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Cooking and Dining in Imperial Rome
by Apicius
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[3] Not identified.

OF SEEDS [to be on hand] DE SEMINIBUS HOC

POPPY SEED, RUE SEED, RUE BERRIES, LAUREL BERRIES, ANISE SEED, CELERY SEED, FENNEL SEED, LOVAGE SEED, ROCKET SEED, CORIANDER SEED, CUMIN, DILL, PARSLEY SEED, CARRAWAY SEED, SESAM.

OF DRIED [herbs, etc., to be on hand] DE SICCIS HOC

LASER ROOT, MINT, CATNIP, SAGE, CYPRESS, ORIGANY, JUNIPER, SHALLOTS, BACAS TIMMI [1], CORIANDER, SPANISH CAMOMILE, CITRON, PARSNIPS, ASCALONIAN SHALLOTS, BULL RUSH ROOTS, DILL, FLEABANE, CYPRIAN RUSH, GARLIC, LEGUMES [2], MARJORAM [3], INNULA [4] SILPHIUM, CARDAMOM.

[1] Not identified. Perhaps the seed of thyme, though the word bacas would be out of place there.

[2] Ospera, i.e., Osperios.

[3] Samsucu, i.e., sampsuchum Elderberries?

[4] Not identified; perhaps laurus innubus, dried virgin laurel leaves.

OF LIQUIDS [to be on hand] DE LIQUORIBUS HOC

HONEY, REDUCED MUST, REDUCED WINE, APIPERIU [1] RAISIN WINE.

[1] Not identified. We take it to be honey mead, or some other honey preparation, maybe, piperatum, pepper sauce.

OF NUTS [to be on hand] DE NUCLEIS HOC

LARGER NUTS, PINE NUTS, ALMONDS [1] HAZELNUTS [filberts] [2].

[1] Acmidula, i.e., amygdala.

[2] Aballanaabellanaabellinaeavellana; Fr. avelline.

OF DRIED FRUITS [to be on hand] DE POMIS SICCIS HOC

DAMASCUS PRUNES, DATES, RAISINS, POMEGRANATES.

ALL OF THESE THINGS STORE IN A DRY PLACE SO THAT THEY MAY LOSE NEITHER FLAVOR NOR [other] VIRTUES.

SUMMARY OF DISHES [1] BREUIS CYBORV [1]

I. CASSEROLE OF VEGETABLES AND CHICKEN CACCABINA MINORE II. STUFFED CHARTREUSE CACCABINA FUSILE III. BRAISED CUTLETS OFELLAS GARATAS IV. ROAST MEAT BALLS OFELLAS ASSAS V. GLAZED CUTLETS ALITER OFELLAS VI. MEAT BALLS WITH LASER OFELLAS GRATON VII. SEA SCORPION WITH TURNIPS PISCES SCORPIONES RAPULATAS VIII. ANY KIND OF FISH, FRIED PISCES FRIXOS CUIUSCUMQUE GENERIS IX. FRIED FISH ITEM PISCES FRIXOS X. ROAST [Grilled] FISH PISCES ASSOS XI. FRIED FISH AND WINE SAUCE PISCES INOTOGONON XII. SARDINES, BABY TUNNY, WHITING SARDAS XIII. FISH STEWED IN WINE ITEM PISCES INOTOGONON XIV. STEWED MULLET WITH DILL MULLOS ANETATOS XV. MULLET, DIFFERENT STYLE ALITER MULLOS XVI. MURENA AND EEL MURENAS ET ANGUILLAS XVII. SPINY LOBSTER AND SQUILL LUCUSTAS ET ISQUILLAS XVIII. BOILED FISH PISCES ELIXOS XIX. A DISH OF SOLE AND EGGS PATINAS OBORUM XX. SUCKLING PIG, CORIANDER SAUCE PORCELLO CORIANDRATU XXI. SUCKLING PIG, WINE SAUCE PORCELLO IN OCCUCTU XXII. PORK, PAN GRAVY PORCELLO EO IURE XXIII. PORK SPRINKLED WITH THYME PORCELLO TYMMO CRAPSU XXIV. PICKLED PORK PORCELLU EXOZOME XXV. LASER [sauce for] PORK PORCELLU LASARATU XXVI. SAUCE FOR PORK PORCELLU IUSCELLU XXVII. PLAIN LAMB AGNU SIMPLICE XXVIII. KID AND LASER HEDU LASARATU XXIX. THRUSH, HEALTH STYLE TURDOS APONTOMENUS XXX. TURTLEDOVES TURTURES XXXI. SAUCE FOR PARTRIDGE IUS IN PERDICES

[1] Brevis cyboru could be nicely and appropriately rendered with "Menu,"—something minute, short,—but this list is not a menu in our modern sense. It is an enumeration of recipe names, a summary of dishes contained in the excerpts.

There is considerable variation in the spelling of the names here and in the following. Syllables ending with "u" are invariably abbreviations of "um."



I

[468] A CASSEROLE [1] OF VEGETABLE AND CHICKEN CACCABINAM MINOREM

ARRANGE DIFFERENT KINDS OF COOKED VEGETABLES IN A CASSEROLE WITH [cooked] CHICKEN INTERSPERSED, IF YOU LIKE; SEASON WITH BROTH AND OIL, SET TO BOIL. NEXT CRUSH A LITTLE PEPPER AND LEAVES, AND MIX AN EGG IN WITH THE DRESSING [add this to the vegetables] PRESS [into the casserole, eliminating the juice] [2].

[1] The dish resembles a chartreuse.

[2] Juice should be extracted before the addition of the egg, if the dish is to be unmoulded.



Ia

[469] THE SAME, WITH ANOTHER DRESSING, A CABBAGE CHARTREUSE ALIAS: TRITURA UNDE PERFUNDES CACCABINAM

CRUSH WHATEVER QUANTITY OF LEAVES IS REQUIRED WITH CHERVIL AND ONE AND A QUARTER PART OF LAUREL BERRIES, A MEDIUM-SIZED BOILED CABBAGE, CORIANDER LEAVES, DISSOLVE WITH ITS OWN JUICE, STEAM IN THE HOT ASHES, BUT FIRST PLACE IN A MOULD [when stiff unmould on a platter] DECORATE, POUR UNDER A WELL-SEASONED SAUCE, AND SO SERVE [1].

[1] Either the vegetables and chicken of {Rx} No. 468 are combined with this dressing or a puree of the above cabbage, etc., is made, which will make this an integral dish. The instructions are vague enough to leave room for this choice; but there can be no doubt but what we have here a formula for a vegetable puree or a pudding, a genuine "Chartreuse," such as were prepared in the fancy moulds so popular in old Rome. The "Chartreuse," then, is not original with the vegetarian monks of the monastery by that name, the Carthusians.



II

[470] A STUFFED CHARTREUSE CACCABINAM [1] FUSILEM

[Take cooked] MALLOWS, LEEKS, BEETS, OR COOKED CABBAGE SPROUTS [shoots or tender strunks] THRUSHES [roast] AND QUENELLES OF CHICKEN, TIDBITS OF PORK OR SQUAB CHICKEN AND OTHER SIMILAR SHREDS OF FINE MEATS THAT MAY BE AVAILABLE; ARRANGE EVERYTHING ALTERNATELY IN LAYERS [in a mould or in a casserole]. CRUSH PEPPER AND LOVAGE WITH 2 PARTS OF OLD WINE, 1 PART BROTH, 1 PART HONEY AND A LITTLE OIL. TASTE IT; AND WHEN WELL MIXED AND IN DUE PROPORTIONS PUT IN A SAUCE PAN AND ALLOW TO HEAT MODERATELY; WHEN BOILING ADD A PINT OF MILK IN WHICH [about eight] EGGS HAVE BEEN DISSOLVED; [next] POUR [this spiced custard] OVER [the layers of vegetables and meats, heat slowly without allowing to boil] AND WHEN CONGEALED SERVE [either in the casserole, or carefully unmould the dish on a service platter] [2].

[1] It is interesting to note how the generic terms, salacaccabia and caccabina have degenerated here. In these formulas the terms have lost all resemblance to the former meaning, the original "salt meat boiled in a pot." Such changes are very often observed in the terminology of our modern kitchens, in every language. They make the definition of terms and the classification of subjects extremely difficult. They add much to the confusion among cooks and guests in public dining places and create misunderstandings that only an expert can explain.

[2] This dish affords an opportunity for a decorative scheme by the arrangement of the various vegetables and meats in a pleasing and artistic manner, utilizing the various colors and shapes of the bits of food as one would use pieces of stone in a mosaic. Of course, such a design can be appreciated only if the chartreuse is served unmoulded, i.e. if the cook succeeds in unmoulding it without damaging the structure.



III

[471] BRAISED CUTLETS OFELLAS GARATAS [1]

PLACE THE MEAT IN A STEW PAN, ADD ONE POUND [2] OF BROTH, A LIKE QUANTITY OF OIL, A TRIFLE OF HONEY, AND THUS BRAISE [3].

[1] Derived from garum or {oe}nogarum, the wine sauce. These are supposed to be meat balls or cutlets prepared with garum, but the garum is not mentioned in the formula. This also illustrates the interesting etymology of the word. It is not recognized in every-day ancient language because it is a typical technical term, the much complained-of lingua culinaria. We find, therefore, that—at least in this instance—garum no longer stands for a sauce made from the fish, garus, but that garum has become a generic term for certain kinds of sauces. Danneil renders garatus with lasaratus, which is clearly out of place.

[2] In this instance, and in several others, and also according to Sueton. Caes. fluids were weighed. What idea could be more practical, useful and more "modern" than this? Sheer commercial greed, stubbornness, indolence have thus far made futile all efforts towards more progressive methods in handling food stuffs, particularly in the weighing of them and in selling them by their weight. Present market methods are very chaotic, and are kept purposely so to the detriment of the buyer.

[3] The original: et sic frigis.—Frigo is equivalent to frying, drying, parching; the word here has taken on a broader meaning, because the "frying" process is clearly out of question here. It appears that the terminology of frigo and that of asso in the next formula, has not been clearly defined. As a matter of fact, not many modern cooks today are able to give a clear definition of such terms as frying, broiling, roasting, braising, baking, which are thus subject to various interpretations.



IV

[472] ROAST MEAT BALLS OFELLAS ASSAS

MEATBALLS [previously saute], CAREFULLY PREPARED, ARRANGE IN A SHALLOW STEW PAN AND BRAISE THEM IN WINE SAUCE; AFTERWARDS SERVE THEM IN THE SAME SAUCE OR GRAVY, SPRINKLED WITH PEPPER.



V

[473] GLAZED CUTLETS ALITER OFELLAS

THE MEAT PIECES ARE BRAISED [1] IN BROTH AND ARE GLAZED [2] WITH HOT HONEY [3] AND THUS SERVED.

[1] Cf. note 3 to Excerpta III.

[2] unguantur.

[3] Dann. oil; G.-V. mellehoney. It is quite common to use honey for glazing foods. Today we sprinkle meats (ham) with sugar, exposing it to the open heat to melt it; the sugar thus forms a glaze or crust.



VI

[474] MEAT BALLS WITH LASER OFELLAS GARATAS [1]

LASER, GINGER, CARDAMOM, AND A DASH OF BROTH; CRUSH THIS ALL, MIX WELL, AND COOK THE MEAT BALL THEREIN [2].

[1] Cf. Summary of Dishes, and note 1 to Excerpta III.

[2] Dann. adds cumin, due perhaps to the faulty reading of the sentence, misces cum his omnibus tritis, etc.



