by John A. Widtsoe
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The climatic information must be gathered from the local weather bureau and from older residents of the section.

The native vegetation is always an excellent index of dry-farm possibilities. If a good stand of native grasses exists, there can scarcely be any doubt about the ultimate success of dry-farming under proper cultural methods. A healthy crop of sagebrush is an almost absolutely certain indication that farming without irrigation is feasible. The rabbit brush of the drier regions is also usually a good indication, though it frequently indicates a soil not easily handled. Greasewood, shadscale, and other related plants ordinarily indicate heavy clay soils frequently charged with alkali. Such soils should be the last choice for dry-farming purposes, though they usually give good satisfaction under systems of irrigation. If the native cedar or other native trees grow in profusion, it is another indication of good dry-farm possibilities.



The great depth and high fertility of the soils of arid and semiarid regions have made possible the profitable production of agricultural plants under a rainfall very much lower than that of humid regions. To make the principles of this system fully understood, it is necessary to review briefly our knowledge of the root systems of plants growing under arid conditions.

Functions of roots

The roots serve at least three distinct uses or purposes: First, they give the plant a foothold in the earth; secondly, they enable the plant to secure from the soil the large amount of water needed in plant growth, and, thirdly, they enable the plant to secure the indispensable mineral foods which can be obtained only from the soil. So important is the proper supply of water and food in the growth of a plant that, in a given soil, the crop yield is usually in direct proportion to the development of the root system. Whenever the roots are hindered in their development, the growth of the plant above ground is likewise retarded, and crop failure may result. The importance of roots is not fully appreciated because they are hidden from direct view. Successful dry-farming consists, largely in the adoption of practices that facilitate a full and free development-of plant roots. Were it not that the nature of arid soils, as explained in preceding chapters, is such that full root development is comparatively easy, it would probably be useless to attempt to establish a system of dry-farming.

Kinds of roots

The root is the part of the plant that is found underground. It has numerous branches, twigs, and filaments. The root which first forms when the seed bursts is known as the primary root. From this primary root other roots develop, which are known as secondary roots. When the primary root grows more rapidly than the secondary roots, the so-called taproot, characteristic of lucerne, clover, and similar plants, is formed. When, on the other hand, the taproot grows slowly or ceases its growth, and the numerous secondary roots grow long, a fibrous root system results, which is characteristic of the cereals, grasses, corn, and other similar plants. With any type of root, the tendency of growth is downward; though under conditions that are not favorable for the downward penetration of the roots the lateral extensions may be very large and near the surface

Extent of roots

A number of investigators have attempted to determine the weight of the roots as compared with the weight of the plant above ground, hut the subject, because of its great experimental difficulties, has not been very accurately explained. Schumacher, experimenting about 1867, found that the roots of a well-established field of clover weighed as much as the total weight of the stems and leaves of the year's crop, and that the weight of roots of an oat crop was 43 per cent of the total weight of seed and straw. Nobbe, a few years later, found in one of his experiments that the roots of timothy weighed 31 per cent of the weight of the hay. Hosaeus, investigating the same subject about the same time, found that the weight of roots of one of the brome grasses was as great as the weight of the part above ground; of serradella, 77 per cent; of flax, 34 per cent; of oats, 14 per cent; of barley, 13 per cent, and of peas, 9 per cent. Sanborn, working at the Utah Station in 1893, found results very much the same

Although these results are not concordant, they show that the weight of the roots is considerable, in many cases far beyond the belief of those who have given the subject little or no attention. It may be noted that on the basis of the figures above obtained, it is very probable that the roots in one acre of an average wheat crop would weigh in the neighborhood of a thousand pounds—possibly considerably more. It should be remembered that the investigations which yielded the preceding results were all conducted in humid climates and at a time when the methods for the study of the root systems were poorly developed. The data obtained, therefore, represent, in all probability, minimum results which would be materially increased should the work be repeated now.

The relative weights of the roots and the stems and the leaves do not alone show the large quantity of roots; the total lengths of the roots are even more striking. The German investigator, Nobbe, in a laborious experiment conducted about 1867, added the lengths of all the fine roots from each of various plants. He found that the total length of roots, that is, the sum of the lengths of all the roots, of one wheat plant was about 268 feet, and that the total length of the roots of one plant of rye was about 385 feet. King, of Wisconsin, estimates that in one of his experiments, one corn plant produced in the upper 3 feet of soil 1452 feet of roots. These surprisingly large numbers indicate with emphasis the thoroughness with which the roots invade the soil.

Depth of root penetration

The earlier root studies did not pretend to determine the depth to which roots actually penetrate the earth. In recent years, however, a number of carefully conducted experiments were made by the New York, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Kansas, Colorado, and especially the North Dakota stations to obtain accurate information concerning the depth to which agricultural plants penetrate soils. It is somewhat regrettable, for the purpose of dry-farming, that these states, with the exception of Colorado, are all in the humid or sub-humid area of the United States. Nevertheless, the conclusions drawn from the work are such that they may be safely applied in the development of the principles of dry-farming.

There is a general belief among farmers that the roots of all cultivated crops are very near the surface and that few reach a greater depth than one or two feet. The first striking result of the American investigations was that every crop, without exception, penetrates the soil deeper than was thought possible in earlier days. For example, it was found that corn roots penetrated fully four feet into the ground and that they fully occupied all of the soil to that depth.

On deeper and somewhat drier soils, corn roots went down as far as eight feet. The roots of the small grains,—wheat, oats, barley,—penetrated the soil from four to eight or ten feet. Various perennial grasses rooted to a depth of four feet the first year; the next year, five and one half feet; no determinations were made of the depth of the roots in later years, though it had undoubtedly increased. Alfalfa was the deepest rooted of all the crops studied by the American stations. Potato roots filled the soil fully to a depth of three feet; sugar beets to a depth of nearly four feet.

Sugar Beet Roots

In every case, under conditions prevailing in the experiments, and which did not have in mind the forcing of the roots down to extraordinary depths, it seemed that the normal depth of the roots of ordinary field crops was from three to eight feet. Sub-soiling and deep plowing enable the roots to go deeper into the soil. This work has been confirmed in ordinary experience until there can be little question about the accuracy of the results.

Almost all of these results were obtained in humid climates on humid soils, somewhat shallow, and underlain by a more or less infertile subsoil. In fact, they were obtained under conditions really unfavorable to plant growth. It has been explained in Chapter V that soils formed under arid or semiarid conditions are uniformly deep and porous and that the fertility of the subsoil is, in most cases, practically as great as of the topsoil. There is, therefore, in arid soils, an excellent opportunity for a comparatively easy penetration of the roots to great depths and, because of the available fertility, a chance throughout the whole of the subsoil for ample root development. Moreover, the porous condition of the soil permits the entrance of air, which helps to purify the soil atmosphere and thereby to make the conditions more favorable for root development. Consequently it is to be expected that, in arid regions, roots will ordinarily go to a much greater depth than in humid regions.

It is further to be remembered that roots are in constant search of food and water and are likely to develop in the directions where there is the greatest abundance of these materials. Under systems of dry-farming the soil water is stored more or less uniformly to considerable depths—ten feet or more—and in most cases the percentage of moisture in the spring and summer is as large or larger some feet below the surface than in the upper two feet. The tendency of the root is, then, to move downward to depths where there is a larger supply of water. Especially is this tendency increased by the available soil fertility found throughout the whole depth of the soil mass.

It has been argued that in many of the irrigated sections the roots do not penetrate the soil to great depths. This is true, because by the present wasteful methods of irrigation the plant receives so much water at such untimely seasons that the roots acquire the habit of feeding very near the surface where the water is so lavishly applied. This means not only that the plant suffers more greatly in times of drouth, but that, since the feeding ground of the roots is smaller, the crop is likely to be small.

