of permanent military stations, on all the high roads, for the preservation of order and public tranquillity.

It is a great hardship upon the inhabitants in any country to be obliged to leave their own domestic affairs, and turn out with their cattle and servants, when called upon, to work upon the public roads; but this was peculiarly grievous in Bavaria, where labourers are so scarce that the farmers are frequently obliged to leave a great part of their grounds uncultivated for want of hands.

My plan was to measure all the public roads from the capital cities in the Elector's dominions to the frontiers, and all cross country roads; placing mile-stones regularly numbered upon each road, at regular distances of one hour, or half a German mile from each other;—to divide each road into as many stations as it contained mile-stones; each station extending from one mile-stone to another; and to erect in the middle of each station, by the road-side, a small house, with stabling for three or four horses, and with a small garden adjoining to it;—to place in each of these houses, a small detachment of cavalry of three or four men, —a soldier on furlough, employed to take care of the road and keep it in repair within the limits of the station;—an invalid soldier to take care of the house, and to receive orders and messages in the absence of the others,—to take care of the garden, to provide provisions, and cook for the family.

If any of the soldiers should happen to be married, his wife might have been allowed to lodge in the house, upon condition of her assisting the invalid soldier in this service; or a pensioned soldier's widow might have been employed for the same purpose.

To preserve order and discipline in these establishments, it was proposed to employ active and intelligent non-commissioned officers as overseers of the highways, and to place these under the orders of superior officers appointed to preside over more extensive districts.

It was proposed likewise to plant rows of useful trees by the road-side from one station to another throughout the whole country, and it was calculated that after a certain number of years the produce of those trees would have been nearly sufficient to defray all the expences of repairing the roads.

Such an arrangement, with the striking appearance of order and regularity that would accompany it, could not have failed to interest every person of feeling who saw it; and I am persuaded that such a scheme might be carried into execution with great advantage in most countries where standing armies are kept up in time of peace. The reasons why this plan was not executed in Bavaria at the time it was proposed are too long, and too foreign to my present purpose to be here related. Perhaps a time may come when they will cease to exist.


ADDRESS and PETITION to all the Inhabitants and Citizens of MUNICH, in the Name of the real Poor and Distressed.

(Translated from the German).

Too long have the public honour and safety, morality and religion, called aloud for the extirpation of an evil, which, though habit has rendered it familiar to us, always appears in all its horrid and disgusting shapes; and whose dangerous effects show themselves every where, and are increasing every day.

Too long already have the virtuous citizens of this metropolis seen with concern the growing numbers of the Beggars, their impudence, and their open and shameless debaucheries; yet idleness and mendicity (those pests of society) have been so feebly counteracted, that, instead of being checked and suppressed, they have triumphed over those weak attempts to restrain them and acquiring fresh vigour and activity from success, have spread their baleful influence far and wide.

What well-affected citizen can be indifferent to the shame that devolves upon himself and upon his country, when whole swarms of dissolute rabble, covered with filthy rags, parade the streets, and by tales of real or of fictitious distress—by clamorous importunity, insolence, and rudeness, extort involuntary contributions from every traveller? When no retreat is to be found, no retirement where poverty, misery, and impudent hypocrisy, in all their disgusting and hideous forms, do not continually intrude; when no one is permitted to enjoy a peaceful moment, free from their importunity, either in the churches or in public places, at the tombs of the dead, or at the places of amusement? What avail the marks of affluence and prosperity which appear in the dress and equipage of individuals, in the elegance of their dwellings, and in the magnificence and splendid ornaments of our churches, while the voice of woe is heard in every corner, proceeding from the lips of hoary age worn out with labour; from strong and healthy men capable of labour; from young infants and their shameless and abandoned parents? What reputable citizen would not blush, if among the inmates of his house should be found a miserable wretch, who by tales of real or fictitious distress should attempt to extort charitable donations from his friends and visitors? What opinion would he expect would be formed of his understanding—of his heart—of his circumstances? What then must the foreigner and traveller think, who, after having seen no vestige of Beggary in the neighbouring countries, should, upon his arrival at Munich, find himself suddenly surrounded by a swarm of groaning winching wretches, besieging and following his carriage?

THE PUBLIC HONOUR calls aloud to have a stop put to this disgraceful evil.

THE PUBLIC SAFETY also demands it. The dreadful consequences are obvious, which must ensue when great numbers of healthy individuals, and whole families, live in idleness, without any settled abode, concluding every day with schemes for defrauding the public of their subsistence for the next: where the children belonging to this numerous society are made use of to impose on the credulity of the benevolent, and where they are regularly trained, from their earliest infancy, in all those infamous practices, which are carried on systematically, and to such an alarming extent among us.

Great numbers of these children grow up to die under the hands of the executioner. The only instruction they receive from their parents is how to cheat and deceive; and daily practice in lying and stealing from their very infancy, renders them uncommonly expert in their infamous trade. The records of the courts of justice show in innumerable instances, that early habits of Idleness and Beggary are a preparation for the gallows; and among the numerous thefts that are daily committed in this capital, there are very few that are not committed by persons who get into the houses under the pretext of asking for charity.

What person is ignorant of these facts? and who can demand further proofs of the necessity of a solid and durable institution, for the relief and support of the Poor?

The reader would be seized with horror, were we to unveil all the secret abominations of these abandoned wretches. They laugh alike at the laws of God and of man. No crime is too horrible and shocking for them, nothing in heaven or on the earth too holy not to be profaned by them without scruple, and employed with consummate hyprocrisy to their wicked purposes[3].

Whence is it that this evil proceeds? not from the inability of this great capital to provide for its Poor; for no city in the world, of equal extent and population, has so many hospitals for the sick and infirm, and other institutions of public charity. Neither is it owing to the hard-heartedness of the inhabitants; for a more feeling and charitable people cannot be found. Even the uncommonly great and increasing numbers of the Beggars show the kindness and liberality of the inhabitants; for these vagabonds naturally collect together in the greatest numbers, where their trade can be carried on to the greatest advantage.

THE INJUDICIOUS DISPENSATION OF ALMS is the real and only source of this evil.

In every community there are certainly to be found a greater or less number of poor and distressed persons, who have just claims on the public charity. This is also the case at Munich; and nature dictates to us the duty of administering relief to suffering humanity, and more especially to our poor and distressed fellow-citizens; and our Holy Religion promises eternal rewards to him who supports and relieves the poor and needy, and threatens everlasting damnation to him who sends them away without relief.

The Holy Fathers teach, that when there are no other means left for the relief and support of the Poor, the superfluous ornaments of the churches may be disposed of, and even the sacred vessels melted down and sold for that purpose.

But what shall we think, when we see those very persons, who profess to live after the rules and precepts laid down in the word of God, act diametrically contrary to them?

Such, doubtless, is the fatal conduct of those who are induced by mistaken compassion to lavish their alms upon Beggars, and obstruct the relief of the really indigent.—Alms that frustrate a good and useful institution cannot be meritorious, or acceptable to God: and no maxim is less founded in truth, than that the merit of the giver is undiminished by the unworthiness of the object.— The truly distressed are too bashful to mix with the herd of common Beggars; necessity, it is true, will sometimes conquer their timidity, and compel them publicity to solicit charity; but their modest appeal is unheard or unnoticed, whilst a dissolute vagabond, who exhibits an hypocritical picture of distress,—a drunken wretch, who pretends to have a numerous family and to be persecuted by misfortune,—or an impudent unfeeling women, who excites pity by the tears and cries of a poor child whom she has hired perhaps for the purpose, and tortured into suffering, steps daringly forward to intercept the alms of the charitable; and the well-intentioned gift which should relieve the indigent is the prize of impudence and imposition, and the support of vice and idleness.—What then is left for the modest object of real distress, but to retire dispirited and hide himself in the obscurity of his cottage, there to languish in misery, whilst the bolder Beggar consumes the ill-bestowed gift in mirth and riot? And, yet, the charitable donor flatters himself that he has performed an exemplary duty!

