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Cooking and Dining in Imperial Rome
by Apicius
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V. NIGRUM, "black wine," may be muddy wine in need of clarification; there is some slight doubt about this point. It appears that the vintner of old was much more tempted to foist unworthy stuff upon his customers than his colleague of today who is very much restricted by law and guided by his reputation

VINUM also is any drink or liquor resembling grape wine, any home-made wine fermented or fresh. There is a V. EX NAPIS, —— PALMEUM, —— EX CAROTIS, —— EX MILII SEMINE, —— EX LOTO, —— EX FICO, —— EX PUNCICIS, —— EX CORNIS, —— EX MESPILIS, —— EX SORBIS, —— EX MORIS, —— EX NUCLEIS PINEIS, —— EX PIRIS, —— EX MALIS, (cf. Pliny), resembling our cider, perry, berry wines and other drink or liquor made of fruit, berries, vegetables or seeds

VIOLATIUM and ROSATIUM, {Rx} 5, are laxatives; —— ORIGANUM is wine flavored with origany; etc., etc.

It is doubtful, however, that the Romans knew the art of distillation to the extent as perfected by the Arabs centuries later and brought to higher perfection by the medical men and alchymists of the middle ages

Violet Wine, {Rx} 5

Virility, supposed stimulants for, {Rx} 307, 410

VITELLINA, VITULINA, calf, veal, {Rx} 351-4

Vitellius, emperor, p. 11, {Rx} 189, 193, 317

VITELLUS OVI, yolk of egg; also very young calf. "Calf's sweetbreads"—Danneil

Vollmer, F., editor, commentator, Apiciana No. 21, 23, 27, pp. 13, 18, 19, 273

Vossius, G. J., philologist, on Coelius, p. 266

VULVA, sow's matrix, womb; —ULA, small v., {Rx} 59, 251-54, 256. Was considered a delicacy. Pliny, Martial and Plutarch wrote at length on the subject. The humane Plutarch tells of revolting detail in connection with the slaughter of swine in order to obtain just the kind of V. that was considered the best

Cf. Pliny, Hist. Nat., VIII, 51; XI, 37, 84, 54; Plutarch's essay on flesh eating, Martial, Ep. XII, 56 and VII, 19

W

WEIGHTS. LIBRAE, scale, balance. LIBRA—pound—lb—12 ounces, equivalent to one AS UNCIA, an ounce, properly the twelfth part of any unit, also any small bit SCRIPULUM, or SCRU—, 1 scruple, 288 to 1 lb. SELIBRA for SEMILIBRA, half a pound Theban ounce, cf. {Rx} 3

Weighing fluids, {Rx} 471

Welsh rabbit, see ZANZERELLA

Whiting, {Rx} 419

Wild Boar, {Rx} 329, seq., 338; —— sheep, {Rx} 348; —— goat, {Rx} 346, seq.

Wilson, Dr. Margaret B., collector, cf. Preface, p. 37; cf. Apiciana I, pp. 254, 257; cf. Garum

Wine, fine spiced, {Rx} 1; Rose, {Rx} 4; —— without roses, {Rx} 6; —— Violet, {Rx} 5; —— To clarify muddy, {Rx} 8; —— New—boiled down, DEFRITUM, {Rx} 21; —— sauce for truffles, {Rx} 33; —— Palm, {Rx} 35; —— of Carica figs, {Rx} 55; —— sauce for fig-fed pork, {Rx} 259, 260; —— fish, {Rx} 479; cf. VINUM

Wine pitcher, illustration, p. 208; —— press, illustration, p. 92; —— storage room in Pompeii, illustration, p. 124; —— Dipper, p. 3; —— Crater, p. 140

Wolf, Rebekka, writer, {Rx} 205, seq.

Woodcock, {Rx} 218, seq.

Wood-pigeon, {Rx} 218, seq.