These deductions as to the depth to which plant roots will penetrate the soil in arid regions are fully corroborated by experiments and general observation. The workers of the Utah Station have repeatedly observed plant roots on dry-farms to a depth of ten feet. Lucerne roots from thirty to fifty feet in length are frequently exposed in the gullies formed by the mountain torrents. Roots of trees, similarly, go down to great depths. Hilgard observes that he has found roots of grapevines at a depth of twenty-two feet below the surface, and quotes Aughey as having found roots of the native Shepherdia in Nebraska to a depth of fifty feet. Hilgard further declares that in California fibrous-rooted plants, such as wheat and barley, may descend in sandy soils from four to seven feet. Orchard trees in the arid West, grown properly, are similarly observed to send their roots down to great depths. In fact, it has become a custom in many arid regions where the soils are easily penetrable to say that the root system of a tree corresponds in extent and branching to the part of the tree above ground.

Now, it is to be observed that, generally, plants grown in dry climates send their roots straight down into the soil; whereas in humid climates, where the topsoil is quite moist and the subsoil is hard, roots branch out laterally and fill the upper foot or two of the soil. A great deal has been said and written about the danger of deep cultivation, because it tends to injure the roots that feed near the surface. However true this may be in humid countries, it is not vital in the districts primarily interested in dry-farming; and it is doubtful if the objection is as valid in humid countries as is often declared. True, deep cultivation, especially when performed near the plant or tree, destroys the surface-feeding roots, but this only tends to compel the deeper lying roots to make better use of the subsoil.

When, as in arid regions, the subsoil is fertile and furnishes a sufficient amount of water, destroying the surface roots is no handicap whatever. On the contrary, in times of drouth, the deep-lying roots feed and drink at their leisure far from the hot sun or withering winds, and the plants survive and arrive at rich maturity, while the plants with shallow roots wither and die or are so seriously injured as to produce an inferior crop. Therefore, in the system of dry-farming as developed in this volume, it must be understood that so far as the farmer has power, the roots must be driven downward into the soil, and that no injury needs to be apprehended from deep and vigorous cultivation.

One of the chief attempts of the dry-farmer must be to see to it that the plants root deeply. This can be done only by preparing the right kind of seed-bed and by having the soil in its lower depths well-stored with moisture, so that the plants may be invited to descend. For that reason, an excess of moisture in the upper soil when the young plants are rooting is really an injury to them.



The large amount of water required for the production of plant substance is taken from the soil by the roots. Leaves and stems do not absorb appreciable quantities of water. The scanty rainfall of dry-farm districts or the more abundant precipitation of humid regions must, therefore, be made to enter the soil in such a manner as to be readily available as soil-moisture to the roots at the right periods of plant growth.

In humid countries, the rain that falls during the growing season is looked upon, and very properly, as the really effective factor in the production of large crops. The root systems of plants grown under such humid conditions are near the surface, ready to absorb immediately the rains that fall, even if they do not soak deeply into the soil. As has been shown in Chapter IV, it is only over a small portion of the dry-farm territory that the bulk of the scanty precipitation occurs during the growing season. Over a large portion of the arid and semiarid region the summers are almost rainless and the bulk of the precipitation comes in the winter, late fall, or early spring when plants are not growing. If the rains that fall during the growing season are indispensable in crop production, the possible area to be reclaimed by dry-farming will be greatly limited. Even when much of the total precipitation comes in summer, the amount in dry-farm districts is seldom sufficient for the proper maturing of crops. In fact, successful dry-farming depends chiefly upon the success with which the rains that fall during any season of the year may be stored and kept in the soil until needed by plants in their growth. The fundamental operations of dry-farming include a soil treatment which enables the largest possible proportion of the annual precipitation to be stored in the soil. For this purpose, the deep, somewhat porous soils, characteristic of arid regions, are unusually well adapted.

Alway's demonstration

An important and unique demonstration of the possibility of bringing crops to maturity on the moisture stored in the soil at the time of planting has been made by Alway. Cylinders of galvanized iron, 6 feet long, were filled with soil as nearly as possible in its natural position and condition Water was added until seepage began, after which the excess was allowed to drain away. When the seepage had closed, the cylinders were entirely closed except at the surface. Sprouted grains of spring wheat were placed in the moist surface soil, and 1 inch of dry soil added to the surface to prevent evaporation. No more water was added; the air of the greenhouse was kept as dry as possible. The wheat developed normally. The first ear was ripe in 132 days after planting and the last in 143 days. The three cylinders of soil from semiarid western Nebraska produced 37.8 grams of straw and 29 ears, containing 415 kernels weighing 11.188 grams. The three cylinders of soil from humid eastern Nebraska produced only 11.2 grams of straw and 13 ears containing 114 kernels, weighing 3 grams. This experiment shows conclusively that rains are not needed during the growing season, if the soil is well filled with moisture at seedtime, to bring crops to maturity.

What becomes of the rainfall?

The water that falls on the land is disposed of in three ways: First, under ordinary conditions, a large portion runs off without entering the soil; secondly, a portion enters the soil, but remains near the surface, and is rapidly evaporated back into the air; and, thirdly, a portion enters the lower soil layers, from which it is removed at later periods by several distinct processes. The run-off is usually large and is a serious loss, especially in dry-farming regions, where the absence of luxuriant vegetation, the somewhat hard, sun-baked soils, and the numerous drainage channels, formed by successive torrents, combine to furnish the rains with an easy escape into the torrential rivers. Persons familiar with arid conditions know how quickly the narrow box canyons, which often drain thousands of square miles, are filled with roaring water after a comparatively light rainfall.

The run-off

The proper cultivation of the soil diminishes very greatly the loss due to run-off, but even on such soils the proportion may often be very great. Farrel observed at one of the Utah stations that during a torrential rain—2.6 inches in 4 hours—the surface of the summer fallowed plats was packed so solid that only one fourth inch, or less than one tenth of the whole amount, soaked into the soil, while on a neighboring stubble field, which offered greater hindrance to the run-off, 1-1/2 inches or about 60 per cent were absorbed.

It is not possible under any condition to prevent the run-off altogether, although it can usually be reduced exceedingly. It is a common dry-farm custom to plow along the slopes of the farm instead of plowing up and down them. When this is done, the water which runs down the slopes is caught by the succession of furrows and in that way the runoff is diminished. During the fallow season the disk and smoothing harrows are run along the hillsides for the same purpose and with results that are nearly always advantageous to the dry-farmer. Of necessity, each man must study his own farm in order to devise methods that will prevent the run-off.

The structure of soils

Before examining more closely the possibility of storing water in soils a brief review of the structure of soils is desirable. As previously explained, soil is essentially a mixture of disintegrated rock and the decomposing remains of plants. The rock particles which constitute the major portion of soils vary greatly in size. The largest ones are often 500 times the sizes of the smallest. It would take 50 of the coarsest sand particles, and 25,000 of the finest silt particles, to form one lineal inch. The clay particles are often smaller and of such a nature that they cannot be accurately measured. The total number of soil particles in even a small quantity of cultivated soil is far beyond the ordinary limits of thought, ranging from 125,000 particles of coarse sand to 15,625,000,000,000 particles of the finest silt in one cubic inch. In other words, if all the particles in one cubic inch of soil consisting of fine silt were placed side by side, they would form a continuous chain over a thousand miles long. The farmer, when he tills the soil, deals with countless numbers of individual soil grains, far surpassing the understanding of the human mind. It is the immense number of constituent soil particles that gives to the soil many of its most valuable properties.

It must be remembered that no natural soil is made up of particles all of which are of the same size; all sizes, from the coarsest sand to the finest clay, are usually present. These particles of all sizes are not arranged in the soil in a regular, orderly way; they are not placed side by side with geometrical regularity; they are rather jumbled together in every possible way. The larger sand grains touch and form comparatively large interstitial spaces into which the finer silt and clay grains filter. Then, again, the clay particles, which have cementing properties, bind, as it were, one particle to another. A sand grain may have attached to it hundreds, or it may be thousands, of the smaller silt grains; or a regiment of smaller soil grains may themselves be clustered into one large grain by cementing power of the clay. Further, in the presence of lime and similar substances, these complex soil grains are grouped into yet larger and more complex groups. The beneficial effect of lime is usually due to this power of grouping untold numbers of soil particles into larger groups. When by correct soil culture the individual soil grains are thus grouped into large clusters, the soil is said to be in good tilth. Anything that tends to destroy these complex soil grains, as, for instance, plowing the soil when it is too wet, weakens the crop-producing power of the soil. This complexity of structure is one of the chief reasons for the difficulty of understanding clearly the physical laws governing soils.