We earnestly entreat every citizen and inhabitant of this capital, each in his respective station, no longer to countenance mendicity by such a misapplication of their well-meant charity; contributing thus to augment the fatal consequences of the evil itself, as well as to impede the relief of the real necessitous.

We are firmly persuaded, that by pointing out to our fellow-citizens a method by which they may exercise their benevolence towards the indigent and distressed in a meritorious manner, we shall gratify their pious zeal and humanity, and at the same time essentially promote the honour and safety of the state, and the interests of sound morality and religion.

And this is the sole object of the Military Workhouse, which has been instituted by the command of his Electoral Highness, where, from this time forward, all who are able to work may find employment and wages, and will be cloathed and fed.—THERE will be the really indigent find a secure asylum, and those unfortunate persons who are a prey to sickness and infirmity, or are worn out with age, will be effectually relieved.—

We beg you not to listen to the false representations which may, perhaps, be made to calumniate this institution, by putting it on a level with former imperfect establishments.—Why should not an institution prosper at Munich, which has already been successful in other places, particularly at Manheim, where above 800 persons are daily employed in the Military Workhouse, and heap benedictions on its benevolent founder?—Have the inhabitants of this town less good sense, less humanity, or less zeal for the good of mankind? No—it would be an insult on the patriotism of our fellow-citizens, were we to doubt of their readiness to concur in our undertaking.

The only efficacious way of promoting an institution so intimately connected with the safety, honor, and welfare of the state, and with the interests of religion and morality, is a general resolution of the inhabitants to establish a voluntary monthly contribution, and strictly prohibit the abominable and degrading practice of street-begging; the unlimited exercise of which, notwithstanding its fatal and disgraceful consequences, is perhaps more glaringly indulged in Munich than in any other city in Germany.

In vain will the institution be opposed by the prejudices, or the meanness and malice of persons who are themselves used to mendicity, or to exercise an insolent dominion over Beggars.

It will subsist in spite of all their efforts; and we have the fullest confidence that the generous and well-disposed inhabitants of this city will be sensible how injurious the habits of encouraging public mendicity are, when an opportunity is offered them of contributing to an institution where the really indigent are sure to find assistance, and where the benevolent Christian is certain that his neighbours and fellow-citizens are benefited by his charitable donations.

The simplest and most effectual way of ascertaining the extent of such contribution is to form a list of all the citizens and inhabitants of the town, with the name of the street, and number of the house they inhabit. This register may be called an Alms Book. It will be presented to each inhabitant, that he may put down the sum which he means voluntarily to subscribe every month towards the support of the Poor. The smallest donation will be gratefully received, and the objects who are relieved by them will pray for them to the Almighty Rewarder of all good actions.

As this charitable contribution is to be absolutely voluntary, every one, whatever be his rank or property, will subscribe as he pleases, a greater or a less sum, or none at all. The names of the benefactors and their donations will be printed and published quarterly, that every one may know and acknowledge the zealous friends of humanity, by whose assistance an evil of such magnitude, so long and so universally complained of, will be finally rooted out.

We request that the public will not oppose so sure and effectual a mode of granting relief to the Poor, but rather give their generous support to an undertaking, which cannot but be productive of much good, and acceptable in the sight of Heaven.

To convince every one of the faithful application of these contributions, an exact detail both of the receipt and expenditure of the institution will be printed and laid before the public every three months; and every subscriber will be allowed to inspect and examine the original accounts whenever he shall think proper.

It must be obvious to every one, even to persons of the most suspicious dispositions, that this institution is perfectly disinterested, and owes its origin entirely to pure benevolence, and an active zeal for the public good, when it is known that a Committee appointed by his Electoral Highness, under the direction of the Presidents of the Council of War, the Supreme Regency, and the Ecclesiastical Council, will have the sole administration and direction of the affairs of the institution, and that the monthly collections of alms will be made by creditable persons properly authorised; and that no salary, or emoluments of any kind, will be levied on the funds of the institution, either for salaries for the collectors, or any other persons employed in the service of the institution, as will clearly appear by the printed quarterly accounts. By such precautions, we trust, we shall obviate all possible suspicions, and inspire every unprejudiced person with a firm confidence in this useful institution.

Henceforward, then, the infamous practice of begging in the streets will no longer tolerated in Munich, and the public are from this moment exonerated from a burden which is not less troublesome to individuals than it is disgraceful to the country. Who can doubt the co-operation of every individual for the accomplishment of so laudable an undertaking? We trust that no one will encourage idleness, by an injudicious and pernicious profusion of alms given to Beggars; and by promoting the most unbridled licentiousness, make himself a participator in the dangerous consequences of mendicity, and share the guilt of all those crimes and offences which endanger the welfare of the state, injure the cause of religion, and insult the distress of the really indigent.

No longer will these vagabonds impose on good-nature and benevolence, by false pretences, by ill-founded complaints of the inefficacy of the provision for the Poor, or by any other artifices; nor can they escape the strict and constant vigilance with which they will in future be watched; when every person they meet will direct them to the House of Industry, instead of giving them money.

It is this regulation alone which can effectuate our purpose, a regulation enforced in the days of primitive Christianity, and sanctioned by Religion itself; the charitable gifts of the wealthier Christians being in those days all deposited in a common treasury, for the benefit of their poorer and distressed Brethren, and not squandered away in the encouragement of dissolute idleness.

We therefore entreat and beseech the public in general, in the name of suffering humanity, and of that Almighty Being who cannot but regard so laudable an enterprise with an eye of favour, to give every possible support to our design. And we trust that the clergy of every denomination, but especially the public preachers, will exert their splendid abilities to animate their congregations to co-operate with us in this great and important undertaking.


SUBSCRIPTION LISTS distributed among the Inhabitants of MUNICH, in the Month of JANUARY 1790, when the Establishment for the Relief of the Poor in that City was formed.

Translated from the Original German.

VOLUNTARY SUBSCRIPTIONS for The Relief and Support of The Industrious, Sick, and Helpless POOR, and For the total Extirpation of VAGRANTS and STREET-BEGGARS, In the City of MUNICH.


These voluntary subscriptions will be collected monthly, namely, on the last Sunday morning of every month, under the direction of the Committee of Governors of the Institution for the Poor; consisting of the President of the Council of War,—the President of the Council of the Regency,—and the President of the Ecclesiastical Council[4]; and the amount of these collections will always be regularly noted down in books kept for that purpose; and at the end of every three months a particular detailed account of the application of these sums will be printed, and given gratis to the subscribers and to the public.

No part of these voluntary contributions will ever be taken, or appropriated to the payment of salaries, gratuities, or rewards to any of those persons who may be employed in carrying on the business of the institution; but the whole amount of the sums collected will be faithfully applied to the relief and support of the Poor, and to that charitable purpose alone, as the accounts of the expenditures of the institution, which will be published from time to time, will clearly show and demonstrate.—All the persons necessary to be employed in the affairs of this establishment, will either be selected from among such as already are in the receipt of salaries, sufficient for their comfortable maintenance from other funds; or they will be such persons, in easy circumstances, as may offer themselves voluntarily for these services, from motives of humanity, and a disinterested wish to be instrumental in doing good.

As the preparations which have been made, and are making for the support of the Poor, leave no doubt, but that adequate relief will be afforded to them in future, they will no longer have any pretext for begging; and all persons are most earnestly requested to abstain henceforward from giving alms to Beggars. Instead of giving money to such persons as they may find begging in the street, they are requested to direct them to the House of Industry, where they will, without fail, receive such assistance and support as they may stand in need of and deserve.