VII

[475] SEA-SCORPION WITH TURNIPS PISCES SCORPIONES RAPULATOS [1]

COOK [the fish] IN BROTH AND OIL, RETIRE WHEN HALF DONE: SOAK BOILED TURNIPS, CHOP VERY FINE AND SQUEEZE THEM IN YOUR HANDS SO THAT THEY HAVE NO MORE MOISTURE IN THEM; THEN COMBINE THEM WITH THE FISH AND LET THEM SIMMER WITH PLENTY OF OIL: AND WHILE THIS COOKS, CRUSH CUMIN, HALF OF THAT AMOUNT OF LAUREL BERRIES, AND, BECAUSE OF THE COLOR, ADD SAFFRON; BIND WITH RICE FLOUR TO GIVE IT THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY. ADD A DASH OF VINEGAR AND SERVE.

[1] rapa, rapum: white turnip, rape; "turniped."



VIII

[476] [Sauce for] ANY KIND OF FISH, FRIED MAKE THUS: PISCES FRIXOS CUIUSCUMQUE GENERIS

CRUSH PEPPER, CORIANDER SEED, LASER ROOT, ORIGANY, RUE, FIGDATES, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, OIL, BROTH, ADDING REDUCED MUST, ALL THIS PREPARE AND MIX CAREFULLY, PLACE IN SMALL CASSEROLE TO HEAT. WHEN THOROUGHLY HEATED, POUR OVER THE FRIED FISH, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.



IX

[477] [Sauce for] SAME FRIED FISH MAKE THUS: ITEM PISCES FRIXOS

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE [1], LAUREL BERRIES, CORIANDER, AND MOISTEN WITH HONEY, BROTH [2], WINE, RAISIN WINE, OR REDUCED SPICED WINE; COOK THIS ON A SLOW FIRE, BIND WITH RICE FLOUR AND SERVE.

[1] Sch. ligisticum.

[2] Wanting in Sch.



X

[478] [Sauce for] ROAST FISH [1] PISCES ASSOS

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, SATURY, DRY ONIONS, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD FIGDATES, DILL, YOLKS OF EGG, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL, REDUCED MUST; ALL THIS MIX THOROUGHLY AND UNDERLAY [the fish with it].

[1] The fish was probably broiled on the craticula (see our illustration).

The nature of this sauce is not quite clear. If properly handled, it might turn out to be a highly seasoned mayonnaise, or a vinaigrette, depending on the mode of manipulation; either would be suitable for fried or broiled fish.



XI

[479] FISH AND WINE SAUCE PISCES {OE}NOTEGANON [1]

FRY THE FISH; CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, RUE, GREEN HERBS, DRY ONIONS, ADD OIL [wine] BROTH AND SERVE.

[1] Ihm and G.-V. {oe}noteganon; inotogono and in the Summary of Dishes inotogonon; Sch. eleogaro. Rather an obscure term, owing to the diversity of spelling. We would call it a dish stewed in or prepared with wine, although wine is absent in the present formula. However, it is given in XIII, which bears the same name.

Dann. is obviously mistaken in styling this preparation "oil broth."



XII

[480] [Cold Sauce for] SARDINES MAKE THUS: SARDAS [1] SIC FACIES

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE SEED, ORIGANY, DRY ONIONS, HARD BOILED YOLKS, VINEGAR, OIL; THIS MUST BE COMBINED INTO ONE [2] AND UNDERLAID.

[1] A kind of small tunny, which, like our herring, used to be pickled or salt, corresponding to the anchovy. A "sardine," from the island of Sardinia; Sardus, the inhabitant of Sardinia.

[2] The absence of detailed instructions as to the manipulation of the yolks, oil and vinegar is regrettable; upon them depends the certainty or uncertainty of whether the ancients had our modern mayonnaise.



XIII

[481] FISH STEWED IN WINE PISCES {OE}NOTEGANON [1]

RAW FISH ANY KIND YOU PREFER, WASH [prepare, cut into handy size] ARRANGE IN A SAUCE PAN; ADD OIL, BROTH, VINEGAR, A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND [fresh] CORIANDER, AND COOK: [Meanwhile] CRUSH PEPPER, ORIGANY, LOVAGE WITH THE BUNCHES OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER WHICH YOU HAVE COOKED [with the fish] AND POUR [this preparation] INTO THE SAUCE PAN. [When the fish is done, retire it and arrange the pieces in the serving dish, casserole, bowl or platter] BRING THE RESIDUE IN THE SAUCE PAN TO A BOILING POINT, ALLOW IT TO REDUCE SLOWLY TO THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY [Strain the sauce of the fish] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] Cf. note to XI. This {oe}noteganon resembles the Bouillabaisse, the famous Marseilles fish chowder. In addition to the above manner it is flavored with saffron. An excellent dish, especially with the judicious addition of onions, parsley, a suspicion of garlic and small sippets of toasted bread.



XIV

[482] MULLET STEWED WITH DILL MAKE THUS: MULLOS ANETHATOS [1] SIC FACIES

PREPARE THE FISH [clean, wash, trim, cut into pieces] AND PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN, ADDING OIL, BROTH, WINE, BUNCHES OF LEEKS, [fresh] CORIANDER, [fresh dill]; PLACE ON FIRE TO COOK. [Meanwhile] PUT PEPPER IN THE MORTAR, POUND IT, ADD OIL, AND ONE PART OF VINEGAR AND RAISIN WINE TO TASTE. [This preparation] TRANSFER INTO A SAUCE PAN, PLACE ON THE FIRE TO HEAT, TIE WITH ROUX, ADD TO THE FISH IN THE SAUCE PAN. SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] From anethus—dill—which is omitted in formula. Sch. anecatos, i.e. submersos, because the original fails to state the dill in the formula. Such conjecture is not justified.



XV

[483] MULLET ANOTHER STYLE ALITER MULLOS

SCRAPE, WASH, PLACE [the fish] IN A SAUCE PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH, WINE AND A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND [fresh] CORIANDER TO THE MESS, SET ON THE FIRE TO COOK. CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH SOME OF THE FISH'S OWN LIQUOR [from the sauce pan] ADD RAISIN WINE TO TASTE, PUT IT INTO A POT AND ON THE FIRE TO HEAT; TIE WITH ROUX AND PRESENTLY ADD IT TO THE CONTENTS IN THE SAUCE PAN [1] SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER AND SERVE.

[1] It appears that the patina mentioned in this and in the foregoing formula is either a finely wrought metal sauce pan or chafing dish, or a plainer cumana, an earthenware casserole; either of which may be used for service at the table.

It may be noticed how this manner of preparing fish has a tendency to preserve all the savory flavors and juices of the fish, a process in this respect both rational and economical.



XVI

[484] MURENA [1], EEL [2] OR MULLET MAKE THUS: MURENAM AUT ANGUILLAS VEL MULLOS SIC FACIES

CLEAN THE FISH AND CAREFULLY PLACE IN A SAUCE PAN. IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, ORIGANY, MINT, DRY ONIONS, CRUSH, MOISTEN WITH A SMALL GLASS OF WINE, HALF OF THAT OF BROTH, AND OF HONEY ONE THIRD PART, AND A MODERATE AMOUNT OF REDUCED MUST, SAY A SPOONFUL. IT IS NECESSARY THAT THE FISH BE ENTIRELY COVERED BY THIS LIQUOR SO THAT THERE MAY BE SUFFICIENT JUICE DURING THE COOKING.

[1] The ancients considered the murena one of the finest of fish; the best were brought from the straits of Sicily. Rich Romans kept them alive in their fish ponds, often large and elaborate marble basins called, piscina, fattened the fish, kept it ready for use. Pollio fattened murenas on human flesh, killing a slave on the slightest provocation and throwing the body into the fish pond; he would eat only the liver of such murenas. This is the only case of such cruelty on record, and it has often been cited and exaggerated.

[2] Perhaps the sea-eel, or conger, according to Dann. Also very much esteemed. The witty Plautus names a cook in one of his comedies "Congrio," because the fellow was "slippery."



XVII

[485] [Dressing for] SPINY LOBSTER (AND SQUILL) LOCUSTAM (ET SCILLAM) [1]

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, POUR IN VINEGAR, BROTH, YOLKS OF [hard boiled] EGGS, MIX WELL TOGETHER [2] AND DRESS [the boiled shellfish meat with it] AND SERVE.

[1] Cf. Summary of Dishes.

[2] Another of Apicii hasty and laconic formulae. No indication as to how to use the ingredients named. According to our notion of eating, there is only one way: The shellfish is boiled in aromatic water, allowed to cool off; the meat is then taken out of the shells; the above named ingredients are combined in a manner of a mayonnaise or a vinaigrette, although the necessary oil is not mentioned here. The dressing is poured over the shellfish meat, and the result is a sort of salad or "cocktail" as we have today.



XVIII

[486] [Sauce] FOR BOILED FISH IN PISCIBUS ELIXIS

CRUSH PEPPER, LOVAGE, CELERY SEED, ORIGANY WHICH MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR; ADD PINE NUTS, FIGDATES [1] IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, MUSTARD, MIX AND COMBINE PROPERLY AND BRING FORTH.

[1] Dann. is undecided as to whether this is dates or date wine; Goll. thinks it is mustard seed, which is not so bad gastronomically; but the original leaves no room for any doubt.



XIX

[487] A DISH OF SOLE WITH EGGS PATINA SOLEARUM EX OVIS

SCALE [skin] CLEAN [the soles], PLACE IN A [shallow] SAUCE PAN, ADD BROTH, OIL [white] WINE, A BUNCH OF LEEKS AND CORIANDER SEED, PLACE ON FIRE TO COOK, GRIND A LITTLE PEPPER, ORIGANY, MOISTEN WITH THE FISH LIQUOR [from the sauce pan]. TAKE 10 RAW EGGS, BEAT THEM AND MIX WITH THE REMAINING LIQUOR; PUT IT ALL BACK OVER THE FISH, AND ON A SLOW FIRE ALLOW TO HEAT [without boiling] AND THICKEN TO THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY; SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER [1].

[1] Very similar to Sole au vin blanc. Cf. {Rx} No. 155.



XX

[488] SUCKLING PIG, CORIANDER SAUCE PORCELLUM CORIANDRATUM

ROAST THE PIG CAREFULLY; MAKE THUS A MORTAR MIXTURE: POUND PEPPER, DILL, ORIGANY, GREEN CORIANDER, MOISTEN WITH HONEY, WINE, BROTH, OIL, VINEGAR, REDUCED MUST. ALL OF THIS WHEN HOT POUR OVER [the roast] SPRINKLE RAISINS, PINE NUTS AND CHOPPED ONIONS OVER AND SO SERVE.



XXI

[489] SUCKLING PIG, WINE SAUCE PORCELLUM AENOCOCTUM [1]

TAKE THE PIG, GARNISH [with a marinade of herbs, etc.] COOK [roast] IT WITH OIL AND BROTH. WHEN DONE, PUT IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, RUE, LAUREL BERRIES, BROTH, RAISIN WINE OR REDUCED WINE, OLD WINE, CRUSH ALL, MIX AND PREPARE TO A POINT; DRESS THE PIG ON A SHOWY SERVICE [2] PLATTER AND SERVE.

[1] i.e. {oe}nococtum, cooked or prepared in wine sauce.

[2] Dann. is of the opinion that the pig is cooked in a copper vessel, because the instructions are to serve it in patinam aheneam.



XXII

[490] PIG, PAN GRAVY PORCELLUM EO IURE

ROAST THE PIG IN ITS OWN JUICE; [when done] RETIRE; BIND THE GRAVY WITH ROUX; [strain] PUT IN A SAUCE BOAT AND SERVE.



XXIII

[491] PIG SPRINKLED WITH THYME PORCELLUM THYMO SPARSUM

MILK-FED PIG, KILLED ON THE PREVIOUS DAY, BOIL WITH SALT AND DILL; TRANSFER IT INTO COLD WATER, CAREFULLY KEEPING IT SUBMERGED, TO PRESERVE ITS WHITENESS. THEREUPON [make a cold dressing of the following] GREEN SAVORY HERBS, [fresh] THYME, A LITTLE FLEABANE, HARD BOILED EGGS, ONIONS, [everything] CHOPPED FINE, SPRINKLE EVERYTHING [over the pig which has been taken out of the water and allowed to drip off] AND SEASON WITH A PINT OF BROTH, ONE MEASURE OF OIL, ONE OF RAISIN WINE, AND SO PRESENT IT [1].

