Diego Collado's Grammar of the Japanese Language
by Diego Collado
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The particle me when suffixed to a verb forms a noun which indicates the terminus of the action; e.g., avaxe is the root of the verb avaxe,uru 'to unite or join two things,' and avaxeme means 'junction.' The same is true of other forms.

An abstract noun can be formed from those adjectives ending in i if the i is changed to sa; e.g., nagai means 'is long,' and nagasa means 'length.' The adjectives ending in na change the na to sa in order to form abstract nouns; e.g., aqiraca na which means 'clear' will become aqiracasa 'clarity.'

Sometimes from two nouns taken together, often with a change in the first or last letter, there is formed a third noun, which is quasi-descriptive (quasi connotativus), almost like an adjective or noun with a {118} genitive; e.g., from qi 'wood' and fotoqe 'idol' there results qibotoqe 'wooden idol,' with the f changed to p [b]. But if the prefixed noun ends in e, this e is changed to a in the attributive of the compound; e.g., tumasaqi 'the tip of the nail,' canacugui 'iron nails.' A word which is placed second in these compounds may change its first letter; if it is f it becomes b or p, if it is s it becomes z, if it is c it becomes g, if it is t it becomes zz, if it is x it becomes j; e.g., caribune, bupp, (13 nigorizaqe, soragoto, qizzumari, and sorajeimon. See the dictionary.


In the Japanese language there are no derivative pronouns, such as meus,a,um, etc.; but the primitive pronouns, such as mei, tui, etc., are used. These primitive forms do not have declensions for case, but rather use the particles which are common to both nouns and pronouns.

Certain particles (about which we will speak later) when added to a word indicate honor and thereby form a pronoun or substitute for it in such circumstances as pronouns would normally be used. Thus, if I say von fumi, when speaking to someone else, it is immediately understood that I am speaking about his letter and not mine; for if I were speaking about mine I would not say von fumi but only fumi, since the particle von, which indicates honor, signifies 'your letter.' This is also true for such particles as mi which also attributes honor to the noun to which it is joined.

First Person Pronouns—Ego, etc.[63]

There are eight particles which signify 'I, mine, to me, etc.' They are vatacuxi, soregaxi, vare, mi, varera, midomo, midomora, vare.[64] The first four indicate a degree of superiority on the part of those who use them. The others are more humble. Women use three other particles mizzucara, varava, and vagami which are not used by men. The people in the countryside use two others, vara [vora] and vorara, while priests {119} when speaking of themselves use gus, that is to say 'I, a worthless man of the cloth,' and old men when speaking of themselves use gur, 'I, a worthless and despicable old man.' The king (rex) says chin or maru which means 'I, the King.' (14

To form the plural of these pronouns the pluralizing particles domo or ra are added; e.g., midomo ga maitta toqi 'when we went.' To indicate the difference between the cases, the endings about which we have spoken are suffixed.

Second Person Pronouns—Tu, tui, tibi, etc.[65]

There are many particles that form the second person pronoun. They are differentiated to indicate those persons deserving no honor and respect, those deserving some, moderate, great, or maximal honor and respect. In speaking to inferiors there are three particles used for 'you'; vare, vonore, and sochi. If me or mega is added as in vareme or varemega it means we very much despise the person being spoken to. If we speak to people who are on our own level, or just a little inferior, we use one of the three particles sonata, sonofǒ, or varesama. If we speak to a superior person, or someone on an equal level but with whom we must speak elegantly, we use one of the seven particles conata, qixo, qif, gofen, qiden, conatasama, and sonatasama. When speaking to persons of high rank, if we place the name of their office before sama, it serves as a pronoun; e.g., Padresama gozare 'will the Father come.'

Conata, cochi, and conofǒ mean 'I, mine,' but in the distributive sense of 'from me, or what concerns me.' In the same way sochi, sonof, and sonata mean 'you, from you, or what concerns you.'

The plurals are formed by adding the particles listed above to the pronouns according to the different degrees of honor. Vonore domo, varera, and sochira mean 'you' when speaking to inferiors. Vare tachi and sonata domo mean 'you' with persons of the same rank. Qif tachi, vocatagata, and vono vono mean 'you' to persons requiring honor. The declension of these honorable expressions follows the declension (15 of common particles.


Third Person Pronouns—Ille, illa, illud[66]

The two particles care care and are are mean 'this (ille, illa, illud)' when speaking of inferior things.[67] There are four particles; aitu, aitume, areme, and caitume which mean 'this' when one wants to show disrespect for the things being spoken about. This idea is emphasized if one adds ga to those forms that end in me; e.g., aituga and aitumega 'this humble man.' Cono means 'this (hic, haec, hoc),' sono means 'that (iste, ista, istud),' and ano means 'that (ille, illa, illud).' These words require a noun after them; e.g., cono fito 'this man' with cono mono having the same meaning but not being an honorific expression. Sono coto means 'that thing,' ano fito 'that person,' conata or conof 'here,' sonata or sonof 'there,' and anof 'there, yonder.' Core means 'this (hic),' sore 'that (istud),' and are 'that (illud).' These forms are in the neuter gender and are not followed by nouns. Their plurals are corera, sorera, and arera, while the others follow the common rules. Cano means 'that which we have mentioned'; e.g., cano fito 'that person.' The pronoun 'a certain (quidam)' is made with the particle aru; e.g., aru fito 'a certain person,' aru tocoro ni 'in a certain place.'

The pronoun 'each (unusquisque)' is formed with the particles men men and sore sore.

The pronoun 'each and every (universi & singuli)' is formed with tare mo mina.

The pronoun 'anyone (quicumque)' is formed with tare nite mo, tare nite mo are, and tare nari tomo.

The particle tare mo, when placed before a negative, forms the pronoun 'no one, or nobody'; e.g., tare mo mairananda 'nobody went.' The particle nani taru coto nari tomo means 'whatever happens, or whichever thing happens.' The particle mei mei means 'to each, or everyone in particular.'

The particle goto makes the distributive pronoun meaning 'every.' This form is used after vocables which are proper to the Japanese language; i.e., iomi. The same results are achieved by placing the (16 particle mai before vocables which come from the Chinese language; i.e., {121} coie. For example, fi means 'day,' and figoto ni means 'daily.' Nen is a Japanese borrowing from a Chinese word meaning 'year,' and mainen means 'every year, or all year.' The same result is obtained by the repetition of the noun; e.g., fito means 'person,' and fitibito means 'all the people, or many people,' fi means 'day,' and fibi ni means 'all of the days, or every day.'

The indefinite pronoun 'some (aliqui)' is formed with niiotte; e.g., toqi niiotte 'some times,' fito niiotte 'some men.'

The pronoun 'the same (idem)' is formed with vonaji; e.g., vonaji tocoro cara 'from the same place.' The particle djen means the same thing but in the neuter ; e.g., djen degozaru 'it is the same.' This word is used in reply to some one who has congratulated you, etc.

The pronoun 'himself (ipse)' is formed with the particles nuxi, sono mi, and vaga. The particle vareto mi forms the pronoun 'himself (ipsemet)'; e.g., vareto mi ni ata vo nasu (96) 'he brings harm to himself,' mi vo vasurete; ta vo tasuquru 'he forgets himself and saves others.' The particle vatacuxi means 'a thing which belongs to oneself (re propria)'; e.g., vatacuxi no coto 'ones own thing,' vatacuxi ni ivareta 'he spoke for himself.'

The pronoun 'somebody (aliquis)' is made with the particles tare zo and taso; e.g., tare zo maittaraba 'if somebody were to come,' taso sacana ga aru ca ti ni iqe [... toi ...] 'let someone go and ask if there is food.'

The neuter pronoun 'something (aliquid)' is formed with the particles nan zo and nanica; e.g., nan zo ga araba cuvzu 'I would eat if there were something,' ima faia te ga jii ni gozaru fodo ni nanica caqi marax 'I would write something if I were to have my hands free, or untied.'

The interrogative 'who (quis)' is translated with the three particles tare, taga, and taso. The particles taga or tare no form the genitive; e.g., taga mono ca 'whose thing is this.' When someone comes to the door and knocks, he says mono m.[68] To this one responds taso, taga, or tare 'who is it?' Nani means 'what (quid)'; e.g., nani vo suru (17 ca or nani goto vo suru ca? 'what are you doing?' nani ni sore vo totte iqu ca? 'for what reason do you bring this to me?'


Relative Pronouns

The relative pronoun is formed by placing the noun, in connection with which there is a relative (relativum), after the verb; e.g., ten ni maximasu varera ga von voia 'Our Father who is in Heaven,' deta tocoro va 'the place from which he came out,' te ni sumi no tuita fito (88) 'a man to whose hands ink is adhering.' If the sentence (oratio) requires a nominative before the verb it must be formed with one of the particles which indicate the nominative; ga, no, or iori. For example, vatacuxi ga caita fumi 'the letter which I wrote,' conata no vxerareta coto 'the thing which Your Lordship says.' The third particle, iori, is used when there is movement in the sentence; e.g., Deus iori ataie cudasareta gracia 'the grace which God provided, or gave,' ano tocoro ni amata no qi atta vo torareta (87v.) 'he brought what many books there were in that place.' When two sentences containing a relation come together the first is placed second by general rule,[69] and the second uses either a past, present, or future particle according to what is required by the sense of the sentence; e.g., qesa Oracio vo mxita qi ga tucuie no uie ni aru vo motte coi 'bring the book which is on the desk (sedila) at which I said my prayers this morning.' In this sentence qi ga, which is the first relative, comes after the verb mxita; and the vo which stands for the second relative comes after the verb aru. When we want to be more specific about that of which we are speaking we place the particle tocoro no between the thing itself and the verb; e.g., vare to dxin xita tocoro no mono domo va mina buguen ni natta 'all those who agreed with me became rich.' Sometimes the relative, because of the difficulty in understanding it, is expressed by expositions (per exponentes). Thus, in place of ima corosareta Pedro no co va sonata no chijn gia which means 'the son of Peter who has just been killed was your friend,' we say ima Pedro corosareta sono co va sonata no chijn de gozaru.

Sometimes they join two particles, as determined by the case, and form a kind of relative pronoun which is placed before the relative; e.g., sono tocoro de no danc 'the consultation at that place,' (18 Marsella ie no fune 'the ship to Marseille,' maire to no mxi goto dearu [ ... gia] 'it is said that I should go.'


Mairu mai to no danc ni qivamatta 'it was resolved that he not go,' maitte nochi no danc 'the consultation he arrived after,' varambe cara no catagui 'a custom from youth,' x tame no chgui gia (22) 'this is the plan (ars) according to which it will be done,' anofito no vo tor 'I shall take what belongs to that man.' This ends the note on relative pronouns.

