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Diego Collado's Grammar of the Japanese Language
by Diego Collado
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Itumade? means 'until when?' Itumademo means 'always.' Itu cara means 'after what time.' Itu iori means 'from what time.'

Adverbs of Negation[151]

Iia or iia [iia iia][152] means 'not.' S devanai means 'it is not so.' Iccana or iccanagueni means 'by no means,' iume iume means 'not even in a dream,' sarani, ichiien, catute, or catute motte means 'in no way,' and io, iomo, or iomo iomo means 'without thinking'; e.g., catute mairu mai 'in no way shall I come,' iomo s va gozaru mai (117v) 'it will in no way come to mind why it will be so.' When affirmative verbs are added to these adverbs they become negative; e.g., iomo iomo to mǒxitareba vo mairi atta (117v) 'although you said you would not go, you went,' io mair 'in no way shall I go.'

Adverbs of Affirmation[153]

Nacanaca means 'it is so,' v means 'so,' when one agrees. Gueni or gueni gueni means 'it is thus'; e.g., gueni gueni s mo ar 'without doubt the situation is thus.' Chdo means 'at all.' Saiǒni, sono bun, sono gotoqu, sǒ de gozaru, sore sore, massǒ gia, or xicato means 'it is so.' Mottomo means that something is reasonably said. Guioi no gotoqu means 'as your Lordship believes, or says.' Mochiron indicates that a thing does not come in to doubt or discussion. Nacanaca naru {161} coto de gozaranu means 'truly it is not possible.' Nacanaca no coto indicates a thing with which it is possible to agree. Macotoni means 'truly,' as does xinjit or xinjitni. Xeimon means 'I affirm by oath.' Isasaca or isasaca motte means 'not even a little,' and issai or ixxet means 'in no way, or by no means,' and when these particles are added to the affirmative they mean 'truly.'

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Comparative Adverbs[154]

Iori, iori mo, and iori mo navo mean 'more' in a comparison. The person compared is in the nominative case and the person to whom he is compared is in the ablative with one of the particles which we have listed above; e.g., Pedro va juan iori mo gacux de gozaru 'Peter is wiser than John,' soco ie noboru iori va; mairanu ga maxi gia 'it is better not to go than to climb up there.' Gotoqu, mama, and iǒni are adverbs of similitude (adverbia similitudinis) and require the genitive for the thing with which the comparison is made. If the particle is preceded by a verb, no genitive is required; e.g., no iama ie nari tomo qitai mama ni qite, nurureba, nugui suteraruru (124v) 'if they were to go to the mountains or the plains wearing such clothes as they want to wear, they will have to take them off when they become wet on account of the water.' Vom mama ni, vom gotoqu, and vom iǒni, mean 'as I think,' cono mi no mama ni 'according to his desires, or his pleasure.' Fodo means 'to such a degree as (tantum),' or 'just as (quasi)'; e.g., qifen ano fito fodo no gacux de gozaru[155] 'you are as wise as he,' fara ga cudaru fodo ioi 'he will recover as soon as he has a bowel movement,' michi vo aruqu fodo cutabiruru (123v) 'as I walk so I get tired,' acai fodo ioi 'the redder the better,' xinuru fodo no vazzurai de va nai 'this disease is not strong enough to cause death,' fune ni mesaruru fodo naraba vare mo norzu (124) 'if Your Lordship would take up the task of boarding the ship, so shall I,' tamexi mo nai fodo ni atta to mǒsu (124v) 'they say it was as if it had never been,' voquru fodo araba sore ie mairǒzu (124) 'if I am able to arrive at the state where I can get up from bed, I shall come to you,' chicara no fodo vo mite 'seeing the degree of his strength,' fodo n tuita 'he arrived in {162} an instant,' core fodo 'as this,' sore fodo 'as that,' are fodo 'as that,' vovoi fodo 'while more,' sucunai fodo 'while less.'

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Superlative Adverbs[156]

Uie means 'the highest'; e.g., christian no voxiie va izzure iori mo uie de gozaru 'the doctrine and faith of Christianity are supreme, or above all,' cono saqe no uie va nai 'there is no better wine than that.' Ichi or daiichi means 'supreme, or unique'; e.g., gacuxǒ no uchi ni Sancto Thomas daiichi de gozatta 'among wise men Saint Thomas was the best,' core va are iori uie 'this is superior to that.' The particle xita has the opposite meaning of 'inferior, or the lowest'; e.g., xiqitai va anima iori xita de gozaru (141) 'the body is inferior to the soul.'

Adverbs of Intensity and Exaggeration[157]

Ichidan, chicagoro, and iccǒ mean 'intensely (valde)'; e.g., chicagoro no vo cocoro gaqe de gozaru 'this is the greatest care and diligence,' sore va icco varui coto gia 'this is extremely bad.' Bexxite means 'chiefly,' tori vaqe means 'especially,' coto no foca means 'rarely, or extraordinarily,' icanimo means 'intensely,' and amarini means 'too much.' As has been said, adverbs are formed from adjectives according to the rules above, and these adverbs mean adverbially what the adjectives mean adjectivally; e.g., fucai means 'deep,' and fuc means 'deeply.' Icani mo xizzucani means 'extremely quietly,' tani coto ni means 'extraordinarily,' and xitatacani or guisanni means 'in a way that is to be feared' that is to say 'too much.' See the dictionary.[158]

Accumulative Adverbs[159]

Voxinabete means 'universally'; sbet means 'generally,' as do tuneni and sojite [sjite]; feijeini means 'regularly'; and voioso, tabun, vocata, ioppodoni mean 'for the most part,' and qeccu or caiette (56 means 'after all.' Tennen means 'perhaps,' as do xijen and icasama. Sadamete means 'probably,' canarazu means 'without doubt,' moxi xijien [moxi xijen] means 'perhaps,' xǒtocu means 'naturally,' jinen {163} means 'by chance,' xidai vidai ni or jen jen ni means 'gradually,' and vonozzucara means 'by oneself.'

Adverbs that Conclude and Claim Attention[160]

Ficqiǒ and tuini mean 'finally, or in conclusion.' Tugǒ means 'in summary.' Nǒ nǒ means 'is it not so?' e.g., nǒ nǒ icani qicaxeruru ca? 'do you hear me then?' Moxi[161] means 'ho there (heus),' but it is an elegant word; e.g., moxi Padre sama 'ho there, Reverend Father.' Iare also means 'ho there,' but with inferiors; e.g., iare tarǒ quaja to iieba 'saying "Ho there, Tarōkaja."' Iai means 'ho there' with very low people; e.g., iai sochi ga motta mono va nani zo? 'hey! what is it that you bring?' Ia has the same meaning; e.g., ia vo tono bara domo va nani vo savagu zo? (128) 'hey! you soldiers and good men, why do you quarrel?' The particle ai has the same meaning but it is placed after the sentence; e.g., izzure mo mina qiqe ai (129) 'hey! all of you listen.'

The particles ca and zo, as has been said above, are used as interrogatives. The particles ia and caia have the same function but they are more humble; e.g., are va tare caia? 'who is he?', core ia[?] 'this?', io fuqete tare ca va tazzune zo? (89v) 'when it becomes late at night, who will be able to visit?', sore de arǒ ca to i coto gia 'I said, "will it be this?"'

No? asks for agreement; e.g., gozarǒ ca no? 'will he come?'[162] mairǒ to voxerareta no? [... vxerareta no?] 'did he say that he will come?' no Pedro dono? 'isn't that so, Peter?' Na[?] means the same thing, but it is used with inferiors; e.g., sǒ qiita na? 'didn't you hear so?' Sometimes, in a sentence containing zo, baxi, which is a dubitive particle (particula dubitandi), is placed; e.g., nanto xita xisai de baxi gozaru zo? (122v)[163] 'for what reason did this happen?', sate nanto i voqiacu de baxi gozaru zo[?] (123) 'what is the name of your guest?', goi baxi gozaru ca? 'isn't there something of use to you?'

Io and zo strengthen or give cadence to the sentence; e.g., caita zo {164} 'he truly wrote,' maitta io 'he certainly came,' sono toqi vare (57 va ichi dan varui tucai vo xiraruite gozaru io [... siaruite ...] (95) 'at that time I was following bad advice.' Bacari means 'only, or in only one way,' sore ni caguitte means 'that only,' core ni caguirazu 'not only this.' Bacari also means 'more or less'; e.g., fiacu bacari 'there were a hundred,' fiacunin bacari corosareta 'about one hundred men were killed.' N, nte, naqu xite, and naqute mean 'without'; e.g., raxxi mo n 'without reason or order,' cacugo n 'without any preparation.'

The adverbs of sound (adverbia sonus) are many and vary in accordance with the way that the Japanese perceive the sound. The particle to is added to them; e.g., va va to xite 'vociferously saying wa wa,' and if they add meqi,u, it means to make even a louder noise; e.g., va meqi,u 'to shout saying wa.'

The Case Prepositions[164]

Tame or ni means 'concerning';[165] e.g., sonata no tame 'for you (tibi).' It governs the genitive which precedes it; nan no tame 'for what,' nani ni naru ca? 'for what is it?', nani ni x ca? 'what do you do that for?', nani no i ni tatu ca? (171v) 'for what is it needed, or useful?', maitte no i va? (130) 'what's the use of going?'

Tai xite means 'on account of' or 'against'; e.g., tengu ni tai xite teqito 'to fight against the devil, or resist him,' Deus ni tai xite cuguio vo coraiuru 'I endure the pain (labor) because of God.' Uie iori also means 'because'; e.g., von jifi no uie iori (167) 'because of his mercy.'

Ni iotte signifies the reason for which; e.g., Deus iori fito no jento acu ni iotte go femp vo ataiesaxerareozu [... ataiesaxerarezu] (146v) 'God gives to man according to his virtues and vices.' This form is derived from the verb iori,u.

Ni tuite means 'around, or about' and is derived from the verb tuqi,u; e.g., core ni tuite, core ni tuqi, or core ni tuqete means 'about that.' Sono gui ni voite va zonjenu (120) 'I do not know anything about this matter,' Vxe va mottomo naredomo vagami ni totte va canai gatai (120) 'Your Lordship speaks well but what concerns me is that (58 {165} it is difficult to do.' Dai quan ni itatte va ichinin bacari sadame io (120)[166] 'decide that which concerns the steward only.' Itatte and totte[167] are the gerunds of verbs just as the preceding. They also say Padre coto va 'the things belonging to the priest,' varera coto va 'about my things, or those things which belong to me.' Xitagatte or xitagǒte means 'near' and is the gerund of the verb xitagari,u or xitagai,. As with the other verbs it governs the dative case; e.g., guioi ni xitagatte or xitagǒte 'according to Your Lordship's understanding.' Xidai has the same meaning; e.g., conata xidai 'according to your wishes.' Sometimes it is added to the roots of verbs; e.g., mairi xidai 'according to when he comes, or according to his coming.'

Ni indicates the place in which. Ni voite has the same meaning but indicates permanence; e.g., fatto va fuximi ni voite vxeidasareta 'he established the law while he was in Fushimi,' Bungo funai ni itatte 'in the city of Funai in the kingdom of Bungo,' iglesia ni uoru 'he is in church.'