[1] We would first mix the liquid components of this dressing with the chopped ingredients and then spread the finished dressing over the pig. Our author, no doubt, had this very process in mind.



XXIV

[492] PICKLED SUCKLING PIG PORCELLUM OXYZOMUM [1]

GARNISH [prepare and marinate] THE PIG CORRECTLY AND PLACE IT IN A LIQUOR PREPARED AS FOLLOWS: PUT IN THE MORTAR 50 GRAINS OF PEPPER, AS MUCH HONEY [2] AS IS REQUIRED, 3 DRY ONIONS, A LITTLE GREEN OR DRY CORIANDER, A PINT OF BROTH, 1 SEXTARIUS OF OIL, 1 PINT OF WATER; [all this] PUT IN A STEW PAN [braisiere] PLACE THE PIG IN IT; WHEN IT COMMENCES TO BOIL, STIR THE GRAVY QUITE FREQUENTLY [3] SO AS TO THICKEN IT. SHOULD THE BROTH THUS BE REDUCED [by evaporation] ADD ANOTHER PINT OF WATER. IN THIS MANNER COOK [braise] THE PIG TO PERFECTION AND SERVE IT.

[1] exodionum, and in the Summary of Dishes, exozome, i.e. oxyzomum. It is curious to note the various spellings and meanings of oxyzomum. This is supposed to be a sour sauce or an acid preparation of some kind, yet this recipe does not mention acids. In fact, the presence of honey would make it a sweet preparation. We take it, the "garnish" contains the necessary vinegar or other acids such as lemon juice, wine, etc. Oxyzomum is properly rendered "pickle."

[2] Dann. oil, occurring twice in his version.

[3] saepius; Dann. confusing saepe with caepa, renders this "onions sauce." The same occurs to him in XXVII.



XXV

[493] PIG WITH LASER PORCELLUM LASARATUM

IN THE MORTAR POUND PEPPER, LOVAGE, CARRAWAY, A LITTLE CUMIN, LIVE LASER, LASER ROOT, MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD PINE NUTS, FIGDATES, HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, PREPARED MUSTARD, FINISH WITH OIL TO TASTE, AND POUR OVER [the roast pig].



XXVI

[494] PIG IN SAUCE PORCELLUM IUSCELLATUM

IN THE MORTAR PUT PEPPER, LOVAGE, OR ANISE, CORIANDER, RUE, A LAUREL BERRY, POUND [all], MOISTENING WITH BROTH, [add] LEEKS, RAISIN WINE, OR A LITTLE HONEY, A LITTLE WINE, AND A LIKE AMOUNT OF OIL. WHEN THIS HAS BEEN COOKED TIE WITH ROUX.



XXVII

[495] PLAIN LAMB [1] AGNUM SIMPLICEM

OF THE SKINNED LAMB MAKE SMALL CUTLETS WHICH WASH CAREFULLY AND ARRANGE IN A SAUCE PAN, ADD OIL, BROTH, WINE, LEEKS, CORIANDER CUT WITH THE KNIFE; WHEN IT COMMENCES TO BOIL, STIR VERY FREQUENTLY [2] AND SERVE.

[1] Unquestionably the ancient equivalent for "Irish Stew."

[2] Cf. note 3 to {Rx} 492, XXIV; the presence of onion, however, would do no harm here.



XXVIII

[496] KID WITH LASER HAEDUM LASARATUM

THE WELL-CLEANED GUTS OF A KID FILL WITH [a preparation of] PEPPER, BROTH, LASER, OIL [1], AND PUT THEM BACK INTO THE CARCASS WHICH SEW TIGHTLY AND THUS COOK [roast] THE KID [whole]. WHEN DONE PUT IN THE MORTAR RUE, LAUREL BERRIES, AND THEN SERVE THE KID WHICH MEANWHILE HAS BEEN RETIRED FROM THE POT WITH ITS OWN DRIPPINGS OR GRAVY.

[1] There being only liquids for this filling of the guts, a more solid substance, such as pork forcemeat, eggs, or cereals would be required to make an acceptable filling for the casings of the kid. Furthermore sausage, for such is this in fact, must be thoroughly cooked before it can be used for the filling of the carcass, as not sufficient heat would penetrate the interior during the roasting to cook any raw dressing.



XXIX

[497] THRUSH "A LA SANTE" TURDOS HAPANTAMYNOS [1]

CRUSH PEPPER, LASER, LAUREL BERRY, MIX IN CUMIN [2] GARUM AND STUFF THE THRUSH [with this preparation, [3]] THROUGH THE THROAT [4], TYING THEM WITH A STRING. THEREUPON MAKE THIS PREPARATION IN WHICH THEY ARE COOKED: CONSISTING OF OIL, SALT, WATER [5], DILL AND HEADS OF LEEKS.

[1] Cf. Summary of Dishes; term not identified, derived from the Greek, meaning to drive away all stomach ills.

[2] We use juniper berries today instead of cumin.

[3] Cf. note to {Rx} 496, XXVIII.

[4] Thrush and other game birds of such small size are not emptied in the usual way: they are cooked with the entrails, or, the intestines are taken out, seasoned, saute, and are either put back into the carcasses, or are served separately on bread croutons. In this instance, the necessary seasoning is introduced through the throat, a most ingenious idea that can only occur to Apicius.

[5] In other instances we have pointed out where a small amount of water was used to clarify the oil used for frying foods. The presence here of water leads us to believe that the thrush were not "cooked," i.e. "boiled" but that they were fried in a generous amount of oil; this would make the ancient process remarkably similar to the present European way of preparing thrush or fieldfare, or similar game birds.

For water used to clarify oil see note 3 to {Rx} No. 250.



XXX

[498] TURTLEDOVES TURTURES

OPEN THEM, PREPARE [marinate] CAREFULLY; CRUSH PEPPER, LASER, A LITTLE BROTH, IMMERSE THE DOVES IN THIS PREPARATION SO THAT IT WILL BE ABSORBED BY THEM, AND THUS ROAST THEM.



XXXI

[499] SAUCE FOR PARTRIDGE [1] IUS IN PERDICES

CRUSH IN THE MORTAR PEPPER, CELERY, MINT, AND RUE; MOISTEN WITH VINEGAR, ADD FIGDATE [wine], HONEY, VINEGAR, BROTH, OIL; LET IT BOIL LIKEWISE AND SERVE.

[1] This formula evidently is a fragment.

END OF THE SUMMARY OF DISHES [of the Excerpts of Vinidarius]

EXPLI [cit] BREUIS CIBORUM

[END OF THE RECIPES OF APICIUS]



{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, LISTER EDITION, AMSTERDAM, 1709

Lister's second edition was printed at Amsterdam, 1709, by very able printers, the Jansson-Waesbergs. It is a very worthy book in every respect which, as M. Graesse says in Tresor des livres rares et precieux, may be included in the collection of the Variorum.}

{Transcription:

APICII C{OE}LII DE OPSONIIS ET CONDIMENTIS, Sive ARTE COQUINARIA, LIBRI DECEM. Cum Annotationibus MARTINI LISTER, e Medicis domesticis Serenissimae Majestatis Reginae Annae, ET Notis selectioribus, variisque lectionibus integris, HUMELBERGII, BARTHII, REINESII, A. VAN DER LINDEN, & ALIORUM, ut & Variarum Lectionum Libello. EDITIO SECUNDA. Longe auctior atque emendatior.

{Decoration}

AMSTELODAMI, Apud JANSSONIO-WAESBERGIOS

MDCCIX.}



APICIANA



{Illustration: DIAGRAM

of Apicius Manuscripts and Printed Editions, showing relation to each other and indicating the sources of the present translation.}

{Transcription:

============ ======================== ============== MS MS MS ROME The Vatican Vrbin - ARCHETYPUS FULDENSIS Now in lat. 1146 * NEW YORK CITY * Formerly in the Monastery * 9th Century of Fulda. Probably formerly ============ written prior to the CHELTENHAM 9th Century Bibl. Phillipps (now lost) 275 ======================== 9th Century ============== / - ==================== / MS MS. PARIS lat. 10318 / PARIS Apici Excerpta a / lat. 8209 Vinidario v.i. 8th / 15th Cent. / century ==================== / - / / - - / ================ - MS FLORENCE / Laur. 73.20 / 15th / century - / - - MS / The MUNICH HUMELBERG lat. 756 EDITION MS Critinus Zuerich ROME, Vat 1469 A.D. 1542 lat. 1145 - - 15th century MS EDITIO FLORENCE PRINCEPS Laur. .... Venice, ca. The Strozz. 67 1485-1490 LISTER 15th cent from unknown EDITIONS codex London, 1705 (Honterus?) Amsterdam 1709 - MS FLORENCE Ricc. 141 / 15th / century / - / / - - / / MS The / / FLORENCE LANCILOTUS- / / Ricc. 622 SIGNERRE - 15th EDITIONS, / / century Milan / / - 1490 (?) / / 1498 / / - / / / - MS The OXFORD BERNHOLD Bodl. Can. Editions lat. 163 1787-1800 1490 - - The The TORINUS SCHUCH MS EDITIONS: EDITIONS OXFORD .... Basel-Lyons Heidelberg Bodl. Ad 1541 1867-1874 B. 110 from codex 15th cent. found by Torinus - - MS The CESENA BASEGGIO 151. mun. Edition, 14th Venice century 1852 - - / - -/ - MS The The ROME, Vat GIARRATANO- VEHLING lat. 6803 VOLMER TRANSLATION 15th Edition Chicago century Leipzig 1926 - 1922 - - ================}



{Illustration: INCIPIT CONDITUM PARADOXUM

Opening recipe No. 1, Book 1, Apicius. From the manuscript of the 9th century in the Library of the Vatican at Rome.}



APICIANA

A Bibliography of Apician Manuscripts and Printed Editions

A. MANUSCRIPTS

SUMMARY OF MANUSCRIPTS

LOCATION NO. OF MS. BOOKS New York, I 1 Rome, II, IV and XVII 3 Paris, III and V 2 Florence, VI, VII, VIII and IX 4 Oxford, X and XI 2 Cesena, XII 1 Munich, XVIII 1 Not accounted for, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI 4 — Total of manuscript books 18

(Doubtful as to present location, the Codex Humelbergii, cf. XI, Oxford)

DESCRIPTION OF MANUSCRIPTS

I, 9TH CENTURY

New York, Library of the Academy of Medicine, until 1930 in Cheltenham, Gloucester, Biblioth. Phillipps, 275, in the library of Sir Thomas Phillipps, a codex ca. Ninth century, 4to, parchment, 275 pp., originally bound up with Phill. 386, which is said to have come from the Benedictine Abbey of St. Ghislain, founded at the end of the 7th century in the diocese of Cambrai; partly in Continental, but mostly in Anglo-Saxon minuscle of the 9th century, not unlike the Anglo-Saxon minuscle of Fulda.

Title missing. Cf. Vollmer, Studien, pp. 5-6.

The writer who has hastily inspected the manuscript in 1931 is of the opinion that three different hands wrote this book. Part of the index is gone, too. The book commences with lib. VII of the index. Bound in an 18th century French full leather binding. It was brought to America by Dr. Margaret B. Wilson and presented to the library of the A. of M. in 1931.

II, 9TH CENTURY

Rome, Vatican Library. Vat. Vrbinas, lat. 1146, Ninth century. 58 sheets, 2 blanks in the beginning and 2 at the end. Size 23.75 x 18.75 cm., heavy parchment, 20-21 lines to the page, not numbered. Sheet 1 R, illuminated by square panel in purple and gold letters (capit. quadr.) IN{C}{P} API CAE Nothing else. Sheet 1 V 3 R the title, EPIM e LES LI BER I, and the titles of Book I, illuminated with columns, flowers and birds. Sheet 3 R between the foot of the columns EXPLICIVNT CAPITVLA. Sheet 3 V a panel in purple similar to sheet 1 R with inscription, IN{C}{P} CONDIT{V} PARADOX{V}. Sheet 4 R commences the text with the title, I, Conditum Paradoxum. Captions, marginal figures and initials in red. The captions are written in good uncials throughout, the first text words usually in half uncials, continuing in an even and beautiful minuscle. The Explicits and Incipits invariably in capitalis rustica. Sheet 58 V end of text with EXPLICIT LIBER X.