The Formation of the Verb and Its Conjugation[70]

The verbs in Japanese have no number or person. These distinctions are indicated instead by the particles used in the formation of the plurals and in the declensions. There are three affirmative conjugations and the same number of negative.

The root (radix) of the verb does not by itself indicate tense. For this reason it is necessary to conjugate the verb in order to show the tenses.

All the verbs of the first conjugation[71] end in e. Those ending in gi or ji, together with xi and maraxi, although they end in i, are also in the first conjugation. If the root ends in de or gi, the present form is made by changing them to zzuru; e.g., fagi forms its present in fazzuru and means 'to blush,' de becomes zzuru and means 'to leave.' If the root ends in je or ji it changes in the present to zuru; e.g., maje:mazuru 'to mix,' anji:anzuru 'to consider.' If they end in xe they change to suru; e.g., avaxe:avasuru 'to join.' Xi and maraxi, which (as we have said) are in the first conjugation,[72] change xi to suru; e.g., xi:suru 'to do,' maraxi:marasuru which also means 'to do.' If the root ends in te it changes to turu; e.g., sodate:sodaturu 'to nourish, or support.' The remaining roots which end in e change, in their separate ways, the e to uru; e.g., ague:aguru 'to offer,' nigue:niguru 'to run away.'

There are certain verbal preterits which have present tense meanings. They are those which are passive in form but active in (19 meaning; e.g., cocoroieta 'to understand,' qicoieta 'to hear,' voboieta 'to remember,' qiqiieta 'to understand,' zonjita 'to know,' and there may {124} be many others. The verbs which follow belong to the first conjugation even though their roots do not end as previously stated.[73] If the present tense of these forms does not change the i to uru they are exceptional; e.g., abi,uru 'to wash oneself,' fotobi,uru 'to become soft,' focorobi,uru 'to become unstitched,' cabi [cabi,uru] 'to be moldy,'[74] sabi [sabi,uru] 'to rust,' deqi [deqi,uru] 'to be finished, or ended,' cuchi:cuturu 'to rot,' michi:mituru 'to be filled in by the sea,' ini,uru 'to leave,' nobi:nobiru or noburu 'to be spread out,' tuqi,uru 'to be used,' vori:uru 'to descend from above,' xij:xijru[75] 'to invite to dine, by compulsion,' ni:niru 'to resemble,' mochij:mochiiuru 'to evaluate,' ni:niru 'to cook,' mi:miru 'to look at,' cori,uru 'to correct,' vochi:voturu 'to fall,' i:iru 'to exist, or be present,' fugui,uru 'to pass, as time passes,' vabi,uru 'to beg for mercy,' carabi,uru 'to become dry,' iqi:iquru 'to live,' fi:firu 'to become dry,' qi:quru 'to come,' qi:qiru 'to dress oneself,' voqi,uru 'to get out of bed.' The following four verbs have irregular, as well as regular, present tenses;[76] ataie has atru 'to give,' vaqimaie has vaqimǒru 'to discriminate,' tonaie has tonru 'to bless,' sonaie has sonru 'to place in a high position.'

The Preterit, Perfect, Imperfect, and Pluperfect

In Japanese there is no imperfect. In its place the perfect is used. The perfect is formed in two ways. The first is by suffixing ta to the root of a verb ; e.g., agueta is the preterit of the verb ague,uru 'to offer.' The second is by suffixing te to the root and to that adding gozari,u or ari,u which is then conjugated in the present or the preterit of the second conjugation; e.g., aguete gozaru or aguete gozatta, or aguete aru or aguete atta 'offered, or had offered.' If the particle fia [faia] is placed before the verb the expression is strengthened; e.g., (20 fia aguete gozatta [faia ...] 'I had already offered it.' When the verb ari,u is suffixed to the perfect it is not as elegant a way of speaking as {125} when gozari,u is used. Therefore when speaking one must be careful about what one says, or in front of whom one speaks, so as to give each person the honor he deserves.

The Future of the First Conjugation

If the root of the verb ends in _te_ this syllable is changed to _te_ or _ch_ to form the future; e.g., _tate,uru_ will become _tate_ or _tach_ 'I shall build.'[77] If the root ends in _ji_ the future is formed by changing _ji_ to _j_; e.g., _xenji_ becomes _xenj_ 'I shall prepare, or brew, the medicine.' If the root ends in _xe_ [_xi_] it changes to _x_; e.g., _xi_ becomes _x_, and _maraxi_ becomes _marax_ 'I shall do.' If it ends in _ie_ it is changed to _io_ [_i_]; e.g., _voxiie_ becomes _voxiio_ [_vaxii_] 'I shall teach.' The remaining roots ending in _e_ suffix the particles _, _zu_, or _zuru_; e.g., _ague_, _aguezu_, or _aguezuru_ 'I shall offer.' These endings are used for the first conjugation[78] even when the roots end in _i_; e.g., _deqizu_ 'I shall be finished.'

The future is also formed by taking the syllable nu from the negative present (see below) and putting in its place the particle baia. Thus, by taking nu away from aguenu and putting in its place baia, we obtain aguebaia 'I will offer.' For minu if you take away the nu and put in its place baia it will become mibaia 'I will see, or behold.'

The future perfect is formed by suffixing the particles te arzu or tarzu to the root; e.g., aguete arzu or aguetarzu 'I shall already have offered.' The same results are obtained if faia is placed before the simple future; e.g., faia aguezu.


The Imperative of the First Conjugation

The imperative of the first conjugation is formed with the root of the verb alone, or with the addition of the particle io; e.g., ague or ague io 'offer!'[79] The future of the imperative is the future absolute ague or aguezu. This is a more elegant and polite way of speaking than giving a command with the regular imperative. The imperative is also formed by taking the nu from the negative present (see below) and {126} putting in its place the particle sai. Thus, if one takes the nu from aguenu and replaces it with sai it becomes ague sai which means 'offer!' If the particle tai is placed after the root there is formed a kind of future or optative by which the wish of the speaker is expressed. It is therefore an elegant imperative; thus mizzu fitotu nomitai 'I would like to have a drink of water' is the same as 'give me some water to drink.' When a relative [clause] concerns a precept, rule, admonition, or prohibition the imperative is expressed word for word in whatever the conjugation, affirmative or negative; e.g., Christiani naru na to no xgun no fatto ga aru [Christian ni ...] 'it is the law of the Shōgan (imperator) that no one should become a Christian,' Padre core vo coxiraie io to voxerareta niiotte [... vxerareta ...] 'because the Priest told me to do it.'

The Optative of the First Conjugation

The optative, both present and future, is the present tense of the imperative with the particles negavacu va or avare placed before it and the particles gana or caxi placed after it. Sometimes it is formed by adding the particle gana without any prefix; e.g., negavacu va ague io caxi? or avare aguei gana[80] 'would that you were to offer?' avare icanaru tengu, bangue mono nari tomo vare vo totte, fiie no iama ni noboxe io caxi! (15v)[81] 'Oh! if there were some one, either devil or soothsayer, who could make me ascend the mountain called Hie.' The particle gana when it is placed after a noun indicates a wish for the thing specified by the noun; e.g., saqe gana 'oh! sake'; and if (22 one is asked if he would like something to drink, the answer is nani gana 'would that I had some.'

The perfect of the optative is the second form of the future followed by the particle mono vo!; e.g., niqueozu mono vo! [niguezu ...] 'would that I had fled!' The same is achieved by niguetaraba iocar mono vo. Sometimes they say only niguetar va or niguete ar ni va iocar mono vo.


The Subjunctive of the First Affirmative Conjugation

The present tense of the subjunctive is formed by changing the u in which the present indicative ends to eba; e.g., aguru becomes agureba 'since I offer.' It is also formed from the present by adding ni, de, vo, or va to the particle tocoro according to the case requirements of the verb that follows, with the first verb being controlled by the noun; e.g., aru toqi Pedro chinsui xite iraruru tocoro ie fito ga qite (16v)[82] 'since a certain man came to the place where Peter was when he was drunk,' nhb ni tachi vacarete iru tocoro ni (16v)[83] 'since they were separated and divorced,' c aru tocoro ni 'since things are this way,' ioso ie zzuru tocoro va fito ni corosareta (16v)[84] 'when he went outside, he was killed by someone,' go misa vo asobaruru tocoro vo uchi coroita (121)[85] 'he killed him while he was celebrating mass.' This is a general rule which applies to all conjugations.

The perfect and the pluperfect of the subjunctive are formed from these same tenses in the indicative with the addition of the particle reba; e.g., agueta reba 'since he had offered.' It is also formed by taking away gozaru from the preterit pluperfect and putting in its place atta reba or atta; but, when atta is used, the particles ni, vo, va, or ie must be added according to the requirements of the following verb, just as with tocoro in the present tenses; e.g., aguete atta reba or aguete atta ni, vo, va, or ie 'since I had already offered it.'

The future of the subjunctive is formed by adding the particle toqi to the future indicative; e.g., ague toqi 'since he would offer it later.'

The pluperfect subjunctive, with all the expressions (vox) which signify that which comes after a completed action, is formed by (23 placing cara, nochi, or igo after the pluperfect indicative, minus gozaru; {128} e.g., aguete cara, nochi, or igo, mair 'I shall leave after he has offered it.' This is like aguetar toki mair 'I shall leave after he has already offered it.' Aguezuru ni or aguezuru tocoro ni means 'since he was already prepared to offer it.' Aguezuru coto no saqi ni means 'a little while before he offered it.'

The present tense of the permissive subjunctive is formed in two ways. The first is by changing the u of the present indicative to edomo; e.g., aguredomo 'although I could offer it.'

The preterit of the permissive subjunctive is formed by adding redomo to the preterit indicative; e.g., agueta redomo 'although he had offered it.' The future permissive is formed by adding redomo to the second form of the future indicative; e.g., aguezu redomo 'although he would be able to offer it.' The second form of the permissive subjunctive is formed by adding the particle tomo to the present indicative; e.g., aguru tomo 'although he could offer it.' The particles mamaio or madeio may also be added to the present tense; e.g., sore vo voxiiuru mamaio or sore vo voxiiuru madeio 'although he could teach this.'

The preterit of the second permissive is formed by suffixing ritomo to the preterit indicative; e.g., agueta ritomo 'although he had offered it.' The same meaning is achieved by adding the particles mamaio or madeio to the preterit indicative; e.g., agueta mamaio or agueta madeio; or by adding tote to the preterit subjunctive; e.g., aguetareba tote.