Those persons whose names are already inserted in other lists, as subscribers to this institution, are, nevertheless, requested to enter their names upon these family-sheets; for though their names may stand on several lists, their contributions will be called for upon one of them only, and that one will be the family-sheet.

Those persons of either sex, who have no families, but occupy houses or lodging of their own, are, notwithstanding their being without families, requested to put down the amount of the monthly contributions they are willing to give to this institution upon a family-sheet, and to insert their names in the list as "head of the family."

Under the column destined for the names of "relations and friends, living in the house," may be included strangers, lodgers, boarders, etc.

The column for "domestics" may, in like manner, serve, particularly in the houses of the nobility, and other distinguished persons, for stewards, tutors, governesses, etc.

Each head of a family will receive two of these family-sheets, namely, one with these Remarks, which he will keep for his information,—the other, printed on a half-sheet of paper, and without remarks, which he will please to return to the public office of the institution.

In case of a change in the family, or if one or other of the members of it should think proper to increase or to lessen their contribution, this alteration is to be marked upon the half-sheet, which is kept by the head of the family; and this sheet so altered is to be sent to the public office of the institution, to the end that these alterations may be made in the general lists of the subscribers; or new printed forms being procured from the public office, and filled up, these new lists may be exchanged against the old ones.

For the accommodation of those who may at any time wish to contribute privately to the support of the institution any sums in addition to their ordinary monthly donations, the banker of the institution, Mr. Dallarmi, will receive such sums destined for that purpose, as may be sent to him privately under any feigned name, motto, or device; and for the security of the donors, accounts of all the sums so received, with an account of the feigned name, motto, or device, under which each of them was sent to the banker, will be regularly published in the Munich Gazette.

The first collection will be made on the last Sunday of the present month, and the following collections on the last Monday of every succeeding month; and each head of a family is respectfully requested to cause the contributions of his family, and of the inhabitants of his house, to be collected at the end of every month, by a domestic or a servant, and to keep the same in readiness against the time of the collection.

All persons of both sexes, and of every age and condition, (Paupers only excepted,) are earnestly requested to have their names inserted in these lists or family-sheets; and they may rest assured, that any sum, even the most trifling, will be received with thankfulness, and applied with care to the great object of the institution—the relief and encouragement of the Poor and the Distressed.

And finally, as it cannot fail to contribute very much to improve the human heart, if young persons at an early period of life are accustomed to acts of benevolence,—it is recommended to parents, to cause all their children to put down their names as subscribers to this undertaking, and this, even though the donations they may be able to spare may be the most trifling, or even if the parents should be obliged to lessen their own contributions in order to enable their children to become subscribers.

The foregoing Remarks were printed on the two first pages of a sheet, 13 inches by 18 inches, of strong writing-paper. The following Subscription List was printed on the third page of the same sheet,—and also on a separate half-sheet of the same kind of paper.

Voluntary Contributions for the Support of the Poor at Munich.

F A M I L Y—S H E E T. ======================

Number of the House District Street Floor. Head of the Family } Monthly Contributions. His Character, or } Florins. Creutzers.

Other Persons belonging to the Family. ————————————————————————————————— : Wife, Children, Re- :Monthly :Domestics, Journey- :Monthly : : lations and Friends :Contribu-:man, Menial Servants, :Contribu-: : of both Sexes living: tions. :etc of both Sexes, the: tions. : : with the Family. The: :Christian and Sirname : : : Christian Name and : :of each Individual. : : : Sirname of each Per-:——:——: :——:——: : son. : Fl.: Kr.: : Fl.: Kr.: :——————————-:——:——:———————————:——:——: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : (At the lower corner : : : : : : : of this half-sheet : : : : : : : was printed in small : : : : : : : type): "This half- : : : : : : : "sheet is to be sent : : : : : : : "into the Public : : : : : : : "Office of the : : : : : : : "Institution." : : : —————————————————————————————————


[ Etext editor's note...the following table has had to be split into two parts, with the additional references A) B) etc through to UK) to link them together. Originally the entire table was printed in landscape format, with totals carried forward, brought over, which have been removed. ]

An Account of the RECEIPTS and EXPENDITURES of the INSTITUTION for the POOR at MUNICH during Five Years.

R E C E I P T S. —————————————————————————————————- : : : Total in : : 1790. : 1791. : 1792. : 1793. : 1794. : 5 Years. : :—————:—————:—————:—————:—————:—————: : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : : : : : : : : A) : 36,640 : 38,024 : 35,847 : 34,424 : 33,880 : 178.815 : : : : : : : : B) : 15,400 : 15,400 : 16,800 : 16,800 : 16,800 : 81,200 : : : : : : : : C) : 970 : 1,043 : 800 : 800 : 802 : 4,415 : : : : : : : : D) : 179 : 388 : 388 : 411 : 390 : 1,756 : : : : : : : : E) : ——— : 168 : 392 : 229 : 234 : 1,023 : : : : : : : : F) : ——— : ——— : ——— : 3,216 : 2,773 : 5,989 : : : : : : : : G) : 318 : 177 : 187 : 610 : 229 : 1,521 : : : : : : : : H) : 99 : 153 : 69 : 168 : 176 : 665 : : : : : : : : I) : 3,642 : 691 : 825 : 723 : 423 : 6,304 : : : : : : : : J) : 2,674 : 1,472 : 3,528 : 1,820 : 12,179 : 21,673 : : : : : : : : K) : 48 : 128 : 48 : 48 : ——— : 272 : : : : : : : : L) : 3,300 : 4,600 : 1,500 : ——— : ——— : 9,400 : : : : : : : : M) : 824 : 3,433 : 910 : 1,752 : 346 : 7,265 : :========:========:========:========:========:========: : 64,094 : 65,677 : 61,294 : 61,001 : 70,232 : 320,298 :

E X P E N D I T U R E S. —————————————————————————————————- : : : Total in : : 1790. : 1791. : 1792. : 1793. : 1794. : 5 Years. : :—————:—————:—————:—————:—————:—————: : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : : : : : : : : N) : 42,080 : 46,410 : 43,055 : 41,933 : 43,189 : 216,667 : : : : : : : : O) : 11,800 : 9,900 : 10,300 : 9,600 : 9,400 : 51,000 : : : : : : : : P) : 1,011 : 1,040 : 800 : 861 : 805 : 4,517 : : : : : : : : Q) : 450 : 403 : 350 : 1,150 : 1,500 : 3,853 : : : : : : : : R) : 217 : 254 : 272 : 336 : 290 : 1,396 : : : : : : : : S) : 256 : 183 : 219 : 210 : 226 : 1,094 : : : : : : : : TA): 890 : 564 : 418 : 425 : 594 : 2,891 : : : : : : : : TB): 160 : 187 : 34 : 35 : 94 : 510 : : : : : : : : TC): 960 : 960 : 960 : 960 : 960 : 4,800 : : : : : : : : TD): 84 : 72 : 72 : 72 : 72 : 372 : : : : : : : : TE): 100 : 360 : 288 : 540 : 300 : 1,588 : : : : : : : : TF): 220 : 240 : 240 : 240 : 240 : 1,180 : : : : : : : : TG): 480 : 480 : 480 : 480 : 480 : 2,400 : : : : : : : : TH): 440 : 480 : 480 : 480 : 480 : 2,360 : : : : : : : : UA): 318 : 318 : 159 : ——— : ——— : 795 : : : : : : : : UB): ——— : ——— : ——— : 183 : 200 : 383 : : : : : : : : UC): 1,672 : 1,824 : 912 : ——— : ——— : 4,408 : : : : : : : : UD): 369 : 199 : 189 : 250 : 361 : 1,368 : : : : : : : : UE): 506 : 333 : 150 : 227 : 301 : 1,517 : : : : : : : : UF): 22 : 6 : ——— : ——— : ——— : 28 : : : : : : : : UG): 55 : 60 : 60 : 50 : 75 : 300 : : : : : : : : UH): 831 : 300 : ——— : ——— : ——— : 1,131 : : : : : : : : UI): ——— : ——— : 40 : 40 : 40 : 120 : : : : : : : : UJ): ——— : ——— : ——— : ——— : 1,200 : 1,200 : : : : : : : : UK): 172 : 234 : 261 : 645 : 433 : 1,745 : :========:========:========:========:========:========: : 63,093 : 64,807 : 59,739 : 58,717 : 61,240 : 307,596 : —————————————————————————————————-

R E C E I P T S.