De indicates the place of an action; e.g., michi de Pedro ni vǒta 'I met Peter in the street.' The same particle de, together with vo motte, indicate the instrument with which an action is done; e.g., bo vo motte Pedro vo uchi coroita 'he killed Peter with a stick,' Padre sama catarareta de navo qicoieta 'from what the Reverend Father told me, it became easier to understand,' necqi de xinda 'he died of a fever.'

Cara or iori indicate the place from which; e.g., iglesia cara 'from church.' They also say fune cara maitta 'he came by ship' and cachi cara maitta 'he came on foot.' Fune de maitta is the same as fune cara maitta and fune ni notte maitta. Fana cara me cara miguruxij mono gia 'it is unpleasant to the nose and the eyes.' Iori indicates the place through which; e.g., sama iori faitta 'he entered through the window.'

Tomo ni means 'at the same time'; e.g., sonata to tomo ni mairǒzu I shall go at the same time as you,' mǒsu to tomo ni 'at the same time as he spoke.'

Ie indicates the place to which; e.g., achi ie mairǒ 'I shall go directly to court (curia),' miiaco no cata ie noboru 'he went up to court' and also miiaco no fǒ ie noboru. They also say miiaco no iori, {166} miiaco sama, or miiaco no gotoqu noboru, but this is not a good way of speaking and is more characteristic of a rustic (rusticus).

De indicates the material from which; e.g., tuchi de cavara (59 vo tuquru 'to make bricks out of earth or mud,' nande core vo tuquru ca? 'from what is this made?'

Uie means 'concerning'; e.g., zuibun codomo no uie vo fito ni mo naxi marasuru iǒni to cocoro gaqe marasuru 'with great diligence I took care of my sons so as to make them men.' Sonata no fiquan no vo saiban mesare io [... no uie vo ...] (141) 'take care of your servants.'

Made means 'until'; asu made 'until morning,' inochi vo uxinǒ made aru mai 'he will not lose his life, or he will not arrive at the loss of his life,' sore made vomoi mo ioranu gui gia 'it will not come to my mind,' cocoro zaxi areba canavanu made mo xei vo iruru 'when something is wished for, one uses his strength up to the point of impossibility,' mǒsu made mo nai 'it is not necessary to say,' cono tocoro made maitta 'I came to this place.'

Conjunction and Separation[168]

To means 'and'; e.g., Pedro to juan to Nagasaqi ie ita 'Peter and John went to Nagasaki,' core to, are to vo toru 'I take this and that.' Mo has the same meaning; e.g., Pedro mo juan mo Nagasaqi cara modotta 'Peter and John returned from Nagasaki,' naqu mono mo ari, var mono mo aru 'there are those who cry and those who laugh. Mo is often placed before negative verbs; e.g., nanigoto mo gazaranu ca? 'is that not something new?'

Mata means 'and,' whether it is found between nouns or verbs. Ca means 'or'; e.g., Pedro ca; juan ca coi to iie 'tell Peter or John to come.' Arui va also means 'or'; e.g., arui va Pedro, arui va juan 'either Peter or John,' arui va iomu, arui va caqu 'I either read or write.' Moxi va means 'if in fact,' and it is used in the middle of a sentence; e.g., moxi va cane ga nai naraba 'if in fact you were to have no money.'

Mata va is used to bind the sentences more tightly together (ad orationem contexturam). It means 'besides that, or besides'; e.g., (60 arui va iamai ga vocoru ca, mata va isogui no fumi qitaru ca etc. [... ca, etc.] (135) 'either some sickness occurs, or besides that some urgent letter arrives.'

{167}

Xicareba means 'since things are this way,' sari nagara means 'but,' sǒ aru tocoro de means 'since it is thus,' saraba means 'since it is so,' and sareba sareba means 'since then.' Ca? means 'if'; e.g., maitta ca mi io 'see if he came, or went,' maitta ca xiranu 'I don't know if he went.' Iara means 'if,' but distributively (divisive); e.g., fito iara chicuxǒ iara xiranu 'I don't know if it's man or beast,' nani iara to mǒxita 'I wonder what he said.'

Some disjunctive and emphatic particles are formed from nanica and tocacu with the addition of other particles; e.g., nani ia ca ia? 'which thing?' The same meaning is expressed by nani iara ca iara? and nanto iara cato iara? Nanto xite, cato xite means 'how,' nanto mo cato mo means 'in no way,' and nani mo ca mo means 'nothing.' Nanigoto mo cagoto mo, mina ituvari naru zo [... ituvari ...] 'when all is said and done they are all lies.' Nani no ca no, and nanto xite, cato xite are ways to excuse oneself. Nani no ca no to ite means 'saying this and that.' Domo como means 'in whatever way it is,' as does dǒ xite mo cǒ xite mo. Dǒ xite cǒ xite means 'doing this and that differently.' Dǒ x cǒ x means 'I shall do this and that.'

Tomo cacumo means 'all the same,' as do toni cacuni, tonimo cacunimo, and totemo cacutemo. Core to ij; care to ij means 'saying this and that, or making excuses.' Care core means 'this and that,' coco caxico means 'here and there (hic and illic).' Vomoxir, vocaxu[169] [vomoxirovocaxǔ] is used when accommodating oneself almost to flattery.

If the particle motte is added to the particles catute, isasaca, tomoni, nani, and nani nani iori [... and nani iori] it adds strength and force; e.g., catute motte sǒ aru mai 'the situation will not be this way at all.'

Interjections[170]

Sate, sate sate, [satemo,] and satemo satemo are interjections of admiration; e.g., satemo Deus no voqinaru vonjifi cana 'oh! great mercy of God!'

{168}

Avare is the interjection for pity; e.g., avare mutucaxij io no naca cana 'oh! world replete with misery!'

Ha![171] is the interjection of penetence; e.g., ha faxi demo (61 vomoxiroi ga; tocoro ni iote qicoie canuru [... ni iotte ...] (127v) 'ah, the workmanship of the sound and the harmony of the singing is most graceful, but it is not able to be heard well.'

Iara! is the interjection for joy and pain; e.g., iara iara medeta ia (128) 'oh! how much I rejoice.' Ia is also used; e.g., satemo iiaxii iatubara ia (129)[172] 'oh! how vile and despicable,' gongo dǒdan fuxigui na xisai cana (128v) 'oh! how rare and ridiculous a reason.' Iei is the interjection of wonder; e.g., iei Padre sama cochi gozaru io 'oh! here is the Reverend Father.'

Hat is the interjection that indicates that one is repentent; e.g., Benqei core vo mite hat coto naxi to zonjite, sono mama niva ni bǒ vo voraxi, etc. (127v) 'Benkei seeing this,' etc.[173]

The Syntax and the Cases that are Governed by the Verbs[174]

The nominative is placed at the beginning of the sentence and the verb at the end: the remaining elements are placed according to the cadence (cadentia) of the sentence; e.g., Pedro va Nagasaqi de xutrai xita iqi iqi ni tuite juan vo coroita 'Peter killed John because of an argument that took place in Nagasaki.' In certain sentences of serious import a substitute verb (verbum suppositum) is placed after the verb, but this is rare; e.g., tare mo canavanu futari no qimi ni tucǒru coto va (84)[175] 'no one can serve two masters.' In this sentence the substitute verb is tucǒru coto va. Core ni iote tanomi tatematuru itumo virgen [Core ni iotte ...] (84) 'therefore I pray to the ever virgin [Mary].'

Clauses (orationes) in the absolute or permissive subjunctive, infinitive, conditional, and causative are always placed before clauses that are in the indicative or imperative, even if it does not make sense {169} in Latin or any other European language; e.g., achi cara tomeraruru tomo; tomaru na 'do not stay, even if they want you to remain,' sore vo qiitareba, fara vo tatete modotta 'when he heard that, he came back very angry,' taxicani uqetamotta ni iotte coso, mxi ague maraxitare 'I listened carefully, and then I spoke,' faiǒ gozatta raba vo mexi vo xinj mono vo 'if you had come earlier, I would have offered you food.'

When there are two verbs in the same sentence, the first will (62 be in the gerund form and the other will be in the tense that is required by the sense of the sentence; e.g., core vo totte giqi ni mi ga comono ni vataxe 'take this and give it to my servant at once.'

When there are two or more clauses which have the same subject or tense, only the last verb will be in the tense that is required by the sense of the sentence. The other verbs will be in the root form, while still others will be in the gerund in e form; e.g., tovazunba cotaiezu, voxe raba tuxxinde qiqi [tovazũba ... vxe ... qiqe] (85v)[176] 'if they don't ask don't answer: if they speak listen carefully,' Deus no vo coto vo macoto ni uqe, go voqite mo camavaide, sono mama inferno ni vochita 'he did not believe in God, and he did not respect His precepts; therefore, he fell into Hell.'

Verbs are always placed in the third person to indicate honor. No one honors himself except the king when he is speaking of himself; e.g., iorocobi ni voboximesu 'I am enjoying it very much.'

When there are many adjectives in a sentence, they will all be in the adverbial form except the last; e.g., qe nangǒ, iro cur, icanimo utucuxij mono [qe nagǒ ...][177] 'a very beautiful person with long, black hair.'

The particle to is placed before verbs of understanding, believing, and hearing, takes the place of the verb 'to be,' and means 'that'; fito to zonjita 'I thought, or believed that he was a man,' qix vo jennin to vomov ca? [qixo ... vomovǒ ca?] 'shall I believe that you are a saint?' Amata no fito xini no fonovo ni moiuru vo misaxerare (20)[178] 'you {170} will see many men burning in the flames of indignation.' Here one has replaced to with moiuru vo, which is a substitute verb. When mo is added to to it strongly affirms what is said; e.g., mair to mo 'I shall certainly go, or I will be going.'

The particle to, in the first meaning, is sometimes replaced by iǒni; e.g., agueta iǒni gozaru 'they say that he offered it,' ica iǒna fito to va xiranu 'I did not know what kind of a man he was.' Sometimes the substantive verb takes the place of the particle to; e.g., mair de gozatta 'he said that he would come,' x de va naqeredomo 'although I did not say that I would do it.'

Qiuzo core vo mite, ima vo saigo no coto de areba (97)[179] 'seeing this, Kiso believed that the hour of death was present, etc.' Here the substantive verb replaces to and serves as an active verb governing the accusative ima vo, which also replaces to. The particles sǒna and guena mean 'it seems.' Sǒna is added to the roots of verbs; e.g., deqi (63 sǒna 'it seems that it is finished.' If a substantive verb is placed after this particle the a is changed to i; e.g., deqi sǒni gozaru 'it seems that he will finish,' deqi sǒni mo zonjenu 'I believe that it will not be finished.'[180] Sǒna is also added to adjectives in i, and when it is the i is lost; e.g., io sǒna 'it seems good, or it seems that it is good,' xigue sǒna 'it seems dense,' and aiau sǒna 'it seems that I am in danger.' If this particle is added to adjectives in na, the na is lost; e.g., aqiraca sǒna 'it seems that it is clear.'