The future permissive is formed by adding tomo to the second form of the future indicative; e.g., agueozu tomo [aguezu tomo 'although he would offer it']. It is also formed by adding mamaio or madeio to the same future form. If the particle tatoi is placed before the forms of the permissive subjunctive great strength is added to the sentence; e.g., tatoi vxeraruru tomo 'even though you may state this.' The same meaning is obtained by removing the verbs gozaru or aru from the pluperfect indicative and replacing it with the particle mo; e.g., aguete mo 'although he may offer it.' The same mo when placed after the present indicative gives the same meaning; e.g., doco de qiqi marasuru mo, sono sata va msanu 'although he hears that everywhere, he does not pay any attention.' The same meaning is obtained by the sentences ague mo xeio caxi?, aguete mo x madeio, and nanto mo ague caxi? {129} [... aguei caxi?][86] 'although he offers.' Aguru ni saxerarei, (24 agueta ni saxerarei, or agueo ni saxerarei [ague ...] have the meanings of 'although he could have offered, although he could offer, or although he would offer'; or one might say 'let us offer' or 'let us give.'

The Infinitive

The present infinitive is formed by adding coto or to to the present indicative; e.g., aguru coto or aguru to 'to offer.'

The preterit infinitive is formed by adding the same particles to the preterit indicative; e.g., agueta coto or agueta to 'to have offered.' The future infinitive is formed by adding the same particles to the future indicative; e.g., ague coto or ague to 'to be about to offer.' The same meaning is obtained by adding ini to the present, preterit, or future indicative; e.g., nai nai guioi ni caqerare ini va vare mo zonzuru fitobito mo zonjita (22v) 'I think and others believed me to have been favored by you with many benefits,' qeccu vare ni voxiie marasuru ini gozaru (117v) 'he is truly able to teach me,' agueta ini gozaru 'he is said to have offered it.'

To ask or answer a question the infinitive is often subordinate to the verb which follows; e.g., nhbgata ni vochita coto ga atta ca? 'did you fall into the sin of adultery with this woman? is this what happened?' etc. All the tenses of the infinitive are used in the same way.

Sometimes the preterit infinitive is replaced by the pluperfect with gozaru or aru removed; e.g., Deus no minori vo firomete iocar 'it is good to spread the Gospel.' Sometimes the present or preterit indicative plus ga replaces the present or preterit of the infinitive; e.g., sore vo vxeraruru ga var gozar 'it will be bad to say that,' maitta ga maxi gia (21) 'it is better to have come, or it was better to come.'

When the substantive verb follows the infinitive, the particle coto is not required; e.g., cosacazzuqi de va saqe vo nomu devanai (23) 'to drink sake from a small glass is not to drink sake,' core coso caqu de gozare 'this we are able to say, or better, write,' caqu de gozatte coso 'this is not the way for it to be written,' sore va aguru devanai 'that is not to offer it.' Some of these examples are taken from other (25 conjugations but the general rule applies to all. The idea of the {130} infinitive is also obtained by the following means of expression; ague va, aguredomo 'although I offered, or even if I made it so that it was offered.' Because this is a general rule for all the conjugations, they also say qiqi va tucamature domo gatten xenu 'although I have listened, or done everything necessary to hear; I still don't understand.' They also say aguru vo motte 'by offering, or with the fact that he is to offer,' aguru iori 'from the fact that he is to offer,' aguru nituite 'about the fact that he is to offer.'

The gerund in Di is the present or future indicative followed by the particle jibun, or less frequently some other particle meaning 'time'; e.g., aguru jibun 'the time for offering,' ague ni qivamatta 'he made the decision that it be offered,' niguru jibun gia 'it is time to flee,' corosarezuru ni aisadamatte arǒzu (13) 'it will have been decided that he will be killed, or will have to be killed.'

The gerund in Do is formed in two ways. The first is by adding the particles ni or tote to the present indicative; e.g., aguruni or agurutote iurusareta 'I was freed by it being offered.' The second way is by removing the verb gozaru from the pluperfect; e.g., aguete cutabireta 'I became tired by offering, or raising up,' that is to say, 'from the action of presenting, or raising up, I suffered the result of becoming tired.' There is also another elegant, and frequently used, way to form the gerund in Do. It is done by placing the root of the verb in front of another verb making a compound; e.g., fiqi iosuru 'to approach, pulling.' The roots which are used in this way do not change with respect to their function. The gerund in Do is also used to express purpose taix to xite 'since he was a commander (dux), or was fulfilling the function of a commander,' von rei to xite 'giving thanks,' rǒtai nomi ni xite 'since he was an old man,' tucai xite ivaruru 'he said it as a messenger.'

The gerund in Dum is formed by adding the particles tame or tote to the present or future indicative; e.g., aguru tame or agueo tote [ague tote] 'in order to offer.' The same meaning is obtained by aguru ni fatto ga aru 'there is a law about offering,' unless this should be considered a gerund in ni [Di].

The supine in Tum is formed in two ways. The first is by adding ni to the root. The second is by adding tameni to the present indicative; {131} e.g., tazzune ni maitta or tazzunuru tameni maitta 'I came in order to obtain it.'

The supine in Tu is the root of the verb alone. To obtain the same meaning they also use msu ni voiobanu 'it is not necessary to (26 speak.'

The present, preterit, and future participles are formed by adding the particles fito or mono to the indicative. When fito is used the result is a more honorable way of speaking; e.g., aguru fito or aguru mono 'he who offers,' agueta fito 'he who offered,' ague mono 'he who will offer,' Buppgacu suru tomogara ni voite va (73v) 'as for those who devote themselves to the study of the laws of idolatry,' von vo xiru vo fito to va izo; von vo xiranu voba chicux to coso iie (96v). In this last sentence the vo takes the place of the participle, and the sentence therefore means 'those who know kindness (beneficia) are correctly called men; those who do not know it are truly called beasts.' This is a general rule for all the conjugations and therefore the example contains a verb from the second conjugation. The participle is also made by adding te ['hand'] to the root of the verb; e.g., aguete 'one who offers.'

The First Negative Conjugation

The negative root is formed by adding zu to the affirmative root; e.g., aguezu.

The present tense is formed with nu instead of zu; e.g., aguenu 'I do not offer.' This is a general rule no matter how the root ends. The only exceptions are xi and maraxi which form the negative present in xenu and maraxenu 'I do not do.' The roots that end in ji change the ji to je and then suffix the particle nu to the present; e.g., zonji in the negative present becomes zonienu [zonjenu] 'I do not know.' In some areas of Japan they form the negative by removing the final u from the negative root and adding ari,u, which is then conjugated according to the required tense; e.g., aguezaru 'I do not offer,' aguezatta 'I did not offer,' aguezatta reba 'since I did not offer.' They also say aguezu xite 'by not offering.'[87]


The negative of the preterit is formed in like manner by adding the particle nanda instead of nu; e.g., aguenanda 'I did not offer,' zonjenanda 'I did not know,' vorinanda 'I did not descend.'

The pluperfect is formed by changing the last a of the preterit to e and adding the verb gozaru in the present and gozatta in the preterit; e.g., aguenande gozaru or aguenande gozatta 'I have not offered.' It is also formed by adding ide gozaru or ide gozatta instead of (27 nande gozaru; e.g., agueide gozaru or agueide gozatta 'I had not offered,' zonzeide gozaru [zonjeide ... ][88] 'I had not known,' vochiide gozatta 'I had not fallen.'

The negative future is formed by adding mai or maji to the affirmative root or the affirmative present tense; e.g., ague mai or aguru maji 'you will not offer.'

The imperative is formed by placing na after the present indicative; aguru na 'do not offer.'

It is also formed by placing na before the root and so after it; e.g., na ague so 'do not offer.'

It is also formed by placing na after the root; e.g., ague na 'do not offer,' mixe na 'do not show,' mesare na 'do not do.' The roots which end in xi or ji, but are in the first conjugation,[89] change the i to e to form the negative imperative; e.g., sǒ xe na or s maraxe na 'do not do that,' sǒ zonze na [s zonje na] 'do not think that.'

The optative is formed by placing negavacuva or avare before the negative imperative and placing caxi or gana after it; e.g., avare aguru na caxi 'oh! if only you would not offer,' and negavacuva na ague so gana with the same meaning.

The preterit of the optative is formed by placing mono vo after the negative future; e.g., aguru mai mono vo 'oh! if only you would not have offered.'

The negative subjunctive is formed by changing the u which ends the negative present to eba; e.g., agueneba 'since he did not offer.'

The preterit of the subjunctive is formed by adding reba to the negative preterit of the indicative; e.g., aguenanda reba 'since he had not offered.'


The future of the subjunctive is formed by adding qereba to the negative future; e.g., niguru mai qereba 'since he is not going to escape.'

The permissive subjunctive is formed by adding domo to the negative present after changing the final u of the verb to e; e.g., aguenedomo 'although he cannot offer.' They also say, and this usage is preferred, aguenaidemo or agueidemo 'even if he not offer.'[90]

The preterit of the permissive subjunctive is formed by placing redomo after the negative preterit; e.g., aguenanda redomo 'although he had not offered.' Aguenaidemo or agueidemo 'although he would not be allowed to offer,' is also said.

The permissive future is formed by adding qeredomo to the negative future; e.g., aguru mai qeredomo 'although he is not going to be allowed to offer.' (28

Another way of forming the permissive subjunctive is to place the particle tomo after the negative root; e.g., aguezu tomo 'although he is not going to be able to offer.' It is also formed by placing tote after the [negative] present subjunctive; e.g., agueneba tote. A third way is to add mamaio or madeio to the negative present; e.g., aguenu mamaio or aguenu madeio 'although he cannot offer.'

The preterit is formed by placing ritomo after the negative preterit; e.g., aguenanda ritomo 'although he had not offered.' It is also formed by placing tote after the negative preterit of the subjunctive; e.g., aguenanda reba tote, or better, aguenaidemo or agueidemo 'although he does not offer, or had not offered.'

The future is formed by placing tomo after the negative future; e.g., aguemai tomo 'although he is not going to offer,' vochiidemo 'although he will not fall.'

The present, preterit, and future infinitives are the present, preterit, and future negative indicative present tenses followed by coto or to; e.g., aguenu coto 'not to offer,' aguenanda coto 'not to have offered,' aguru mai coto 'not to be going to offer.'

Sometimes they use the negative present instead of the preterit in all the conjugations; e.g., mi maraxenu 'I did not see.'


The negative gerund in Di is the same as the negative present or future; e.g., aguenu or aguru mai 'of not offering.'

The gerund in Do is formed by placing ni after the negative root or the negative present tense; e.g., aguezuni or aguenuni 'by not offering.' The same meaning is obtained with agueide, aguenaide or aguezu xite.

The gerund in Dum is formed by placing tote or tame after the [negative] present or future of the indicative; e.g., aguenu tame or aguru mai tote 'in order not to offer.'

The present, preterit, and future participles are formed by adding fito or mono to the negative of the present, preterit, and future indicatives; e.g., aguenu fito 'he who is not offering,' aguenanda mono 'he who did not offer,' aguru mai mono 'he who will not offer,' aguenaide cara or agueide nochi 'after he had not offered, after they did not offer, or after it was not offered.'