Traube, Vollmer and others believe that this manuscript was written in or in the vicinity of Tours in the 9th century.

III, 8TH CENTURY

Paris, lat. 10318. 8th century. Codex Salmasianus, pp. 196-203, Apici excerpta a Vinidario vir. inl. (See illustration.)

Excerpts from Apicius, 31 formulae not found in the traditional Apicius and quite different in character. Cf. Notes on Vinidarius, preceding the Excerpta which follow the end of Book X of Apicius.

IV, 15TH CENTURY

Rome, Vatican Library, Vat. Vrbinas, lat. 1145, parchment, 15th century. 51 sheets, 20 lines to the page, title, Apicius.

V, 15TH CENTURY

Paris, lat. 8209, paper, 15th century. 131 sheets, 30 lines to the page.

VI, 15TH CENTURY

Florence, Laur. 73, 20. 15th century. 84 sheets, 26 lines to the page.

VII, 15TH CENTURY

Florence, Laur. Strozz. 67, 15th century. 50 sheets, 23 lines to the page. Title, Apicius.

VIII, 15TH CENTURY

Florence, Riccardianus, 141 (L III 29), paper, 179 sheets, irregular number of lines, pp. 123-179, Apicius. 15th century.

IX, 1462

Florence, Riccardianus, 662 (M I 26), finished April 4th, 1462, paper, 79 sheets, 26 lines to the page. Pp. 41-79 Apicius, written by Pascutius Sabinus, Bologna, 1462.

X, 1490

Oxford, Bodl. Canon, lat. 168 4to min. 78 pp. dated May 28th, 1490. (In fine) scriptum per me Petrum Antonium Salandum Reginensem die xxviii Maii MCCCCLXXXX.

XI, 15TH CENTURY

Oxford, Bodl. Add. B 110, 15th century, Italian, cf. H. Schenkl, Bibl. Britann. I. p. 79 n. 384 and F. Madan, A Summary Catalogue of Western Mss. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, 1905, p. 660. Vollmer says that this Ms. belonged to a son of Humelbergius, as proven by P. Lehmann.

XII, 14TH CENTURY

Cesena, bibl. municip., 14th century.

XIII

A manuscript in the library of the Sforza brothers at Pesaro which burned in 1514, known only from the catalogue. Cf. A. Vernarecci, La Libreria di Gio. Sforza in Archivio storico per le Marche e l'Umbria, III, 1886, 518, 790.

XIV

A manuscript used by Bonifaz Amerbach and Joh. Sichardus. Cf. P. Lehman, Joh. Sichardus, Quellen und Untersuchungen, IV, 1, p. 204.

XV-XVI

The two manuscripts mentioned by Albanus Torinus, in his edition of Apicius, Basel, 1541. In 1529 Torinus found an Apicius "codex" on the island of Megalona (Maguellone) which he used for his edition of Apicius. It is almost certain that this was not a very ancient manuscript. The way Torinus speaks of it and of the (first) Venetian printed edition in his epistola dedicatoria leaves even doubt as to whether his authority was handwritten or printed. A first edition, printed ca. 1483, may have well been a dilapidated copy such as Torinus describes in 1529. Torinus admits taking some liberties with the text and failed to understand some phrases of it. Despite this fact, his text, from a culinary point of view seems to be more authentic than the Humelbergius and Lister versions.

The other codex according to Torinus, was found in Transsylvania by Io. Honterus of Coronea. This codex may have served as authority for the first edition printed ca. 1483 by Bernardinus, of Venice. No other mention is made of this codex anywhere, which according to Torinus, was sent to Venice from Transsylvania. The text of the Editio Princeps, by the way, is thoroughly unreliable.

XVII, 15TH CENTURY

Ms. Rome, Vatican Library, lat. 6803, 15th Century.

XVIII, 15TH CENTURY

Munich, lat. 756. Ex bibl. Petri Victorii 49. 15th century. This codex is particularly valuable and important for the identification of the Apicius text. Cf. Vollmer, Studien, pp. 10 seq.

B. PRINTED EDITIONS

SUMMARY OF PRINTED EDITIONS

NO. YEAR OF PUBLICATION PLACE OF PUBLICATION LANGUAGE 1 ca. A.D. 1483(?) Venice, Italy Latin 2 A.D. 1490(?) Milan, Italy (doubtful) Latin 3 A.D. 1498 Milan, Italy Latin 4 A.D. 1503 Venice, Italy Latin 5 A.D. 1541 Basel, Switzerland Latin 6 A.D. 1541 Lyons, France Latin 7 A.D. 1542 Zuerich, Switzerland Latin 8 A.D. 1705 London, England Latin 9 A.D. 1709 Amsterdam, Holland Latin 10 A.D. 1787 Marktbreit, Germany Latin 11 A.D. 1791 Luebeck, Germany Latin 12 A.D. 1800 Ansbach, Germany Latin 13 A.D. 1852 Venice, Italy Italian 14 A.D. 1867 Heidelberg, Germany Latin 15 A.D. 1874 Heidelberg, Germany Latin 16 A.D. 1909 Leipzig, Germany German 17 A.D. 1911 Leipzig, Germany German 18 A.D. 1922 Leipzig, Germany Latin 19 A.D. 1933 Paris, France French 20 A.D. 1936 Chicago, U. S. A. English

COMMENTARIES ON APICIUS

NO. YEAR OF PUBLICATION PLACE OF PUBLICATION LANGUAGE 21 A.D. 1531* Frankfurt, Germany Latin 22 A.D. 1534* Frankfurt, Germany Latin 23 A.D. 1535* Antwerp, Belgium Latin 24 A.D. 1831 Heidelberg, Germany German 25 A.D. 1868 London, England English 26 A.D. 1912 Naples, Italy Italian 27 A.D. 1920 Munich, Germany German 28 A.D. 1921 Rome, Italy Latin-Italian 29 A.D. 1927 Leipzig, Germany German

* Excerpts and adaptations have little relation to Apicius.

Total of Printed Editions, in Latin 15 Total of Printed Editions, in Italian 1 Total of Printed Editions, in German 2 Total of Printed Editions, in French 1 Total of Printed Editions, in English 1 Total of Commentaries in all Languages 9

Editions and Commentaries published in America 1 Editions and Commentaries published in Belgium 1 Editions and Commentaries published in England 2 Editions and Commentaries published in France 2 Editions and Commentaries published in Germany 13 Editions and Commentaries published in Holland 1 Editions and Commentaries published in Italy 7 Editions and Commentaries published in Switzerland 2

BIBLIOGRAPHERS AND COLLECTORS

Albanus Torinus, 1541, describes Mss. XV and XVI.

A. Vernarecci describes Mss. XIII.

P. Lehmann describes Mss. XI and XIV.

F. Vollmer describes Mss. I-XVIII.

Dr. Margaret B. Wilson describes Ms. I.

Georges Vicaire describes editions Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15.

Theodor Drexel (Georg) describes editions Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15.

Elizabeth R. Pennell describes editions Nos. 1, 3, 9.

Bernhold describes editions Nos. 2, 10, 11, 12.

Fabricius describes edition No. 2.

Baron Pichon describes editions Nos. 3, 21.

In the author's collection are editions Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 27, 28, 29.

DESCRIPTION OF PRINTED EDITIONS

These summaries and descriptions of the known manuscript books and printed editions of Apicius are presented with a desire to afford the students a survey of the field treated in this volume, to illustrate the interest that has existed throughout the past centuries in our ancient book.

Copies of any Apicius edition and commentaries are scarce; famous collectors pride themselves in owning one or several of them. Of the well-known collections of cookery books the most outstanding perhaps is that of Theodor Drexel, of Frankfurt on the Main, who owned nine different editions of Apicius. The Drexel catalogue forms the basis of a bibliography—Verzeichnis der Litteratur ueber Speise und Trank bis zum Jahre 1887, bearbeitet von Carl Georg, Hannover, 1888, describing some 1700 works.

The Drexel collection, combined with that of Dr. Freund, is now in the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin and is undoubtedly the finest collection of its kind.

Another famous collection of cookery books is described in My Cookery Books, by Elizabeth Robins Pennell, Boston, 1903, listing three of the Apicii.

The Pennell collection was destroyed by a flood in London while being stored away in a warehouse during the world war.

The most important bibliography, well-known to bibliophiles, is the Bibliographie gastronomique par Georges Vicaire, Paris, 1890. Vicaire mentions eleven Apicius editions.

The Baron Pichon and the Georges Vicaire collections are both dispersed.

Despite ardent efforts over a period of many years the writer has been unable to secure either an Apicius manuscript or the editions No. 1 and 2. The existence of No. 2 on our list is doubtful. Therefore, we do not pretend having inspected or read each and every edition described herein, but by combining the efforts of the authorities here cited we have gathered the following titles and descriptions in order to present a complete survey of the Apician literature.

NO. 1 CA. A.D. 1483, VENICE

APITII CELII DE RE COQUINARIA LIBRI DECEM SUETONIUS TR{=A}QUILLUS DE CLARIS GR{=A}MATICIS. SUETONIUS TR{=A}QUILLUS DE CLARIS RHETORIBUS COQUINARIAE CAPITA GRAECA AB APITIO POSITA HAEC SUNT EPIMELES, (Etc. In fine) IMPRESSUM VENETIIS PER BERNARDINUM VENETUM.

No date, but attributed to ca. 1483-6. Given as the earliest edition by most authorities. 4to, old vellum, 30 sheets, the pages not numbered. Georg-Drexel, No. 13; Pennell, p. 111; Vicaire, col. 29.

NO. 2, MILAN, A.D. 1490

APICIUS CULINARIS (sic) (CURA BLASII LANCILOTI In fine) IMPRESSUM MEDIOLANI PER MAGISTRUM GUILIERUM DE SIGNERRE ROTHOMAGENSEM. ANNO DOMINI M CCCC LXXXX DIE VIII MENSIS JANUARII.

Large 8vo. Edition disputed by bibliographers.

Ex Bernhold, praefatio, p. IX, who (we are translating from his Latin text) says, "Here is the exterior of the book as extant in the Nuremberg library, most accurately and neatly described by the very famous and most worthy physician of that illustrious republic, Dr. Preus, a friend of mine for thirty years; whose integrity, of course, is above reproach; these are his own words—The book is made in the size called large octavo. It must be mentioned that the sheets are indeed large, so that the size might be styled an ordinary quarto. Fabricius, in his Bibliotheca, the newest edition, quotes a copy under this name. The entire book consists of five parts [sheets, folded into eight leaves—sixteen printed pages—stitched together] and two leaves. These five parts contain the text proper; these two sheets preceding them, are occupied by the title page, the dedication and a kind of poetic address. The text itself commences with p. 5, I should say, though there is no regular pagination. However, there are nevertheless in the lower ends of the leaves, called the limp parts, some conspicuous letters on the first four leaves of the sheets, while the remaining four leaves though belonging to the respective parts, are blank. For instance aI., aII., aIII., aIIII. Then follows the next sheet or part, signed, bI., II., III., IIII. in the same manner, with the four following leaves blank. And thus in the same manner follows sheet c, d, e. The two leaves preceding the five parts which comprise the text proper, contain the title of the book, Apicius Culinaris [sic] nowhere, to be sure, appears a note of the place or the date where and when the book was made, and on this whole first page, aside from the words already noted, there is nothing else in evidence than the picture of an angel, in the center of which there is the sign, IHS, and around the circle the following words are read, 'Joannes de Lagniano M.' At the feet of the angel spaces may be seen that are inscribed with the letters, I.O.L. The next page, or the verso of the title page, exhibits the dedication of Blasius Lancilotus, extending to the upper part of the third page. On this very same page occurs the poem by Ludovicus Vopiscus, addressed to Joannes Antonius Riscius, comprising five very beautiful distichs. The remaining part of the third page is finished off with the word, 'Finis,' while the fourth page is entirely blank. The text of Apicius commences with the fifth, as mentioned above, and from now on the leaves are numbered by letters, as previously described. At the end of the text, on the last page of the book, a poem is conspicuous, entitled, 'Antonius Mota to the Public,' consisting of four neat distichs, followed by another composition, containing five distichs by Joannes Salandus. And conclusion of the entire work is made with these words, 'Printed at Milan by Master Guiliermus de Signerre Rothomagensis, in the year of the Lord 1490, on the 8th day of the month of January.'