The particle guena is added to the nouns and verbs previously formed; e.g., maitta guena 'I believe that he has come.' If a substantive verb is added to this particle the a changes to i; e.g., maitta gueni gozaru 'I believe that he has come.' Sǒna means 'it seems,' and guena means 'I believe,' but either of these forms may occasionally be used in any of the examples given.

When a sentence has two preterits, the first may be in the preterit and the second in the future; e.g., qesa cara sǒ vxerareta raba mo faia de marax 'If you would have said that this morning, I would have already left.'

When reporting what someone else has said, it is said this way; {171} Padre msaruru va: iagate sonata ie mair to mǒsaruru 'the priest said that he was going to come.' Sometimes when one is excusing himself he will use no in place of to; e.g., asu no, raiguat no, nando to noburu na 'don't spread around that it is tomorrow, next month, or whenever.'

When vo follows n it loses its v; e.g., go von o uqetatematutta 'I received benefits.'[181]

Adverbs are always placed before their verbs except for the adverbs of time which are placed at the beginning of the sentence; e.g., sore vo qijte icc xicari maraxita 'hearing that he was very angry,' qi nen espana cara vatatta toqi [qio nen ...] 'when I sailed from Spain last year.' Each verb requires before it a subject in the nominative case, either expressed or understood; e.g., vare iqe or iqe 'come!', where the vare is understood. In some sentences this rule is not respected; e.g., xisai voba core ni msare maraxozu [... maraxzu] 'he will explain, or give the reason for this.' In the following case we do not see the nominative, but rather are ni va, which is in the dative or ablative; are ni va, navo voixri atta [... voxiri atta] 'he knows better.' In this sentence the are ni va ought to be in the nominative. Cacaru vo ni va cogane no cusari vo icusugi mo tuqeta dgu de gozaru (138v) 'for a necklace (torques) he had a chain of gold with many links.'

Core ni va gozonji aru mai 'Your Lordship does not know (64 about this.' Here the core ni va replaces the accusative which is governed by zonji,uru.

The impersonal verb or the infinitive requires a nominative before it; e.g., Pedro va maitta to msu 'they say that Peter came.'

The verb iri,u, which means 'to need,' governs two nominatives, one for the thing and the other for the person in need; e.g., vatacuxi va cono cane ga iru 'I need, or I have a necessity for this money.' It also governs the dative for the person; e.g., sono tame ni va cane ga iranu 'he does not need any gold, or money.'

The active verb requires the accusative before it; e.g., cane vo motanu 'I have no money.'

Certain cobita or coie nouns, as we have said above, are borrowed from Chinese and govern the same cases as the Japanese verbs to which {172} they correspond; e.g., niva vo qenbut no aida ni mexi vo coxiraie io 'prepare the food while we visit the garden.' The noun qenbut requires the accusative niva vo. The same is true with fito ni guenzan suru (97) which is like fito ni v 'I meet the man.' The guenzan governs the dative just as does the verb ai,.

When a borrowed word (vocabulum cobitum)[182] is a compound of two elements it is possible to determine if it is a verb by seeing if the first part has the meaning of a verb; e.g., jten is a verb which means 'to ascend to heaven' with the meaning to 'go up.' Tenjǒ is a noun in which the is placed after the ten and means 'heaven.'

The passive verb has the ablative for its agent (persona agente); e.g., Pedro cara corosareta 'he was killed by Peter,' but it is better that it govern the dative; e.g., Pedro ni corosareta, or Pedro va nusubito ni cane vo torareta 'Peter had his money stolen by thieves.'

There are also certain neutral verbs which govern the accusative as if they were active verbs; e.g., xiqitai vo fanaruru 'to depart from the body, or to die,' axi vo vazzur 'to have a pain in the foot.' This is also true for nigue,uru 'to escape,' nogare,uru 'to evade,' de,uru 'to go out,' noqe,uru 'to retreat,' tovori,u 'to go across,' nori,u 'to sail,' as in caixǒ vo noru 'I sail the sea,' iuqi,u 'to walk,' as in michi vo iuqu 'I walk the streets,' vovari,u 'to finish,' mairi,u as in xogui vo mairu 'I play chess (tabula laterucularia),' iorocobi,u as in cocoro vo iorocobu 'I gladden the heart,' abi,uru, as in mizzu vo abiru[183] 'I wash myself with water, or I pour water on myself,' avaremi,u 'I am sad,' (65 canaximi,u 'I am unhappy,' coie,uru 'to cross over,' fabacari,u 'to be shy,' facarai,ǒ 'to take care of,' faxiri,u 'to sail,' as in caixǒ, vo, faxiru [caixǒ vo faxiru] 'I sail the sea,' fagi,zzuru 'to be ashamed,' fedate,turu 'to separate,' fe,uru 'to spend,' as in ficazu vo furu 'I spend many days,' [fumaie,uru 'to be based on,' as in] dori vo fumaiuru 'to be based on reason, or to have reason as a basis,' itami,u 'to be sick,' mavari,u 'to go around,' as in cono cotovari vo mxi mavatta 'he goes around and spreads the news here and there,' meguri,u has the same meaning, nagusami,u 'to please,' as in cocoro vo nagusamu 'I make the heart {173} happy,' naqi,u 'to weep,' tasucari,u 'to be saved,' as in inochi vo tasucaru 'I am saved from the dangers of life,' or goxǒ vo tasucaru 'to be saved for a future life,' tachi,tu 'to go away from,' as in tocoro vo tatu 'I go away from this place,' tomurai, 'to make a funeral for the dead,' ucagai, 'to inquire with hesitation,' voximi,u 'to value,' urami,u 'to enquire,' xinobi,u 'to wait in hiding, almost insidiously,' as in fito no me vo xinobu 'I am careful lest someone see me.'[184] A few of these verbs which require the accusative of location admit to the use of the ablative with the particles cara or iori; e.g., tocoro vo tatu is the same as tocoro iori tatu 'I leave the place.'

There are some active verbs which require two accusative cases; e.g., fori,u, daxi,u, fanaxi,u, tate,turu. For example, Pedro vo soco vo voi idaita 'they led Peter away from that place.' It is possible that it governs the ablative of location; e.g., Pedro vo soco cara voi daita [... voi idaita]. Some take either the dative or the accusative; e.g., fito vo, or fito ni fanare,uru 'to go away from the men,' Deus vo, or Deus ni somuqi,u 'to offend God.' Verbs of this kind are generally verbs of fearing, offending, or going away.[185]

Many verbs of helping, harming, damning, obeying, recognizing as superior or inferior, being subjugated, being victorious, and similar verbs govern the dative; e.g., chiie saicacu iǒni coieta 'he is superior to others in wisdom and industry.'[186]

Verbs of giving, promising, and the like, govern the accusative for the thing and the dative for the person; e.g., fito ni cane vo cururu 'to give money to someone.'[187]

There are many verbs which permit before themselves the roots of other verbs without change, letting the roots take on the function of an infinitive; e.g., qiqi fajime,uru 'to begin to hear.' Some of these verbs are: nare,uru 'to become accustomed,' tuqe,uru with the same (66 meaning, fate,turu 'to finish,' narai, 'to learn,' some,uru 'to begin,' todoqe,uru 'to continue,' ate,turu 'to direct,' atari,u 'to find by chance,' vaqe,uru 'to divide,' cane,uru 'to be able to do with difficulty,' soconai,ǒ 'to be wrong,' sumaxi,u 'to finish,' sugoxi,u 'to exceed,' fague maxi,u {174} 'to work much and intensely,' aqi,u 'to become bored,' tai 'to want,' and tǒ mo nai 'to not want.'[188] If the roots of verbs are placed before certain adjectives ending in i, they form a kind of supine in Tu; e.g., iomi iasui (92) 'easy to read (facile lectu),' etc.

A numeral, if a substantive noun is placed after it, must be in the genitive case; e.g., fitotu no toga 'one sin.' The same is true with the particle fodo when it means 'all'; e.g., aru fodo no fito 'how so ever many.' The same is true with iori; e.g., Nanban iori no mono 'things from Europe.' But this is a relative formation (relatiuum). The genitive is also required with nouns that mean much or little; e.g., amata no fito 'many men.' These nouns are; bechi 'other,' fon 'one's own,' cazucazu 'many,' sama zama 'many ways.' Iro iro 'much' is the same as iorozzu and izzure. Issai means 'all,' as does vono vono, cotogotoqu, and reqi reqi for a noble person, igue 'that which follows,' nocori 'that which remains,' itumo 'always,' itumo no coto 'that which always is,' tune 'usual,' ima 'now.' Isasaca means 'a little,' as does soto or sucoxi, xotocu 'natural,' sono foca 'others.'[189] These nouns are in the genitive if they are followed by a substantive noun, but when they are not followed by a noun they must be taken as adjectives. If they are followed by a verb rather than a noun, they do not require the genitive; e.g., iorozzu dancǒ xite iocarǒ 'it will be good if you all confer.'

Japanese Arithmetic and Numerical Matters Concerning Which Much Painful Labor Is Required

There are two ways to count in Japanese.[190] The first is with the ordinary numerals which are called iomi. With these one is able to count to ten; e.g., fitotu means 'one,' which is also used to (67 say 'a little,' as in saqe fitotu nomaxite tamǒre 'give me a little sake to drink.' Futatu means 'two,' mitu 'three,' iotu 'four,' itutu 'five,' mutu 'six,' nanatu 'seven,' iatu 'eight,' coconotu 'nine,' and tovo {175} 'ten.' Icutu means 'what?' and is used when one does not have the proper number.

The second way of counting is with the coie vocables which are borrowed from Chinese. These numbers are not used by themselves to count to ten; but are rather used when counting things which are represented by Chinese, and not Japanese vocables. These bound numerals (termini numerales) are: ichi 'one,' ni 'two,' san 'three,' xi 'four,' go 'five,' rocu 'six,' xichi 'seven,' fachi 'eight,' cu 'nine,' j 'ten.' The numbers eleven and above are made by joining these numbers together. Thus, 'eleven' is jǔichi; jni is 'twelve,' jsan 'thirteen,' jcu 'ninteen.' The tens are obtained by placing one of the numbers in front of ten; e.g., nij 'twenty,' sanj 'thirty,' sanjǔichi 'thirty-one,' cujǔ 'ninety.' Fiacu means 'hundred,' fiacu ichi 'one hundred and one,' fiacu jǔ 'one hundred and ten,' fiacu sanjǔ 'one hundred and thirty,' ni fiacu 'two hundred,' sambiacu 'three hundred.' Xen means 'thousand,' and xen roppiacu sanjǔ ichi is 'sixteen thirty-one.'