The Second Affirmative Conjugation

All the roots of the second conjugation end in i and form their present tense by changing i to u; e.g., iomi:iomu 'I read.' If the root ends in chi it changes its ending to tu e.g., machi:matu 'I wait.' If the root ends in xi it changes to su; e.g., coroxi:corosu 'I kill.'

For the preterit, if the root ends in ami it changes to da; e.g., cami:cda 'I ate, or chewed.' If it ends in ebi or emi it changes to eda; e.g., saqebi:saqeda 'I am injured,' sonemi:soneoda [soneda] 'I envied, or I had envy.' If it ends in obi or omi it changes to da; e.g., corobi:corda 'he fell,' comi:cda 'it enclosed itself.' If it ends in umi it changes to nda [unda]; e.g., casumi:casunda 'it is cloudy.' The same change is made for roots ending in imi; e.g., canaximi:canaxnda [canaxunda] 'he became sad.' If it ends in gui it changes to ida; e.g., fegui:feida 'it is divided.' Xini,uru has the preterit xinda 'he is dead,' and ini:uru has the preterit inda 'he left.' While in this respect they [xini and ini] are in the second conjugation, in the other tenses they are in the first. A root ending in chi or ri changes in the preterit to tta; e.g., mochi:motu in the preterit becomes motta 'he received,' chiri,u:chitta 'it is scattered.' Those which end in xi or qi change to ita; e.g., coroxi,u:coroita 'he killed,' qiqi,u:qiita 'he heard,' xiqi,u:xiita 'he stretched it out.' {135}

The future is formed by changing the i in which the root ends to , ǒzu, zuru; e.g., iom, iomǒzu, or iomzuru 'you will read.' If the root ends in chi it changes to t; e.g., machi:mat 'I shall wait.' A root ending in xi changes to s; e.g., mxi,u:ms 'I shall say, or speak.'

The imperative is formed by changing the i in which the root ends to e; e.g., iomi:iome 'read! or may you read.' If the root ends in chi it changes to te; e.g., machi:mate 'wait!' The imperative is also formed by changing the nu in which the negative present ends to ai; if you remove the nu from iomanu and replace it with ai it gives you yomai 'read!'[91] This is a common rule for the third conjugation, but this imperative is used only when addressing inferiors.

The future of the imperative is the future absolute; e.g., (30 iom 'you will read.' This is used when addressing very low people.

The remaining tenses of the optative, subjunctive, gerund, and infinitive are formed in the same way and with the same particles as are used for each in the first conjugation.

The Second Negative Conjugation

The root of the negative second conjugation is made by changing i, in which the affirmative root ends, to azu; e.g., iomi:iomazu 'not reading.'

If the root ends in chi the present tense is formed by changing it to tanu; e.g., machi:matanu 'I do not wait.' If it ends in xi it changes to sanu; e.g., coroxi:corosanu 'I do not kill.' If they end in any other way change i to anu; e.g., corobi:corobanu 'I do not fall.'

The preterit is formed by changing the nu of the present tense to nanda; e.g., corobanu:corobananda 'I did not fall,' iomananda 'I did not read.' The other tenses are formed in the same way as the negative first conjugation.

The Third Affirmative Conjugation

The roots of the third conjugation end in _ai_, _oi_, or _ui_. Those ending in _ai_ change to _ to form the present; e.g., _narai:nar_ 'I learn.' Those {136} ending in _oi_ change to _; e.g., _vomoi:vom_ 'I think.' Those ending in _ui_ change to _; e.g., _cui:c_ 'I eat.'

The preterit is formed by adding ta to the present tense; e.g., narta 'I learned,' vomta 'I thought,' cta 'I ate.'

The pluperfect is formed by changing the final a of the preterit to e and adding the verb gozaru in the present and gozatta in the past, in the same way as we have described for the first conjugation; e.g., narte gozaru or narǒte gozatta 'I have already learned.'

The future is formed by changing the final i of the root to v, vzu, or vzuru; e.g., narav, naravǒzu, or naravzuru 'I shall learn.' If the root ends in oi it is changed to v, vzu, or vzuru [, vǒzu, (31 or vǒzuru]; e.g., vomoi:vomou, vomovozu, or vomovzuru [vomoi:vomovǒ, vomovǒzu, or vomovǒzuru] 'I shall think.'[92]

The imperative is formed by placing e after the root; e.g., naraie 'learn!' toie 'ask!' cuie 'eat!'[93] It is also formed by removing the syllable nu from the negative present tense and replacing it with the letter i; e.g., naravai 'learn!' tovai 'ask!' cuvai 'eat!' This form is used when addressing inferiors, as are those of the other conjugations.

The Third Negative Conjugation

The root of the third negative conjugation is formed by changing the i of the affirmative root to vazu; e.g., naravazu, tovazu, and cuvazu. The present tense is formed by changing the i to vanu; e.g., naravanu 'I do not learn,' tovanu 'I do not ask,' cuvanu 'I do not eat.'

The preterit is formed by changing the i of the root to vananda; e.g., naravananda 'I did not learn,' tovananda 'I did not ask,' cuvananda 'I did not eat.'

The pluperfect is formed by changing the final a of the preterit to e and adding the verb gozaru or gozatta; e.g., cuvanande gozatta 'I had {137} not eaten,' or naravanande gozaru 'I had not learned.' The remaining forms are like the other conjugations.[94]

If the substantive verb is placed after the gerund in Do for all the affirmative and negative conjugations, it means that the action signified by the gerund is or is not done; e.g., aguete ar 'it will already be offered,' cono qi ga caite gozaranu 'this book is not written,' agueide arzu 'he will not yet have offered.' The substantive verbs are gozaru:gozaranu, voru:vori nai, dea or gia:devanai, aru:aranu or gozaranu, voru:voranu, and each of these verbs follows the general rules for its conjugation.[95]

If the substantive verb from any of the conjugations is placed after the infinitive form it means that whatever is signified by the infinitive is, was, or will be; or the negative thereof; e.g., aguru coto ar 'it will be that he offers,' that is to say 'he will offer,' narta coto gozaru mai 'he will not learn.' All these substantive verbs are conjugated in the second conjugation to which they belong by virtue of the fact that their (32 roots end in i; ari,u:gozari,u.

The Conjugation of the Negative Substantive Verb

The negative substantive verb is nai, gozanai, or vori nai which means 'not to be.' Its root is naqu, gozanaqu, or vori naqu.

The preterit is formed by changing the i in which the present tense ends to c and then adding the preterit of ari,u which is atta; e.g., nacatta or gozanacatta 'he was not.' The other tenses are conjugated, as is ari,u, in the second conjugation.

The imperative is nacare, nanaiso, or nai na 'be not!'


The subjunctive is formed by changing the i of the present tense to qereba; e.g., naqereba or gozanaqereba 'if it be not.'

The permissive subjunctive is formed by changing the i of the present to qeredomo; e.g., gozanaqeredomo 'although he is not.'

The preterit of the subjunctive is formed by adding redomo to the preterit of the indicative; e.g., nacatta redomo 'although he was not.'

The substantive [verb] with the particle tomo is formed with the root; e.g., naqu tomo 'even if it were not.' The gerund is n, nte, naqu xite, or nacatte 'since it is not.' The remaining are formed as above, with the verb ari,u added, and are conjugated in the second conjugation.

Adjectives, when they do not precede verbs, are conjugated in the same way as the negative substantive verb. The adjectives, which have been said above to end in ai, ei, oi, ui, and ij, form their roots by changing the final i to qu; e.g., fucaqu is the root of 'deep,' ioqu the root of 'good,' xiguequ the root of 'dense,' varuqu the root of 'bad,' and vonajiqu the root of 'the same.'

The present tense is the form (vox) of the adjective itself; e.g., ioi 'good,' fucai 'deep,' varui 'bad,' vonaji 'the same.'[96]

The preterit is formed by changing the i of the adjective to c or q and adding ari,u. This form is then conjugated according to (33 the tense required by the sentence.

The permissive subjunctive with tomo is fucaqu tomo or fucai tomo 'although deep.'

The gerund in Do is fucte 'since it was deep,' ite 'since it was good,' canaxite [canaxte][97] 'since it was sad,' xingueote [xigete][98] 'since it was dense.' It also takes the form of fuc xite, fucaqu xite, or fucacatte, or again i xite, ioqu xite, or iocatte.

The adjectives which end in na are not conjugated. There is, however, a gerund in Do. For example, aqiracana has for its gerund aqiracani xite 'since it was clear,' and with the same meaning there is aqiraca de. Arisna has arisǒni xite 'since it became apparent, or easy to believe.' Ina has ini as in ini xite 'since it is in a good way, or since it has a good manner.' Cava ga fucte vatarananda 'because the {139} river was deep, I did not cross it,' xebǒte irarenu 'since it was narrow, he was unable to enter,' varte cuvarenu 'it is inedible, or it cannot be eaten, because it is bad.' The other tenses of the adjective, as has been said, are formed with the verb ari,u and conjugated according to the requirements of the sentence. The negative conjugation is also formed with ari,u; e.g., if the root is fucacarazu the present tense is fucacaranu 'it is not deep.' The preterit is fucacarananda 'it was not, etc.'

The Conditional Particles[99]

There are five particles which make an utterance (oratio) conditional; naraba, ni voite va, raba, va, and ba. When the first two are placed after any verb, affirmative or negative, present, preterit, or future, the result is that the verb becomes conditional. For example; niguru naraba 'if you flee,' ida ni voite va 'if you had read,' narav naraba 'if you will learn,' cuvazu ni voite va[100] 'if you do not eat.' Sometimes voi [voite] is removed from ni voite va; ague ni va 'if you would offer,' aguetar ni va 'if you would have offered.' Sometimes voite [voite va] is removed, leaving only ni; e.g., mair ni coso, nen goro ni mǒsǒzure (19) 'if I go, or if I shall have gone, I will tell him so in a friendly way,' xitar ni coso, saisocu tuqu maji qere (19) 'if I (34 had done it, it would not have been done with diligence and persuasion.'

The particle raba is placed after the preterit;[101] e.g., narta raba 'if I would have learned,' naravananda raba 'if I would not have learned.'

The particle va is added to the negative roots of all three conjugations; e.g., aguezu va 'if I not offer,' iomazu va 'if I not read,' naravazu va 'if I not learn,' naqu va 'if it not be,' fucacarazu va 'if it be not deep.'

The particle ba has the same effect and is, like va, joined to the root; aguezũba, iomazũba, naravazũba.[102] If the particle ba replaces the negative zu, an affirmative conditional is formed; e.g., agueba, 'if I offer,' iomaba 'if I read,' naravaba 'if I learn,' and iocaraba 'if it be good.' The particle va is not only added to the negative roots of adjectives, but also to the affirmative; e.g., fucaqu va 'if it be deep,' vonajiqu va 'if it be the same.' Sometimes they use this expression to give the idea 'if it be not {140} too troublesome, will you do it.' They also say aguemajiqu va 'if you would not offer.'