"From this edition, the oldest as well as the rarest—with no other known earlier edition—all the variants given herewith have been collected by Goezius." Thus far Bernhold.

The existence of this edition is doubted by Brunet, according to Vicaire. This ancient description corresponds substantially to that of Vicaire of the following edition of 1498 which Vicaire proclaims to be the first dated Apicius edition. It is interesting to note, however, what Bernhold has to say of this 1498 edition.

"Without a doubt a repetition of the preceding edition," says he; and he goes on quoting the Bibliotheca Latina Fabricio-Ernestina (Jo. Alberti Fabricii Bibliothec. Latin. edit ab Ernesti 1708) to the effect that two editions were printed at Milan, one of 1490 by Blasius Lancilotus and one of 1498 by Guiliermus de Signerre Rothomagensis.

Our inquiry at the Municipal library of Nuernberg has revealed the fact that this copy of 1490 is no longer in the possession of the library there.

NO. 3, A.D. 1498, MILAN

APICIUS CULINARIUS (in fine) IMPRESSUM MEDIOLANI PER MAGISTRUM GUILERUM SIGNERRE ROTHOMAGENSEM, ANNO DNI MCCCCLXXXXVIII, DIE XX, MENSIS IANUARII.

(Ex Pennell, p. 111) First dated edition, 4to, 40 sheets, pages not numbered.

{Illustration: COLOPHON, MILAN EDITION, 1498

From the Lancilotus edition of Apicius, printed by Signerre, Milan, 1498, the first dated edition. The poems by Mota and Salandus are identical with the colophon of the 1503 Venice edition.

Note the date of this colophon and observe how easily it can be read for "the 8th day of January, 1490" which date is attributed to our Apiciana No. 2. This edition, as is noted, is doubtful, although several bibliographers speak about it.}

{Transcription:

Antonius mota Ad vulgus.

Plaudite sartores: caetari: plaudite ventres Plaudite mystili tecta per vncta coqui Pila sit albanis quaecunq; ornata lagaenis Pingue suum copo limen obesus amet Occupat insubres altissimus ille nepotum Gurges & vndantes auget & vrget aquas Millia sex ventri qui fixit Apicius alto Inde timens: sumpsit dira venena: famem.

Ioannes salandus lectori.

Accipe quisquis amas irritamenta palati: Precepta: & leges: oxigarumq; nouum: Condiderat caput: & stygias penitrauerat vndas Celius: in lucem nec rediturus erat: Nunc teritur dextra versatus Apicius omni Vrbem habet: & tectum qui perigrinus erat: Acceptum motte nostro debebis: & ipsi Immortalis erit gratia: laus & honor: Per quem non licuit celebri caruisse nepote: Per quem dehinc fugiet lingua latina situm.

Impressum Mediolani per magistrum Guilermum Signerre Rothomagensem Anno d{=n}i. Mcccclxxxx viii.die.xx.mensis Ianuarii.}

This copy has on the fly leaf the book plate of "Georgius Klotz, M.D. Francofurti ad M{oe}num" and the autograph of John S. Blackie, 1862.

Bernhold, p. XI. Not in Georg-Drexel. Vicaire, 28; he reads Appicius [sic] Culinarius. Pennell and Vicaire read Guilerum, Bernhold Guilierum.

Vicaire's description of this edition tallies with that of Bernhold's and his collaborator's account of the preceding edition. There are certain copies of this edition, bearing the following titles, Apicius de re coquinaria and Apicivs in re qvoqvinaria. Cf. Vicaire, 28-29.

NOTES TO NOS. 1, 2, AND 3

GESAMTKATALOG DER WIEGENDRUCKE, Leipzig, 1926, II, p. 510, places as the first printed edition Apicius in re quoquinaria [sic] printed by William de Signerre at Milan, on the 20th day of January, 1498. The second place is given APICIUS DE RE COQUINARIA printed by Bernardinus de Vitalibus at Venice, no date, circa 1500 (our No. 1). This classification follows that of Brunet in 1840. Neither the Gesamtkatalog nor Brunet make any mention whatsoever of the doubtful 1490 Milan edition (our No. 2).

Vicaire, col. 33, mentioning this edition citing Bernhold, quotes Brunet as doubting the existence of this 1490 edition, but we fail to notice this expression of doubt since our Brunet is altogether silent on the subject, same as the other bibliographers.

Vicaire, col. 28-29, quotes Brunet as saying that the undated Apicius (our No. 1) despite its sub-titles of Suetonius, contains only the Apicius text, a statement confirmed by Pennell.

A search of all the available works of Joh. Alb. Fabricius—Bibliotheca Latina [Classics], Hamburg, 1722, Bibliographia Antiquaria, ib. 1760 and the Bibliotheca Latina mediae et infimae [middle ages], ib. 1735, has failed to reveal a trace of the 1490 Apicius, displayed by Bernhold, as described by Fabricius and as seen by Preus in the Nuernberg Municipal Library.

Our facsimile of the 1498 colophon shows how easily its date can be mistaken for "the 8th day of January, 1490," Bernhold's very date! Evidently an error of this kind made victims of Preus, Bernhold and Fabricius (if, indeed, he quoted it) and caused us some ardent searching among dusty tomes. We have therefore come to the conclusion that either this 1490 edition disappeared between the year 1787 and our time or else that it never existed.

NO. 4, A.D. 1503, VENICE

APITII CELII DE RE COQUINARIA LIBRI DECEM. COQUINARIAE CAPITA GRAECA AB APITIO POSITA HAEC SUNT. EPIMELES: ARTOPTUS: CEPURICA: PANDECTER: OSPRION TROPHETES: POLYTELES: TETRAPUS: THALASSA: HALIEUS HANC PLATO ADULATRICEM MEDICINAE APPELLAT [in fine] IMPRESSUM UENETIIS P IOHANNEM DE CERETO DE TRIDINO ALIAS TACUINUM. M.CCCCC.III. DIE TERTIO MENSIS AUGUSTI.

4to, 32 sheets, 30 lines to the page, pages not numbered, signed a-h, by 4.

{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, VENICE EDITION, 1503

From the Blasius Lancilotus edition, printed by Johannes de Cereto de Tridino alias Tacuinus, Venice, 1503. This is the second dated edition of Apicius, resembling very closely the undated edition and also the Milan edition, printed by Signerre 1498, the first to bear a date. Same size as the original. This is a first timid attempt at giving a book a title page. Most books printed before this date have no title pages.}

{Transcription:

Apitii Celii de re Coquinaria libri decem.

Coquinariae capita Graeca ab Apitio posita haec sunt. Epimeles: Artoptus: Cepurica: Pandecter: Osprion Trophetes: Polyteles: Tetrapus: Thalassa: Halieus. Hanc Plato adulatricem medicinae appellat.}

On the last page of our copy are the two poems mentioned in the 1490 Milan edition (No. 2) "Antonius mota ad uulgus" (4 distichs) and "Iohannes salandi Lectori" (5 distichs). The verso of this page is blank. The dedication, on the verso of title page, is likewise by Blasius Lancilotus. It appears that this edition is closely related to No. 2.

Vicaire, 30; unknown to Georg-Drexel and Pennell.

In the collection of the author.

NO. 5, A.D. 1541, BASEL

CAELII APITII SVMMI ADVLATRICIS MEDI CINAE ARTIFICIS DE RE CVLINARIA LIBRI X. RE CENS E TENEBRIS ERUTI & A MENDIS UINDICATI, TYPISQUE SVMMA DILIGENTIA EXCUSI. PRAETEREA, P. PLATINAE CREMO NENSIS VIRI UNDECVNQVE DO CTISSIMI, DE TUENDA UALETUDINE, NATURA RERUM, & POPINAE SCIENTIA LIBRI X. AD IMITATIONEM C. API TII AD UNGUEM FACTI. AD HAEC, PAVLI AEGINETAE DE FACVLTATIBUS ALIMENTORVM TRA CTATVS, ALBANO TORINO INTERPRETE. CUM INDICE COPIOSISSIMO. BASILEAE M.D.XLI. [in fine] BASILEAE, MENSE MARTIO, ANNO M D X L I.

4to, old calf, 16 pp., containing title, dedication and index, not numbered but signed in Greek letters. The body of the work commences with p. 1, finishing with p. 366, the sheets are signed first in small Roman letters a-z and numbers 1-3 and then in capital letters A-Z, likewise numbered 1-3. The titles of the books or chapters, on verso of the title page, under the heading of "Katalogos et Epigraphe Decem Voluminum De Re Popinali C. Apitii" are both in Greek and Roman characters. German names and quotations are in Gothic type (black letter). The book is well printed, in the style of the Froschauer or Oporinus press, but bears no printer's name or device.

The Apicius treatise is concluded on p. 110, and is followed by "Appendicvla De Conditvris Variis ex Ioanne Damasceno, Albano Torino Paraphraste," not mentioned on the title. This treatise extends from p. 110 to p. 117, comprising fourteen recipes for "condimenta" and "conditvrae"; these are followed on the same page by "De Facvltatibvs Alimentorvm Ex Pavlo AEgineta, Albano Torino Interprete" which book is concluded on p. 139; but with hardly any interruption nor with any very conspicuous title on this page there follows the work of Platina: "P. [sic] Platinae Cremonensis, viri vndecvnqve doctissimi, De tuenda ualetudine Natura rerum, & Popinae scientia, ad amplissimum D.D.B. Rouerellam S. Clementis presbyterum, Cardinalem, Liber I." The ten books of Platina are concluded on p. 366; the type gracefully tapering down with the words: "P. [sic] Platinae libri decimi et vltimi Finis" and the date, as mentioned. The last page blank.

{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, LYONS, 1541

This edition, printed in Lyons, France, in 1541, by Sebastian Gryphius is said to have been pirated from the Torinus edition given at Basel in the same year. Early printers stole copiously from one another, frequently reproduced books with hundreds of illustrations with startling speed. Gryphius corrected Torinus' spelling of "P" [Bartholomaeus] Platina, but note the spelling of "Lvg[v]dvni" (Lyons). Inscription by a contemporary reader over the griffin: "This [book] amuses me! Why make fun of me?"}

{Transcription:

CAELII APITII, SVMMI ADVLATRICUS MEDICINAE ARTIFICIS, De re Culinaria libri Decem.

{Handwriting}

B. PLATINAE CREMONENSIS De Tuenda ualetudine, Natura rerum, & Popinae scientia Libri x.

PAVLI AEGINETAE DE FACULTATIBUS alimentorum Tractatus, Albano Torino Interprete.

{Handwriting}

{Decoration}

APVD SEB. GRYPHIVM LVGVDVNI, 1541.}

Strange enough, there is another edition of this work, bearing the same editor's name, printed at Lyons, France, in the same year. This edition, printed by Gryphius, bears the abbreviated title as follows:

NO. 6, A.D. 1541, LYONS

CAELII APITII SVM MI ADVLATRICIS MEDICINAE ARTIFICIS, DE RE CULINARIA LIBRI DECEM B. PLATINAE CREMONEN SIS DE TUENDA UALETUDINE, NATURA RERUM & POPINAE SCIENTIA LIBRI X, PAULI AEGINETAE DE FACULTATIBUS ALIMENTORUM TRACTATUS, ALBANO TORINO INTER PRETE.