By placing the Japanese numerals in front of Japanese vocables, which are called iomi, and by removing the tu of the aforementioned numbers before they are joined to nouns or verb stems, one is able to enumerate those things which are indicated by the vocable; e.g., fito cotoba 'one word,' futa cotovari 'two reasons,' mi ami 'three nets, or three casts of the net,' iocama 'to bake something four times in an oven,' itu caqe 'five attacks,' mu casane 'six robes, or covers,' nana catana 'seven wounds by a sword,' ia catague 'eight loads,' cu cavari[191] 'nine changes,' to cusa 'ten varieties.' Above the number ten this way of counting is not used, instead they say iro jichi or jichi no iro for 'eleven colors.' The interrogative is icutu. If the thing being questioned is placed after the interrogative the particle no is added; e.g., itucu no qi zo [icutu ...] 'how many trees are there?' To such a question the answer is futatu 'two,' mitu 'three,' etc. If the tu is removed from icutu, one may place it in front of the thing being asked about; e.g., icu tocoro 'how many places?' icu toqi 'how many hours?'; also fito fanaxi 'one sermon, or conversation,' futa sugi 'two treads,' io te 'four hands, as in a fight,' itu tubu 'five grains,' mu tocoro 'six (68 places,' ia mavari 'six [eight] circuits,' cu ninai 'nine loads, carried in {176} the Japanese fashion on a stick with the load in front,' to vatari 'ten crossings.' It is possible to count the same thing in different ways. Thus, mu tocoro is also mutu no tocoro and tocoro mutu 'six places.' Fito ie means 'one plain thing,' futa ie 'doubled, or duplicate,' mi ie 'triplicate,' etc. In the same way one may add Chinese numerals to Chinese vocables, or coie. Usually in this way of counting a [phonetic] change occurs in either the number or the thing counted. Sometimes this change is in the first part, sometimes in the second, and at other times in both. This is particularly true with the first, second, third, sixth, tenth, and one hundredth numbers. With the items below, if nothing is noted, it is an indication that nothing is changed.

When asking about men one says icutari? 'how many men?' The response is made by adding nin to the Chinese numeral; e.g., ichi nin 'one man,' ni nin 'two men,' iottari 'four men'; this is because xinin means 'dead person.'

When asking about days one says icca 'how many days?' The response is fi fitoi,[192] because ichi nichi means 'one entire solar day,' futuca 'two days,' micca 'three days,' iocca 'four days,' ituca 'five days,' muica 'six days,' nanuca 'seven days,' iǒca 'eight days,' coconoca 'nine days,' toca[193] 'ten days,' fatuca 'twenty days.' The remaining days are counted with coie numerals.

When counting nights ia is added to the coie numerals; e.g., ichi ia 'one night,' ni ia 'two nights,' etc. It is also possible to add io which means 'night' in Japanese to the iomi numeral; e.g., icu io 'how many nights?' futa io 'two nights,' nana io 'seven nights,' etc.

When enumerating the months of the year guat is added to the coie numeral, with the exception that the first month is called xguat. The second is niguat, the third is saguat,[194] the fourth is xiguat, the eleventh is ximotuqi, and the twelfth and last is xi vasu. When counting months the tu is removed from the iomi numeral and the word tuqi, which means 'month,' is added. Icutuqi? means 'how many months.' In response one says fitotuqi 'one month,' up to ten which is totuqi, and from there on one counts with coie numerals; e.g., jichiguat 'eleven months.' If one wants to ask what month it is, {177} January, February, one says nanguat. The first month of the (69 Japanese year is March.

In the enumeration of the years nen is placed after the coie numeral. In asking how many, nen [nan] is placed before nen; e.g., nannen 'how many years?' In response one says ichinen 'one year,' ionen 'four years,' sanganen 'three years,' sǒ ionen[195] 'three or four years,' sǒ xijnen 'thirty or forty years,' fatachi means 'twenty years of age,' as does nijǔnen, nijǔ no toxi, or toxi niju. They ask with icutoxi or toxi icutu 'how old are you.' They count the age of men and animals such as cattle and horses by adding sai to the coie numeral; e.g., issai 'one,' nisai 'two,' sanzai 'three.'

In counting turns (visis) do is added to the coie numerals; e.g., nando 'how many times,' ichido 'once,' iodo 'four times,' godo 'five times,' sai san 'twice or thrice.'

In the enumeration of ships s is placed after the coie numeral; e.g., nanzo [nanz] 'how many ships,' to which one answers iss 'one ship,' niso [nis] 'two,' sanz 'three,' fass 'eight,' jss [jiss] 'ten.'

Ichiren 'one string,' niren 'two,' saren 'three,' as in figs or pearls.

When enumerating sermons, homilies (tractatus), or repetitions of things, fen is placed after the numeral; e.g., ippen 'one sermon,' nifen 'two,' sanben 'three,' ave maria fiacu gojippen 'one hundred and fifty Hail Mary's.'

In counting gold currency momme is placed after the numeral; e.g., ichi momme 'one momme,' ni momme 'two,' san mome [san momme] 'three.' When a momme is divided into tenths it is called an ippun [fun]. Thus, ippun means one tenth part of a momme, nifun means 'two tenths,' gofun means half the basic unit (media dragma), roppun means 'six tenths of a momme.'

When the tenth part of a momme is divided again into ten parts it is counted as ichirin, nirin, sarin, iorin, gorin, rocurin, xichirin, fachirin, and curin. Then comes ippun, which is one tenth of a momme. Fiacu me means 'one hundred momme,' fiacu ichi momme 'one hundred and one,' icquan me means 'one thousand momme,' jicquanme means 'ten thousand.' There are other coins of silver which are counted by placing mai or mon after the numeral; e.g., ichi mon means one of {178} that unit, ni mon is 'two,' San mai is three hundred mon. They no longer produce a coin which is one half of the gold coin, but one thousand of these coins make icquan, while jicquan is 'ten (70 thousand quan.'[196]

Core va ica fodo ni suru 'how much is this worth?' or ica fodo ni uru 'at what price will you sell this?' Ni momme suru 'I consider it worth two momme,' or ni momme ni iasui 'I can sell this for more than two momme, or at two momme this is cheap.'

The enumeration of liquid measurements is done by placing the particle x in front of the liquid quantity; e.g., ixxo [ixx] 'one x,' nixo [nix] 'two,' sango [sanj] 'three.' Ten x are itto which is the particle to placed after the numeral; nito means 'twenty x,' sando 'thirty.' For one tenth of a x one places the particle go after the numeral; e.g., Ichigo 'one go,' nigo 'two,' sango 'three,' ixx gogo 'one and one half x.' Fatto is eighty x. One hundred x make ichi cocu. By placing the cocu after numerals one obtains ni cocu 'two hundred x,' sangocu 'three hundred,' jiccocu 'one thousand,' xencocu 'ten thousand,' ichi mangocu 'one hundred thousand.'

The enumeration of the measurements of human height is achieved by placing fito [firo] after the iomi numerals; e.g., fito firo 'one firo,' futa firo 'two,' jippiro 'ten.' The measurement of a span (palmus) is made by adding xacu to the coie numerals; e.g., ixxacu 'one span, or three spans by the Spanish measuring system,'[197] sanjaku 'three.' Goxacu is the same as fito firo which is a measurement we have referred to before. Six xacu make up a measurement called icqen 'one qen,' nicqen [niqen] 'two,' jicqen 'ten,' and sanguen 'three.' From sixty of these measurements one makes a measurement called icch, that is 'one mountain path,' nicchǒ [nichǒ] 'two,' jichiǒ [jicchǒ] 'ten,' sangiǒ 'three.' From sixty-three [thirty-six] ch, as measured in the northern part of Japan, one obtains ichiri which is one league or one miliar. One enumerates by adding ri to the coie numerals; e.g., niri 'two,' sanri 'three,' gori 'five,' jri 'ten'; iori is 'four,' because xiri means anus.[198] Fan michi {179} means 'a half of a league.' They say; ioco fan miqi tate ichiri [... michi ...] 'a half a ri wide and one ri long,' faba icqen 'the width is one qen,' iofǒ futa firo 'two hiro on all sides.'

The cardinal numbers first, second, etc. are made by adding ban to the coie numerals; e.g., ichi ban 'first,' ni ban 'second.' To these are also added me, as said before; e.g., xi ban me 'fourth.' One may also make the cardinal numbers by placing dai in front of the coie (71 numerals; e.g., daiichi 'first,' daini 'second,' etc.

The enumeration of multiples is done by adding bai to the numbers; e.g., ichibai 'double,' nibai 'triple,' sanbai 'quadruple,'[199] fiacu zobai 'one hundred fold.'

The enumeration of the parts from the whole is done by placing buichi after the numeral; e.g., ni buichi 'one from two parts,' san buichi 'one from three parts.'

To indicate one tenth vari is placed after the numeral; e.g., ichi vari 'one from ten parts,' xi vari gobu 'four and one half from ten parts.' J buichi is the same as ichi vari.

The enumeration of oars, muskets, and long things made of wood is done by placing ch after the numerals; e.g., icch 'one oar,' nich 'two,' sangiǒ 'three,' jich [jicch] 'ten.'

The enumeration of fish and fire wood is done by placing con after the numerals;[200] e.g., iccon, 'one fish,' sangon 'three,' jiccon 'ten,' fiaccon 'one hundred,' fiacu gojǔ sangon 'one hundred and fifty-three.' This is the amount Saint Peter caught, and even though he caught that number the net did not tear.

The enumeration of leaves of paper and sheets of gold, etc. is done by placing mai after the numeral; e.g., ichimai 'one leaf,' cami gomai 'five leaves of paper.'

The enumeration of the stories of a house is done by placing cai after the numeral; e.g., nicai 'the first floor,' sangai 'the second,' xigai 'the third,' gocai 'the fourth,' when counted as in a house in Madrid.

The enumeration of utensils and cups for drinking is done by placing fai after the numeral; e.g., ippai 'one drink, or one draught,' nifai 'two,' sanbai 'three,' jippai 'ten.'

{180}

The enumeration of rolls of silk or the like is done by placing tan after the numeral; e.g., ittan 'one roll,' nitan 'two,' sandan 'three,' jittan 'ten.' Xichitan bune is a ship with a sail seven tan wide.

This is also said by adding mai to the numeral; e.g., gomai 'five,' as in gomai bune 'a ship having a sail five mai wide.'

The enumeration of four-footed animals is done by placing fiqi after the numeral; e.g., ippiqi 'one animal,' nifiqi 'two,' sanbiqi 'three,' roppiqi 'six,' jippiqi 'ten,' fiappiqi 'one hundred,' xenbiqi 'one thousand.'

The enumeration of images, pictures, and medicines is done (72 by placing fucu after the numeral; e.g., ippucu 'one item,' nifucu 'two,' sanbucu 'three,' roppucu 'six,' jippucu 'ten.' Needles are also counted this way.

The enumeration of pounds (libra) is done by placing qin after the numeral; e.g., icqin 'one pound,' niqin 'two,' sanguin 'three,' rocqin 'six,' jicqin 'ten,' fiacqin 'one hundred,' xenqin 'one thousand.'

The enumeration of masses and congregations of men is done by placing za after the numeral; e.g., ichiza 'one congregation,' niza 'two,' sanza 'three,' jǔza, or better toza 'ten.'

The enumeration of sacks of rice, wheat, and the like, is done by placing fi after the numeral; e.g., ippi 'one sack,' nifi 'two,' sanbi 'three,' xifio [xifi] 'four,' roppio [roppi] 'six,' jippio [jippi] 'ten,' fiiappio [fiappi] 'one hundred,' xembi [xenbi] 'one thousand.'