Pore-space of soils

It follows from this description of soil structure that the soil grains do not fill the whole of the soil space. The tendency is rather to form clusters of soil grains which, though touching at many points, leave comparatively large empty spaces. This pore space in soils varies greatly, but with a maximum of about 55 per cent. In soils formed under arid conditions the percentage of pore-space is somewhere in the neighborhood of 50 per cent. There are some arid soils, notably gypsum soils, the particles of which are so uniform size that the pore-space is exceedingly small. Such soils are always difficult to prepare for agricultural purposes.

It is the pore-space in soils that permits the storage of soil-moisture; and it is always important for the farmer so to maintain his soil that the pore-space is large enough to give him the best results, not only for the storage of moisture, but for the growth and development of roots, and for the entrance into the soil of air, germ life, and other forces that aid in making the soil fit for the habitation of plants. This can always be best accomplished, as will be shown hereafter, by deep plowing, when the soil is not too wet, the exposure of the plowed soil to the elements, the frequent cultivation of the soil through the growing season, and the admixture of organic matter. The natural soil structure at depths not reached by the plow evidently cannot be vitally changed by the farmer.

Hygroscopic soil-water

Under normal conditions, a certain amount of water is always found in all things occurring naturally, soils included. Clinging to every tree, stone, or animal tissue is a small quantity of moisture varying with the temperature, the amount of water in the air, and with other well-known factors. It is impossible to rid any natural substance wholly of water without heating it to a high temperature. This water which, apparently, belongs to all natural objects is commonly called hygroscopic water. Hilgard states that the soils of the arid regions contain, under a temperature of 15 deg C. and an atmosphere saturated with water, approximately 5-1/2 per cent of hygroscopic water. In fact, however, the air over the arid region is far from being saturated with water and the temperature is even higher than 15 deg C., and the hygroscopic moisture actually found in the soils of the dry-farm territory is considerably smaller than the average above given. Under the conditions prevailing in the Great Basin the hygroscopic water of soils varies from .75 per cent to 3-1/2 per cent; the average amount is not far from 12 per cent.

Whether or not the hygroscopic water of soils is of value in plant growth is a disputed question. Hilgard believes that the hygroscopic moisture can be of considerable help in carrying plants through rainless summers, and further, that its presence prevents the heating of the soil particles to a point dangerous to plant roots. Other authorities maintain earnestly that the hygroscopic soil-water is practically useless to plants. Considering the fact that wilting occurs long before the hygroscopic water contained in the soil is reached, it is very unlikely that water so held is of any real benefit to plant growth.

Gravitational water

It often happens that a portion of the water in the soil is under the immediate influence of gravitation. For instance, a stone which, normally, is covered with hygroscopic water is dipped into water The hydroscopic water is not thereby affected, but as the stone is drawn out of the water a good part of the water runs off. This is gravitational water That is, the gravitational water of soils is that portion of the soil-water which filling the soil pores, flows downward through the soil under the influence of gravity. When the soil pores are completely filled, the maximum amount of gravitational water is found there. In ordinary dry-farm soils this total water capacity is between 35 and 40 per cent of the dry weight of soil.

The gravitational soil-water cannot long remain in that condition; for, necessarily, the pull of gravity moves it downward through the soil pores and if conditions are favorable, it finally reaches the standing water-table, whence it is carried to the great rivers, and finally to the ocean. In humid soils, under a large precipitation, gravitational water moves down to the standing water-table after every rain. In dry-farm soils the gravitational water seldom reaches the standing water-table; for, as it moves downward, it wets the soil grains and remains in the capillary condition as a thin film around the soil grains.

To the dry-farmer, the full water capacity is of importance only as it pertains to the upper foot of soil. If, by proper plowing and cultivation, the upper soil be loose and porous, the precipitation is allowed to soak quickly into the soil, away from the action of the wind and sun. From this temporary reservoir, the water, in obedience to the pull of gravity, will move slowly downward to the greater soil depths, where it will be stored permanently until needed by plants. It is for this reason that dry-farmers find it profitable to plow in the fall, as soon as possible after harvesting. In fact, Campbell advocates that the harvester be followed immediately by the disk, later to be followed by the plow The essential thing is to keep the topsoil open and receptive to a rain.

Capillary soil-water

The so-called capillary soil-water is of greatest importance to the dry-farmer. This is the water that clings as a film around a marble that has been dipped into water. There is a natural attraction between water and nearly all known substances, as is witnessed by the fact that nearly all things may be moistened. The water is held around the marble because the attraction between the marble and the water is greater than the pull of gravity upon the water. The greater the attraction, the thicker the film; the smaller the attraction, the thinner the film will be. The water that rises in a capillary glass tube when placed in water does so by virtue of the attraction between water and glass. Frequently, the force that makes capillary water possible is called surface tension.

Whenever there is a sufficient amount of water available, a thin film of water is found around every soil grain; and where the soil grains touch, or where they are very near together, water is held pretty much as in capillary tubes. Not only are the soil particles enveloped by such a film, but the plant roots foraging in the soil are likewise covered; that is, the whole system of soil grains and roots is covered, under favorable conditions, with a thin film of capillary water. It is the water in this form upon which plants draw during their periods of growth. The hygroscopic water and the gravitational water are of comparatively little value in plant growth.

Field capacity of soils for capillary water

The tremendously large number of soil grains found in even a small amount of soil makes it possible for the soil to hold very large quantities of capillary water. To illustrate: In one cubic inch of sand soil the total surface exposed by the soil grains varies from 42 square inches to 27 square feet; in one cubic inch of silt soil, from 27 square feet to 72 square feet, and in one cubic inch of an ordinary soil the total surface exposed by the soil grains is about 25 square feet. This means that the total surface of the soil grains contained in a column of soil 1 square foot at the top and 10 feet deep is approximately 10 acres. When even a thin film of water is spread over such a large area, it is clear that the total amount of water involved must be large It is to be noticed, therefore, that the fineness of the soil particles previously discussed has a direct bearing upon the amount of water that soils may retain for the use of plant growth. As the fineness of the soil grains increases, the total surface increases' and the water-holding capacity also increases.

Naturally, the thickness of a water film held around the soil grains is very minute. King has calculated that a film 275 millionths of an inch thick, clinging around the soil particles, is equivalent to 14.24 per cent of water in a heavy clay; 7.2 per cent in a loam; 5.21 per cent in a sandy loam, and 1.41 per cent in a sandy soil.

It is important to know the largest amount of water that soils can hold in a capillary condition, for upon it depend, in a measure, the possibilities of crop production under dry-farming conditions. King states that the largest amount of capillary water that can be held in sandy loams varies from 17.65 per cent to 10.67 per cent; in clay loams from 22.67 per cent to 18.16 per cent, and in humus soils (which are practically unknown in dry-farm sections) from 44.72 per cent to 21.29 per cent. These results were not obtained under dry-farm conditions and must be confirmed by investigations of arid soils.

The water that falls upon dry-farms is very seldom sufficient in quantity to reach the standing water-table, and it is necessary, therefore, to determine the largest percentage of water that a soil can hold under the influence of gravity down to a depth of 8 or 10 feet—the depth to which the roots penetrate and in which root action is distinctly felt. This is somewhat difficult to determine because the many conflicting factors acting upon the soil-water are seldom in equilibrium. Moreover, a considerable time must usually elapse before the rain-water is thoroughly distributed throughout the soil. For instance, in sandy soils, the downward descent of water is very rapid; in clay soils, where the preponderance of fine particles makes minute soil pores, there is considerable hindrance to the descent of water, and it may take weeks or months for equilibrium to be established. It is believed that in a dry-farm district, where the major part of the precipitation comes during winter, the early springtime, before the spring rains come, is the best time for determining the maximum water capacity of a soil. At that season the water-dissipating influences, such as sunshine and high temperature, are at a minimum, and a sufficient time has elapsed to permit the rains of fall and winter to distribute themselves uniformly throughout the soil. In districts of high summer precipitation, the late fall after a fallow season will probably be the best time for the determination of the field-water capacity.