A) From monthly voluntary donations of the inhabitants including 100 Florins given monthly by his Most Serene Highness the Elector out of his private purse; 50 florins monthly by the Electress Dowager of Bavaria, and 50 florins monthly by the States of Bavaria,

B) From the Public Treasury a stated monthly allowance, intended principally to defray the expense of the police of the city,

C) From voluntary donations, particularly destined by the donors to assist the Poor in paying their house-rent,

D) From voluntary and unsolicited donations from the foreign merchants and traders assembled at Munich at the two annual fairs,

E) From the courts of justice, being fines for certain petty offences,

F) From the magistrates of the city; being the amount of sums received from musicians for licence to play in the public houses,

G) From the poor's boxes in the different churches,

H) From the poor's boxes at inns and taverns,

I) From private contributions sent to the banker of the Institution, under feigned names, devices, etc.

J) From legacies,

K) From interest of money due to the Institution,

L) From cash received in advance,

M) From sundries,

E X P E N D I T U R E S.

N) Given to the Poor in alms, in ready money,

O) Expended in feeding the Poor at the Public Kitchen of the Military Workhouse, and in premiums for the encouragement of industry,

P) Given to the Poor to assist them in paying their house-rent,

Q) Paid for medicines administered to the Poor at their own lodgings,

R) Expended in burials,

S) Given with poor children when bound apprentices,

Given as an indemnification for the loss of the right formerly enjoyed of making collections of alms among the inhabitants:

———- TA) To persons who have suffered by fires, ———- TB) To travelling journeymen tradesmen, ———- TC) To the sisters of the religious order of charity, ———- TD) To the nuns of the English convent, ———- TE) To the hospital for lepers on the Gasteig, ———- TF) To the hospital at Schwabing, ———- TG) To the poor scholars of the German school, ———- TH) To the poor scholars of the Latin school,

UA) Paid to the clerks of office of police

UB) Paid to the accountant of the Institution,

UC) Paid to the guards of the police[5],

UD) Paid to writers employed occasionally as clerks,

UE) Paid to printers and bookbinders,

UF) Paid to the soldiers of the garrison for arresting Beggars,

UG) Gratuities to the schoolmaster at Charles's Gate,

UH) Paid various sums due from the Institution,

UI) Paid interest of monies due,

UJ) Money advanced for purchasing grain,

UK) Sundries,


Certificate relative to the EXPENCE of FUEL in the Public Kitchen of the Military Workhouse at MUNICH

We whose Names are underwritten certify, that we have been present frequently when experiments have been made to determine the expence of Fuel in cooking for the Poor in the Public Kitchen of the Military Workhouse at Munich; and that when the ordinary dinner has been prepared for ONE THOUSAND persons, the expense for Fuel has not amounted to quite twelve creutzers (less than 4 1/2d. sterling).

Baron de Thibout, Heerdan, Colonel. Councillor of War.

Munich, 1st September 1795.


Printed Form for the DESCRIPTIONS of the POOR.

Description of the poor Person, No


Described Munich, the th of 179


Age Years. Stature Feet Inches

Bodily Structure Hair

Eye Complexion

Bodily Defects

Other particular Marks

State of Health

Place of Nativity

Lives here since

Came here from In what Manner

Profession Religion

Quality Family

Supports himself, at present, by

Lives at present Quarter, District, Street,

House, No Floor,

Can be considered as a Pauper belonging to this City, and ought therefore to be

Is capable of doing the following Work:

Could be trained to the following Occupations:

:fl.:kr.: Could gain by this Work per Week—— : : : Wants for his weekly Support———— : : : Receives at present per Week from his own } : : : Means, get by way of Pension, Alms, } : : : and .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. } : : : Wants, therefore, a weekly Allowance of Alms of : : : : : : ————-

:fl.:kr.: { Income of his own — — : : : { Earned by working — — : : : { Salary — — — — : : : Enjoyed heretofore { Pension — — — — : : : per Week { { From the Court : : : { Alms, { From the City — : : : { { From private Persons : : : { Got by begging — — : : : : : : :—-:—-: Total : : : : : : ————-

:fl.:kr.: : : : Pays House-rent — — — — — — — — — : : : : : : Has Bed of his own, the Value of which : : : is about— — — — — — — — — — — : : : : : : Possesses other Utensils necessary for House- : : : keeping, worth about— — — — — — — — : : : : : : Is provided with the following Working Tools: — : : : : : : ————-

Can work at Home

Could be employed in the Military Workhouse

Is provided with Raiment, and wants

Articles of Apparel

Life and Conduct, according to the Information received

Is given to and

Is known to have committed Crimes and has appeared before the Magistrates

How long he lives in his present Habitation Year Month Weeks

Name and Residence of his present Landlord

Where he lived before, and how long

Other Remarks.

Has been settled here

Received a Licence to marry, from

Possessed or received, when married Value about fl. kr.

Was reduced to Poverty by

Is poor and in want, since

Could not extricate himself from his Difficulties, because

N.B. This Form is printed on a Half-sheet of strong Writing Paper, folded together so as to make two Leaves in Quarto; each Leaf being 8 Inches high, and 6 1/2 Inches wide.


Printed Form for SPIN-TICKETS, such as are used at the Military Workhouse at Munich.

Munich Military Workhouse, 179 the No received lb. of Delivered back skains knots of weighing lb. oz. Is entitled to receive per xrs. Total, Attest. this 179

This printed Form is filled up as follows:

Munich Military Workhouse, 1795 the 1st Sept. No 134. Mary Smith received 1 lb. of Flax, No 3, Delivered back 2 skains 3 knots of Thread, weighing 1 lb. —- oz. Is entitled to receive per lb. xrs. 10. Total, ten creutzers. Attest. this 4th Sept. 1795

Will Wildmann.

An improved Form for a Spin-Ticket, with its Abstract; which Abstract is to be cut off from the Ticket, and fastened to the Bundle of Yarn or Thread.

———————————————————————————————— : Spin-Ticket. :: Abstract of : : Munich House of Industry. :: Spin-Ticket. : : 1795 the 10th Sept. No 230. :: Munich House : : Mary Smith received :: of : : 1 lb. of wool, No 14. :: Industry, : : Delivered back 2 skains 4 knots :: 1795, the 10th Sept. : : of yarn, weighing 1 lb.—oz. :: No 230. : : Wages per lb. for spinning 12 xrs. :: 2 skains 4 knots : : Is entitled to receive twelve xrs. :: of woollen yarn, : : Attest. this 14th of Sept. 1795. :: Spinner, Mary Smith. : : J. Schmidt. :: Attest. J. Schmidt. : : :: : ————————————————————————————————

In order that the original entry of the Spin-Tickets in the general tables, kept by the clerks of the Spinners, may more readily be found, all the Tickets for the same material, (flax, for instance,) issued by the same clerk, during the course of each month, must be regularly numbered.


An Account of EXPERIMENTS made at the BAKE-HOUSE of the MILITARY WORKHOUSE at MUNICH, November the 4th and 5th, 1794.