The enumeration of pieces of wood, reeds, and needles is done by placing fon after the numeral; e.g., ippon 'one item,' nifon 'two,' sanbon 'three,' roppon 'six,' jippon 'ten,' fiappon 'one hundred,' xenbon 'one thousand.'

The enumeration of bundles (fasciculus) is done by placing va after the numeral; e.g., ichiva 'one bundle,' niva 'two,' sanba 'three,' jippa 'ten,' jichiva 'eleven,' ni jippa 'twenty.'

The enumeration of burdens or the packs that horses carry is done by placing s after the numeral; e.g., iss 'one burden,' nisǒ 'two,' sanz 'three,' jissǒ 'ten.' In the same way one counts those furnishings called biǒbu; two or a pair from a set is called iss, etc.

The enumeration of that which in the vernacular is called a quire of paper (mano de papel) is done by placing gi after the numeral; e.g., ichigio [ichigi] 'one quire,' nigio [nigi] 'two,' sangi 'three,' so on {181} to ten. Units of ten are counted by adding socu to the numeral; e.g., issocu 'ten quires, or what in the vernacular is called a half ream (media resma),' nisocu 'twenty, or an entire ream.' With this particle socu added to numerals one also counts pairs of shoes; e.g., issocu 'a pair of shoes.'

The enumeration of substance (substantia) is done by placing tai after the numeral; e.g., ittai 'one substance,' nitai 'two,' sandai 'three.' Deus no von tocoro va goittai de gozaru 'God as God is of one substance and one essence.'

The enumeration of the divisions in a writing (capitulum) is done by placing cagi after the numeral; e.g., iccagi 'one chapter,' (73 nicagio [nicagi] 'two,' sangagio [sangagi] 'three,' roccagio [roccagi] 'six,' fiaccagio [fiaccagi] 'one hundred.'

The enumeration of drops is done by placing teqi after the numeral; e.g., itteqi 'one drop,' jitteqi 'ten.' The same meaning is obtained by adding xizzucu to the iomi numeral; e.g., fito xizzucu 'one drop,' etc. In this case the tu must be removed from the numeral.

The enumeration of the pairs of small sticks (paxillus) with which they eat is done by placing tui after the numeral; e.g., itui [ittui] 'one pair,' jittui 'ten.'

The enumeration of bundles is done by placing ca after the numeral; e.g., icca 'one bundle,' nica 'two,' sanga 'three.'

The enumeration of books is done by placing quan after the numeral; e.g., icquan 'one book,' niquan 'two,' sanguan 'three,' roquan [rocquan] 'six,' jiquan [jicquan] 'ten.'

With the interrogative nan, when it is placed before one of these nouns, it changes it in the same way as does the number three; e.g., ano mmadomo va nanbiki zo? 'how many horses are there?'

The enumeration of kingdoms (regnum) is done by placing cacocu after the numeral; e.g., iccacocu 'one kingdom,' nicacocu 'two,' sangacocu 'three,' jiccacocu 'ten.' Kingdoms are divided into provinces or districts called gun, and this word also is placed after the numeral; e.g., ichigun 'one province,' nigun 'two,' sangun 'three,' etc.

Sermons and exhortations are enumerated by placing dan after the numeral; ichidan 'one sermon, or assembly.' Words are enumerated by {182} placing gon or guen after the numeral; e.g., ichigon 'one word,' sanguen 'three words.'

Placing the particle zzutu after either coie or iomi numerals gives the meaning of 'each'; e.g., ichinin ni uxi sanbiki zzutu vo toraxeta 'he let the men have three oxen each,' ichinin zzutu saqe sanbai zzutu vo nomareta 'each man drank three sake each.'

In speaking of two or three things separately, they join the two numbers; e.g., xigonin 'four or five men,' from which others may be copied.

The honorific particles are four; vo, von, go, and mi.[201] The first two are joined to iomi vocables. The last two are joined to coie, or Chinese vocables. The last is the most honorific and is used when speaking of things divine; e.g., midexi tachi 'disciples of Christ the Lord,' goichinin vocoite cudasarei 'please send one from among the Lords.'

The words which follow have honorific particles that have (74 been added by the speaker. However, the honor is shown to the person addressed or to those related to him; e.g., go foc [go fc] 'a duty,' von furu mai 'a banquet,' von cotoba 'a word, or a sermon,' von mono gatari 'a conversation,' von natucaxij or von nocori vovoi which mean the same as what the Portuguese call saudades (nostalgia) and the Spanish call carino (affection), von tori avaxe 'intercession,' von mi mai 'a visit,' von cha 'that which one drinks when they invite you,' go danc 'a consultation or congregation for the purpose of obtaining advice,' von rei 'an act of gratitude,' von busata 'a lapse of good manners,' vo motenaxi 'to treat well and elegantly,' go chiso [go chis] 'esteem,' go iqen 'an opinion,' e.g., fabacari nagara go iqen vo mǒxitai 'forgive me but I would like to give you some advice,' etc.

Some Rules on the Conjugation of the Verb in the Written Language

If the final u is removed from the negative present it becomes an affirmative verb; e.g., oracio vo tutomen toqi va 'when I say my prayers,' {183} xosa no tutomen tame ni va 'in order to execute the work,' michibiqi tamavan to voboximexi 'thinking of leading forth.'[202]

For the affirmative future beqi is added to the affirmative form with the ru removed; for the future negative becarazu is added to the affirmative form; e.g., mǒsu beqi 'you will speak,' msu becarazu 'you will not speak.' When the sentence ends in the future, beqi is changed to bexi.

The infinitive for the future is formed by adding coto to the future tense; e.g., iomu beqi coto. The subjunctive is formed by adding qereba to the root of the verb; e.g., sugure qereba.

The gerund in Do is formed by adding te to the root of the verb; e.g., qiqi tamaite.

The substantive verb in the written language is nari,u or qeri,u. If it comes at the end of the sentence it takes the root form;[203] e.g., sadame naqi io no ixei nari 'it is the dignity of a world without stability.'

The preterit is formed by adding ari,u [tari,u] to the root; e.g., suguretaru. If the form comes at the end of a sentence ari,u (75 [tari,u] is retained in the root form; e.g., suguretari.

The pluperfect is formed by placing nari after the present tense; e.g., ague tamǒ nari 'they had shown respect.'

Even though there are other rules for the written language, if the reader knows Japanese well enough to read books, he will be able to progress in the language without difficulty.

PRAISE BE TO GOD

* * * * *

{185}

Works Consulted

Alvarez, Manuel (Emmanuel Alvarus), De Institutione Grammatica, Libri III, Lisbon, 1572. (Also Amakusa, 1594. Cf. Laures #14.)

Collado, Diego, O.P., Ars Grammaticae Iaponicae Linguae, Rome, 1632. (Trans. by Ōtsuka Takanobu as Koiyaado-chō Nippon bunten, 1934 and revised as Koryaado Nihon bunten, 1957. Cf. Laures #54.)

Collado, Diego, O.P., Dictionarium sive Thesauri Linguae Iaponicae Compendium, Rome, 1632. (Edited by Ōtsuka Mitsunobu as Koryaado Ra-Su-Nichi jiten, 1966. Cf. Laures #56.)

Collado, Diego, O.P., Niffon no cotba ni y confesion, Rome, 1632. (Transcribed by Ōtsuka Mitsunobu as Koryaado zangeroku, 1957. Cf. Laures #56.)

Doi Tadao [Japanese], Kirishitan gogaku no kenkyū [Japanese], Tokyo, 1971.

Doi Tadao [Japanese], "Koryaado Nihon bunten no seiritsu [Japanese]," Nihon gogaku shinkō iinkai kenyū hōkoku, #3, 1941.

Doi Tadao [Japanese], ed., Nippo jisho [Japanese], Tokyo, 1960. (Japanese edition of the Vocabulario.)

Doi Tadao [Japanese], trs., Rodorigesu Nihon daibunten [Japanese] Tokyo, 1955. (Trans. of Rodriguez' Arte.)

Fukushima Kunimichi [Japanese], Kirishitan Shiryō to kokugo kenkyū [Japanese], Tokyo, 1973.

Hashimoto Shinkichi [Japanese], Kirishitan kyōgi no kenkyū [Japanese], Tokyo, 1928.

Iwai Yoshio [Japanese], Nihongohō-shi: Muromachi-jidai hen [Japanese] Tokyo, 1973.

Laures, Johannes, S.J., Kirishitan Bunko, Tokyo, 1957.

Lebrija, Antonio (Antonius Nebrissensis), Introductiones Latinae, Salamanca, 1481.

Moran, Joseph F., A Commentary on the Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapoa of Joo Rodriguez, S.J.: With Particular Reference to Pronunciation, Unpublished doctoral thesis, Oxford, 1971.

Ōtomo Shin'ichi [Japanese], Muromachi-jidai no kokugo-onsei no kenkyū [Japanese], Tokyo, 1963.

Ōtsuka Mitsunobu [Japanese], ed., Koryaado Ra-Su-Nichi jiten [Japanese], Tokyo, 1966. (Japanese edition of Collado's Dictionarium.)

Ōtsuka Mitsunobu [Japanese], ed., Koryaado zangeroku [Japanese], Tokyo, 1957. (Japanese edition of Collado's Confesion.)

{186} Ōtsuka Takanobu [Japanese], tr., Koiyaado-chō Nihongo bunten [Japanese], Tokyo, 1934. (Revised as Koryaado Nihon bunten [Japanese], Tokyo, 1957. Translation of Collado's Ars Grammaticae.)

Rodriguez, Joo, S.J., Arte Breve da Lingoa Iapoa, Macao, 1620. (Cf. Laures #35.)

Rodriguez, Joo, S.J., Arte da Lingoa de Iapam, Nagasaki, 1604-1608. (Translated by Doi Tadao as Rodorigesu Nihon daibunten, 1955. Cf. Laures #28.)

Rodriguez, Joo, S.J., ed., Vocabulario da Lingoa de Iapam, Nagasaki, 1603-1604. (Edited by Doi Tadao as Nippo Jisho, 1960. Cf. Laures #27.)

Thurot, Charles, Extraits de divers manuscrits Latins pour servir a l'historie des doctrines grammaticales au moyen-age, Paris, 1869.

Yuzawa Kōkichirō [Japanese], Muromachi-jidai gengo no Kenkyū [Japanese], Tokyo, 1958.