Experiments on this subject have been conducted at the Utah Station. As a result of several thousand trials it was found that, in the spring, a uniform, sandy loam soil of true arid properties contained, from year to year, an average of nearly 16-1/2 per cent of water to a depth of 8 feet. This appeared to be practically the maximum water capacity of that soil under field conditions, and it may be called the field capacity of that soil for capillary water. Other experiments on dry-farms showed the field capacity of a clay soil to a depth of 8 feet to be 19 per cent; of a clay loam, to be 18 per cent; of a loam, 17 per cent; of another loam somewhat more sandy, 16 per cent; of a sandy loam, 14-1/2 per cent; and of a very sandy loam, 14 per cent. Leather found that in the calcareous arid soil of India the upper 5 feet contained 18 per cent of water at the close of the wet season.

It may be concluded, therefore, that the field-water capacities of ordinary dry-farm soils are not very high, ranging from 15 to 20 per cent, with an average for ordinary dry-farm soils in the neighborhood of 16 or 17 per cent. Expressed in another way this means that a layer of water from 2 to 3 inches deep can be stored in the soil to a depth of 12 inches. Sandy soils will hold less water than clayey ones. It must not be forgotten that in the dry-farm region are numerous types of soils, among them some consisting chiefly of very fine soil grains and which would; consequently, possess field-water capacities above the average here stated. The first endeavor of the dry-farmer should be to have the soil filled to its full field-water capacity before a crop is planted.

Downward movement of soil-moisture

One of the chief considerations in a discussion of the storing of water in soils is the depth to which water may move under ordinary dry-farm conditions. In humid regions, where the water table is near the surface and where the rainfall is very abundant, no question has been raised concerning the possibility of the descent of water through the soil to the standing water. Considerable objection, however, has been offered to the doctrine that the rainfall of arid districts penetrates the soil to any great extent. Numerous writers on the subject intimate that the rainfall under dry-farm conditions reaches at the best the upper 3 or 4 feet of soil. This cannot be true, for the deep rich soils of the arid region, which never have been disturbed by the husbandman, are moist to very great depths. In the deserts of the Great Basin, where vegetation is very scanty, soil borings made almost anywhere will reveal the fact that moisture exists in considerable quantities to the full depth of the ordinary soil auger, usually 10 feet. The same is true for practically every district of the arid region.

Such water has not come from below, for in the majority of cases the standing water is 50 to 500 feet below the surface. Whitney made this observation many years ago and reported it as a striking feature of agriculture in arid regions, worthy of serious consideration. Investigations made at the Utah Station have shown that undisturbed soils within the Great Basin frequently contain, to a depth of 10 feet, an amount of water equivalent to 2 or 3 years of the rainfall which normally occurs in that locality. These quantities of water could not be found in such soils, unless, under arid conditions, water has the power to move downward to considerably greater depths than is usually believed by dry-farmers.

In a series of irrigation experiments conducted at the Utah Station it was demonstrated that on a loam soil, within a few hours after an irrigation, some of the water applied had reached the eighth foot, or at least had increased the percentage of water in the eighth foot. In soil that was already well filled with water, the addition of water was felt distinctly to the full depth of 8 feet. Moreover, it was observed in these experiments that even very small rains caused moisture changes to considerable depths a few hours after the rain was over. For instance, 0.14 of an inch of rainfall was felt to a depth of 2 feet within 3 hours; 0.93 of an inch was felt to a depth of 3 feet within the same period.

To determine whether or not the natural winter precipitation, upon which the crops of a large portion of the dry-farm territory depend, penetrates the soil to any great depth a series of tests were undertaken. At the close of the harvest in August or September the soil was carefully sampled to a depth of 8 feet, and in the following spring similar samples were taken on the same soils to the same depth. In every case, it was found that the winter precipitation had caused moisture changes to the full depth reached by the soil auger. Moreover, these changes were so great as to lead the investigators to believe that moisture changes had occurred to greater depths.

In districts where the major part of the precipitation occurs during the summer the same law is undoubtedly in operation; but, since evaporation is most active in the summer, it is probable that a smaller proportion reaches the greater soil depths. In the Great Plains district, therefore, greater care will have to be exercised during the summer in securing proper water storage than in the Great Basin, for instance. The principle is, nevertheless, the same. Burr, working under Great Plains conditions in Nebraska, has shown that the spring and summer rains penetrate the soil to the depth of 6 feet, the average depth of the borings, and that it undoubtedly affects the soil-moisture to the depth of 10 feet. In general, the dry-farmer may safely accept the doctrine that the water that falls upon his land penetrates the soil far beyond the immediate reach of the sun, though not so far away that plant roots cannot make use of it.

Importance of a moist subsoil

In the consideration of the downward movement of soil-water it is to be noted that it is only when the soil is tolerably moist that the natural precipitation moves rapidly and freely to the deeper soil layers. When the soil is dry, the downward movement of the water is much slower and the bulk of the water is then stored near the surface where the loss of moisture goes on most rapidly. It has been observed repeatedly in the investigations at the Utah Station that when desert land is broken for dry-farm purposes and then properly cultivated, the precipitation penetrates farther and farther into the soil with every year of cultivation. For example, on a dry-farm, the soil of which is clay loam, and which was plowed in the fall of 1904 and farmed annually thereafter, the eighth foot contained in the spring of 1905, 6.59 per cent of moisture; in the spring of 1906, 13.11 per cent, and in the spring of 1907, 14.75 per cent of moisture. On another farm, with a very sandy soil and also plowed in the fall of 1904, there was found in the eighth foot in the spring of 1905, 5.63 per cent of moisture, in the spring of 1906, 11.41 per cent of moisture, and in the spring of 1907, 15.49 per cent of moisture. In both of these typical cases it is evident that as the topsoil was loosened, the full field water capacity of the soil was more nearly approached to a greater depth. It would seem that, as the lower soil layers are moistened, the water is enabled, so to speak, to slide down more easily into the depths of the soil.

This is a very important principle for the dry farmer to understand. It is always dangerous to permit the soil of a dry-farm to become very dry, especially below the first foot. Dry-farms should be so manipulated that even at the harvesting season a comparatively large quantity of water remains in the soil to a depth of 8 feet or more. The larger the quantity of water in the soil in the fall, the more readily and quickly will the water that falls on the land during the resting period of fall, winter, and early spring sink into the soil and move away from the topsoil. The top or first foot will always contain the largest percentage of water because it is the chief receptacle of the water that falls as rain or snow but when the subsoil is properly moist, the water will more completely leave the topsoil. Further, crops planted on a soil saturated with water to a depth of 8 feet are almost certain to mature and yield well.

If the field-water capacity has not been filled, there is always the danger that an unusually dry season or a series of hot winds or other like circumstances may either seriously injure the crop or cause a complete failure. The dry-farmer should keep a surplus of moisture in the soil to be carried over from year to year, just as the wise business man maintains a sufficient working capital for the needs of his business. In fact, it is often safe to advise the prospective dry-farmer to plow his newly cleared or broken land carefully and then to grow no crop on it the first year, so that, when crop production begins, the soil will have stored in it an amount of water sufficient to carry a crop over periods of drouth. Especially in districts of very low rainfall is this practice to be recommended. In the Great Plains area, where the summer rains tempt the farmer to give less attention to the soil-moisture problem than in the dry districts with winter precipitation farther West, it is important that a fallow season be occasionally given the land to prevent the store of soil moisture from becoming dangerously low.

To what extent is the rainfall stored in soils?