In baking RYE BREAD

The oven, which is of an oval form, is 12 feet deep, measured from the mouth to the end; 11 feet 10 inches wide, and 1 foot 11 inches high, in the middle.

November 4th, at 10 o'clock in the morning, 1736 lbs.[6] of rye meal were taken out of the store room, and sent to the bakehouse, where it was worked and baked into bread, at six different times, in the following manner:—


At 45 minutes after 10 o'clock, the meal was mixed for the first time, for which purpose 16 quarts (Bavarian measure) of lukewarm water, weighing 28 lbs. 28 loths, were used.

At 3 o'clock in the afternoon, the little leaven (as it is called) was made, for which purpose 24 quarts, or 43 lbs. 10 loths of water were used; and at half an hour after 7 o'clock, the great leaven was made with 40 quarts, or 72 lbs. 6 loths, of water. At 11 o'clock this mass was prepared for kneading, by the addition of 40 quarts, or 72 lbs. 6 loths, more of water.

At 15 minutes after 10 o'clock at night, the kneading of the dough was commenced; 2 1/2 lbs. of salt being first mixed with the mass. The dough having been suffered to rise till a quarter before 2 o'clock, it was kneaded a second time, and then made, in half an hour's time, into 191 loaves, each of them weighing 2 lbs. 16 loths. These loaves having been suffered to rise half an hour, they were put into the oven 10 minutes before 3 o'clock, and in an hour after taken out again, when 25 loaves being immediately weighed, were found to weight 55 lbs. 15 loths. Each loaf, therefore, when baked, weighed 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths; and as it weighed 2 lbs. 16 loths when it was put into the oven, it lost 10 1/2 loths in being baked.

The whole quantity of water used in this experiment, in making the leaven and the dough, was 216 lbs. 18 loths.—The quantity of meal used was about 310 lbs.

First Heating of the Oven

This was begun 35 minutes after four o'clock, with 220 1/2 lbs. of pine-wood, which was in full flame 15 minutes after five o'clock.—At 8 minutes after 8 o'clock, 51 lbs. more of wood were added;—12 minutes after 11 o'clock, 32 lbs. more were put into the oven;—51 lbs. at one o'clock, and 12 lbs. more at 30 minutes after 2 o'clock; so that 366 lbs. 16 loths of wood were used for the first heating.


At 20 minutes after 11 o'clock, the proper quantity of leaven was mixed with the meal, and 44 quarts, or 79 lbs. 25 loths, of water added to it. At 10 minutes after 3 o'clock, the meal was prepared for kneading, by adding to it 52 quarts, or 93 lbs. 27 loths, of water.

At 30 minutes after 5 o'clock, the kneading of the dough was begun; 2 1/2 lbs. of salt having been previously added. At 15 minutes after 6 o'clock, the dough was kneaded a second time, and formed into 186 loaves, which were put into the oven at 15 minutes after 7 o'clock, and taken out again 9 minutes after 8 o'clock, when 25 loaves being immediately weighed, were found to weigh 55 lbs. 4 loths.—Water used in making the second dough, 173 lbs. 8 loths.

Second Heating of the Oven

This was begun 20 minutes after 4 o'clock in the morning, with 54 1/2 lbs. of wood; 20 lbs. were added 10 minutes after 5 o'clock, and 60 lbs. more 6 minutes after 6 o'clock; so that the second heating of the oven required 134 lbs. 16 loths of wood.


At 20 minutes after 3 o'clock, the proper quantity of leaven was mixed with the meal, and 48 quarts, or 86 lbs. 20 loths, of water were put to it.

At 6 minutes after 8 o'clock, this mass was prepared for kneading, by adding to it 48 quarts, or 86 lbs. 20 loths, of water.—At 30 minutes after 9 o'clock, this dough was mixed with 2 1/2 lbs. of salt; and at 30 minutes after 10 o'clock, it was made into 189 loaves, which, after having been suffered to rise for half an hour were put into the oven 10 minutes after 11 o'clock, and taken out again at 12 o'clock.

Fifty loaves of bread, which were weighed immediately upon their being taken out of the oven, were found to weigh 110 lbs. 30 loths; which gives 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths for the weight of each loaf. The water used in making this batch of bread was 173 lbs. 8 loths.

Third Heating of the Oven.

This was begun 30 minutes after 8 o'clock, with 50 lbs. of wood; and 50 lbs. more being added 30 minutes after 9 o'clock, the whole quantity used was 100 lbs.


At a quarter before 8 o'clock, the proper quantity of leaven was mixed with the meal, and 48 quarts, or 86 lbs. 20 loths, of water being added, at 30 minutes past 11 o'clock, this mass was prepared for kneading, by adding to it 52 quarts, or 93 lbs. 27 loths, of water.

Four minutes after 1 o'clock, 2 1/2 lbs. of salt were added. The dough being kneaded at 15 minutes after two o'clock, 188 loaves of bread were made, which were put into the oven 5 minutes before 3 o'clock, and taken out again at the end of one hour, when 25 of them were weighed, and found to weigh, one with the other, 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths.

The water used in making this batch of bread was 180 lbs. 15 loths.

Fourth Heating of the Oven.

This was begun 15 minutes after 12 o'clock, with 40 lbs. of wood, and 50 lbs. more being added at 30 minutes after 1 o'clock, the total quantity used was 90 lbs.


At 1/4 before 12 o'clock, the proper quantity of leaven was mixed with the meal, and 52 quarts, or 93 lbs. 27 loths, of water put into it.—This mass was prepared for kneading at 15 minutes after 4 o'clock, by the addition of 48 quarts, or 86 lbs. 20 loths, of water. The kneading of the dough was begun at 5 o'clock, and at 30 minutes after 5 it was made into loaves, 2 1/2 lbs. of salt having been previously added. 186 loaves being made out of this dough, they were put into the oven at 10 minutes before 7 o'clock, and taken out again at the end of one hour, when 25 loaves were weighed, and found to weigh 55 lbs. 18 loths.—The quantity of water used in making the dough for this batch of bread was 180 lbs. 15 loths.

Fifth Heating of the Oven

The oven was begun to be heated the fifth time at 15 minutes after four o'clock, with 40 lbs. of wood, and 40 lbs. more were added at 6 o'clock; so that in this heating no more than 80 lbs. of wood were consumed.


The meal was mixed with leaven at 30 minutes after 3 o'clock; for which purpose 32 quarts, or 57 lbs. 24 loths, of water were used at 15 minutes after 7 o'clock. This mass was prepared for kneading, by the addition of 44 quarts, or 79 lbs. 13 loths, of water, and a proportion of salt; at 19 minutes after 9 o'clock the dough was kneaded the first, and at 1/4 before 10 the second time; and in the course of half an hour 160 loaves were made out of it, which were put into the oven at 10 minutes before 11 o'clock, and taken out again at 8 minutes before 12 o'clock at midnight.

The water used in making the dough for this batch of bread was 137 lbs. 5 loths.

Sixth Heating of the Oven.

At 1/4 after 8 o'clock, the sixth and last fire was made with 40 lbs. of wood; to which, at 15 minutes before 10 o'clock at night, 34 1/2 lbs. more were added; so that in the last heating 74 1/2 lbs. of wood only were consumed.


The ingredients employed in making the bread in these six experiments were as follows: viz.

lbs. loths. Of rye meal, — — 1736 0 Of water,— — — 1061 5 Of salt, — — — 15 0 —————- In all, 2812 5 in weight.