* * * * *

{187}

Index To Grammatical Categories

The list which follows refers to the location of the general categories defined by Collado's description of Japanese. A broader classification of the grammar will be found in the table of contents while the specific grammatical elements are listed in the index which follows.

ablative (see cases) accusative (see cases) adjectival roots 114, 116, 138, 139 adjectives 114-117, 138, 139 adjectives, conditional 139 gerund 138 negative 138, 139 permissive 138 adverbial roots 115, 139, 162 adverbs 156-164 adverbs, accumulative 162 affirmative 160 comparative 161 conclusive 163 exaggerative 162 exclamatory 163 intensifying 162 interrogative 159 locational 156 negative 160 superlative 162 temporal 159 adversitive (see particles) alternative (see particles) arithmetic 174-182 auxiliaries 145-147, 149 auxiliaries, emphatic 149 humble 147 honorific 145, 146, 147

cases 111-113 cases, ablative 113 accusative 112 dative 112 genitive 112, 174 nominative 111 vocative 113 causative (see verbs) conditional (see moods) confirmation (see particles) conjugations 166, 167 comparatives 161 copulas 137 copulas, negative 137

dative (see cases) deciderative (see particles) disjunctive (see particles) disjunctive constructions 167 distributive (see particles) dubitive (see particles)

emphatic (see particles) exclamatory (see adverbs, particles)

future tense (see verbs)

genitive (see cases) gerund (see verbs)

honorific (see auxiliaries, particles, verbs)

imperative (see moods) imperfect aspect (see verbs) infinitive (see verbs) intensifier (see particles) interjections 126, 132, 167, 168 interrogative (see particles) irregular verbs (see verbs)

moods 125-142 moods, conditional 139, 140 imperative 125, 126, 132, 135-137 optative 126, 132 permissive 127-129, 133, 138, 139, 155 potential 140, 141 subjunctive 127, 128, 131-133, 138, 153

negative (see verbs) neutral (see verbs) nominalizers (see particles) nominative (see cases) nouns 111-118

optative (see moods, particles)

participle (see verbs) particles 113-120, 148-156, 164-168, 182 particles, adversative 150, 153, 154 alternative 152 deciderative 126, 153 {188} disjunctive 167 distributive 120, 157 dubitive 162, 163 emphatic 124, 125, 149, 167, 150 exclamatory 163 honorific 118, 119, 146, 147, 182 intensive 120, 148, 149, 162, 163, 164 interrogative 156, 159, 163, 168 nominalizing 117 optative 126, 132 pejorative 119, 120 permissive 128, 133 pluralizing 113, 114, 118, 119 presumptive 170 quotative 168, 170, 171 temporal 149, 154, 159 particles of manner 153, 154 particles of possibility 153 particles of similarity 149, 150, 161 passive (see verbs) perfect aspect (see verbs) pejorative (see particles) permissive (see moods, particles) pluralizers (see particles) pluperfect tense (see verbs) possibility (see particles) potential (see moods, verbs) prepositions 164, 165, 166 present tense (see verbs) presumptive (see particles) preterit tense (see verbs) pronouns 118-122 pronouns, first person 118, 119 second person 119 third person 120, 121

quotative (see particles)

relative constructions 122

subjunctive (see moods, particles) substantive verbs (see copulas) superlatives 162 supine (see verbs) syntax 168-174

temporal (see particles, adverbs)

verbal roots 123, 131, 134-136 verbs 123-156 verbs, causative 143 future 125, 135-137 gerund 129, 130, 134, 138, 154, 155, 174, 183 honorific 145-147 imperfect 152 infinitive 128-130, 133 irregular 141, 142 negative, future 132, 133, 141 pluperfect 132, 136 present 131, 136 preterit 131 neutral 172 participle 131, 134 passive 143, 172 perfect 124, 137 pluperfect 125 potential 144 present 123, 134, 135 preterit 124, 134-137 supine 130, 131, 156

vocative (see cases)

written style 182, 183

* * * * *

{189}

Index to Grammatical Elements

There follows a list of those elements which Collado describes in his grammar. To a certain degree I have regularized his morphophonological analysis. For example, the preterit permissive form, described by Collado as redomo after a preterit verb, is cross-listed as -ta redomo in order to bring together morphologically similar forms. All forms occurring in the text with the honorific gozaru, etc. are indexed as aru, etc. For example, the element found in aguenande gozaru 'I have not offered' will be indexed under -nande aru. As a general rule in this index items beginning with a hyphen are classified as endings, while the remaining items are particles.

The spelling used in this index is that of the original. Those readers more familiar with the modified Hepburn system of romanization, as reflected in Kenkyūsha's Dictionary, will find the following simplified chart of help. Syllables presented in Kenkyūsha as beginning with the following initial letters will have the corresponding spellings in Collado's grammar:

e = ie k = ca, qi, cu, qe, co o = vo s = sa, xi, su, xe, so z = za, ji, zu, je, zo h = f t = ta, chi, tu, te, to y = i d = da, gi, zzu, de, do w = v

The citations are numbered according to their location in the translation and are limited to those places where the element is explained or used to demonstrate a grammatical point.

The following abbreviations are used:

abl. ablative excl. exclamatory part. participle adj. adjective fut. future perf. perfect adv. adverb gen. genitive perm. permissive advers. adversitive ger. gerund pot. potential acc. accusative hon. honorific plup. pluperfect aff. affirmative imp. imperative prep. preposition alt. alternative ind. indicative pres. present aux. auxiliary verb inf. infinitive pret. preterit concl. conclusive interj. interjection pron. pronoun cond. conditional interr. interrogative quot. quotative conj. conjunction intens. intensive subj. subjunctive const. construction irr. irregular temp. temporal cop. copula loc. locative v. verb dat. dative n. noun voc. vocative disj. disjunctive neg. negative writ. written style dist. distributive nom. nominative 1st 1st conjugation dub. dubitive opt. optative 2nd 2nd conjugation emph. emphatic p. particle 3rd 3rd conjugation

{190}

-aba (cond., 2nd) 139 -ai (adj.) 114, 138 -ai (imp.) 135, n. 91 -ai (v. root, 3rd) 135 ai (emph.) 149 ai (hort.) 163 aidani (temp.) 149 -ananda (neg. pret., 2nd) 135 -anu (neg. pres., 2nd) 135 arisama (p. of manner) 154 ari,u (hon. aux.) 145, 146 arui va (conj.) 166 avare (interj.) 168; (w. opt.) 126, 132 -azu (neg. root, 2nd) 135

-ba (cond.) 139 -ba atte mo (advers.) 153 bacari (intens.) 164 -baia (w. fut.) 125 -ba tote (perm.) 133 baxi (dub.) 163 becarazu (neg. fut., writ.) 183 beqi (fut., writ.) 183 beqi coto (fut. inf., writ.) 183 bexi (fut., writ.) 183

ca (interr.) 156, 163; (temp.) 159; (conj.) 167 cai- (intens.) 149 caia (interr.) 163 cana (interj.) 168 canavanu (w. const. showing necessity) 155 cara (nom.) 111; (abl.) 113; (w. subj.) 127; (w. neutral v.) 172; (w. passive v.) 172 -carananda (neg. pret. adj.) 139 -caranu (neg. pres. adj.) 139 -carazu (neg. adj. root) 139 -catte (neg. adj. ger.) 138 caxi (w. opt.) 126, 132; (w. subj.) 128 coso (advers.) 150; (w. ind. ending in -e) 150; (neg. meaning w. aff. ger.) 154 coto (w. inf.) 129, 133; (w. pot.) 154 coto gia (p. w. no special meaning) 152 coto mo arzu (w. pot.) 141

-da (see -ta) -dari (see -tari) -de (see -te) de (prep.) 165, 166; (w. subj.) 127, 153 -demo (see -temo) dgu (nominalizer) 117 -domo (perm.) 127, 133, 138 domo (p. of necessity) 155 domo (n. pluralizer) 113, 114, 119

-e (ind. w. coso) 150 -e (see -te) -e (v. root, 1st) 123 -e (imp.) 135, 136, 137 -eba (pres. cond., 1st) 139 -edomo (see redomo) -ei (adj.) 114, 138 -enu (neg. pres., 1st) 131 -e (adv.) 115, 156 -e (fut., 1st) 125 -eda (pret., 1st) 135 -ezu (neg. v. root, 1st) 131

faia (emph.) 124, 125 faxi- (intens.) 149 fito (w. part.) 131, 134 fodo (w. gen.) 174 furi- (p. of similarity) 150

ga (nom.) 111; (gen.) 112; (acc.) 112; (w. inf.) 129; (in relative const.) 122 ga (intens. w. pron.) 120 ga (conj.) 148 ga gotoqu (p. of similarity) 149 gana (w. opt.) 126, 132 go (hon.) 182 goto (dist.) 120 goto (nominalizer) 117 gotoqu (p. of similarity) 150, 161 guena (presumptive) 170

ha (interj.) 168 hat (interj.) 168

-i (adj.) 116 -i (imp.) 135, 136 {191} -i (v. root, 2nd) 134 -i (irr. v. root, 1st) 123 ia (excl.) 163 ia (interj.) 168 iai (excl.) 163 iara (interj.) 168; (w. disj. const.) 167 iare (excl.) 163 -iasui (w. supine) 156 icani (voc.) 113; (w. plurals) 113 -i caxi (perm.) 129 -ide (neg. ger.) 134 -ide arzu (neg. plup. showing completed action) 137 -ide aru (neg. plup.) 132 -ide atta (neg. plup.) 132 -ide canavanu (ending showing necessity) 155 -idemo (neg. fut. perm.) 133, 154 -ide naranu (ending showing necessity) 155 -ide nochi (neg. ger.) 134 -ide va (ending showing necessity) 155 ie (acc.) 112; (dat.) 112; (prep.) 165; (w. subj.) 127 ie (w. neg. possibility) 153 ie,uru (aux. of neg. possibility) 152 iei (interr.) 168 igo (w. subj.) 127 -ij (adj.) 114, 138 io (intens.) 163 io (imp.) 125 i (p. of manner) 153 io caxi (w. opt.) 126 ini (w. inf.) 129; (w. quot.) 170 iori (nom.) 111; (abl.) 113; (w. inf.) 130; (w. ger.) 174; (w. comparative const.) 161; (w. relative const.) 122 iori mo (w. comparative const.) 161 iori mo nao (w. comparative const.) 161 -i tomo (perm. adj.) 138 -i (adv.) 115, 156

jibun (w. ger.) 130

ma- (v. intensifier) 149 macari- (p. showing modesty) 149 made (prep.) 166 made gia (p. w. no special meaning) 152 madeio (w. perm.) 128, 133; (p. of confirmation) 152 mai (dist.) 120 mai (neg. fut.) 132 mai coto (neg. fut. inf.) 133 mai coto mo arzu (neg. fut. pot.) 141 maieni (w. neg. v.) 133 mai mono (neg. ger.) 134 mai mono vo (neg. opt.) 132 mai qereba (neg. subj.) 133 mai qeredomo (neg. perm.) 133, 155 mairaxi,u (hon. aux.) 147 mai tomo (neg. fut. perm.) 133 mai tote (neg. ger.) 134 maji (neg. fut., cf. mai) 132 maji qere (neg. cond.) 139 majiqu va (neg. cond.) 140 mamaio (w. perm.) 128, 133 maraxi,u (hon. aux.) 145 mata (conj.) 166 mata va (conj.) 166 me (pejorative, w. pron.) 119, 120 me (p. showing terminus of action) 117 me- (feminine) 114 mega (pejorative, w. pron.) 119, 120 mexi- (hon.) 147 mi- (hon.) 118, 182 mo (conj.) 166; (dist.) 157; (advers. w. ger.) 154; (w. subj.) 128 mono (p. showing performer of action) 117 mono (w. part.) 131, 134; (w. pot.) 141 mono de arzu (w. cond.) 141 mono vo (w. opt.) 126, 132 motte (emph.) 167 moxi (excl.) 163 moxi va (conj.) 166