Wooley, Mrs. Hannah, writer, {Rx} 52

Writers, ancient, on food, pp. 3, 4

Y

YEAST, {Rx} 16

Young cabbage, p. 188, {Rx} 87

Z

ZAMPINO, {Rx} 338

ZANZERELLA, a "Welsh rabbit." "CIBARIUM QUOD VULGO ZANZERELLAS UOCANT"—Platina

ZEMA, ZU—, ZY—, a cook pot for general use

ZINZIGER, GINGIBER, ginger; the latter is the better spelling

ZOMORE, ZOMOTEGANON, ZOMORE GANONA, ZOMOTEGANITE—a dish of fish boiled in their own liquor, resembling the modern bouillabaisse, {Rx} 153. The GANON, —A, —ITE, is the name of an unidentified fish, the supposed principal ingredient of this fish stew. Cf. Oenoteganon

[End of Index and Vocabulary]

[INDICIS FINIS]



ADDENDA

Description of Commentaries

APICIANA NOS. 30-31, A.D., 1935-36

J. SVENNUNG: UNTERSUCHUNGEN ZU PALLADIUS UND ZUR LATEINISCHEN FACH- UND VOLKSSPRACHE.

"Skrifter utgivna med understoed av Vilhelm Ekmans universitets-fond, Uppsala," tom. 44, (Uppsala, 1935)

and

DE LOCIS NON NULLIS APICIANIS SCRIPSIT J. SVENNUNG.

(Saertryck ur Eranos vol. XXXIV) Gotoburgi 1936. Typis descr. Elanders Boktr. A.-B.

[Through the good offices of Dr. Edwardt Brandt, of Munich, the above two commentaries on Apicius were received in the last moment, thanks to the courtesy of the author, Lekto J. Svennung, of Uppsala, Sweden. The first study is a critique of technical terms and colloquialisms as found in Palladius, touching frequently upon Apicius, published in 1935 at Uppsala by the Vilhelm Ekman University Foundation and the other is a reprint of an article on a number of Apician formulae from Eranos, Vol. XXXIV, published at Gothenburg, 1936, by Elander, Ltd.

J. D. V., Chicago, November 30th, 1936.]

{Illustration: (Squib on the margin of an ancient manuscript in the Monastery of St. Gallen, Switzerland)}

{Transcription:

LIBRO COMPLETO... SALTAT SCRIPTOR PEDE LAETO......}



Transcriber's Note

Minor punctuation errors have been repaired. Amendments have been made only where there was a clear error, where there was a definite inconsistency within the text, or where it was impossible to find a reliable source of the original spelling, as follows:

Page vii—FRONTISPIECE amended to FRONTISPICE—"13 FRONTISPICE, Lister Edition ..."

Page 5—predeliction amended to predilection—"... nor did he indulge in that predilection for ugly detail ..."

Page 9—Minturae amended to Minturnae—"... living chiefly at Minturnae, a city of Campania, ..."

Page 11—departmentized amended to departmentalized—"... were departmentalized to an astonishing degree ..."

Page 11—indispensible amended to indispensable—"These indispensable books are simply wanting in our book ..."

Page 15—Pommerania amended to Pomerania—"... Sweden, Holstein, Denmark, Friesland, Pomerania still observes Apicius rules ..."

Page 20—fallability amended to fallibility—"... how each new copy by virtue of human fallibility or self-sufficiency ..."

Page 22—salt amended to salted—"The fish, intestines and all, was spiced, pounded, fermented, salted, strained and bottled ..."

Page 23—an amended to a—"May it be a sturdy one, and let its owner beware."

Page 24—prodiguous amended to prodigious—"His culinary procedures required a prodigious amount of labor ..."

Page 26—insiduousness amended to insidiousness—"Even the most ascetic of men cannot resist the insidiousness of spicy delights ..."

Page 27—appeite amended to appetite—"... having our appetite aroused at the very perusal ..."

Page 28—devine amended to divine—"... the experienced practitioner will be able to divine correct proportions, ..."

Page 32—compote amended to compote—"... oyster cocktail, poultry and compote, goose with apple ..."

Page 36—mummyfied amended to mummified—"... that Apicius is not a mummified, bone-dry classic ..."

Page 58—EPIMLES amended to EPIMELES—"EXPLICIT APICII EPIMELES LIBER PRIMUS"

Page 64—feasable amended to feasible—"... such as we here suggest would be entirely feasible ..."

Page 70—CIRELLOS amended to CIRCELLOS—"[65] ROUND SAUSAGE CIRCELLOS ISICIATOS"

Page 77—popularily amended to popularly—"... chestnuts and potatoes, popularly known as "Chinese potatoes" ..."

Page 89—acccordance amended to accordance—"... Procedure quite in accordance with modern practice."