The particle ni voite va is joined to nouns in such a way as to substitute for the substantive verb; e.g., jj ni voite va uqe tor (121v)[103] 'I shall get it, if it be very good, or the best,' curuxicarazaru gui ni voite va 'if it would not have been unpleasant, or if it had not been an unpleasant thing.'

If the particle saie is placed in a clause (oratio) in which there is already a conditional particle, it adds strength to the meaning; e.g., fune saie mairu naraba 'if only a ship were to come,' sonata saie vocutabire naku va (118) 'if he be not tired,' or it might be said 'as for me, or as far as it depends upon me, I am not tired.'

The particle saie alone sometimes forms a conditional; e.g., Niffon no xcocu ni saie caina coto gozaru fodo ni [Nifon ...] (118) 'if in the small kingdom of Japan things of this kind be found, or exist,' that is to say 'how much more there will be in a large one,' coco moto no tocai ni saie meivacu itasu ini gozaru fodoni, etc. (118) 'on the voyage here I suffered very much, and so ...,' fito saie cquai suru mono vo iurusu ni ivan ia, Deus ni voite voia? [... va?] (118v) 'if one forgives one who repents, how much more will God,' core fodo xei vo iruru saie coto naricanuru ni; ucato xite va, incadeca banji canavǒzo? [... icadeca ...] (119) 'if gathering all one's strength this can be done only with difficulty, how could it be done if it were done without any strength?,' core saie xinicui ni 'if this be difficult to do,' fune de saie ioio tuita (35 ni, cachi va nananaca naru mai [... nacanaca naru mai] (119v) 'if I arrived by ship with such difficulties, without doubt I could not have done it on foot.'

The Potential Verb[104]

The placing of the particle rǒ[105] after the present or future tense makes a potential; e.g., aguru rǒ 'he perhaps offers,' nigueozurǒ [niguezurǒ] 'he will perhaps escape.'

The preterit is made by changing ta to tu and adding rǒ; e.g., {141} agueturǒ 'he perhaps offered.' But if it is added to the negative preterit, the da must be changed to zzu; e.g., aguenanzzurǒ 'it has perhaps not been offered, etc.'

The present potential is also formed by adding arǒzu [mo arǒzu] or other future verbs to the infinitive; e.g., aguru coto mo arǒzu or ague mo xzu 'he will perhaps offer.'

The preterit is formed by adding this same future to the preterit infinitive; e.g., agueta coto mo arǒzu 'he perhaps offered.'

The future is ague coto mo arǒzu 'he will perhaps offer.' The negative is formed in the same way; e.g., aguenu, aguenanda, or aguru mai coto mo arǒzu 'he perhaps does not offer, he perhaps did not offer, or he will perhaps not offer.' When we wish to say that something is perhaps the case we use mono instead of coto; e.g., noxenanda mono de arzu 'they perhaps did not place it aboard ship,' iqi chigǒta mono de arǒzu 'they seem not to have met along the way,' moreqicoieta mono de gozarǒ ca to zonzuru 'I believe it is perhaps as it has been said.'

To express the meaning 'become' the verb nari,u is added to the adjective and then conjugated according to the requirements of the adjective taken adverbally; e.g., fucǒ naru 'it becomes deep,' varǔ natta 'it became bad.' Also they say fucǒ aru 'it is deep,' and sometimes fucǒ nai 'it is not deep.' They obtain this same meaning by conjugating nai according to the tense required by the sentence. They also use fucǒ nai coto mo arǒzu 'perhaps it will be that this is not deep.' (36

The Conjugation of Irregular Verbs[106]

The verb qi,uru 'to come' has quru 'I come,' qita 'I came,' czu 'I shall come,' coi or coio 'come!' qitareba 'since he will have come, or would have come,' qitaredomo 'although he came.' The negative root is czu [cozu] and the negative present is conu 'I do not come.' Mede, which is the root of the verb meaning 'to enjoy,' has a present in mezzuru and its gerund in Do is medete 'by enjoying.' Cui, which is the root of the verb meaning 'to be mournful,' has its present in cuiuru. {142} Its gerund in Do is cuite 'by mourning,' its negative root is cuizu, and its negative present is cuinu. Araie, which is the root of the verb 'to be,'[107] has a present in araiuru or arǒru 'it is.' Furi, which is the root of the verb 'to become old,' has a preterit in furita 'he became old,' and a gerund in Do which is furite 'by becoming old.' Fe, the root of the verb meaning 'to cross over,' has a present in furu 'he crosses over,' and a preterit in feta 'he crossed over.' Tari,u is a verb which signifies that a thing is complete or entire. It has a present in taru 'it is complete,' a preterit in tatta 'it was complete,' and a future in tari maraxo [marax] 'it will be complete.' Its negative root is tarazu, its negative present is taranu, its preterit is tarananda 'it was not complete,' its future is taru mai 'it will not be complete,' and its imperfect subjunctive is taraneba 'since it has not been completed.'

The [negative] permissive is taranedomo, the infinitive is taranu coto, and the gerund in Do is taraide or tarazu xite. The verb taxi:tasu, which means 'to complete, or finish,' has a future in taxi marax 'I shall finish.' Tasanu is the negative present. Tari [Tarai] is the root of the verb tarǒ which has the meaning 'to be completed.' In the negative the preterit is taravananda 'it was not completed,' the subjunctive is taravaneba 'since it is not completed,' the permissive is taravanedomo, the infinitive is taravanu coto, and the gerund in Do is taravaide or taravaxu xite [taravazu xite]. Vocotari is the root of the verb vocotaru 'to be negligent.' It has an infinitive in vocotaru coto, a negative root in vocotarazu, and a negative present in voicotaranu [vocotaranu]. Voi is the root of a verb which has a preterit in voita 'he was old.' (37 Voitaru has the same meaning. The negative present is voinu and the gerund in Do is voite. Urei is the root of the verb 'to be sad.' It has a present in ure, an imperative in ure io [ureie io][108] an infinitive in ureoru coto [ureru ...].[109] Its gerund in Do is ureite. Tomi is the root of the verb tomu or tomeru 'to become rich.' Its preterit is tonda, its gerund in Do is tonde, and its negative root is tomazu. Saiguiri,u means 'to go before, or anticipate.' Its preterit is saiguitta and its gerund in Do is saiguitte.


The Aforementioned Verbs—Their Formation and Diversity[110]

In this language there are simple active, causative active, passive, neutral, and impersonal verbs.[111] All are conjugated by the three conjugations according to the way in which their roots terminate.

From certain adjectives come (procedo) certain verbs; e.g., from catai 'hard' comes catame,uru 'I make hard' which is active, catamari,u 'I become hard' which is neutral, catamerare,uru 'I am made hard' which is passive. From the adjective canaxii 'sad' comes canaximi,u which means 'to be sad.'

The causative verbs (verba faciendi facere) are formed with the particles saxe or xe. The first is added to the roots of verbs in the first conjugation,[112] while the second is [not] added to the roots of the second and third conjugation, but rather to the negative present after the nu has been removed; e.g., aguesaxe,uru 'I make him offer,' iomaxe,uru 'I make him read,' naravaxe,uru 'I make him learn.' All of these forms are in the first conjugation because the particles end in e. Sometimes, but rarely, saxe follows verbs of the second and third conjugation, but this is to make the verbs more elegant. It is used with the particle rare to honor someone; e.g., iomasaxe rare,uru ['he makes him read']. Padre va dojucu ni cathecismo vo naravasaxeraruru 'the priest orders his servant to learn his cathecism,'[113] mono no fon vo fito ni (38 iomasaxeraruru (162v.) 'he makes him read his book.'

The passive verbs (verba passiva) are made with the particles rare and re. The particle rare is added to the active verbs, according to the way explained before, after removing the nu from the negative form; e.g., aguerare,uru 'I am offered it,' iomare,uru 'I am read to,' naravare,uru 'I am taught.' They use these passive forms to mean 'to be read to by someone,' or 'to be, or not to be legible.' There are other passive forms which come from neutral verbs or verbs which have neutral meanings. They are also formed with the particles rare and re, but when they are so formed they do not govern the cases common to {144} the passive (for which see below) but rather the cases of the verbs from which they come; e.g., from agari,u comes agarare,uru; and, since agari,u 'I ascend' requires the accusative, this verb also requires the accusative. For example; cono iama ie agararenu (102) 'it is not possible to climb this mountain, or this mountain is unable to be climbed,' xiro cara derarenu (102) 'it is not possible to leave the castle,' xebte irarenu (102) 'it is not possible to penetrate because it is too narrow, or confined,' cono michi va arucarenu (102) 'it is not possible to walk this street,' natu va coco ni irare mai 'it will not be possible to live here during the summer,' cono fude de va cacarenu (102) 'it cannot be written with this pen,' fima ga nte cacarenanda (102) 'it cannot be written because of the lack of time,' cono bun ni coso cacaruru mono de gozare (69v) 'it will indeed be well written in this way,' axi ga itte arucarenu (102) 'it is impossible to walk because of painful feet.' All of these passive verbs are of the first conjugation.[114] The neutral verbs (verba neutra) are those which have a neutral meaning; i.e., being initiated by oneself, and not by others. For example; ivo ga toruru 'the fish are caught,' caje ga toruru 'the wind ceases,' ito ga qiruru 'the string is cut,' ji ga iomuru (100) 'the letter [Chinese character] is well read,' aqi,u 'I am uncovered.' Qiri,u 'I cut' is active, qirare,uru is passive, and qire,uru 'I am cut' is neutral. This last form is used when a sword cuts well because it is sharp. Qiraxe,uru is a causative verb which means 'I make someone cut.' Ague,uru means 'I raise,' aguerare,uru 'I am raised' passively, aguesaxe,uru 'I make someone raise,' agari,u 'I am raised' neutrally, agarare,uru 'to be ascendable,' agaraxe,uru 'I cause something to be raised, or I cause him or it to raise himself or itself.' If to these verbs are added the particles which indicate honor (see below) other combinations are made. The adjectives when they are conjugated have a neutral meaning; e.g., fidarui 'I am thirsty,' fucacatta 'it was deep.'

The impersonal verbs (verba impersonalia) do not name or refer to a person; e.g., mi vo fatasu tomo ituvari vo ivanu mono gia (39 (69v) 'even if one were to die, one should not tell a lie,' mono mo tabezu saqe mo nomaide ichinichi fataraqu mono ca? (69v) 'is it possible to work all day without eating anything or drinking any wine?', xujin no {145} maie de sono ina coto vo i mono ca? 'is it possible to speak this way in front of ones lord?' Concerning the conjugations for these verbs they follow the rules according to their roots.