-n (pres., writ.) 182 na (concl.) 163 na (neg. imp.) 132, 137 {192} na (adj.) 115, 117, 138 na caxi (neg. opt.) 132 -nagara (ger.) 155 nal coto mo arzu (neg. pot. w. adj.) 141 -naide (neg. ger.) 134 -naide cara (neg. ger.) 134 -naidemo (neg. perf. perm.) 133 nama (p. showing incomplete action) 148 -nanda (neg. pret.) 132 -nanda coto (neg. pret. inf.) 133 -nanda mono (neg. ger.) 134 -nanda mono de arzu (neg. perf. pot.) 141 -nandaraba (neg. perf. cond.) 139 -nanda reba (neg. perf. subj.) 133 -nanda reba tote (neg. perf. perm.) 133 -nanda redomo (neg. perf. subj.) 133 -nanda ritomo (neg. perf. perm.) 133 -nanda to (neg. perf. inf.) 133 -nande aru (neg. plup.) 132 -nande atta (neg. plup.) 132 -nanzzu r (neg. perf. pot.) 141 -naraba (cond.) 139 naranu (w. const. showing necessity) 155 nari,u (pot. aux. w. adj.) 141 nasare,uru (hon. aux.) 145 na ... so (neg. imp.) 132, 137 -neba (neg. subj.) 132 -neba tote (neg. perm.) 133 -nedomo (neg. perm.) 133 negavacu va (w. opt.) 126, 132 ni (dat.) 112; (abl.) 113; (prep.) 164, 165; (w. ger.) 130, 134; (w. cond.) 138; (w. subj.) 127; (w. supine) 130, 131; (w. passive v.) 172; (adv. form of na) 121 ni iotte (prep.) 164; (w. indefinite pron.) 121 ni itatte (prep.) 165 ni tai xite (prep.) 164 ni tuite (prep.) 164; (w. inf.) 130 ni totte (prep.) 165 ni va (w. cond.) 139 ni voite va (prep.) 165; (w. cond.) 139, 140 ni xitagatte (prep.) 165 ni xitagte (see ni xitagatte) ni xite (w. ger.) 130, 138 no (nom.) 111; (gen.) 112; (w. quote.) 171; (to form adj.) 114; (in relative const.) 122 n (p. of confirmation) 163 nochi (w. subj.) 127 no gotoqu (prep., dialect) 166 no iori (prep.) 165 -nu (neg. pres., 1st) 131 -nu madeio (neg. pres. perm., 1st) 133 -nu maie ni (w. aff. meaning) 151 -nu mamaio (neg. pres. perm., 1st) 133

o (form of vo after n) 171 - (pres., 3rd) 135 - (fut., 2nd) 135; (fut. imp., 2nd) 135 - (adv.) 115, 156 - (pres., 3rd) 136 - (fut., 1st) 125; (fut. imp., 1st) 125 - (adv.) 115, 156 - coto (fut. inf., 1st) 129 - coto mo arzu (fut. pot., 1st) 141 -da (pret., 2nd) 134 -da (pret., 2nd) 134 - fito (fut. part., 1st) 131 -oi (adj.) 114, 138 -oi (v. root, 3rd) 135 - mono (fut. part., 1st) 131 - ni (ger., 1st) 130 - tame (ger., 1st) 130 -te (adj. ger.) 138 -te (adj. ger.) 138 - to (fut. inf., 1st) 129 - toqi (fut. subj., 1st) 127 - tote (ger., 1st) 130 - xite (adj. ger.) 138 -zu (fut., 2nd) 135 -zu (imp., 1st) 125 -zu mono vo (perf. opt., 1st) 126 -zure (fut., 1st, w. coso) 151 -zuru (fut., 2nd) 135 {193} -zuru (fut., 1st) 125 -zuru coto no saqi ni (plup. subj., 1st) 128 -zuru ni (plup. subj., 1st) 128 -zuru tocoro ni (plup. subj., 1st) 128 -zu tomo (fut. perm., 1st) 128

qere (p. of confirmation) 150 qereba (w. subj.) 133, 138 qeredomo (w. perm.) 133, 139 -qi (adj.) 116 qiri,u (emph. aux.) 149 -qu (adj. root) 138 -qu tomo (adj. perm.) 138 -qu va (adj. cond.) 139 -qu xite (adj. ger.) 138

ra (pluralizer) 113, 114, 118, 119 -raba (cond.) 139 -rare,uru (pot., 1st) 144; (hon., 1st) 145; (passive, 1st) 143 -re,uru (pot., w. 2nd & 3rd) 144; (hon., w. 2nd & 3rd) 145, 147; (passive, w. 2nd & 3rd) 143 -re (pret. ending after coso, see -tare) 150 -reba (subj., 1st) 127 reba (w. perf. subj.) 132; (w. cop.) 138 -redomo (perm., 1st) 128 redomo (w. perf. perm.) 133; (w. inf.) 130; (w. cop.) 138 -ri (alt.) 152 ritomo (w. perf. perm.) 128, 133 r (pot.) 140 -ru (see -uru)

sa (nominalizer for adj.) 117 sai (imp.) 126 saie (emph.) 150; (w. cond.) 140; (w. neg. const.) 150 sama (prep., dialect) 166 sama (temp.) 154 sama (hon.) 119 saqini (w. neg. v.) 151 saraba (conj.) 167 sareba sareba (conj.) 167 sari nagara (conj.) 167 satemo (interj.) 167 satemo satemo (interj.) 167 sate sate (interj.) 167 -saxe,uru (causative) 143 saxemaxi,u (hon. aux.) 145 -saxerare,uru (hon.) 146 s aru tocoro de (conj.) 167 sna (p. of presumption) 170

-ta (pret., 1st) 124, 134, 136; (w. adj. function) 116 -tacatta (pret. of -tai) 153 tachi (pluralizer) 113, 119 -ta coto (pret. inf., 1st) 129 -ta fito (pret. part., 1st) 131 -tagari,u (2nd & 3rd person deciderative) 153 -tai (deciderative) 153; (w. imp. meaning) 126 -ta madeio (per. perm., 1st) 128 tamai, (hon. aux.) 145 -ta mamaio (perf. perm., 1st) 128 tame (prep.) 164; (w. ger.) 130, 134 tameni (w. supine) 130 -ta mono (pret. part., 1st) 131 -ta mono de arzu (perf. pot., 1st) 141 -taraba (perf. cond., 1st) 139 -taraba iocar mono va (perf. opt., 1st) 126 -tare (pret. ending w. coso) 150 -ta reba (perf. subj., 1st) 127 -ta reba tote (perf. perm., 1st) 128 -ta redomo (perf. perm., 1st) 128 -tari (pret. writ.) 183 -tari (alt.) 152 -ta ritomo (perf. perm., 1st) 128 -tar ni va (perf. cond., 1st) 139 -tar va (perf. opt.) 126 -tarzu (plup., 1st) 125 tate maturi,u (humble aux.) 147 -ta to (pret. inf., 1st) 129 tatoi (w. perm.) 128 -tu (alt.) 152 tui- (intens.) 148 -tu r (perf. pot., 1st) 140, 151 -te (ger.) 129, 130, 155, 183; (inf.) 129 -te (part.) 131 -te aranu (neg. pret., completed action) 137 -te ar (fut., completed action) 137 {194} -te ar ni va iocar mono vo (perf. opt.) 126 -te arzu (perf.) 124, 137 -te atta (perf.) 124, 137; (w. perf. subj.) 127 -te atta reba (plup. subj.) 127 -te cara (plup. subj.) 127 -te coso (w. neg. meaning) 154 tei (p. of manner) 154 -te igo (plup. subj.) 127 -te mo (subj.) 128; (w. advers.) 154 -te nochi (plup. subj.) 127 to (gen.) 112 to (conj.) 166 to (w. inf.) 129, 133 to (quot.) 168; (w. adv. of sound) 163 tocacu (disj.) 167 tocoro (w. subj.) 127; (p. of completed action) 151 tocoro gia (p. w. no special meaning) 151 tocoro no (w. relative const.) 122 -tomo (w. perm.) 128, 133, 138, 150 to mo (quot.) 170 -t mo nai (neg. of -tai) 153 toqi (w. subj.) 127; (w. pret. imperfect) 152 tori- (intens.) 149 tote (w. perm.) 128, 133; (w. ger.) 134 to tomo ni (prep.) 165 to xite (w. ger.) 130 -tta (pret., 2nd) 134

-u (pres., 2nd) 134 - (adv.) 115, 156 - (pres., 3rd) 136 uchi- (intens.) 149 -ui (adj.) 115, 138 -ui (v. root, 3rd) 135 uie (prep.) 166 uie iori (prep.) 164 -unda (pret., 2nd) 134 -ureba (pres. cond.) 139 -uru (pres., 1st) 123 -uru fito (pres. part., 1st) 131 -uru iori (pres. inf., 1st) 130 -uru jibun (ger., 1st) 130 -uru madeio (pres. perm., 1st) 128 -uru mamaio (pres. perm., 1st) 128 -uru mo (fut. perm., 1st) 128 -uru mono (pres. part., 1st) 131 -uru ni (ger., 1st) 130 -uru ni tuite (pres. inf., 1st) 130 -uru tame (ger., 1st) 130 -uru tameni (supine, 1st) 130 -uru tomo (fut. perm., 1st) 128 -uru tote (ger., 1st) 130 -uru vo motte (pres. inf., 1st) 128

va (nom.) 111; (acc.) 112; (w. subj.) 127; (w. inf.) 130; (w. cond.) 139; (w. other p.) 114; (replacing other p.) 114; (w. const. showing necessity) 155 va (p. of confirmation) 149 -vaba (cond., 3rd) 139 -vananda (neg. pret., 3rd) 136 -vanande aru (neg. pret., 3rd) 136 -vanande atta (neg. pret., 3rd) 136 -vanu (neg. pres., 3rd) 136 -vazu (neg. root, 3rd) 136 vo (acc.) 113; (w. subj.) 127; (w. neutral v.) 172; (becomes o after n) 171 vo- (hon.) 146, 182 vo- (masculine) 114 -v (fut., 3rd) 136 voba (acc.) 112 voi- (intens.) 149 vo motte (prep.) 165; (w. inf.) 130 von- (hon.) 118, 182 vxe- (hon.) 147 -vzu (fut., 3rd) 136 -vzuru (fut., 3rd) 136

-xe,uru (causative) 143 xemaxi,u (hon. aux.) 145 -xerare,uru (hon.) 146 -xi (adj.) 116 xicareba (conj.) 167 xidai (prep.) 165 xite (w. neg. ger.) 131, 134 xu (n. pluralizer) 113

-zaru (neg. pres., dialect) 131 {195} -zatta (neg. pret., dialect) 131 -zatta reba (neg. perf. subj. dialect) 131 zo (interr.) 156, 159, 163; (temp.) 159; (dub.) 162; (intens.) 162 -zu (neg. v. root, 1st) 131 -zũba (neg. cond.) 139 -zumba (see zũba) -zu tomo (neg. perf. perm., 1st) 133 -zu va (neg. cond.) 139 -zu xite (neg. ger., 1st) 131, 134 -zzu (alt.) 152 -zzu r (perf. pot.) 140, 151

* * * * *

Notes

[1] Diego Collado, O.P., Niffon no Cotoba no Y Confesion, etc. (Rome, 1632). For further bibliographic data cf. Johannes Laures, Kirishitan Bunko (Tokyo, 1957). Cf. also Ōtsuka Mitsunobu, Koriyaado zangeroku (Tokyo, 1967), for a Japanese transliteration and concordance. It should be noted that the material in this work had no direct influence upon the concurrently written grammar. The only example in the Ars Grammaticae which might have been borrowed from the Confesion is on p. 23 where we find doco de qiqi marasuru mo, sono sata va msanu 'although this is heard everywhere, I have heard nothing of it.' which parallels the Confesion, p. 6, l. 18; docu [sic] de qiqi marasuru mo; sono sata ga gozaranu 'one hears about this everywhere; but, it doesn't seem to be so.'