What proportion of the actual amount of water falling upon the soil can be stored in the soil and carried over from season to season? This question naturally arises in view of the conclusion that water penetrates the soil to considerable depths. There is comparatively little available information with which to answer this question, because the great majority of students of soil moisture have concerned themselves wholly with the upper two, three, or four feet of soil. The results of such investigations are practically useless in answering this question. In humid regions it may be very satisfactory to confine soil-moisture investigations to the upper few feet; but in arid regions, where dry-farming is a living question, such a method leads to erroneous or incomplete conclusions.

Since the average field capacity of soils for water is about 2.5 inches per foot, it follows that it is possible to store 25 inches of water in 10 feet of soil. This is from two to one and a half times one year's rainfall over the better dry-farming sections. Theoretically, therefore, there is no reason why the rainfall of one season or more could not be stored in the soil. Careful investigations have borne out this theory. Atkinson found, for example, at the Montana Station, that soil, which to a depth of 9 feet contained 7.7 per cent of moisture in the fall contained 11.5 per cent in the spring and, after carrying it through the summer by proper methods of cultivation, 11 per cent.

It may certainly be concluded from this experiment that it is possible to carry over the soil moisture from season to season. The elaborate investigations at the Utah Station have demonstrated that the winter precipitation, that is, the precipitation that comes during the wettest period of the year, may be retained in a large measure in the soil. Naturally, the amount of the natural precipitation accounted for in the upper eight feet will depend upon the dryness of the soil at the time the investigation commenced. If at the beginning of the wet season the upper eight feet of soil are fairly well stored with moisture, the precipitation will move down to even greater depths, beyond the reach of the soil auger. If, on the other hand, the soil is comparatively dry at the beginning of the season, the natural precipitation will distribute itself through the upper few feet, and thus be readily measured by the soil auger.

In the Utah investigations it was found that of the water which fell as rain and snow during the winter, as high as 95-1/2 per cent was found stored in the first eight feet of soil at the beginning of the growing season. Naturally, much smaller percentages were also found, but on an average, in soils somewhat dry at the beginning of the dry season, more than three fourths of the natural precipitation was found stored in the soil in the spring. The results were all obtained in a locality where the bulk of the precipitation comes in the winter, yet similar results would undoubtedly be obtained where the precipitation occurs mainly in the summer. The storage of water in the soil cannot be a whit less important on the Great Plains than in the Great Basin. In fact, Burr has clearly demonstrated for western Nebraska that over 50 per cent of the rainfall of the spring and summer may be stored in the soil to the depth of six feet. Without question, some is stored also at greater depths.

All the evidence at hand shows that a large portion of the precipitation falling upon properly prepared soil, whether it be summer or winter, is stored in the soil until evaporation is allowed to withdraw it Whether or not water so stored may be made to remain in the soil throughout the season or the year will be discussed in the next chapter. It must be said, however, that the possibility of storing water in the soil, that is, making the water descend to relatively great soil depths away from the immediate and direct action of the sunshine and winds, is the most fundamental principle in successful dry-farming.

The fallow

It may be safely concluded that a large portion of the water that falls as rain or snow may be stored in the soil to considerable depths (eight feet or more). However, the question remains, Is it possible to store the rainfall of successive years in the soil for the use of one crop? In short, Does the practice of clean fallowing or resting the ground with proper cultivation for one season enable the farmer to store in the soil the larger portion of the rainfall of two years, to be used for one crop? It is unquestionably true, as will be shown later, that clean fallowing or "summer tillage" is one of the oldest and safest practices of dry-farming as practiced in the West, but it is not generally understood why fallowing is desirable.

Considerable doubt has recently been cast upon the doctrine that one of the beneficial effects of fallowing in dry-farming is to store the rainfall of successive seasons in the soil for the use of one crop. Since it has been shown that a large proportion of the winter precipitation can be stored in the soil during the wet season, it merely becomes a question of the possibility of preventing the evaporation of this water during the drier season. As will be shown in the next chapter, this can well be effected by proper cultivation.

There is no good reason, therefore, for believing that the precipitation of successive seasons may not be added to water already stored in the soil. King has shown that fallowing the soil one year carried over per square foot, in the upper four feet, 9.38 pounds of water more than was found in a cropped soil in a parallel experiment; and, moreover, the beneficial effect of this. water advantage was felt for a whole succeeding season. King concludes, therefore, that one of the advantages of fallowing is to increase the moisture content of the soil. The Utah experiments show that the tendency of fallowing is always to increase the soil-moisture content. In dry-farming, water is the critical factor, and any practice that helps to conserve water should be adopted. For that reason, fallowing, which gathers soil-moisture, should be strongly advocated. In Chapter IX another important value of the fallow will be discussed.

In view of the discussion in this chapter it is easily understood why students of soil-moisture have not found a material increase in soil-moisture due to fallowing. Usually such investigations have been made to shallow depths which already were fairly well filled with moisture. Water falling upon such soils would sink beyond the depth reached by the soil augers, and it became impossible to judge accurately of the moisture-storing advantage of the fallow. A critical analysis of the literature on this subject will reveal the weakness of most experiments in this respect.

It may be mentioned here that the only fallow that should be practiced by the dry-farmer is the clean fallow. Water storage is manifestly impossible when crops are growing upon a soil. A healthy crop of sagebrush, sunflowers, or other weeds consumes as much water as a first-class stand of corn, wheat, or potatoes. Weeds should be abhorred by the farmer. A weedy fallow is a sure forerunner of a crop failure. How to maintain a good fallow is discussed in Chapter VIII, under the head of Cultivation. Moreover, the practice of fallowing should be varied with the climatic conditions. In districts of low rainfall, 10-15 inches, the land should be clean summer-fallowed every other year; under very low rainfall perhaps even two out of three years; in districts of more abundant rainfall, 15-20 inches, perhaps one year out of every three or four is sufficient. Where the precipitation comes during the growing season, as in the Great Plains area, fallowing for the storage of water is less important than where the major part of the rainfall comes during the fall and winter. However, any system of dry-farming that omits fallowing wholly from its practices is in danger of failure in dry years.

Deep plowing for water storage

It has been attempted in this chapter to demonstrate that water falling upon a soil may descend to great depths, and may be stored in the soil from year to year, subject to the needs of the crop that may be planted. By what cultural treatment may this downward descent of the water be accelerated by the farmer? First and foremost, by plowing at the right time and to the right depth. Plowing should be done deeply and thoroughly so that the falling water may immediately be drawn down to the full depth of the loose, spongy, plowed soil, away from the action of the sunshine or winds. The moisture thus caught will slowly work its way down into the lower layers of the soil. Deep plowing is always to be recommended for successful dry-farming.

In humid districts where there is a great difference between the soil and the subsoil, it is often dangerous to turn up the lifeless subsoil, but in arid districts where there is no real differentiation between the soil and the subsoil, deep plowing may safely be recommended. True, occasionally, soils are found in the dry-farm territory which are underlaid near the surface by an inert clay or infertile layer of lime or gypsum which forbids the farmer putting the plow too deeply into the soil. Such soils, however' are seldom worth while trying for dry-farm purposes. Deep plowing must be practiced for the best dry-farming results.

It naturally follows that subsoiling should be a beneficial practice on dry-farms. Whether or not the great cost of subsoiling is offset by the resulting increased yields is an open question; it is, in fact, quite doubtful. Deep plowing done at the right time and frequently enough is possibly sufficient. By deep plowing is meant stirring or turning the soil to a depth of six to ten inches below the surface of the land.

Fall plowing far water storage

It is not alone sufficient to plow and to plow deeply; it is also necessary that the plowing be done at the right time. In the very great majority of cases over the whole dry-farm territory, plowing should be done in the fall. There are three reasons for this: First, after the crop is harvested, the soil should be stirred immediately, so that it can be exposed to the full action of the weathering agencies, whether the winters be open or closed. If for any reason plowing cannot be done early it is often advantageous to follow the harvester with a disk and to plow later when convenient. The chemical effect on the soil resulting from the weathering, made possible by fall plowing, as will be shown in Chapter IX, is of itself so great as to warrant the teaching of the general practice of fall plowing. Secondly, the early stirring of the soil prevents evaporation of the moisture in the soil during late summer and the fall. Thirdly, in the parts of the dry-farm territory where much precipitation occurs in the fall, winter, or early spring, fall plowing permits much of this precipitation to enter the soil and be stored there until needed by plants.