The lower center of the title page is occupied by the Gryphius printer's device, a griffin standing on a box-like pedestal, supported by a winged globe. On the left of the device: "virtute duci," on the right: "comite fortuna"; directly underneath: "Apvd Seb. Gryphivm, Lvgvdvni [sic], 1541." Sm. 8vo. Pages numbered, commencing with verso of title from 2-314. Sheets lettered same as Basel edition; on verso of title "Katalogos" etc. exactly like Basel. Page 3 commences with the same epistola dedicatoria. This dedication and the entire corpus of the book is printed in an awkward Italic type, except the captions which are in 6 pt. and 8 pt. Roman. The book is quite an unpleasant contrast with the fine Antiqua type and the generous margins of the Basel edition. Some woodcut initials but of small interest. The index, contrary to Basel, is in the back. The last page shows another printer's device, differing from that on the title, another griffin.

This edition, though bearing Platina's correct initial, B., has the fictitious title given to his work by Torinus, who probably possessed one of the earliest editions of Platina's De honesta Voluptate, printed without a title page.

Altogether, this Lyons edition looks very much like a hurried job, and we would not be surprised to learn that it was pirated from the Basel edition.

The epistola dedicatoria, in which Torinus expresses fear of pirates and asks his patron's protection, is concluded with the date, Basileae, v. Idus Martias, Anno M. D. XLI., while the copy described by Vicaire appears to be without this date. Vicaire also says that the sheets of his copy are not numbered. He also reads on the title "Lvgdvni, 1541" which is spelled correctly, but not in accordance with the original. Of these two editions Vicaire says:

"Ces deux editions portent la meme date de 1541, mais celle qui a ete publiee a Bale a paru avant celle donnee a Lyon par Seb. Gryphe. Cette derniere, en effet, contient la dedicace datee." The title page of our copy is inscribed by three different old hands, one the characteristic remark: "Mulcens me, gannis?" This copy is bound in the original vellum. Vicaire, 31, G.-Drexel, No. 12.

The work of Torinus has been subjected to a searching analysis, as will be shown throughout the book. An appreciation of Platina will be found in Platina, maestro nell'arte culinaria Un'interessante studio di Joseph D. Vehling, by Agostino Cavalcabo, Cremona, 1935.

{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, HUMELBERGIUS EDITION, ZUeRICH, 1542

The Gabriel Humelbergius edition is printed by Froschauer, one of the great printers of the Renaissance. Showing the autograph of Johannes Baptista Bassus. The best of the early Apicius editions.}

{Transcription:

IN HOC OPERE CONTENTA

APICII CAELII

DE OPSONIIS ET CONDIMENTIS, SIVE ARTE COQVINARIA LIBRI X.

ITEM,

Gabrielis Humelbergij Medici, Physici Isnensis in Apicij Caelij libros X. Annotationes.

TIGVRI IN OFFICINA Froschouiana. Anno, M. D. XLII.

{Handwriting}

{Signature: Johannes Baptista Bassus.}}

NO. 7, A.D. 1542, ZUeRICH

IN HOC OPERE CONTENTA. APICII CAELII DE OPSONIIS ET CONDIMENTIS, SIVE ARTE COQVINA RIA, LIBRI X. ITEM, GABRIELIS HUMELBERGIJ MEDICI, PHYSICI ISNENSIS IN APICIJ CAELIJ LIBROS X. ANNOTATIONES. TIGVRI IN OFFICINA FROSCHOUIANA. ANNO, M.D. XLII.

4to, 123 sheets, pagination commences with title, not numbered. On verso of title a poem by Ioachim Egell, extolling Humelberg. Sheet 2 the dedication, dated "Isnae Algoiae, mense Maio, Anno a Christo nato, M.D.XLII." Sheet 3-4 have the preface; on verso of 4 the names of the books of Apicius. On recto of sheet 5 the chapters of Book I; on verso commences the corpus of the work with Apicii Caelii Epimeles Liber I.

The Apicius text is printed in bold Roman, the copious notes by the editor in elegant Italics follow each book. Very instructive notes, fine margins, splendid printing. Altogether preferable to Torinus. Our copy is bound in the original vellum. Inscribed in old hand by Johannes Baptista Bassus on the title.

G.-Drexel, No. 14; Vicaire, 31; not in Pennell.

NO. 8, A.D. 1705, LONDON

APICII C{OE}LII DE OPSONIIS ET CONDIMENTIS, SIVE ARTE COQUINARIA, LIBRI DECEM. CUM ANNOTATIONIBUS MARTINI LISTER, E MEDICIS DOMESTICIS SERENISSIMAE MA JESTATIS REGINAE ANNAE ET NOTIS SELECTIORIBUS, VARIISQUE LECTIONIBUS INTEGRIS, HUMELBERGII, CASPARI BARTHII, & VARIORUM. LONDINI: TYPIS GULIELMI BOWYER. MDCCV.

The first edition by Lister, limited to 120 copies.

8vo. The title in red and black. Original full calf, gilt. Pp. XIV + 231. Index 11 leaves, unnumbered. This scarce book is described by Vicaire, 32, but unknown to the collectors Drexel and Pennell. Our copy has on the inside front cover the label of the Dunnichen library. Above the same in an old hand: "Liber rarissimus Hujus editionis 120 tantum exemplaria impressa sunt." On the fly leaf, in a different old hand a six line note in Latin, quoting the medieval scholar, G. J. Vossius, Aristarch. 1.13. p. 1336, on the authorship of C{oe}lius. Directly below in still another old hand, the following note, a rather pleasing passage, full of sentiment and affection for our subject, that deserves to be quoted in full: "Alas! that time is wanting to visit the island of Magellone [Megalona-Torinus] where formerly flourished a large town, of which there are now no other remains but the cathedral church, where, according to tradition, the beautiful Magellone lies buried by her husband Peter of Province.* Matthison's letters, etc. pag. 269.

"'* Jt was in the island of Magellone that Apicius's ten books on cookery were rediscovered.' Ibid.—Vide Fabric. Biblioth: Lat: edit. ab Ernesti. vol. 2; p. 365."

On the verso of the title page there is the printed note in Latin to the effect that 120 copies of this edition have been printed at the expense of eighteen gentlemen whose names are given, among them "Isaac Newton, Esq." and other famous men.

{Illustration: TITLE PAGE, LISTER EDITION, LONDON, 1705

The first Apicius edition by Martin Lister, Court Physician to Queen Anne. Printed in London in 1705 by the famous printer, William Bowyer. This is one of the rarest of the Apician books, the edition being limited to 120 copies. It has been said that the second edition (Amsterdam, 1709) was limited to 100 copies, but there is no evidence to that effect.}

{Transcription:

APICIANA

APICII C{OE}LII DE OPSONIIS ET CONDIMENTIS, Sive Arte Coquinaria, LIBRI DECEM.

Cum Annotationibus MARTINI LISTER, e Medicis domesticis serenissimae Majestatis Reginae Annae.

ET

Notis selectioribus, variisque lectionibus integris, HUMELBERGII, CASPARI BARTHII, & VARIORUM.

LONDINI: Typis Gulielmi Bowyer. MDCCV.}

Lister's preface to the reader occupies pp. I-XIV; the same appears in the 1709 (2nd) edition. The ten books of Apicius occupy pp. 1-231; the index comprises 11 unnumbered leaves; on the verso of the 11th leaf, the errata. One leaf for the "Catalogus" (not mentioned by Vicaire) a bibliography of the editor's extensive writings, and works used in this edition principally upon nature and medical subjects. This list was ridiculed by Dr. King. Cf. Introduction by Frederick Starr to this present work. The last leaf blank. Our copy is in the original binding, and perfect in every respect.

{Illustration: VERSO OF TITLE PAGE

of the first Lister edition, London, 1705, giving evidence of the edition being limited to 120 copies. This edition was done at the expense of the men named in this list. Note particularly "Isaac Newton, Esq.," Sir Christopher Wren and a few more names famous to this day.}

{Transcription:

Hujus Libri centum & viginti tantum Exemplaria impressa sunt impensis infrascriptorum.

Tho. Lord A.B. of Canterbury. Ch. Earl of Sunderland. J. Earl of Roxborough, Principal Secretary of State for Scotland. J. Lord Sommers. Charles Lord Hallifax. J. Lord Bishop of Norwich. Ge. Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells. Robert Harley Speaker, and Principal Secretary of State. Sir Richard Buckley, Baronet. Sir Christopher Wren. Tho. Foley, Esq; Isaac Newton, Esq; President of the Royal Society. William Gore, Esq; Francis Ashton, Esq; Mr. John Flamstead, Ast. Reg. John Hutton, } Tancred Robinson, } M. D. D. Hans Sloane. }}

NO. 9, A.D. 1709, AMSTERDAM

APICII C{OE}LII DE OPSONIIS ET CONDIMENTIS, SIVE ARTE COQUINARIA, LIBRI DECEM. CUM ANNOTATIONIBUS MARTINI LISTER, E MEDICIS DOMESTICIS SERENISSIMAE MAJE STATIS REGINAE ANNAE, ET NOTIS SELECTIORIBUS, VARIISQUE LECTIONIBUS INTEGRIS, HUMELBERGII, BARTHII, REINESII, A. VAN DER LINDEN, & ALIORUM, UT & VARIARUM LECTIONUM LIBELLO. EDITIO SECUNDA. LONGE AUCTIOR ATQUE EMENDATIOR. AMSTELODAMI, APUD JANSSONIO-WAESBERGIOS. M D C C I X.

Small 8vo. Title in red and black. Dedication addressed to Martinus Lister by Theod. Jans. [sonius] of Almeloveen; the preface, M. Lister to the Reader, and the "Judicia et Testimonia de Apicio" by Olaus Borrichius and Albertus Fabricius occupy seventeen leaves. The ten books of Apicius, with the many notes by Lister, Humelberg and others, commence with page 1 and finish on page 277. Variae Lectiones, 9 leaves; Index, 12 leaves, none numbered.

Vicaire, 32; Pennell, p. 112; G.-Drexel, No. 164. "Edition assez estimee. On peut l'annexer a la collection des Variorum d'apres M. Graesse, Tresor des Livres rares et precieux."—Vicaire. Our copy is in the original full calf gold stamped binding, with the ex libris of James Maidment.

The notes by Lister are more copious in this edition, which is very esteemed and is said to have been printed in 100 copies only, but there is no proof of this.

Typographically an excellent piece of work that would have done justice the Elzevirs.

NO. 10, A.D. 1787, MARKTBREIT

CAELII APICII DE OPSONIIS ET CONDIMENTIS SIVE ARTE COQUINARIA LIBRI X CUM LECTIONIBUS VARIIS ATQUE INDICE EDITIT JOANNES MICHAEL BERNHOLD COMES PALATINATUS CAESAREUS, PHIL. ET MED. D. SERENISSIMO MARCHIONI BRAN DENBURGICO-ONOLDINO-CULBACENSI A CONSILIIS AULAE, PHYSICUS SUPREMA RUM PRAEFECTURARUM VFFENHEMENSIS ET CREGLINGENSIS, ACADEMIAE IMPERIALI NATURAE SCRUTATORUM ADSCRIPTUS.