[2] The bibliographical data on these and other works directly related to the study of Collado's Grammar will be found in the section on bibliography which follows.

[3] Other works by Collado have come down to us; cf. a memorial by him published in 1633 (Laures, Kirishitan Bunko, item 411). Such material is, however, only peripherally related to the study of language.

[4] For a brilliantly written biography see Michael Cooper, S.J., Rodrigues the Interpreter: An Early Jesuit in Japan and China (Tokyo, 1974).

[5] The Press of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith was founded in 1626 when the Congregation was at the height of its activity. Grammars of the major non-European languages published during this period are:

Date Language Grammarian

1628 Syrian Abraham Ecchell 1630 Ethiopian V. M. Rearino 1631 Arabic Thomas Obicini 1632 Japanese Diego Collado 1636 Coptic A. Kircher 1637 Arabic Germano de Silesia 1642 Arabic P. Guadagnoli 1643 Georgian F. M. Maggio 1645 Armenian Clemente Galano 1647 Syrian J. Acurense 1650 Arabic Antonio de Aguila 1661 Persian Ignazio de Jesu

[6] Rodriguez' own work is strongly influenced by the format found in Manuel Alvarez (1526-1582), De Institutione Grammatica, Libri III (Lisbon, 1572). So much a part of the training in the Society of Jesus was this work that an edition was printed in 1594 as one of the earliest products of the Mission Press at Amakusa.

[7] The palatal semi-vowel is represented, as in most the Christian materials, by a number of transcriptional devices such as i, e, h, and palatal consonants; e.g., fiacu, ague, cha, and x.

[8] See the translation, p. [82], n. 8.

[9] Collado's and Rodriguez' analyses agree in classifying the ni-dan verbs and suru into one conjunction, the yo-dan verbs into a second, and the ha-gyō of the yo-dan into a third.

[10] It should be recalled that the Ars Grammaticae is numbered by the page and the Arte by the leaf.

[11] See p. 14, under Dos nomes adiectivos, where the initial distinction is drawn between nominal and verbal adjectives.

[12] Rodriguez does not treat the substantive verb in Arte Breve, but refers the reader to his earlier work for its description.

[13] Verbo pessoal as contrasted with verbo substantivo and verbo adjectivo.

[14] Rodriguez defines this term elsewhere (Arte, 56) as the vowels, A, I, V, Ye, Vo, in that order. See also the introduction to the Vocabulario.

[15] This term, not found in the Arte, is applied to the entire complex of "spelling" rules which Rodriguez introduces into his description. While no clear-cut influences can be established, it is generally held by Doi and others that these rules are based upon Kanazukai no chikamichi or some similar work. See Kokugogaku taikei, Vol. 9 (Tokyo, 1964), pp. 69-77.

[16] Latin liquesco, "to become fluid, or melt." Used here as a term to describe the palatal and labial series.

[17] This last phrase is to be understood in the context of the following passages which deal with euphonic change in the absence of a devise, nigori ten, to show voicing.

[18] Rodriguez used Vma regularly in the Arte, but notes the variant Muma on 178v.

[19] Presumably a reference to such variants as Samur for Sabur.

[20] Liurinho, presumably a treatise such as the Kanazukai no chikamichi, by Ichijō Kanera.

[21] In this passage Rodriguez is suggesting that certain European grammarians, out of ignorance of native grammatical theory, have misinterpreted the formational rules; and that, perhaps for pedogogical convenience, he has retained some of these "unnatural" rules in his description.

[22] Read Taxxi.

[23] Read tatesai. The punctuation Tateyo. Tatei, tatesai, is in all likelihood a typesetter's error for Tateyo, tatei, tatesai.

[24] The conjugational display (27v) lists motomuruni and motomurutocoroni.

[25] Rodriguez is here confusing the usage of the classical particle ran, ramu with the construction te + ara + mu.

[26] In the conjugational charts we find:

motome } motometarǒ } toki motomezuru }

[27] The following notes are necessary to correct the printer's errors that occur in this listing:

a. In the perfect conditional of Vabi read bitaraba for bitaraaba.

b. The form Fitobi should in all likelihood read Fotobi 'to be wet.'

c. The forms Fotobi, Fokorobi, and Fusabi are all given present indicatives in bu. There seems to be no reason for the ending appropriate to the classical shūshikei to be used for these particular verbs and the bu is taken as a misprint of buru. The Arte (28) lists these forms as regular.

d. In the perfect conditional of Mochiy read ytaraba for yttaraba.

e. The form Coru should read Cori.

f. It will be noticed in the final segment of this listing, beginning with Y, Rodriguez makes no effort to distinguish among Kami-ichidan, kami-nidan, and the irregular verb Ki 'to come.'

[28] By this single rule Rodriguez brings the two na-hen verbs into the second conjugation.

[29] Read najda and nijda.

[30] Although the spelling auoghǒ would contain a redundancy it would agree with such forms as aghuru, coghanu and coghǒ found elsewhere.

[31] This use of the imperative reflects a purely formal solution to the morphological problem.

[32] Read Ydareba.

[33] This rule, which consciously or unconsciously associates the future and the conditional, is also applied to the third conjugation, while the first conjugation uses the root.

[34] The future is the same as the present.

[35] This spelling of the final root consonant with a c is irregular for verbs. Cf. cakanu just below.

[36] The association of the negative with the future, and by extension with the conditional, suggests a keen awareness of the underlying system, particularly since the Canadzucai rules to which he refers require the formation be made from the present. It should be noted that this rule is significantly more elegant than that which derives the negative from the root.

[37] The ij in the original is the digraph ij, as elsewhere.

[38] Read Redomo.

[39] Majij with the digraph would be more regular.

[40] A photostatic copy of the entire text has been made available by Shima Shōzō, Rodorigesu Nihon daibunten (Tokyo, Bunka Shobō, 1969).

[41] Ōtsuka's comparison of the Spanish manuscript with the printed version of the text suggests that many of the typographical errors found in our text are the result of material being too hastily transcribed from a more correct original while the work was being translated from Latin.

[42] This Reference is to Arte of 1604-8. The Arte Breve, printed in 1620 in Macao, was not available to Collado.

[43] The Dictionarium sive Thesauri Linguae Iaponicae, which was in fact published at the same time.

[44] See the Introduction for the regularized usage of these symbols in the translation. (The transcription of gacuxǒ, and the aiaǔ below, are at variance with the rule for the translation and are here transcribed as printed.)

[45] This convention is not transcribed in the translation (cf. Introduction).

[46] More regularly synaloephy—the contraction of two syllables into one.

[47] The geminates that actually appear in the text are; tt, xx, zz, cq, ij & pp, as well as cc (cch), mm, nn, and ss. Two appear initially mm, as in mma 'horse,' and zz, as in zzuru 'to leave.' The form qq which would be phonetically equivalent to cq is not recorded.

[48] This sequence is not used in the body of the grammar, rather the less phonetically accurate ia, ie, etc. It should be noted that the Dictionarium, which was written contemporaniously, does use y for the semivowel.

[49] For s read g. The Arte (177v) discusses this phenomenon as being characteristic of vowels before d, dz, and g.

[50] Since in fact the accent has been carelessly recorded in the text—in places added in an almost random fashion by either the author, his helpers, or the printer—we have not included its marking in the translation. (Cf. Introduction.)

[51] The Dictionarium has the spelling fibicxi in one entry and in the only other it is transcribed as above.

[52] Acts, 19:20. Referring to the servant in the parable of the pounds who is condemned for keeping his money "laid away in a napkin."

[53] The text uses reduplicatiuus, with the grammatical meaning of plural singular; e.g., the singular I with the meaning of myself and those around me.

[54] Both the Dictionarium and the Vocabulario have either Nifon or Nippon, but do not record this form. It seems not to be a simple typographical error since the spelling is used in the title of the companion piece to this work, the Confesion, and since the text itself has niffion and it is changed to niffon in the errata. Nifon appears on page 43.

[55] The Arte and the Vocabulario use the forms goran and gorǒ in free variation. Collado here and in the Dictionarium uses what appears to be the less phonetically accurate transcription. The Spanish manuscript has goranjerarei.

[56] May I submit this as a candidate for the most exotic bit of anti-semitism in Christendom.

[57] The text reads fun-de, and apparently Collado is attempting to indicate both accent and nasalization at the same time. He does not continue this practice.

[58] The text has caper silvester 'the wild he-goat' presumably the capreolus capreolus which is similar in appearance to the Japanese deer, cervus sika.

[59] While this rule is operative for caij, it creates difficulties after x. Rodriguez' rule is ij becomes ǔ with the example of ataraxǔ. Collado's rule would create ataraxi. (Cf. p. 33.)

[60] Neither Collado nor Rodriguez make a clear distinction between the quantitative function of no and the qualitative function of na.

[61] Collado usually make a clear distinction between colloquial and literary forms. He apparently is suggesting that these non-colloquial forms are heard in the spoken language. Here, not only is the style left unexplained, but the translation faciendo bonam consultationem is less than ellucidating. Here the ioqu is in fact adverbial.

[62] From kobu 'to flatter.' An abbreviation of kobita kotoba, and used to indicate refined speech; i.e., that speech containing Chinese borrowings. See Doi Tadao, Kirishitan gogaku no kenkyū (Tokyo, 1942, pp. 67-70). The term is also found in the introduction to the Vocabulario in the expression palauras Cobitas.

[63] The text reads De pronomine secundae personae....

[64] This list, unquestionably derived from the Arte (67v), has been in several ways confounded. The mi is out of order and the second vare is clearly in error. If we put aside the genitive forms from Rodriguez' list, the first four forms should be vare, varera, vatacuxi, and soregaxi. Rodriguez' second set consists of mi, midomo, and midomora. We would suggest that Collado meant to include ura, which is listed by Rodriguez as the genitive form vraga. I offer vatacuxi, soregaxi, vare, varera, mi, midomo, midomora, and ura as the intended list, with the order of mi and varera reversed to accommodate the sentence which follows.

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