The root of any verb of whatever conjugation can be taken from its conjugation and changed to another conjugation by adding one of the particles of honor (honor). The resulting form will belong to the conjugation determined by the final letter of the particle. These particles are: maraxi,uru, ari,u, saxerare,uru, xerare,uru, nasare,uru, saxemaxi,u, tamai,, rare and re.[115]

The particle maraxi does not add honor to that which is talked about, but rather it is used to speak honorably to those in front of us. For example; cui,u means 'I eat,'[116] but a servant in front of his master will not say nezumi ga cta 'the mice ate the cheese'; he will rather say nezumi ga cui maraxita. By itself cui,u is in the third conjugation because its root ends in ui, but if maraxi is added it becomes a verb in the first conjugation. When we refer to something about a people (natio) we do not show honor to that word but only pay attention to the person we are speaking to by adding maraxi or not. For example, if we are addressing an inferior we say Nan ban jin va core vo cuvanu; but if we are addressing a person of nobility we say Nan ban jin va core vo cui maraxenu 'Europeans do not eat this.' When ari,u is added to the root of any verb it attaches a middling (mediocris) degree of honor; e.g., modori ar ca? 'are you going to come back?' If you add vo in front of the verb it is honored moderately (satis); e.g., vomodori ar ca? 'Your Lordship is going to come back?' Tono sama vo xini atta toqi 'when the master died,' Deus cono xecai vo gosacu atta 'God created the world.'[117] We use these particles when we are speaking with honored persons whom we like and with whom we are on friendly terms.

The particle nasare,uru gives the highest (supremus), or moderately great (satis magnus) honor and is placed after the root of the verb; e.g., Deus cono xecai vo gosacu nasareta 'God created the world.'

The particles rare and re add a middling and not a great amount {146} of honor to the verbs to which they are added. The particle rare is added mainly when we are talking about someone who is absent. It is formed by taking the nu from the negative present and replacing (40 it with this particle; e.g., aguerare,uru means 'I offer' when the person to whom the offering is made requires a middling degree of honor and respect (reverentia). This verb coincides letter for letter with the passive but is distinguished from it by the cases which it governs. The particle re is placed after verbs of the second and third conjugation only; e.g., iomare,uru 'to read' and naravare,uru 'to learn,' said of a person having a good reputation. We speak in this way when speaking of those who are equal to us and the servants of our lord, but not of other servants, or nobles.

The particles saxemaxi and xemaxi give the same degree of honor as ari,u and rare or re. These particles are added to the root of a first conjugation verb,[118] or to the negative present from which the nu has been removed; aguesaxemasu 'he offers.' Maxi,u [Xemaxi,u] is added to the negative present of the second and third conjugation verbs after taking away nu; e.g., iomaxemasu 'he reads,' and naravaxemasu 'he learns.'

The particles saxerare,uru and xerare,uru attribute great honor. The first is added to the negative present of verbs in the first conjugation[119] after the nu is removed, and the second is added to the [other] negatives in the same way; e.g., aguesaxeraruru 'I offer,' iomaxeraruru 'I read,' naravaxeraruru 'I learn.' Because these forms coincide letter for letter with the honorific causative, the particle ari,u may be placed after the verb and the particle vo may be placed before to avoid confusion; e.g., yomaxe aru [vo iomaxe aru] 'I read' and naravaxe aru [vo naravaxe aru] 'I learn.'

The passive verb, concerning which see below, also permits the particle saxerare,uru; e.g., viamavaresaxeraruru (99v) 'I am honored.'

The particle tamai, bestows the highest honor. We use it when speaking of God, saints, kings, or generals. It is added to the roots of verbs and conjugated in the third conjugation. It is placed after the root of the passive form when referring to God; e.g., Deus filio, umare {147} tamǒ toqi 'when the son of God was born,' Deus agamerare tamǒ 'God is honored.'

The particle tate maturi,u makes the meaning of the verb to which it is added humble. It is placed after the root of affirmative verbs; e.g., Deus vo gotaixet ni zonji tate maturu coto va ichi sugureta jen gia 'to love God is the supreme virtue.' This particle permits some degree of honor if re is added to it after the final e [i] has been changed to a. Thus, when speaking of the saints in respect to God, one says, (41 Sancto Domingo, Deus vo gotaixet ni zonji tatematurareta 'St. Dominic loved God.'

The particle maraxi [mairaxi][120] is able to elevate to honor the particle rare; e.g., tono iori cono coto vo Padre ni vataximairaxerareta 'the lord gave it to the priest.'

Certain Verbs Which of Themselves Indicate Honor[121]

Mesare,uru indicates any act which can be done, or which is properly done by a noble person (persona nobilis). This includes such things as eating, drinking, sailing, riding a horse, etc. Vxerare,uru means that a noble person speaks. Vomaraxi,uru and vomaraxi ari,u mean that a noble person gives. Voxe,uru [Vxe,uru] and vxe ari,u mean that a middling person (persona mediocris) says or declares.

Verbs preceded by vxe or mexi are given the same degree of honor by either; e.g., vxe tuqerare,uru 'I declare,' mexi tucavare,uru 'I serve,' which have the same meanings as tuqerare,uru and tucavare,uru. To call someone we use coi with an inferior, with someone not quite as inferior we use iorai, with someone a little better we use vaxei, while vogiare is the superior way to call. Gozare, which means that your Lordship should come, and gozarǒ in the future tense are even more honorable ways to indicate the imperative. Voide nasarei, voide nasare, or voide nasarei caxi mean 'might your Lordship come,' or 'Oh! would that your Lordship come.' Cudasare,uru means that a noble person gives. Tamavari,u means that a noble person gives to an inferior. Tamri,u means that a middling person gives. Mizzu vo nomaxete tamǒre 'Give me a drink of water.' Cudasare,uru and tamri,u mean {148} that a humble person eats honoring his food. Coximexi,u and qicoximexi,u mean that a noble person eats and hears. Voboximexi,u and voboximesare,uru mean that a noble person thinks. Saxerare,uru means that a noble person does. Nasare,uru, asobaxi,u, and asobasare,iuru [asobasare,uru] mean that a noble person does what is proper to him such as hunting, writing, reading, or reciting. Ii, is used when the person addressed is humbler than the person or thing spoken to; (42 and mexi,u [mxi,u] means the person or the thing spoken to is addressed with honor. Therefore I would be incorrect were I to say mi ni mxe 'tell me!' I should rather say mi ni iie. I should not say tono ni iie 'tell it to the lord,' but rather tono ni mxe. Mairi,u means to go to a place to which honor should be shown; e.g., iglesia ie maire 'go to church!' Cure,uru and toraxe,uru mean to give in a way that humbles the person to whom the thing is given. Cui, means 'to eat' without showing respect (respectus); mexi,u also means 'to eat' but it is cultivated (urbanum); e.g., in addressing those deserving respect I will not say mexi vo cui maraxita but rather mexi vo tabe maraxita 'I ate.' Mairi,u or vomairari,u [vomairi ari,u] means that a middling person eats, while agaraxerare,uru and voagari ari,u are nobler ways to say this. Qiqi,u means to hear and uqetamavari,u and uqetamri,u mean to hear in a way which honors the person heard; e.g., goiqen vo uqetamǒtta 'I heard your advice.' Mxi ague,uru means to speak in a way which humbles oneself while bestowing honor on the person being addressed. Mxi ire,uru means to speak between equals (equales). Chmon xi,uru means to listen to the word of God. Goranji,zuru or goranjerare,uru is to look at a noble thing. Xi,uru means to do in common way, itaxi,u means to do in a cultivated way, and tucamaturi,u means to do in a humble way.

Cautionary Remarks on the Conjugations of the Verb[122]

The particle nama placed before any verb in any tense means that the action has been done poorly or in an incomplete manner; e.g., nama ar 'I wash poorly,' nama iaqu 'I am incompletely broiled.'


If the particles tui, cai, uchi, faxe, voi, ai, and tori[123] are placed in front of a verb they do not change the meaning, but they add emphasis; e.g., uchi cobosu has the same meaning as cobosu 'I pour,' faxe noboru is the same as noboru 'I ascend,' voxi comi,u is the same as comi,u 'I enclose,' ai cavari,u is the same as cavari,u 'I am changed,' tui mavari,u is the same as mavari,u 'I go around,' and tori firogue,uru is the same as firogue,uru 'I spread out.'

The particle qitte is the gerund in Do for the verb qiri,u and when it is placed after the roots of certain verbs it gives them great emphasis; e.g., tanomiqitte 'imploring with great prayers,' vomoiqitte (43 'assuming a strong resolution.' The verbs tanomiqiri,u and vomoiqiri,u are also used.

The particle ma, when placed in front of certain verbs and nouns, gives them a stronger meaning; e.g., mamucai 'quite present,' macuroi 'completely black.'

The particle, or better root of the verb, macari,u, when placed before verbs of motion, makes the verbs modest and a bit more cultivated; e.g., macari noboru 'I ascend,' macari cudari,u 'I descend,' and macari i,iru 'I am present.'

The particle va placed after a sentence confirms what has been said before, as one might boast of making a prediction; e.g., fune va cuchinotu ie iru va 'the ship calls at Kuchinotsu; and, if he says so or not, I say so,' aru va 'see if it is not as I have said.'

The particle aidani means 'between' in the sense of the time consumed in performing an action; e.g., agura aidani [aguru aidani] 'while offering,' ida aidani 'while he read,' naravzuru aidani 'while he will learn.'

The particle ga means 'but;' s i ga; nanto ar ca? 'they say so, but will it be so?' or 'it may be so, but I don't know for certain,' furi va furu mai ga, fune no dasu coto nar ca xiranu 'it's not raining any more, but I still don't know if it will be possible to launch the boat or not,' sono qinpen ni va gozaru mai ga; doco cara toraxeraruru zo? (20)[124] 'there are probably none in the neighborhood, or in the surroundings, so from where can they be gotten?'


The particle gotoqu is added to the present, preterit, and future tenses meaning 'in the same way'; e.g., coxiraiuru gotoqu 'in the same way as you furnish or carry out,' qiita gotoqu 'as I heard.' The form is sometimes ga gotoqu; e.g., mxita ga gotoqu 'as he said,' caracavzu ga gotoqu 'as in jest I will tease or laugh at.' This same meaning is obtained with iǒni; Nifon no catagui vo xirareta iǒni, vxeraruru (122v) 'he speaks as one who knows the customs of Japan,'[125] msu ini 'as I say.' The particle furi is also used for the same purpose; e.g., toza no chijocu vo nogarezuru tameni catana vo saita furi vo mixerareta (123) 'he showed himself wearing his sword in order to avoid the danger of infamy.' minu furi vo saxerareta (123) 'he made it known that he did not see.'