Page 89—omitted [1] added to beginning of note in recipe 121.

Page 89—114 amended to 115 (twice)—"... (Cf. {Rx} No. 115) ..." and "... Spondyli uel fonduli ({Rx} Nos. 115-121) does belong to Book II ..."

Page 96—Carthusians amended to Carthusian—"... those delightful creations by the Carthusian monks ..."

Page 102—act amended to fact—"... a fashion which, as a matter of fact still survives in the Orient, ..."

Page 110—glace amended to glace—"... the {oe}nogarum taking the place of our meat glace."

Page 110—vexacious amended to vexatious—"Another interpretation of this vexatious formula ..."

Page 116—indispensible amended to indispensable—"... both of which are indispensable to modern cookery."

Page 117—166 amended to 165—"* Cf. {Rx} No. 165."

Page 122—illustrations amended to illustration—"This is a good illustration of and speaks well for ..."

Page 129—forcements amended to forcemeats—"... any fine forcemeats, cut into or cooked in tiny dumplings."

Page 150—Dan. amended to Dann.—"Dann. takes this literally, but navo (navus) here ..."

Page 151—omitted [1] added to beginning of note in recipe 243.

Page 154—APERATURE amended to APERTURE—"... EMPTY IT THROUGH THE APERTURE OF THE NECK ..."

Page 162—TID BITS amended to TID-BITS—"TID-BITS, CHOPS, CUTLETS"

Page 164—Worchestershire amended to Worcestershire—"... some of the commercial sauces made principally in England (Worcestershire, etc.), ..."

Page 166—Gell. amended to Goll.—"... Cupedia (Plaut. and Goll.), nice dainty dishes, ..."

Page 172—cates amended to cakes—"Dulcia, sweetmeats, cakes; ..."

Page 173—128 amended to 129 and 142 amended to 143—"... or else it is a nut custard, practically a repetition of {Rx} Nos. 129 and 143."

Page 180—SNAIL amended to SNAILS—"THE SNAILS ARE FRIED WITH PURE SALT AND OIL ..."

Page 191—galatine amended to galantine—"We would call this a galantine of lamb if such a dish ..."

Page 193—Dan. amended to Dann.—"Dann. thinks laureatus stands for the best, ..."

Page 193—it's amended to its—"... it is possible that the kid was cooked with its mother's own milk."

Page 198—councellor amended to counsellor—"Celsinus was counsellor for Aurelianus, the emperor."

Page 204—EXLIXUM amended to ELIXUM—"ALITER LEPOREM ELIXUM"

Page 213—15 amended to 14—"[3] Cf. No. 14 for the keeping of oysters."

Page 228—2 amended to 3—"[2] Cf. note 3 to {Rx} No. 448."

Page 228—preceeds amended to precedes—"... this formula precedes the above."

Page 231—act amended to fact—"... as a matter of fact, stands for pepper, ..."

Page 236—CARDAMON amended to CARDAMOM—"... INDIAN SPIKENARD, ADDENA [3], CARDAMOM, SPIKENARD."

Page 236—FENNELL amended to FENNEL—"... CELERY SEED, FENNEL SEED, LOVAGE SEED, ..."

Page 253—XVII amended to XVIII—"Munich, XVIII"

Page 255—Cesna amended to Cesena—"Cesena, bibl. municip., 14th century."

Page 255—phases amended to phrases—"... and failed to understand some phrases of it."

Page 258—Pennel amended to Pennell—"The Pennell collection was destroyed by a flood in London ..."

Page 258 Epimelels amended to Epimeles "... GRAECA AB APITIO POSITA HAEC SUNT EPIMELES, ..."

Page 277—Southerwood amended to Southernwood—"ABROTANUM, ... or, according to most Southernwood."

Page 277—Attich amended to Attic—"... a small measure, equivalent to 15 Attic drachms"

Page 278—fewerfew amended to feverfew—"AMACARUS, sweet-marjoram, feverfew"

Page 279—Baracuda amended to Barracuda—"Barracuda, a fish, {Rx} 158"

Page 279—COLOSASIUM amended to COLOCASIUM—"Beans ... —— "Egyptian," see COLOCASIUM"

Page 279—orrage amended to orage—"... the arrack or orage, also spinach, according to ..."