Of this mass 1102 loaves of bread were formed, each of which, before it was baked, weighed 2 1/2 lbs.; consequently, these 1102 loaves, before they were put into the oven, weighed 2755 lbs.: but the ingredients used in making them weighed 2812 lbs. 5 loths. Hence it appears, that the loss of weight in these six experiments, in preparing the leaven,—from evaporation, before the bread was put into the oven,—from waste, etc.—amounted to no less than 57 lbs. 5 loths.

In subsequent experiments, where less water was used, this loss appeared to be less by more than one half.

In these experiments 1061 lbs. 5 loths of water were used to 1736 lbs. of meal, which gives 61 lbs. 4 3/4 loths of water to 100 lbs. of meal. But subsequent experiments showed 56 lbs. of water to be quite sufficient for 100 lbs. of the meal.

These 1102 loaves, when baked, weighed at a medium 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths each; consequently, taken together, they weighed 2393 lbs. 13 loths: and as they weighed 2755 lbs. when they were put into the oven, they must have lost 361 lbs. 19 loths in being baked, which gives 10 1/2 loths, equal to 21/160 or nearly 1/8 of its original weight before it was baked, for the diminution of the weight of each loaf.

According to the standing regulations of the baking business carried on in the bakehouse of the Military Workhouse at Munich, for each 100 lbs. of rye meal which the baker receives from the store-keeper, he is obliged to deliver 139 lbs. of well-baked bread; namely, 64 loaves, each weighing 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths. And as in the before-mentioned six experiments, 1736 lbs. of meal were used, it is evident that 1111 loaves, instead of 1102 loaves, ought to have been produced; for 100 lbs. of meal are to 64 loaves as 1736 lbs, to 1111 loaves. Hence it appears that 9 loaves less were produced in these experiments than ought to have been produced.

There were reasons to suspect that this was so contrived by the baker, with a design to get the number of loaves he was obliged to deliver for each 100 lbs. of meal lessened;—but in this attempt he did not succeed.

Quantity of Fuel consumed in these Experiments.

Dry pine-wood. lbs. loths. In heating the oven first time, — — 366 16 second time,— — 134 16 third time, — — 100 0 fourth time,— — 90 0 fifth time, — — 80 0 sixth time, — — 74 16 —————— Total, 845 16 Employed in keeping up a small fire near the mouth of the oven while the bread was putting into it, — — — 34 16

Total consumption of wood in the six experiments,— — — — — — — 880 lbs.

The results of these experiments show, in a striking manner, how important it is to the saving of fuel in baking bread, to keep the oven continually going, without ever letting it cool: for in the first experiment when the oven was cold, when it was begun to be heated, the quantity of wood required to heat it was 366 1/2 lbs.; but in the sixth experiment, after the oven had been well warmed in the preceding experiments, the quantity of fuel required was only 74 1/2 lbs.

As in these experiments 2393 lbs. 13 loths of bread were baked with the heat generated in the combustion of 880 lbs. of wood, this gives to each pound of bread 11 1/3 loths, or 34/96 of a pound, of wood.

In the fifth experiment, or batch, 186 loaves weighing (at 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths each) 304 lbs. were baked, and only 80 lbs. of wood consumed, which gives but a trifle more than 1/4 of a pound of wood to each pound of bread; or 1 pound of wood to 4 pounds of bread.

As each loaf weighed 2 lbs. 16 loths when it was put into the oven, and only 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths when it came out of it, the loss of weight each loaf sustained in being baked was 10 1/2 loths, as has already been observed. Now this loss of weight could only arise from the evaporation of the superabundant water existing in the dough; and as it is known how much heat, and consequently HOW MUCH FUEL is required to reduce any given quantity of water, at any given temperature, to steam, it is possible, from these data, to determine how much fuel would be required to bake any given quantity of bread, upon the supposition that NO PART OF THE HEAT GENERATED IN THE COMBUSTION OF THE FUEL WAS LOST, either in heating the apparatus, or in any other way; but that the whole of it was employed in baking the bread, and in that process alone. And though these computations will not show how the heat which is lost might be saved, yet, as they ascertain what the amount of this loss really is in any given case, they enable us to determine, with a considerable degree of precision, not only the relative merit of different arrangements for economizing fuel in the process of baking, but they show also, at the sane time, the precise distance of each from that point of perfection, where any farther improvements would be impossible: And on that account, these computations are certainly interesting.

In computing how much heat is NECESSARY to bake any given quantity of bread, it will tend much to simplify the investigation, if we consider the loaf as being first heated to the temperature of boiling water, and then baked in consequence of its redundant water being sent off from it in steam.

But as the dough is composed of two different substances, viz. rye meal and water, and as these substances have been found by experiment to contain different quantities of absolute heat; or, in other words, to require different quantities of heat, to heat equal quantities or weights of them to any given temperature, or any given number of degrees, it will be necessary to determine how much of each of the ingredients is employed in forming any given quantity of dough.

Now, in the foregoing experiments, as 1102 loaves of bread were formed of 1736 lbs. of rye meal, it appears, that there must have been 1.47 lb. of the meal in each loaf; and as these loaves weighed 2 1/2 lbs. each when they were put into the oven, each of them must, in a state of dough, have been composed of 1.47 lb. of rye meal, and 1.03 lb. of water.

Supposing these loaves to have been at the temperature of 55 degrees of Fahrenheit's Thermometer when they were put into the oven, the heat necessary to heat one of them to the temperature of 212 degrees, or the point of boiling water, may be thus computed.

By an experiment, of which I intend hereafter to give an account to the Public, I found, that 20 lbs. of ice-cold water might be made to boil, with the heat generated in the combustion of 1 lb. of dry pine-wood, such as was used in baking the bread in the six experiments before mentioned. Now, if 20 lbs. of water may be heated 180 degrees, (namely from 32 to 212 degrees,) by the heat generated in the combustion of 1 lb. of wood, 1.03 lb. of water may be heated 157 degrees, (from 55 degrees, or temperate, to 212 degrees,) with 0.4436 of a pound of the wood.

Suppose now that rye meal contained the same quantity of absolute heat as water,—as the quantity of meal in each loaf, was 1.47 lb., it appears, that this quantity would have required, (upon the above supposition,) to heat it from the temperature of 55 degrees, to that of 212 degrees; a quantity of heat equal to that which would be generated in the combustion of 0.06405 of a pound of the wood in question.

But it appears, by the result of experiments published by Dr. Crawford, that the quantities of heat required to heat any number of degrees, the same given quantity (in weight) of water and of wheat, (and it is presumed, that the specific or absolute heat of rye cannot be very different from that of wheat,) are to each other, as 2.9 to 1,—water requiring more heat to it, than the grain in that proportion: Consequently, the quantity of wood required to heat from 55 to 212 degrees, the 1.47 lb. of rye meal which entered into the composition of each loaf, instead of being .06405 of a pound, as above determined, upon the false supposition that the specific heat of water and that of rye were the same, would, in fact, amount to no more than 0.02899; for 2.9 (the specific heat of water) is to 1 (the specific heat of rye), as 0.06405 is to 0.02899.

Hence it appears, that the wood required as fuel to heat (from the temperature of 55 degrees to that of 212 degrees) a loaf of rye bread (in the state of dough), weighing 2 1/2 lbs., would be as follows, namely:

Of pine-wood, To heat 1.03 lb. of water, which enters into the composition of the dough, .. 0.04436

To heat the rye meal, 1.47 lb in weight, .. 0.02899 ———— Total, 0.07335 lb.

To complete the computation of the quantity of fuel necessary in the process of baking bread, it remains to determine, how much heat is required, to send off in steam, from one of the loaves in question (after it has been heated to the temperature of 212 degrees), the 10 1/2 loths, equal to 21/64 of a pound of water, which each loaf is known to lose in being baked.