A number of experiment stations have compared plowing done in the early fall with plowing done late in the fall or in the spring, and with almost no exception it has been found that early fall plowing is water-conserving and in other ways advantageous. It was observed on a Utah dry-farm that the fall-plowed land contained, to a depth of 10 feet, 7.47 acre-inches more water than the adjoining spring-plowed land—a saving of nearly one half of a year's precipitation. The ground should be plowed in the early fall as soon as possible after the crop is harvested. It should then be left in the rough throughout the winter, so that it may be mellowed and broken down by the elements. The rough lend further has a tendency to catch and hold the snow that may be blown by the wind, thus insuring a more even distribution of the water from the melting snow.

A common objection to fall plowing is that the ground is so dry in the fall that it does not plow up well, and that the great dry clods of earth do much to injure the physical condition of the soil. It is very doubtful if such an objection is generally valid, especially if the soil is so cropped as to leave a fair margin of moisture in the soil at harvest time. The atmospheric agencies will usually break down the clods, and the physical result of the treatment will be beneficial. Undoubtedly, the fall plowing of dry land is somewhat difficult, but the good results more than pay the farmer for his trouble. Late fall plowing, after the fall rains have softened the land, is preferable to spring plowing. If for any reason the farmer feels that he must practice spring plowing, he should do it as early as possible in the spring. Of course, it is inadvisable to plow the soil when it is so wet as to injure its tilth seriously, but as soon as that danger period has passed, the plow should be placed in the ground. The moisture in the soil will thereby be conserved, and whatever water may fall during the spring months will be conserved also. This is of especial importance in the Great Plains region and in any district where the precipitation comes in the spring and winter months.

Likewise, after fall plowing, the land must be well stirred in the early spring with the disk harrow or a similar implement, to enable the spring rains to enter the soil easily and to prevent the evaporation of the water already stored. Where the rainfall is quite abundant and the plowed land has been beaten down by the frequent rains, the land should be plowed again in the spring. Where such conditions do not exist, the treatment of the soil with the disk and harrow in the spring is usually sufficient.

In recent dry-farm experience it has been fairly completely demonstrated that, providing the soil is well stored with water, crops will mature even if no rain falls during the growing season. Naturally, under most circumstances, any rains that may fall on a well-prepared soil during the season of crop growth will tend to increase the crop yield, but some profitable yield is assured, in spite of the season, if the soil is well stored with water at seed time. This is an important principle in the system of dry-farming.



The demonstration in the last chapter that the water which falls as rain or snow may be stored in the soil for the use of plants is of first importance in dry-farming, for it makes the farmer independent, in a large measure, of the distribution of the rainfall. The dry-farmer who goes into the summer with a soil well stored with water cares little whether summer rains come or not, for he knows that his crops will mature in spite of external drouth. In fact, as will be shown later, in many dry-farm sections where the summer rains are light they are a positive detriment to the farmer who by careful farming has stored his deep soil with an abundance of water. Storing the soil with water is, however, only the first step in making the rains of fall, winter, or the preceding year available for plant growth. As soon as warm growing weather comes, water-dissipating forces come into play, and water is lost by evaporation. The farmer must, therefore, use all precautions to keep the moisture in the soil until such time as the roots of the crop may draw it into the plants to be used in plant production. That is, as far as possible, direct evaporation of water from the soil must be prevented.

Few farmers really realize the immense possible annual evaporation in the dry-farm territory. It is always much larger than the total annual rainfall. In fact, an arid region may be defined as one in which under natural conditions several times more water evaporates annually from a free water surface than falls as rain and snow. For that reason many students of aridity pay little attention to temperature, relative humidity, or winds, and simply measure the evaporation from a free water surface in the locality in question. In order to obtain a measure of the aridity, MacDougal has constructed the following table, showing the annual precipitation and the annual evaporation at several well-known localities in the dry-farm territory.

True, the localities included in the following table are extreme, but they illustrate the large possible evaporation, ranging from about six to thirty-five times the precipitation. At the same time it must be borne in mind that while such rates of evaporation may occur from free water surfaces, the evaporation from agricultural soils under like conditions is very much smaller.

Place Annual Precipitation Annual Evaporation Ratio (In Inches) (In Inches) El Paso, Texas 9.23 80 8.7 Fort Wingate, New Mexico 14.00 80 5.7 Fort Yuma, Arizona 2.84 100 35.2 Tucson, AZ 11.74 90 7.7 Mohave, CA 4.97 95 19.1 Hawthorne, Nevada 4.50 80 17.5 Winnemucca, Nevada 9.51 80 9.6 St. George, Utah 6.46 90 13.9 Fort Duchesne, Utah 6.49 75 11.6 Pineville, Oregon 9.01 70 7.8 Lost River, Idaho 8.47 70 8.3 Laramie, Wyoming 9.81 70 7.1 Torres, Mexico 16.97 100 6.0

To understand the methods employed for checking evaporation from the soil, it is necessary to review briefly the conditions that determine the evaporation of water into the air, and the manner in which water moves in the soil.

The formation of water vapor

Whenever water is left freely exposed to the air, it evaporates; that is, it passes into the gaseous state and mixes with the gases of the air. Even snow and ice give off water vapor, though in very small quantities. The quantity of water vapor which can enter a given volume of air is definitely limited. For instance, at the temperature of freezing water 2.126 grains of water vapor can enter one cubic foot of air, but no more. When air contains all the water possible, it is said to be saturated, and evaporation then ceases. The practical effect of this is the well-known experience that on the seashore, where the air is often very nearly fully saturated with water vapor, the drying of clothes goes on very slowly, whereas in the interior, like the dry-farming territory, away from the ocean, where the air is far from being saturated, drying goes on very rapidly.

The amount of water necessary to saturate air varies greatly with the temperature. It is to be noted that as the temperature increases, the amount of water that may be held by the air also increases; and proportionately more rapidly than the increase in temperature. This is generally well understood in common experience, as in drying clothes rapidly by hanging them before a hot fire. At a temperature of 100 deg F., which is often reached in portions of the dry-farm territory during the growing season, a given volume of air can hold more than nine times as much water vapor as at the temperature of freezing water. This is an exceedingly important principle in dry-farm practices, for it explains the relatively easy possibility of storing water during the fall and winter when the temperature is low and the moisture usually abundant, and the greater difficulty of storing the rain that falls largely, as in the Great Plains area, in the summer when water-dissipating forces are very active. This law also emphasizes the truth that it is in times of warm weather that every precaution must be taken to prevent the evaporation of water from the soil surface.

Temperature Grains of Water held in in Degrees F. One Cubic Foot of Air 32 2.126 40 2.862 50 4.089 60 5.756 70 7.992 80 10.949 90 14.810 100 19.790

It is of course well understood that the atmosphere as a whole is never saturated with water vapor. Such saturation is at the best only local, as, for instance, on the seashore during quiet days, when the layer of air over the water may be fully saturated, or in a field containing much water from which, on quiet warm days, enough water may evaporate to saturate the layer of air immediately upon the soil and around the plants. Whenever, in such cases, the air begins to move and the wind blows, the saturated air is mixed with the larger portion of unsaturated air, and evaporation is again increased. Meanwhile, it must be borne in mind that into a layer of saturated air resting upon a field of growing plants very little water evaporates, and that the chief water-dissipating power of winds lies in the removal of this saturated layer. Winds or air movements of any kind, therefore, become enemies of the farmer who depends upon a limited rainfall.