The particle saie is used [with the negative] to mean 'not at all'; e.g., mma saie nacatta (118)[126] 'there are not any horses at all,' cotoba saie xiranu mono (118) 'he does not know how to speak at all,' ji saie mixiranu mono 'he does not know any letters at all.' This same particle is used for emphasis; e.g., qiden to saie mǒxeba (119) 'it would (44 suffice if you were to say that you are,' Padre no tucavaruru to saie mxeba 'if only he had said that this was useful to the priest,' or one might say 'it would suffice if, etc.'

The particle qere is a confirmative particle which comes at the end of a sentence with the meaning 'therefore'; e.g., maitta qere 'therefore he came,' sate s aru qere 'finally this is the situation.'[127]

The particle coso is of great importance among the Japanese for they use it first in an adversative sense (in sensu adversativo); core coso i gozare [... i ...] 'he is truly good.'[128] If the sentence in which this particle is found ends in a verb, that verb ends in e, as in the example above. If the verb is in the preterit it ends in re; e.g., y coso gazattare! (117) 'you are welcome! (bene veneris!).' The exceptions to this rule are when the sentence does not end in a verb or an adjective; e.g., core coso xix y [... io] (116) 'he is a true teacher,' when after the particle coso there is in the sentence a gerund in e, a permissive in tomo, or a {151} potential preterit in tur or zzur;[129] e.g., vare coso iro iro xinro tucamatutte cutatireba toxiirini nari maraxita [... cutabireba toxiiorini ...] (117) 'suffering many and various hardships, I became an old man,' vare coso corosaruru tomo 'if I be killed,' fara coso tatturǒ (117) 'he was perchance quite angry,' sato chicaqereba coso fi ga miiure (116) 'the fire is already seen because the village is so near.' This [last] sentence ends in e because it does not contain an exception to the rule. Vxerareta coto domo vo go cquai de coso gozarzure (97) 'without doubt you will do penance for what you have said,' catajiqe nǒ coso gozare (97) 'I congratulate you very much and thank you.' If someone says, 'Who did that?' the answer is Patre coso [Padre coso] 'the Priest did.' If someone asks, 'is there anyone who did that?' and if he does not hear, or does not understand the answer, and asks again, the person who answered will say Juan coso 'I have already said it was John.'

When someone is careless about what was said, or when he has not heard something and asks again, the answer is; e.g., tovoru na to iieba 'I have already told you not to pass through,' iome to iieba 'I have already told you to read,' Padre coso to iieba 'I have already told you that it is the Priest.'

Adding the particles maieni and saqini to the negative present tense makes the construction affirmative; e.g., iglesia ie mairanu maieni (141v) 'before he goes to church.' They are also added to the affirmative future tense; e.g., mairǒzuru tote no saqini 'a little before (45 I come.'

The particle tocoro signifies the time during which the action indicated by the verb is done. It is placed after the verb; taburu tocoro ni 'when I was eating,' tabeta tocoro ni 'after dinner,' tabezuru tocoro ni or tabezuru ni 'when I will be eating.' It also serves as a reduplicative particle which denotes a reduplication to the degree possible; e.g., jesu christo humanidad no von tocoro va (121v)[130] 'Jesus Christ in so far as he was a man,' vonore ga foxxezaru tocoro vo fodocosu coto nacare (121) 'as you do not want done to you, do not do to others,' fudai no tocoro vo vo iurusu [... tocoro vo iurusu] (120v) 'I gave him his freedom,' fito no acu no tocoro ni va dxin xenu (121v) 'I do {152} not consent to the sins of man,' utag tocoro mo nai (120v) 'there remains no place to doubt, or for doubt,' nocoru tocoro mo nai 'it does not remain any more,' tuini, sono tocoro ie mairzu (121v) 'finally he will arrive at this place,' fumbet ni voiobanu tocoro gia (121v) 'there are some things which are not understood, or to which one's comprehension does not extend,' nani mo nai tocoro vo i qicoximexe (120v) 'will your Lordship kindly eat from this littleness which is nothing.' From these examples it is possible to see the force of this particle.

The particles tocoro, made, and made de gozaru are often added to an utterance (cadentia). They do not have any special meaning and are the same as coto de gozaru; e.g., naranu made or naranu coto de gozaru mean the same as naranu 'it is not possible.' Guijet tucamaturǒ to zonzuru coto va cacugo itasanu coto gia (10v) 'the breaking of this friendship does not come to mind.' Here the itasanu coto gia is the same as itasanu alone.

The particle madeio is used to confirm what has been said; e.g., caita madeio 'that which I wrote, I wrote.'

The particle toqi when added to the present tense, forms a preterit imperfect; e.g., jennin tachi va saigo ni voiobi tam toqi va buji ni gozatta 'when saints arrive at the time of their death, they are peaceful and quiet.'

Changing the ta of the preterit to tu and the da of the negative to zzu[131] the meaning becomes 'I do it this way and then that way'; e.g., mono vo caitu, izzu, nando xite curasu bacari gia 'I spend my life reading, writing and doing other things,' tattu itu vocu iori zaxiqi ie ide zaxiqi iori vocu ie iri xitten battǒ xeraruru (11v) 'standing and sitting, entering and departing, he stands up and falls down.' The particle ri gives the same meaning after the preterit; e.g., xeqen no mono va netari voqitari nǒdari curasu bacari gia (11) 'men of the world spend their lives sleeping, arising, and drinking,' mazzu (46 ite niva vo mo facaxetari, cusa vo mo ficaxetari iroiro no xigoto vo ategǒte cos mairǒzure [... coso ...] (10v) 'I shall go and sweep out the courtyard (atrium), pull up the weeds, and then having dispensed with these things I shall go,' ima cono io fuqe iuqeba nome ia, utaie ia fito bito motu, utǒtu sacamori suru (129) 'when it already is late at {153} night, urging themselves on to drink and sing, the men enjoy themselves dancing and singing.'

The particle ie, which is the root of the verb ie iuru [ie:uru][132] 'I can,' signifies, when placed before negative verbs, that the action expressed by the verb cannot be done; e.g., ie iomanu 'I cannot read.' This particle is also placed after the infinitive; e.g., iomanu coto vo ienu 'I cannot read.' Iomi va ieide, or iomi mo ieide 'since I could not read, or not being able to read' is also said. The infinitive sometimes acts as a substitute verb (suppositum verbum); e.g., xinuru coto va vosoroxij 'it is terrible to die.'

The particle tai 'I want' is added to the roots of verbs and signifies the desire to do the thing indicated by the verb; e.g., mizzu vo nomi tai[133] 'I want to drink some water,' mizzu vo nomi t gozaru or mizzu vo nomi t zonzuru, but these last two forms are more noble. Here is an example of the noble form in the negative, tǒ mo nai; e.g., mizzu vo nomi tǒ mo nai 'I do not want to drink water,' and mizzu vo nomi tǒ mo gozaranu. Mairu t mo zonjenu means 'I do not want to go.' When the particle tai is added to adjectives, or verbs indicating a sensory act (actionem sensitiuam) in the first person,[134] the i is changed to c; and the verb ari,u is added and conjugated in the tense required by the sentence; e.g., cuitacatta 'I wanted to eat.' If the verb is in the second or third person, the i is changed to g and again the verb ari,u is added, or an honorific particle depending upon what the person deserves, or without it as an absolute form. But if the person is inferior, the i is changed to c as said before.

The particle de sometimes gives a subjunctive sense when it is added to nouns; e.g., varbe de xinda 'he died a child, or when he was a child,' vare ga buchf de tof mo gozanai (163v)[135] [... buchf ...] 'since I am clumsy and not careful, nothing will work out in a way that will be harmonious.'

The particle i 'way' is added to the roots of verbs and also to the {154} verbs themselves. When the root governs the genitive, the verb governs the same case; e.g., cono qiǒ no iomi i va 'the way of (47 reading this book,' or cono qi vo iomu iǒ va. In the first sentence qiǒ is in the genitive with the particle no; in the second sentence it is in the accusative with vo because yomu governs this case. Tei signifies an extraordinary and marvelous way of doing something; e.g., machicanuru tei vo goron jerarei (122)[136] 'might your Lordship observe the way that they are expectant.' Also, arisama means 'way,' me mo aterarenu arisama gia 'it is a way, or a form (figura), which is unable to be seen.'

Sama indicates the time of the action of the verb to which it is added while governing the case required by the verb. It is added to the root of the verb; e.g., saqe vo nomi sama ni (105) 'when he actually drank the wine,' iado ie caieri sama ni (105) 'when he returned home,' fune iori agari sama ni (105) 'when he actually disembarked from the ship,' fune ni nori sama ni 'when he actually boarded the ship.'

When there are in a sentence two verbs whose actions form a single action, the first verb is put into the form of the gerund in Do; e.g., mizzu vo motte coi 'bring some water, or come bringing water,' fune vo voite coi 'bring the boat here, or come poling the boat,' core vo totte iqe 'take this, or carry this and go.'

The gerund in Do when added to verbs of asking, giving, or doing, means that one is asking to know or to acquire the thing which is indicated by the verb to which it is added; e.g., nifon guchi vo voxiiete cure io 'teach me Japanese,' sǒ voxerarete cudasaruru na [sǒ vxerarete ...] 'your Lordship ought not say that,' Deus no coto vo catatte tamǒre 'do me the favor of relating to me those things which pertain to God.'

The particle mo placed after the gerund in Do, whether it ends in te or de, means 'although'; e.g., sǒ mǒxite mo 'although you say so,' ica fodo susumete mo, corobu mai 'no matter how much you try to persuade me, I will not deny the faith.' They also use sǒ mǒxeba atte mo 'even if you say that,' dǒxitemo cǒxitemo (134v) 'what ever you do.'

If the particle coso (see above) is added to the affirmative gerund in Do; and, if the sentence ends in this particle, the sentence becomes {155} negative; e.g., mite coso 'I did not see anything,' atte coso 'there is no way.' But if the sentence does not end in coso, it becomes affirmative (48 and emphatic; e.g., mite coso gozare (116) 'I certainly saw.' The verb ends in e according to the rule explained above when the particle coso was being discussed.

When the negative gerund in Do, which ends in e, is followed by va, naranu, or canavanu it expresses necessity or the impossibility of the contrary; e.g., mairaide canavanu (106v)[137] 'it is necessary to go,' ivaide va no coto naredomo, nanto x ca? 'and if the thing which is said to be necessary happens, what shall I do?' xitagavaide naranu 'it is necessary to obey.' The same meaning, but with less strength, is obtained with the future of the affirmative or negative infinitive and the permissive subjunctive in domo; e.g., mairǒ coto de gozatta redomo (18)[138] 'although I should have gone,' mairu mai queredomo [... qeredomo] (18)[139] 'although I should not be going,' mairǒ coto de gozanacatta redomo (18) 'although I did not have to go.' They also use the negative gerund in Do to obtain the meaning of 'if not'; e.g., racio vo mǒsaide c na 'do not eat unless you have said your prayers.'