The first edition. The title page has a conspicuously blank space for the date etc. of the publication, but this is found at the foot of p. 81, where one reads: Marcobraitae, Excudebat Joan. Val. Knenlein, M. D. CC. LXXXVII. 8vo. Fine large copy, bound in yellow calf, gilt, with dentelles on edges and inside, by J. Clarke, the binding stamped on back, 1800. Dedication and preface, pp. XIV. The ten books of Apicius commence with p. 1 and finish on p. 81, with the date, as above. Index capitulum, pp. 82-85; Lectiones Variantes collectae ex Editione Blasii Lanciloti, pp. 86-108, at the end of same: "Sedulo hae Variantes ex Blasii Lanciloti editione sunt excerpta ab Andrea Goezio Scholae Sebaldinae Norimbergiensis Collega." Variantes Lectiones, Lib. I. Epimeles, pp. 109-112, with a note at the head of the same that these variants occur in the Vatican MS. These four pages are repeated in the next chapter, pp. 113-130, "Variae Lectiones Manuscripti Vaticani," headed by the same note, the text of which is herewith given in full. Bernhold states that these Variae Lectiones have been taken from the second Lister edition (No. 8) where they are found following p. 277. The first Lister edition does not contain these Variae, nor does Lister have the Variantes ex Blasii Lanciloti. The following note to the Vatican variants appears in the second Lister edition also:

"Apicii collatio cum antiquissimo codice, literis fere iisdem, quibus Pandectae Florentinae, scripto; qui seruatur hodie Romae in Bibliotheca Vaticana, inter libros MSS., qui fuere Ducis Vrbinatium, sed, nostris temporibus extincta illa familia Ducali, quae Ducatum istum a Romanis Pontificibus in feudum tenuerat, Vrbino Romam translati, et separato loco in bibliotheca Vaticana respositi sunt. Contulit Henricus Volkmarus [Lister: Volkmas] Scherzerus, Lipsiensis. E bibliotheca Marquardii Gudii ad I. A. Fabricium, et, ex huius dono, ad Theodorum Ianssonium ab Almeloueen transmigrauere; qui illas suae, Amstelodami 1709 8vo in lucem prolatae; Apicii editioni inseri curauit."

On pp. 131-154 are found the Lectiones Variantes Humelbergianae, and on pp. 155-156 the Lectiones differentes etc. On pp. 157-228 the Index Vocabulorum ac Rerum notabiliorum etc.; on pp. 229-30 the Notandum adhuc. One blank leaf.

Described by Vicaire, 33, who has only seen the 1791 edition; G.-Drexel, No. 165; Brunet I. 343. Neither Vicaire nor Georg-Drexel have the date and place of publication, which in our copy is hidden on p. 81.

Georg reads Apicii C{oe}lii instead of the above. On the fly leaf the autograph of G. L. Fournier, Bayreuth, 1791.

Bernhold has based his edition upon Lister and on the edition by Blasius Lancilotus, Milan, 1490, (our No. 2, which see.) Aside from the preface in which Bernhold names this and other Apicius editions, unknown to the bibliographers, the editor has not added any of his own observations. Being under the influence of Lister, he joins the English editor in the condemnation of Torinus. His work is valuable because of the above mentioned variants.

NO. 11, A.D. 1791, LUeBECK

[Same as above] The Second Edition. Vicaire, 33. not in G.-Drexel nor Pennell.

NO. 12, A.D. 1800, ANSBACH

APITIUS C{OE}LIUS DE RE CULINARIA. Ed. Bernhold. 8vo. Ansbachii, 1800.

Ex Georg, No. 1076; not in Vicaire nor in Pennell. Though listed by Georg, it is not in the Drexel collection.

NO. 13, A.D. 1852, VENICE

APITIUS CAELIUS DELLE VIVANDE E CONDIMENTI OVVERO DELL' ARTE DE LA CUCINA. VOLGARIZZAMENTO CON ANNOTATIONI DI G. BASEGGIO.

8vo, pp. 238. With the original Latin text. Venezia, 1852, Antonelli.

Ex Georg-Drexel, No. 1077.

NO. 14, A.D. 1867, HEIDELBERG

APICI CAELI DE RE COQUINARIA LIBRI DECEM. NOVEM CODICUM OPE ADIUTUS, AUXIT, RESTI TUIT, EMENDAVIT, ET CORREXIT, VARIARUM LECTIONUM PARTE POTISSIMA ORNAVIT, STRIC TIM ET INTERIM EXPLANAVIT CHR. THEOPHIL. SCHUCH. HEIDELBERGAE, 1867.

8vo. pp. 202.

Ex Vicaire, 33; Not in G.-Drexel, not in Pennell.

NO. 15, A.D. 1874

[The same] EDITIO SECUNDA HEIDELBERGAE, 1874, [Winter].

Although G.-Drexel, No. 1075, reads Apitius C{oe}lius, our copy agrees with the reading of Vicaire, col. 889, appendix. Not in Pennell. Brandt (Untersuchungen [No. 29] p. 6) calls Schuch Wunderlicher Querkopf. He is correct. The Schuch editions are eccentric, worthless.

NO. 16, A.D. 1909, LEIPZIG

DAS APICIUS-KOCHBUCH AUS DER ALTROeMISCHEN KAISERZEIT. Ins Deutsche uebersetzt und bearbeitet von Richard Gollmer. Mit Nachbildungen alter Kunstblaetter, Kopfleisten und Schlusstuecke. Breslau und Leipzig bei Alfred Langewort, 1909. 8vo. pp. 154.

NO. 17, A.D. 1911, LEIPZIG

APICIUS CAELIUS: ALTROeMISCHE KOCHKUNST IN ZEHN BUeCHERN. Bearbeitet und ins Deutsche uebersetzt von Eduard Danneil, Herzoglich Altenburgischer Hoftraiteur. Leipzig: 1911: Herausgabe und Verlag: Kurt Daeweritz, Herzoglich Altenburgischer Hoftraiteur Obermeister der Innung der Koeche zu Leipzig und Umgebung. 8vo, pp. XV + 127.

NO. 18, A.D. 1922, LEIPZIG

APICII LIBRORVM X QVI DICVNTVR DE RE COQVINARIA QVAE EXTANT EDIDERVNT C. GIARRATANO ET FR. VOLLMER LIPSIAE IN AEDIBVS B. G. TEVBNERI MCMXXII.

NO. 19, A.D. 1933, PARIS

LES DIX LIVRES DE CUISINE D'APICIUS traduits du latin pour la Premiere fois et commentes par Bertrand Guegan. Paris Rene Bonnel Editeur rue Blanche, No. 8.

No date (in fine October 16th, 1933). Three blank leaves, false title; on verso, facing the title page (!) "du meme auteur"—a full-page advertisement of the author's many-sided publications, past and future. Title page, verso blank. On p. ix Introduction, a lengthy discourse on dining in ancient times, including a mention of Apician manuscripts and editions. This commences on p. Li with Les Manuscrits d'Apicius. The Introduction finishes on p. Lxxviii. On p. 1 Les Dix Livres d'Apicius, on p. 2 a facsimile in black of the incipit of the Vatican manuscript, Apiciana II. On p. 3 commences the translation into French of the Apician text, finishing on p. 308. Table Analytique (index) pp. 309-322. Follow three unnumbered sheets, on the first page of which is the Justification du tirage, with the date of printing and the printer's name, Durand of Chartres. The copies printed are numbered from 1 to 679. The copy before us is No. 2; copies 1 to 4 are printed on Montval vellum, 5 to 29 on Dutch Pannekoek vellum, the rest, 30 to 679 on Vidalon vellum paper.

Unfortunately, the present work did not reach us until after ours had gone to press. The text of this edition, the first to appear in the French language, could not be considered in our work, for this reason.

However, a few casual remarks about it may be in order here.

A hasty perusal reveals the disconcerting fact that the editor has been influenced by and has followed the example of Schuch by the adoption of his system of numbering the recipes. We do not approve of his inclusion of the excerpts of Vinidarius in the Apician text.

The observations presented in this edition are rich and varied. The material, comprising the Introduction and also the explanatory notes to the recipes are interesting, copious and well-authenticated. The editor reveals himself to be a better scholar, well-read in the classics, than a practical cook, well-versed in kitchen practice. Frequently, for instance, he confounds liquamen with garum, the age-old shortcoming of the Apician scholars.

The advertisement facing the title page of this work is misplaced, disturbing.

Nevertheless, we welcome this French version which merits a thorough study; this we hope to publish at some future date. Any serious and new information on Apicius is welcome and much needed to clear up the mysteries. The advent of a few additional cooks on the scene doesn't matter. Let them give lie to the old proverb that too many cooks spoil the broth. Apicius has been so thoroughly scrambled during the sixteen-hundred years preceding his first printing which started the scholars after him. So far, with the exception of a few minor instances, they have done remarkably well. The complete unscrambling can be done only by many new cooks, willing to devote much pain and unremunerative, careful, patient work in discovering new evidence and adding it to what there is already, to arrive at the truth of the matter.

NO. 20, A.D. 1926-1936, CHICAGO

Apicius, J. D. Vehling, the present edition.

DESCRIPTION OF COMMENTARIES

NO. 21, A.D. 1531, FRANKFORT

DE RE COQUINARIA. VON SPEISEN. Natuerlichen und Kreuterwein, aller Verstandt. Vber den Zusatz viler bewerter Kuenst, insonders fleissig gebessert und corrigirt aus Apitio, Platina, Varrone, Bapt. Fiera cet.'; Francofurti, apud Egenolfum, 1531, 4to.

Ex Bernhold, p. XIV, unknown to the bibliographers. The above is related to the following two works. Apparently, all three have little bearing on Apicius.

NO. 22, A.D. 1534, FRANKFORT

POLYONYMI SYNGRAPHEI SCHOLA APICIANA. Ibid. 1534, 4to.

Ex Bernhold, p. XIV., unknown to the bibliographers. Copy in the Baron Pichon collection, No. 569.

NO. 23, AD. 1535, ANTWERP

SCHOLA APITIANA, EX OP TIMIS QVIBVS DAM AUTHORIBUS DILIGEN TER AC NOUITER CONSTRU CTA, AUTHORE POLYO NIMO SYNGRA PHEO. A C GESSERE DIA LOGI ALIQUOT D. ERASMI RO TERODAMI, & ALIA QUAEDAM LECTU IUCUNDISSIMA. VAENEUNT ANTUERPIAE IN AEDI BUS IOANNIS STEELSIJ. I. G. 1535. Small 8vo. Title in beautiful woodcut border. [in fine] TYPIS IOAN. GRAPHEI. M.D.XXXV.

Pagination A-I 4, on verso of I 4, device of Io. Steels, Concordia, with doves on square and astronomical globe. On verso of title, In Scholam Apitianam Praefatio. Sheet A3 Mensam Amititiae Sacram esse, etc. On sheet A6 The dialogue by Erasmus of Rotterdam between Apitivs and Spvdvs to verso of sheet A8; follows: Conviviarvm qvis nvmervs esse debeat [etc.] ex Aulo Gellio; Praecepta C{oe}narvm by Horace; De Ciborvm Ratione by Michaele Savonarola [Grandfather of the great Girolamo S.]; on sheet C5 De Cibis Secvndae Mensae, by Paulus Aegineta; and a number of other quotations from ancient and medieval authors, partly very amusing. The Apician matter seems to be entirely fictitious.

In the collection of the author. Vicaire, 701, who also describes in detail the 1534 edition printed by Egenolph but which is not the same as the above in text.

NO. 24, A.D. 1831, HEIDELBERG

FLORA APICIANA. Dierbach, J. H. Ein Beitrag zur naeheren Kenntniss der Nahrungsmittel der alten Roemer. Heidelberg, 1831, Groos. 8vo.

NO. 25, A.D. 1868, LONDON

H. C. COOTE: THE CUISINE BOURGEOISE OF ANCIENT ROME. Archaeologia, vol. XLI.

Ex Bibliotheca A. Shircliffe.

NO. 26, A.D. 1912, NAPLES

CESARE GIARRATANO: I CODICI DEI LIBRI DE RE COQUINARIA DI CELIO. Naples, 1912, Detken & Rocholl.

NO. 27, AD. 1920

FRIEDRICH VOLLMER: STUDIEN ZU DEM ROeMISCHEN KOCHBUCHE VON APICIUS. Vorgetragen am 7. Februar 1920. Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-philologische und historische Klasse Jahrgang, 1920, 6. Abhandlung. Muenchen, 1920. Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission des G. Franzschen Verlags (J. Roth).