The amount of water actually found in a given volume of air at a certain temperature, compared with the largest amount it can hold, is called the relative humidity of the air. As shown in Chapter IV, the relative humidity becomes smaller as the rainfall decreases. The lower the relative humidity is at a given temperature, the more rapidly will water evaporate into the air. There is no more striking confirmation of this law than the fact that at a temperature of 90 deg sunstrokes and similar ailments are reported in great number from New York, while the people of Salt Lake City are perfectly comfortable. In New York the relative humidity in summer is about 73 per cent; in Salt Lake City, about 35 per cent. At a high summer temperature evaporation from the skin goes on slowly in New York and rapidly in Salt Lake City, with the resulting discomfort or comfort. Similarly, evaporation from soils goes on rapidly under a low and slowly under a high percentage of relative humidity.

Evaporation from water surfaces is hastened, therefore, by (1) an increase in the temperature, (2) an increase in the air movements or winds, and (3) a decrease in the relative humidity. The temperature is higher; the relative humidity lower, and the winds usually more abundant in arid than in humid regions. The dry-farmer must consequently use all possible precautions to prevent evaporation from the soil.

Conditions of evaporation from from soils

Evaporation does not alone occur from a surface of free water. All wet or moist substances lose by evaporation most of the water that they hold, providing the conditions of temperature and relative humidity are favorable. Thus, from a wet soil, evaporation is continually removing water. Yet, under ordinary conditions, it is impossible to remove all the water, for a small quantity is attracted so strongly by the soil particles that only a temperature above the boiling point of water will drive it out. This part of the soil is the hygroscopic moisture spoken of in the last chapter.

Moreover, it must be kept in mind that evaporation does not occur as rapidly from wet soil as from a water surface, unless all the soil pores are so completely filled with water that the soil surface is practically a water surface. The reason for this reduced evaporation from a wet soil is almost self-evident. There is a comparatively strong attraction between soil and water, which enables the moisture to cling as a thin capillary film around the soil particles, against the force of gravity. Ordinarily, only capillary water is found in well-tilled soil, and the force causing evaporation must be strong enough to overcome this attraction besides changing the water into vapor.

The less water there is in a soil, the thinner the water film, and the more firmly is the water held. Hence, the rate of evaporation decreases with the decrease in soil-moisture. This law is confirmed by actual field tests. For instance, as an average of 274 trials made at the Utah Station, it was found that three soils, otherwise alike, that contained, respectively, 22.63 per cent, 17.14 per cent, and 12.75 per cent of water lost in two weeks, to a depth of eight feet, respectively 21.0, 17. 1, and 10.0 pounds of water per square foot. Similar experiments conducted elsewhere also furnish proof of the correctness of this principle. From this point of view the dry-farmer does not want his soils to be unnecessarily moist. The dry-farmer can reduce the per cent of water in the soil without diminishing the total amount of water by so treating the soil that the water will distribute itself to considerable depths. This brings into prominence again the practices of fall plowing, deep plowing, subsoiling, and the choice of deep soils for dry-farming.

Very much for the same reasons, evaporation goes on more slowly from water in which salt or other substances have been dissolved. The attraction between the water and the dissolved salt seems to be strong enough to resist partially the force causing evaporation. Soil-water always contains some of the soil ingredients in solution, and consequently under the given conditions evaporation occurs more slowly from soil-water than from pure water. Now, the more fertile a soil is, that is, the more soluble plant-food it contains, the more material will be dissolved in the soil-water, and as a result the more slowly will evaporation take place. Fallowing, cultivation, thorough plowing and manuring, which increase the store of soluble plant-food, all tend to diminish evaporation. While these conditions may have little value in the eyes of the farmer who is under an abundant rainfall, they are of great importance to the dry-farmer. It is only by utilizing every possibility of conserving water and fertility that dry-farming may be made a perfectly safe practice.

Loss by evaporation chiefly at the surface

Evaporation goes on from every wet substance. Water evaporates therefore from the wet soil grains under the surface as well as from those at the surface. In developing a system of practice which will reduce evaporation to a minimum it must be learned whether the water which evaporates from the soil particles far below the surface is carried in large quantities into the atmosphere and thus lost to plant use. Over forty years ago, Nessler subjected this question to experiment and found that the loss by evaporation occurs almost wholly at the soil surface, and that very little if any is lost directly by evaporation from the lower soil layers. Other experimenters have confirmed this conclusion, and very recently Buckingham, examining the same subject, found that while there is a very slow upward movement of the soil gases into the atmosphere, the total quantity of the water thus lost by direct evaporation from soil, a foot below the surface, amounted at most to one inch of rainfall in six years. This is insignificant even under semiarid and arid conditions. However, the rate of loss of water by direct evaporation from the lower soil layers increases with the porosity of the soil, that is, with the space not filled with soil particles or water. Fine-grained soils, therefore, lose the least water in this manner. Nevertheless, if coarse-grained soils are well filled with water, by deep fall plowing and by proper summer fallowing for the conservation of moisture, the loss of moisture by direct evaporation from the lower soil layers need not be larger than from finer grained soils

Thus again are emphasized the principles previously laid down that, for the most successful dry-farming, the soil should always be kept well filled with moisture, even if it means that the land, after being broken, must lie fallow for one or two seasons, until a sufficient amount of moisture has accumulated. Further, the correlative principle is emphasized that the moisture in dry-farm lands should be stored deeply, away from the immediate action of the sun's rays upon the land surface. The necessity for deep soils is thus again brought out.

The great loss of soil moisture due to an accumulation of water in the upper twelve inches is well brought out in the experiments conducted by the Utah Station. The following is selected from the numerous data on the subject. Two soils, almost identical in character, contained respectively 17.57 per cent and 16.55 per cent of water on an average to a depth of eight feet; that is, the total amount of water held by the two soils was practically identical. Owing to varying cultural treatment, the distribution of the water in the soil was not uniform; one contained 23.22 per cent and the other 16.64 per cent of water in the first twelve inches. During the first seven days the soil that contained the highest percentage of water in the first foot lost 13.30 pounds of water, while the other lost only 8.48 pounds per square foot. This great difference was due no doubt to the fact that direct evaporation takes place in considerable quantity only in the upper twelve inches of soil, where the sun's heat has a full chance to act.

Any practice which enables the rains to sink quickly to considerable depths should be adopted by the dry-farmer. This is perhaps one of the great reasons for advocating the expensive but usually effective subsoil plowing on dry-farms. It is a very common experience, in the arid region, that great, deep cracks form during hot weather. From the walls of these cracks evaporation goes on, as from the topsoil, and the passing winds renew the air so that the evaporation may go on rapidly. The dry-farmer must go over the land as often as needs be with some implement that will destroy and fill up the cracks that may have been formed. In a field of growing crops this is often difficult to do; but it is not impossible that hand hoeing, expensive as it is, would pay well in the saving of soil moisture and the consequent increase in crop yield.

How soil water reaches the surface

It may be accepted as an established truth that the direct evaporation of water from wet soils occurs almost wholly at the surface. Yet it is well known that evaporation from the soil surface may continue until the soil-moisture to a depth of eight or ten feet or more is depleted. This is shown by the following analyses of dry-farm soil in early spring and midsummer. No attempt was made to conserve the moisture in the soil:—

Per cent of water in Early spring Midsummer 1st foot 20.84 8.83 2nd foot 20.06 8.87 3rd foot 19.62 11.03 4th foot 18.28 9.59 5th foot 18.70 11.27 6th foot 14.29 11.03 7th foot 14.48 8.95 8th foot 13.83 9.47 Avg 17.51 9.88

In this case water had undoubtedly passed by capillary movement from the depth of eight feet to a point near the surface where direct evaporation could occur. As explained in the last chapter, water which is held as a film around the soil particles is called capillary water; and it is in the capillary form that water may be stored in dry-farm soils. Moreover, it is the capillary soil-moisture alone which is of real value in crop production. This capillary water tends to distribute itself uniformly throughout the soil, in accordance with the prevailing conditions and forces. If no water is removed from the soil, in course of time the distribution of the soil-water will be such that the thickness of the film at any point in the soil mass is a direct resultant of the various forces acting at that particular point. There will then be no appreciable movement of the soil-moisture. Such a condition is approximated in late winter or early spring before planting begins. During the greater part of the year, however, no such quiescent state can occur, for there are numerous disturbing elements that normally are active, among which the three most effective are (l) the addition of water to the soil by rains; (2) the evaporation of water from the topsoil, due to the more active meteorological factors during spring, summer, and fall; and (3) the abstraction of water from the soil by plant roots.