Now it appears, from the result of Mr. Watt's ingenious experiments on the quantity of latent heat in steam, that the quantity of heat necessary to change any given quantity of water ALREADY BOILING HOT to steam, is about five times and a half greater than would be sufficient to heat the same quantity of water, from the temperature of freezing, to that of boiling water.

But we have just observed, that 20 lbs. of ice-cold water may be heated to the boiling point, with the heat generated in the combustion of 1 lb. of pine-wood; it appears therefore that 20 lbs. of boiling water would require 5 1/2 times as much, or 5 1/2 lbs. of wood to reduce it to steam.

And if 20 lbs. of boiling water require 5 1/2 lbs. of wood, 21/64 of a pound of water boiling hot will require 0.09023 of a pound of wood to reduce it to steam.

If now, to this quantity of fuel,— — 0.09023 lb. we add that necessary for heating the loaf to the temperature of boiling water, as above determined, — — — 0.07335 lb. ———— this gives the total quantity of fuel necessary for baking one of these loaves of bread,— — — — — — — — 0.16353 lb.

Now as these loaves, when baked into bread, weighed 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths = 2 11/64 lbs. each and required, in being baked, the consumption of 0.16353 of a pound of wood, this gives for the expence of fuel in baking bread 0.07532 of a pound of pine-wood to each pound of rye bread; which is about 13 1/4 lbs. of bread to each pound of wood.

But we have seen, from the results of the before-mentioned experiments, that when the bread was baked under circumstances the most favourable to the economy of fuel, no less than 80 lbs. of pine-wood were employed in heating the oven to bake 304 lbs. of bread, which gives less than 4 lbs. of bread to each pound of wood; consequently, TWO THIRDS at least of the heat generated in the combustion of the fuel must, in that case, have been lost; and in all the other experiments the loss of heat appears to have been still much greater.

A considerable loss of heat in baking will always be inevitable; but it seems probable, that this loss might, with proper attention to the construction of the oven, and to the management of the fire, be reduced at least to one half the quantity generated from the fuel in its combustion. In the manner in which the baking business is now generally carried on, much more than three quarters of the heat generated, or which might be generated from the fuel consumed, is lost.


The following Account of the Persons in the House of Industry in Dublin, the 30th of April 1796, and of the Details of the Manner and Expence of feeding them, was given to the Author, by order of the Governors of that Institution.

Average of the Description of Poor for the Week ending 30th of April 1796. Males. Females. Total. Employed — — — — 74 352 426 Infirm and Incurable — 172 585 757 Idiots — — — — 16 13 29 Blind— — — — — 5 10 16 ——- ——- ——— 267 960 1227 In the Infirmary. Sick Patients, Servants, etc. 88 200 } }— 343 Lunaticks— — — — 15 40 } ——— Total 1570

Employed at actual labour 322 Persons. Ditto at menial offices 104 ditto ——- Total 426

Amongst the 1570 Persons above mentioned, are 282 Children and 447 compelled Persons.

Of the Children, 205 are taught to spell, read, and write.

Saturday, April 30, 1796.

1227 Persons fed at Breakfast.

120 Servants in New-House, a 8 oz. bread ——— 60 } lbs. loaves lb. value. 336 Incurables, Children, etc. } 186 is 41 1 1/2 L. 1 14 a 6 ditto ————126 } 771 Workers, etc. got Stirabout. ——- 1227

Weight of meal for Stirabout 4 cwt. costs L. 3 1 8

120 Servants in New-House } get 1 quart butter-milk Gal. P.} each 30 0 } 167 gallons of 1084 Workers, Incurables, etc. } butter-milk 1 pint ditto 135 4 } value 1 L. 23 Sucklers get no butter-milk } ——- Allowed for waste — — 1 4 } 1227

Brought down, L. 5 15 8 s. d. Fuel to cook the Stirabout, 3 bush. cost 2 3 } } 0 3 0 1/2 Salt for ditto, 1 qr. 3 lb cost— — 0 9 1/2 } ——————- The Breakfast cost L. 5 18 8 1/2

Quantity of water, 5 barrels 6 gallons.

1227 Persons fed at Dinner.—BREAD and MEAL POTTAGE. 120 Servants a 9 oz. — 68 } bread } lbs. loaves. lb. value. 1107 Workers, Incurables, } 621 1/2 is 138 0 1/2 L. 5 10 4 etc. 8 oz. ditto—553 1/2} Weight of meal for the pottage, 1 cwt. 3 qrs.— — — 0 13 5 Pepper for ditto, half a pound — — — — — — 0 1 1 Ginger for ditto, 1 pound — — — — — — — 0 1 3 Salt for ditto, 21 pound — — — — — — — — 0 0 7 Fuel for ditto, 3 bushels 2 pecks— — — — — — 0 2 7 1/2 ——————- Dinner cost L. 6 9 3 1/2


For 165 Sickly Women on 6 oz, bread. 62 } lbs. loaves lb. value. 251 Children, 3 oz. do. 47 } 109 is 24 1 0 19 11

N.B. The expenses of Food for the Hospital, in which there are 343 persons, is not included in the above account.

Sunday, May 1, 1796. 1220 Persons fed at Breakfast.

120 Servants, a 8 oz. bread. 330 Incurables, Children, etc. 6 oz. do. 770 Workers, etc. get Stirabout. ——- 1220 Persons.

The same quantity of provisions delivered this day for Breakfast as on Saturday, and cost the same: viz. 5L. 18s. 8 1/2d.

1220 Persons fed at Dinner.—BREAD, BEEF and BROTH. Cost 120 Servants, a 9 oz. bread, 68 } lbs. loaves lbs. L. s. d. 1100 Workers, Incurables, etc. } 618 is 137 1 1/2 5 9 6 8 do.— — — — — 550 } ——- 1220 Persons. Cwt. qrs. lbs. Weight of raw beef, 4 2 10 Allowed for bone, 1 0 0 ——————- 5 2 10 — 7 19 3 Meal for the broth, 1 2 0 — 1 3 1 1/2 Waste bread for do. 1 0 0 — 0 0 0 Salt for do. 0 0 24 — 0 0 8 Pepper for do. 0 0 0 1/2 — 0 1 1 Fuel, 4 bushels 2 pecks, — 0 3 4 1/2 ———————- Total L. 14 17 0


The same number of women and children as yesterday, and the Supper cost the same: viz. 19s. 11d.

Wednesday, May 4, 1796.

1216 Persons fed at Breakfast.

120 Servants in New-House, a 8 oz. bread 334 Incurables, Children, etc. a 6 oz. do. 762 Workers, etc. get Stirabout. ——- 1216 Persons.

The same quantity of provisions, etc. delivered this day for Breakfast as for Saturday, and cost the same: viz. 8L 18s. 8 1/2d.

1216 Persons fed at Dinner.—CALECANNON and BEER.

Cost. Weight of raw potatoes Cwt. qrs. lbs. L. s. d. for Calecannon,— — 19 0 0 — 3 6 6 An allowance for waste, 1 0 0 ——————- Weight used, 18 0 0 — Raw greens for ditto,— 8 0 0 — 1 6 0 Butter for ditto,— — 1 0 0 — 3 12 0 Pepper for ditto,— — 0 0 0 1/2 — 0 1 1 Ginger for ditto,— — 0 0 1 — 0 1 3 Onions for ditto,— — 0 0 14 — 0 2 0 Salt for ditto, — — 0 0 24 — 0 0 8 Fuel, 4 bushels 2 pecks, — 0 3 4 Time of boiling about four hours.

1193 Persons get 1 } pint of beer Galls. p. } Barrs. each, making 149 1 }Galls. Galls. 23 On the breast } 151 is 3 31 2 5 3 —— get no beer. } 1216 } Allowed for } waste, — 1 7 }

Bread to Incurables and Children on the breast, 43 loaves,— — — — — — — 1 15 4 —————- Total L. 12 13 5


The same number of Women and Children as on Saturday, and cost the same: viz. 19s 11d.