The gerund in e indicates an action already done; e.g., mexi cte coi 'come after eating!' cono qi ga caite gozaru 'this book was written,' chichi ni fumi vo cacaide cuiaxi gozaru [... cuiax ...] 'I am ashamed that I did not send a letter to your father,' cono qi ga caite gozaranu 'this book was not written.'

The particle nagara, when added to the root of a verb, forms a gerund in Do if it is followed by a verb indicating a repugnant or contrary action; e.g., toganin Deus iori bacutai no go von, o uqetatematuri nagara; caietta somuqi tatematuru [... go von vo uqe ...][140] 'sinners receiving, or even if sinners receive, benefits from God, they will offend him rather than be grateful,' Jesu Cristo Deus de gozari nagara, fito ni taixite cruz ni cacaraxerareta 'while Jesus Christ was a God, he was crucified for man.' Nagara is also added to nouns; e.g., quantai nagara (136v) 'although there was some lack of education,' sannin nagara (137) 'three at the same time, or even if there are three' aqiraca {156} nagara (136v) 'although he is famous.' In this instance aqiraca na loses its na as do all the other adjectives that end in na.

The particle iasui is added to the roots of active and passive verbs to form the supine in Tu; e.g., iomi iasui 'easy to read,' corosare iasui 'easy to be killed.' The same thing is achieved by the following way of speaking; ite va vosoroxij 'it is terrible to say,' mite va (49 fuxiguina 'it is admirable to see,' i vo mo vosoroxij 'it is terrible to say.'

The Adverbs

First Section[141]

Adverbs are formed from adjectives ending in _ai_ by changing the _ai_ to _; e.g., _fuc_ 'deeply,' for those ending in _oi_ by changing the _oi_ to _; e.g., _caxico_ [_caxic_] 'wisely,' for those ending in _ei_ by changing the _ei_ to _e_; e.g., _xigueo_ [_xigue_] 'densely,' for those ending in _ui_ by changing the _ui_ to _; e.g., _aiǔ_ 'in danger,' and for those ending in _ij_ by changing the _ij_ to _i_; e.g., _cavai_ 'unhappily.'

Adverbs of Place[142]

The interrogative pronouns are eight in number; izzucu[?], izzucata[?], donata[?], doco?, dochi?, dochira?, dono tocoro[?], and dono fǒ?, and they signify 'which place?' To these adverbs are added the particles va, no, ni, ie, vo, cara, and iori according to the case required, such as 'from where,' 'whither,' 'through which place,' 'in what place,' etc. Made can also be added to them with the meaning of 'to the limit of which'; doco made ie iq ca[?] 'up to where will you go?' The interrogative particle, ca? or zo[?], is added to these questions but it is better to use zo rather than ca in sentences with an interrogative particle; e.g., izzuru ie maitta zo 'where did you go,' dono tocoro vo tovotta zo 'at which place did you cross,' doco iori itta zo 'through where did he enter,' dochi cara qita zo? 'from where did he come?', {157} donata va Pedro no iado zo[?] 'which is Peter's house?', doco ni voru zo[?] 'where, or in what place is he?' One may respond in many ways; cono tocoro, coto moto, [coco moto], core, conata, cochi, cochira, coco, cocora, cono cata, cono fǒ, which mean 'here (hic)'; sono tocoro, soco moto, sore, sonata, sochi, sochira, soco, socora, sono cata, sono fǒ (50 which mean 'there (istic)'; ano tocoro, asoco moto, are, anata, achi, achira, asoco, asocora, ano cata, anof, which mean 'there (illic).' To these particles are added the case particles. The interrogative adverbs with the case particles and mo added mean 'everywhere,' 'through every place,' or 'to every place,' e.g., dono tocoro ie mo tovorǒ 'I shall go everywhere,' doco ni mo 'everywhere,' doco cara mo 'from everywhere.' However, if, instead of mo, nari tomo is added the meaning becomes 'any place,' in a distributive sense; e.g., doco ie nari tomo mairǒ 'I shall go to each place individually.' The same meaning is obtained by doco zo with the case particles placed between the doco and the zo; e.g., doco ni zo aru fodo ni 'if someone is any place.' Coco caxico means 'here and there.' Doco mo caxico mo means 'the whole place.' The case particles are placed before mo; e.g., doco ni mo caxico ni mo 'in the whole place,' but after the adverb; e.g., coco caxico ni 'here and there,' coco caxico ie doco, caxico iori [coco caxico ie 'to here and there,' coco caxico iori 'from here and there'], etc.[143]

The particle uie means 'above.' The genitive case is placed before it; e.g., fandai no uie ni voqe 'place it on the table,' cono uie va gozaru mai 'it will not be above this,' that is to say 'it will not be better than this,' sono uie ni 'about that,' sono uie no sata vo catari are 'tell me about that,' core va izzure iori mo uie de gozaru 'one will not discover anything better than his,' that is to say 'this is the best.' Xita means 'below.' It governs the genitive; e.g., fandai no xita ni voqe 'place it under the table,' micotoba no xita iori (141v) 'when the king finishes speaking,' voxita vo cudasarei (141v) 'would your Lordship be so kind as to give to me that which remains of your drink.'

The particle soba means 'side' and governs the genitive; e.g., fito no soba vo fanaruru 'he separates himself from the side of another.'

The particle maie means 'before' and governs the genitive; e.g., fito no maie vo tovoru 'I pass in front of someone else,' cacugo no maie {158} (141v) 'according to ones disposition,' funbet no maie (141v) 'as I believe, or think, or according to the sense (iuxta sensum).'

The particle mavari means 'around' and governs the genitive; e.g., iglesia no mavari ni tuchi vo nague suturu na 'do not put earth around the church.'

The particle uchi means 'within,' and the noun which precedes it must be in the genitive; e.g., iglesia no uchi 'in the church,' ano fito va, fito no uchi de va nai 'that man is not among men,' that is (51 to say 'he is not a man,' futacuchi cta coto va, cta uchi de va nai (142v)[144] 'to eat two mouthfuls is not to eat.'

The particle foca means 'outside,' and the genitive is placed before it; e.g., igelsia no foca ni 'outside the church,' foca ie iqe 'go out, or go outside.' Sometimes the genitive particle is replaced by iori; e.g., Deus vonago ichinin iori foca tucuri tamavanu (142v)[145] 'God did not create but one woman,' that is to say 'he created just one,' Tengu fito ni acu vo susumuru iori foca va, nai (142v) 'the Devil does nothing if he is not persuaded by man to sin,' goxǒ vo tasucaru tame baptismo vo sazzucaru iori foca bechi no michi ga nai 'there is no other way to save men than by baptism,' that is to say 'without baptism we cannot be saved.' Deus no gracia iori foca 'without the grace of God.'

The particle naca means 'in the middle.' It is used when the material is either dense or defuse; e.g., qi no naca ni 'in the wood,' fito no naca ni 'among the men.'

The particle nacaba means 'in the midst of things' when referring to a sequence. It follows the genitive; e.g., dangui no nacaba ni 'in the midst of the sermon,' sore vo qijte, nacaba va vosore; nacaba va aqirete ita (145v) 'hearing that, he feared and was afraid,' that is to say 'he spent most of his time being afraid.'

The particle ato means 'behind' and governs the genitive; e.g., sonata no ato cara mairǒ 'I shall come after you' that is to say 'I shall follow you.'

The particle vaqi means 'near' and governs the genitive; e.g., Pedro no vaqi 'near Peter,' misa no vaqi 'the mass is ended,' cono vaqi 'in the last few days.' All of these adverbs require after them the cases that are required by the verb which follows.


Adverbs of Interrogation and Response[146]

There are many ways to ask 'why?' or 'for what reason[?]'; e.g., najeni[?], najoni[?], nani xini?, nani tote ca?, nani no iuie ni?, nanto xita coto ni?, nani no xisai ni iotte?. The question 'how?' is said; nanto xite?, nanto iǒ ni[?], icani to xite? The answer is 'because' or 'for the reason that'; e.g., sono iuie va, najeni to ini. 'Because' is also said; tocoro de, fodo ni, ni iotte, or sacai ni. The first expresses (52 the greatest degree of causality, the second not so much, and the third the least.

Uie va means 'since (cum or si quidem)'; e.g., toganai uie va qizzucai ga nai (40v)[147] 'I am not afraid because I have no fault.' The same meaning is achieved by the particle cara; e.g., caiǒ ni iro vo misuru cara va; cacusu coto va iranu 'since you have thus shown your feelings (iro), you can't hide them.' 'Since (si quidem)' means approximately the same as toqi va and xicaru toqi va. Sari nagara means 'but,' sari tote va means 'until,' saru tote va means 'since the thing is this way,' saru tote va, qicoienu coto gia 'since it is so, it is unbearable.'

Adverbs of Time[148]

One asks 'when' with itu or itugoro. One asks 'from what day' with icca saqi or icca maie, 'from what month' with icutuqi saqi, and 'from what year' with nannen maie. Usually ni is added when it is required by the verb, and the interrogatives ca or zo are always put at the end of the sentence, with zo preferred.

One answers 'now' with ima or tada ima, and 'already' with , e.g., mǒ iqe 'be already gone!' 'Sometimes' is said with toqi ni iotte or jibun ni iotte. 'Afterwards' is nochi. Sore cara or sore iori means 'after that,' core cara or core iori means 'after this,' and are iori or are cara means 'after that.' 'Immediately' is said with iagate. 'Afterwards' or 'again' is ima iori nochi, ima iori xite va, or ima iori igo. 'This morning' is said with qesa. Connichi or qio [qi] is 'today,' and asu or minichi [minichi][149] is 'tomorrow.' 'Tomorrow morning' is asa, axitat, or {160} asatocu, and 'tomorrow night' is mionia [miǒia]. 'Before' is ijen or saqi ni. 'Yesterday' is qin or sacujit. 'The day before yesterday' is vototoi or futuca saqi ni. 'Several days in the past' is cono giǔ. Cono fodo and xenjit have the same meaning, as does xendo. Condo means 'several days in the future.' 'The day after tomorrow' is asatte or migonichi. 'Three days hence' is xiasatte or mimigonichi. Qinen [Qionen] or cozo means 'last year.' 'This year' is cotoxi. 'Two years ago' is vototoxi or votodoxi. 'Three years ago' is sanuruvotodoxi [sannuru votodoxi].[150] 'Immediately' is tachimaqi [tachimachi] (53 or socuij ni [socuji ni]. Sunavachi is also 'immediately.' Tanteqi is 'in a moment.'

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