Water, entering the soil, moves downward under the influence of gravity as gravitational water, until under the attractive influence of the soil it has been converted into capillary water and adheres to the soil particles as a film. If the soil were dry, and the film therefore thin, the rain water would move downward only a short distance as gravitational water; if the soil were wet, and the film therefore thick, the water would move down to a greater distance before being exhausted. If, as is often the case in humid districts, the soil is saturated, that is, the film is as thick as the particles can hold, the water would pass right through the soil and connect with the standing water below. This, of course, is seldom the case in dry-farm districts. In any soil, excepting one already saturated, the addition of water will produce a thickening of the soil-water film to the full descent of the water. This immediately destroys the conditions of equilibrium formerly existing, for the moisture is not now uniformly distributed. Consequently a process of redistribution begins which continues until the nearest approach to equilibrium is restored. In this process water will pass in every direction from the wet portion of the soil to the drier; it does not necessarily mean that water will actually pass from the wet portion to the drier portion; usually, at the driest point a little water is drawn from the adjoining point, which in turn draws from the next, and that from the next, until the redistribution is complete. The process is very much like stuffing wool into a sack which already is loosely filled. The new wool does not reach the bottom of the sack, yet there is more wool in the bottom than there was before.

If a plant-root is actively feeding some distance under the soil surface, the reverse process occurs. At the feeding point the root continually abstracts water from the soil grains and thus makes the film thinner in that locality. This causes a movement of moisture similar to the one above described, from the wetter portions of the soil to the portion being dried out by the action of the plant-root. Soil many feet or even rods distant may assist in supplying such an active root with moisture. When the thousands of tiny roots sent out by each plant are recalled. it may well be understood what a confusion of pulls and counter-pulls upon the soil-moisture exists in any cultivated soil. In fact, the soil-water film may be viewed as being in a state of trembling activity, tending to place itself in full equilibrium with the surrounding contending forces which, themselves, constantly change. Were it not that the water film held closely around the soil particles is possessed of extreme mobility, it would not be possible to meet the demands of the plants upon the water at comparatively great distances. Even as it is, it frequently happens that when crops are planted too thickly on dry-farms, the soil-moisture cannot move quickly enough to the absorbing roots to maintain plant growth, and crop failure results. Incidentally, this points to planting that shall be proportional to the moisture contained by the soil. See Chapter XI.

As the temperature rises in spring, with a decrease in the relative humidity, and an increase in direct sunshine, evaporation from the soil surface increases greatly. However, as the topsoil becomes drier, that is, as the water fihn becomes thinner, there is an attempt at readjustment, and water moves upward to take the place of that lost by evaporation. As this continues throughout the season, the moisture stored eight or ten feet or more below the surface is gradually brought to the top and evaporated, and thus lost to plant use.

The effect of rapid top drying of soils

As the water held by soils diminishes, and the water film around the soil grains becomes thinner, the capillary movement of the soil-water is retarded. This is easily understood by recalling that the soil particles have an attraction for water, which is of definite value, and may be measured by the thickest film that may be held against gravity. When the film is thinned, it does not diminish the attraction of the soil for water; it simply results in a stronger pull upon the water and a firmer holding of the film against the surfaces of the soil grains. To move soil-water under such conditions requires the expenditure of more energy than is necessary for moving water in a saturated or nearly saturated soil. Under like conditions, therefore, the thinner the soil-water film the more difficult will be the upward movement of the soil-water and the slower the evaporation from the topsoil.

As drying goes on, a point is reached at which the capillary movement of the water wholly ceases. This is probably when little more than the hygroscopic moisture remains. In fact, very dry soil and water repel each other. This is shown in the common experience of driving along a road in summer, immediately after a light shower. The masses of dust are wetted only on the outside, and as the wheels pass through them the dry dust is revealed. It is an important fact that very dry soil furnishes a very effective protection against the capillary movement of water.

In accordance with the principle above established if the surface soil could be dried to the point where capillarity is very slow, the evaporation would be diminished or almost wholly stopped. More than a quarter of a century ago, Eser showed experimentally that soil-water may be saved by drying the surface soil rapidly. Under dry-farm conditions it frequently occurs that the draft upon the water of the soil is so great that nearly all the water is quickly and so completely abstracted from the upper few inches of soil that they are left as an effective protection against further evaporation. For instance, in localities where hot dry winds are of common occurrence, the upper layer of soil is sometimes completely dried before the water in the lower layers can by slow capillary movement reach the top. The dry soil layer then prevents further loss of water, and the wind because of its intensity has helped to conserve the soil-moisture. Similarly in localities where the relative humidity is low, the sunshine abundant, and the temperature high, evaporation may go on so rapidly that the lower soil layers cannot supply the demands made, and the topsoil then dries out so completely as to form a protective covering against further evaporation. It is on this principle that the native desert soils of the United States, untouched by the plow, and the surfaces of which are sun-baked, are often found to possess large percentages of water at lower depths. Whitney recorded this observation with considerable surprise, many years ago, and other observers have found the same conditions at nearly all points of the arid region. This matter has been subjected to further study by Buckingham, who placed a variety of soils under artificially arid and humid conditions. It was found in every case that, the initial evaporation was greater under arid conditions, but as the process went on and the topsoil of the arid soil became dry, more water was lost under humid conditions. For the whole experimental period, also, more water was lost under humid conditions. It was notable that the dry protective layer was formed more slowly on alkali soils, which would point to the inadvisability of using alkali lands for dry-farm purposes. All in all, however, it appears "that under very arid conditions a soil automatically protects itself from drying by the formation of a natural mulch on the surface."

Naturally, dry-farm soils differ greatly in their power of forming such a mulch. A heavy clay or a light sandy soil appears to have less power of such automatic protection than a loamy soil. An admixture of limestone seems to favor the formation of such a natural protective mulch. Ordinarily, the farmer can further the formation of a dry topsoil layer by stirring the soil thoroughly. This assists the sunshine and the air to evaporate the water very quickly. Such cultivation is very desirable for other reasons also, as will soon be discussed. Meanwhile, the water-dissipating forces of the dry-farm section are not wholly objectionable, for whether the land be cultivated or not, they tend to hasten the formation of dry surface layers of soil which guard against excessive evaporation. It is in moist cloudy weather, when the drying process is slow, that evaporation causes the greatest losses of soil-moisture.

The effect of shading

Direct sunshine is, next to temperature, the most active cause of rapid evaporation from moist soil surfaces. Whenever, therefore, evaporation is not rapid enough to form a dry protective layer of topsoil, shading helps materially in reducing surface losses of soil-water. Under very arid conditions, however, it is questionable whether in all cases shading has a really beneficial effect, though under semiarid or sub-humid conditions the benefits derived from shading are increased largely. Ebermayer showed in 1873 that the shading due to the forest cover reduced evaporation 62 per cent, and many experiments since that day have confirmed this conclusion. At the Utah Station, under arid conditions, it was found that shading a pot of soil, which otherwise was subjected to water-dissipating influences, saved 29 per cent of the loss due to evaporation from a pot which was not shaded. This principle cannot be applied very greatly in practice, but it points to a somewhat thick planting, proportioned to the water held by the soil. It also shows a possible benefit to be derived from the high header straw which is allowed to stand for several weeks in dry-farm sections where the harvest comes early and the fall plowing is done late, as in the mountain states. The high header stubble shades the ground very thoroughly. Thus the stubble may be made to conserve the soil-moisture in dry-farm sections, where grain is harvested by the "header" method.

A special case of shading is the mulching of land with straw or other barnyard litter, or with leaves, as in the forest. Such mulching reduces evaporation, but only in part, because of its shading action, since it acts also as a loose top layer of soil matter breaking communication with the lower soil layers.

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