N.B. All these accounts are in avoirdupois weight, and Irish money.


An Account of an EXPERIMENT made (under the Direction of the AUTHOR) in the Kitchen of the HOUSE of INDUSTRY at DUBLIN, in COOKING for the POOR.

May the 6th, 1796, a dinner was provided for 927 persons of Calecannon, a kind of food in great repute in Ireland, composed of Potatoes, boiled and mashed, mixed with about one-fifth of their weight of boiled Greens, cut fine with sharp shovels, and seasoned with butter, onions, salt, pepper, and ginger. The ingredients were boiled in a very large iron boiler, of a circular, or rather hemispherical form, capable of containing near 400 gallons, and remarkably thick and heavy. 273 gallons of pump water were put into this boiler; and the following Table will show, in a satisfactory manner, the progress and the result of the experiment:

Heat Contents of the Boiler Fuel laid of the Time. on Coals. Liquid Quantity Pecks Weight Ingredients. Gall. lbs. 7h 48m 4 106 lb. 55 Water to boil 273 8h 15m 1 26 1/2 the Greens 40m 1 26 1/2 and Potatoes 9h 0m 1 26 1/2 15m 2 53 80 30m 1 26 1/2 90 45m 2 53 110 10h 0m 1 26 1/2 150 20m 212 The Greens were now put 295 1/2 in. 2m 180 30m 1 26 1/2 190 45m 212 11h the Greens taken out and 1615 Potatoes put in. 11h 10m 2 53 180 20m 1 26 1/2 200 30m 212 45m Potatoes done.


The fuel used was Whitehaven coal: the quantity 17 pecks, weighing 450 1/2 lbs.

The potatoes being mashed, (without peeling them,) and the greens chopped fine with a sharp shovel, they were mixed together, and 98 lbs of butter, 14 lbs. of onions boiled and chopped fine, 40 lbs. of salt, 1 lb. of black pepper in powder, and 1/2 lb. of ginger, being added, and the whole well mixed together, this food was served out in portions of 1 quart, or about 2 lbs. each, in wooden noggins, holding each 1 quart when full.

Each of these portions of Calecannon (as this food is called in Ireland) served one person for dinner and supper; and each portion cost about 2 1/14 pence, Irish money, or it cost something less than ONE PENNY sterling per pound.

Twelve pence sterling, make thirteen pence Irish.

The expence (reckoned in Irish money) of preparing this food, was as follows: viz. L. s. d. Potatoes, 19 cwt. at 3s. 6d. per cwt. — — 3 6 6 (N.B. They weighed no more than 1615 lbs. when picked and washed.) Greens, 26 flaskets, at 10d. each, — — — 1 1 10 Butter, 98 lbs. at 72s. per cwt. — — — 3 3 0 Onions, 14 lbs. at 2s. per stone, — — — 0 2 0 Ginger, 1/2 lbs. — — — — — — — 0 1 3 Salt, 40 lbs. — — — — — — — — 0 1 1 Pepper, 1 lb. — — — — — — — — 0 1 1 ————- L. 7 16 9

Expence for fuel, 17 pecks of coal, at 1L. 3s. 3d. per ton, — — — — — 0 3 2 1/2 ——————- Total L. 7 19 11 1/2

With this kind of food there is no allowance of bread, nor is any necessary.

It would be hardly possible to invent a more nourishing or more palatable kind of food, than Calecannon, as it is made in Ireland; but the expence of it might be considerably diminished, by using less butter in preparing it.

Salted herrings (which do not in general cost much more than a penny the pound) might be used with great advantage to give it a relish, particularly when a small proportion of butter is used.

In this experiment, 273 gallons of water, weighing about 2224 lbs. avoirdupois, and being at the temperature of 55 degrees, was made to boil, (in two hours and 32 minutes,) with the combustion of 346 1/2 lbs. of coal; which gives rather less than 6 1/2 lbs. of water, to each pound of coal consumed; the water being heated 157 degrees, or from 55 to 212 degrees.

According to my experiments, 20 lbs. of water may be heated 180 degrees, (namely from 32 degrees the freezing point, to 212 degrees the temperature of boiling water,) with the heat generated in the combustion of 1 lb. of pine-wood; consequently, the same quantity of wood (1 lb.) would heat 23 lb. of water 157 degrees, or from 55 to 212 degrees.

But M. Lavoisier has shown us by his experiments, that the quantity of heat generated in the combustion of any given weight of coal, is greater than that generated in the combustion of the same weight of dry wood, in the proportion of 1089 to 600; consequently, 1 lb. of coal ought to make 40 3/4 lbs. of water, at the temperature 55 degrees, boil.

But in the foregoing experiment, 1 lb. of coal was consumed in making 6 1/2 lbs. of water boil; consequently, more than 5/6 of the heat generated, or which might with proper management have been generated in the combustion of the coal, was lost, owing to the bad construction of the boiler and of the fire-place.

Had the construction of the boiler and of the fire-place been as perfect as they were in my experiments, a quantity of fuel would have been sufficient, smaller than that actually used, in the proportion of 6 1/2 to 40 3/4, or instead of 450 1/2 lbs. of coal, 71 3/4 lbs. would have done the business; and, instead of costing 3s. 2 1/2d., they would have cost less than 6 1/4 Irish money, or 5 3/4d. sterling, which is only about 1/3 per cent. of the cost of the ingredients used in preparing the food, for the expence of fuel for cooking it.

These computations may serve to show, that I did not exaggerate, when I gave it as my opinion, (in my Essay on Food,) that the expence for the fuel necessary to be employed in cooking ought never to exceed, even in this country, TWO PER CENT. of the value of the ingredients of which the food is composed; that is to say, when kitchen fire-places are well constructed.

Had the ingredients used in this experiment, viz.

2234 lbs. of water 1615 lbs. of potatoes, 98 lbs. of butter, 14 lbs. of onions, 40 lbs. of salt, 1 lb. of pepper, and 0 1/2 lb. of ginger, ——— making in all 3992 1/2 lbs., been made into a soup, instead of being made into Calecannon, this, at 1 1/4 lb. (equal to one pint and a quarter), the portion would have served to feed 3210 persons.

But if I can show, that in Ireland, where all the coals they burn are imported from England, a good and sufficient meal of victuals for 3210 persons may be provided with the expence of only 5 3/4d. for the fuel necessary to cook it; I trust that the account I ventured to publish in my first Essay, of the expence for fuel in the kitchen of the Military Workhouse at Munich, namely, that it did not amount to so much as 4 1/2d. a day, when 1000 persons were fed, will no longer appear quite so incredible, as it certainly must appear to those who are not aware of the enormous waste which is made of fuel in the various processes in which it is employed.

I shall think myself very fortunate, if what I have done in the prosecution of these my favourite studies, should induce ingenious men to turn their attention to the investigation of a science, hitherto much neglected, and where every new improvement must tend directly and powerfully to increase the comforts and enjoyments of mankind.


Footnotes for Essay V.

[1] The number of horses in Bavaria alone amount to above 160,000

[2] A particular account of these military posts is given in the Second Chapter of the First Essay.

[3] Suffice it to mention one among numberless facts, which might be brought to prove these assertions: The Beggars of our capital carry on an increasing and very lucrative trade, with confessional and communion testimonials, which they sell to people who daringly transgress the holy ecclesiastical laws, by neglecting to confess and receive the holy sacrament of the Lord's Supper at Easter. Some of these impious wretches receive the sacrament, at least twice in a day, in order not to lose their customers; if the demands for communion testimonials are great, or come late.——Ye priests and preachers of the gospel, can you still forbear raising your voices against Beggars?


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