Page 279—omitted {Rx} added—"BUBULA, Beef, flesh of oxen, p. 30, {Rx} 351, 352"

Page 280—forno amended to Forno—"... with our illustrations of the Casa di Forno of Pompeii ..."

Page 280—Caviar amended to Caviare—"Caviare, see STYRIO"

Page 282—mussle amended to mussel—"... any hollow vessel resembling a mussel shell ..."

Page 283—maitre amended to maitre—"... to the PRINCEPS COQUORUM, the "maitre d'hotel" of the establishment ..."

Page 284—tumeric amended to turmeric—"CURCUMA ZEODARIA, turmeric"

Page 284—Destillation amended to Distillation and entry moved to proper place in the Index—"Distillation, see Vinum"

Page 286—illustratios amended to illustrations—"... on which the CRATICULA stood. Cf. illustrations, p. 182"

Page 287—Passianus amended to Passenianus—"Hare, ... —— smoked Passenianus, {Rx} 389 ..."

Page 289—destillate amended to distillate—"... the juice or distillate of the herb by that name, ..."

Page 289—LIQORIBUS amended to LIQUORIBUS—"LIQUORIBUS, DE, p. 370"

Page 290—indispensible amended to indispensable—"... grown in Italy at his time, that are so indispensable ..."

Page 290—dog-brier amended to dog-briar—"... namely the hip, dog-briar, or eglantine is made into dainty confections ..."

Page 292—omitted page number added to entry for oval pan—"Oval pan, illustration, p. 159"

Page 294—forcement amended to forcemeat—"Pork ... —— forcemeat, {Rx} 366"

Page 296—destillate amended to distillate—"... distillate from the joints of the bamboo or sugar cane, ..."

Page 297—SESESIL amended to SESELIS—"SESELIS, SEL, SIL, hartwort, kind of cumin"

Page 297—SISYMBRUM amended to SISYMBRIUM—"SISYMBRIUM, water cress"—and entry moved from following entry for SITULA to preceding it.

Page 297—Sternajola amended to Sternajolo—"Sternajolo, writer, Apiciana, No. 28, p. 273"

Page 299—omitted p. added—"Title pages, Venice, 1503, p. 262; ..."

Page 300—Rebecca amended to Rebekka—"Wolf, Rebekka, writer, {Rx} 205, seq."

Page 300—Wooley amended to Wolley, and entry moved to correct place in index—"Wolley, Mrs. Hannah, writer, {Rx} 52"

The following have also been noted:

The author has consistently used minuscle rather than minuscule when referring to manuscript. Since it appears deliberate, it has been preserved as printed.

Page 9 has a word obscured—"one of three known famous —— bearing that name". Another source of the text has the word as 'eaters', so the same has been used here.

Page 23 has a reference to a "modern" sauce, A I. There were no obvious references to be found for a sauce of that name, so it may be a typo for A1 sauce, which was available at the time of writing. As there is no way to be certain, however, it has been preserved as printed.

Page 49—note to recipe 13 reads, "Exactly as we today with fried herring and river lamprey". It is possible that it should read "as we do today", but has been left as printed.

Page 151—recipe 241 has a note 1, but no marker in the text.

Page 166—recipe 275 has a marker for note 1, but no note with that number.

Page 172—Note 1 to recipe 294 reads "making it convenient and unprofitable for the domestic cook"—this should probably be read as "inconvenient and unprofitable", but it has been left as printed.

Page 175—recipe 305 has a marker for note 2, but no note with that number.

Page 189—recipe 351 has a marker for note 2, but no note with that number.

Page 211—recipe 405a has a marker for note 2, but no note with that number.

Page 226—there is no title for recipe 445.

Page 230—there is no Latin translation provided for the heading "EEL".

Page 243—recipe 481 is titled "FISH STEWED IN WINE", but does not mention wine anywhere in the recipe itself.

Page 284—contained incorrectly placed index entries for CLIBANUS, CNICOS and CNISSA (following COXA). These have been moved to the correct place.

Page 291—the index entry for Morsels also seems to have had the recipe references (309, seq.) for Morels included; this has been preserved as printed.

Page 291—contained incorrectly placed index entry for Mullet (following MUSTUM). This has been moved to the correct place.

Page 292—in the subentry for OLUS (OLUS AND CAULUS), there is an {Rx} but no number.

THE END

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