NO. 28, A.D. 1921

G. STERNAJOLO: CODICES VRBINATI LATINI.

NO. 29, AD. 1927

UNTERSUCHUNGEN ZUM ROeMISCHEN KOCHBUCHE Versuch einer Loesung der Apicius-Frage von Edward Brandt, Leipzig, Dietrich'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1927. Philologus, Supplementband XIX, Heft III. 164 pp.

Dr. Edward Brandt, the philologist of Munich, is the latest of the Apician commentators. His researches are quite exhaustive. While not conclusive (as some of the problems will perhaps never be solved) he has shed much new light on the vexatious questions of the origin and the authors of our old Roman cookery book.

APICIANAE FINIS



{Illustration: CANTHARUS, WINE CUP WITH HANDLES

Elaborate decoration of Bacchic motifs: wine leaves and masks of satyrs. Hildesheim Treasure.}



INDEX and VOCABULARY

A

Abalana, Abellana, hazelnut, see Avellana

Abbreviations, explanation of, p. xv

ABDOMEN, sow's udder, belly, fat of lower part of belly, figur. Gluttony, intemperance

ABROTANUM, —ONUM, —ONUS the herb lad's love; or, according to most Southernwood. ABROTONUM is also a town in Africa

Absinth. ABSINTHIUM, the herb wormwood. The Romans used A. from several parts of the world. {Rx} 3, also APSINTHIUM

ABSINTHIATUS, —UM, flavored with wormwood, {Rx} 3

ABSINTHITES, wine tempered or mixed with wormwood; modern absinth or Vermouth, cf. {Rx} 3

ABSINTHIUM ROMANUM, {Rx} 3

ABUA, a small fish; see APUA, {Rx} 138, 139, 147

ACER, ACEO, ACIDUM, to be or to make sour, tart

ACETABULUM, a "vinegar" cruet: a small measure, equivalent to 15 Attic drachms; see Measures

ACETUM, vinegar —— MULSUM, mead

ACICULA, ACUS, the needle fish, or horn-back, or horn-beak; a long fish with a snout sharp like a needle; the gar-fish, or sea-needle

ACIDUM, sour; same as ACER

ACINATICIUS, a costly raisin wine

ACINOSUS, full of kernels or stones

ACINUS, —UM, a grain, or grape raisin berry or kernel

ACIPENSER, a large fish, sturgeon, {Rx} 145; also see STYRIO

ACOR, —UM, sourness, tartness; the herb sweetcane, gardenflag, galangale

ACRIMONIA, acidity, tartness, sourness; harshness of taste

ACUS, same as ACICULA

Adjustable Table, illustration, p. 138

ADULTERAM, "tempting" dish, {Rx} 192

Adulterations of food in antiquity, pp. 33, 39, seq. 147; {Rx} 6, 7, 9, 15, 17, 18. Also see Cookery, deceptive

Advertising cooked ham, {Rx} 287

Advertising ancient hotels, p. 6

Aegineta, Paulus, writer on medicine and cookery, see Apiciana, No. 5-6

AENEUM, a "metal" cooking utensil, a CACCABUS, which see; AENEUM VAS, a mixing bowl; AENEA PATELLA, a pewter, bronze or silver service platter. Aeno Coctus, braised, sometimes confused with oenococtum, stewed in wine

AEROPTES, fowl, birds; the correct title of Book VI, see p. 141

Aethiopian Cumin {Rx} 35

"AFFE" (Ger.) Monkey; {Rx} 55; also see Caramel Coloring

AGITARE (OVA), to stir, to beat (eggs)

AGNUS, IN AGNO, lamb; AGNINUS, pertaining to L. {Rx} 291 seq., 355, 364, 495 —— COPADIA AGNINA, {Rx} 355 seq. —— AGNI COCTURA, {Rx} 358 —— ASSUS, {Rx} 359 —— AGNUM SIMPLICEM, {Rx} 495 —— TARPEIANUS, {Rx} 363

AGONIA, cattle sacrificed at the festivals: only little of the victims was wasted at religious ceremonies. The priests, after predicting the future from the intestines, burned them but sold the carcass to the innkeeper and cooks of the POPINA, hence the name. These eating places of a low order did a thriving business with cheaply bought meats which, however, usually were of the best quality. In Pompeii such steaks were exhibited in windows behind magnifying glasses to attract the rural customer

Albino, writer, p. 10

ALBUM, ALBUMEN, white; —— OVORUM, the "whites" of egg; —— PIPER, white pepper, etc.

ALEX, (ALEC, HALEC), salt water, pickle, brine, fish brine. Finally, the fish itself when cured in A. cf. MURIA

Alexandria, the city founded by Alexander the Great, important Mediterranean harbor. A. was a rival of Rome and Athens in Antiquity, famous for its luxury

Alexandrine dishes {Rx} 75, 348, seq.

ALICA, spelt. {Rx} 200

ALICATUM, any food treated with ALEX, which see

ALLIATUM, a garlic sauce, consisting of a puree of pounded garlic whipped up with oil into a paste of a consistency of mayonnaise, a preparation still popular in the Provence today; finally, anything flavored with garlic or leeks

ALLIUM, garlic; also leek. Fr. AILLE

Almonds, AMYGDALA, peeling and bleaching of A. {Rx} 57

AMACARUS, sweet-marjoram, feverfew

AMBIGA, a small vessel in the shape of a pyramid

AMBOLATUS, unidentified term; p. 172; {Rx} 57, 59

Amerbach Manuscript, Apiciana XIV

AMMI, (AMMIUM, AMI, AMIUM), cumin

AMURCA (AMUREA), the lees of oil

AMYGDALA (—UM) Almonds, {Rx} 57; OLEUM AMYGDALIUM, almond oil

AMYLARE (AMULARE), to thicken with flour. AMYLATUM (AMULATUM) that which is thickened with flour. Wheat or rice flour and fats or oil usually were used for this purpose, corresponding to our present roux. However, the term was also extended to the use of eggs for the purpose of thickening fluids, thus becoming equivalent to the present liaison, used for soups and sauces. Hence AMYLUM and AMULUM, which is also a sort of frumenty

Anacharsis, the Scythian, writer. He described a banquet at Athens during the Periclean age. pp. 3, 7

ANAS, a duck or drake; {Rx} 212-17. ANATEM, {Rx} 212; ANATEM EX RAPIS, {Rx} 214

Anchovy, a small fish; {Rx} 147; cf. APUA. —— forcemeat, {Rx} 138; —— sauce and GARUM (which see) {Rx} 37; —— omelette {Rx} 147

ANET(H)ATUM, flavored with dill; ANET(H)UM, dill, also anise

ANGUILLA, eel, {Rx} 466-7, 484. cf. CONGRIO

ANGULARUS, a "square" dish or pan

ANISUM, anise, pimpinella

ANSER, goose, gander; IN ANSERE, {Rx} 234; —— JUS CANDIDUM {Rx} 228

ANTIPASTO, "Before the Meal," modern Italian appetizer; the prepared article usually comes in cans or glasses, consisting of tunny, artichokes, olives, etc., preserved in oil

APER, see APRUS

APEXABO, a blood sausage; cf. LONGANO

Aphricocks, {Rx} 295

APHROS, {Rx} 295

APHYA, see APUA

Apician Cheesecakes, p. 9 —— cookery, influence, p. 16, 23 —— Archetypus, p. 19 —— manuscripts, p. 19, p. 253, seq. —— Terminology, p. 22 —— dishes, compared with modern dishes, p. 23 —— sauces, p. 24 —— Style of writing, p. 26 —— research, p. 34 seq.

Apiciana, Diagram of, p. 252

Apicius, pp. 7, 9 —— The man, p. 9 —— Athenaeus on, p. 9 —— and Platina, p. 9 —— Expedition to find crawfish, p. 9 —— ships oysters, p. 10 —— school, p. 10 —— death, pp. 10, 11 —— reflecting Roman conditions, pp. 14, 15 —— authenticity of, pp. 18, 19 —— writer, p. 26, {Rx} 176, 436 —— confirmed by modern science, p. 33 —— editors as cooks, p. 34 seq.

Apion, writer, quoted by Athenaeus, p. 9

APIUM, celery, smallage, parsley. {Rx} 104

APOTHERMA (—UM, APODERMUM) hot porridge, gruel, pudding. {Rx} 57; cf. TISANA

APPARATUS, preparation; —— MENSAE, getting dinner ready

Appetizers. {Rx} 174 and others. According to Horace, eggs were the first dishes served. The "moveable appetizer" of Apicius is very elaborate, p. 210

Appert, Francois, {Rx} 24, father of the modern canning methods

Apples, {Rx} 22, 171

APRUS, APRUGNUS, wild boar. {Rx} 329-38. APRINA, PERNA, {Rx} 338, also APER

APUA (ABUA, APHYA), a small kind of fish, anchovy, sprat, whiting, white bait, or minnow. {Rx} 138-9, 146, cf. Pliny. Apua is also a town in Liguria; its inhabitants APUANI

AQUA, water; —— CALIDA, hot w.; —— CISTERNINA, well w.; —— MARINA, sea w.; —— NITRATA, soda w. for the cooking of vegetables; —— RECENS; fresh, i.e., not stale w.; —— PLUVIALE, rain w.

AQUALICUS lower part of belly, paunch, ventricle, stomach, maw

Archetypus Fuldensis, manuscript, see Apiciana Diagram

ARCHIMAGIRUS, principal cook, chef, cf. Cooks' names

ARIDA (—US, —UM) dry; —— MENTHA, dry mint

ARTEMISIA, the herb mugwort, motherwort, tarragon

ARTOCREAS, meat pie

ARTOPTES, Torinus' title of Book II; better: SARCOPTES, minces, minced meats

ARTYMA, spice; cf. CONDIMENTUM

Asa foetida, use of —— {Rx} 15, p. 23

ASARUM, the Herb foalbit, foalfoot, coltsfoot, wild spikenard

ASCALONICA CEPA, "scallion," young onion

Asparagus, ASPARAGUS, p. 188, {Rx} 72, —— and figpecker, {Rx} 132, —— custard pie, {Rx} 133

ASSATURA, a roast, also the process of roasting. {Rx} 266-270

ASSUS, roast

ASTACUS, a crab or lobster

Athenaeus, writer, pp. 3, seq. —— on Apicius, p. 10

Athene, Dish illustration, p. 158

ATRIPLEX, the herb orage, or orach

ATRIUM, living room in a Roman residence, formerly used for kitchen purposes, hence the name, "black room," because of the smoky walls. Like all simple things then and now, the Atrium often developed into a magnificently decorated court, with fountains and marble statues, and became a sort of parlor to receive the guests of the house

ATTAGENA (ATAGENA), heath cock, a game bird. {Rx} 218, seq.

AURATA, a fish, "golden" dory, red snapper. {Rx} 157, 461, 462

AVELLANA, hazelnut, filbert, Fr. AVELLINE —— NUX, —— NUCLEUS, kernel of f. {Rx} 297 and in the list of the Excerpta

AVENA, a species of bearded grass, haver-grass, oats, wild oats

AVIBUS, IN— {Rx} 220, 21, 24, 27

AVICULARIUS, bird keeper, poulterer

AVIS, bird, fowl; AVES ESCULENTAE, edible birds. —— HIRCOSAE, ill-smelling birds, {Rx} 229-30, —— NE LIQUESCANT, {Rx} 233

B

BACCA, berry, seed. —— MYRTHEA, myrtle berry; —— RUTAE, rue berry; —— LAUREA, laurel berry, etc.

Bacon, {Rx} 285-90; see also SALSUM

BAIAE, a town, watering place of the ancients, for which many dishes are named. {Rx} 205. BAIANUM pertaining to BAIAE; hence EMPHRACTUM ——, FABAE, etc. {Rx} 202, 205, 432; Baian Seafood Stew, {Rx} 431

Bakery in Pompeii, illustration, p. 2

Bantam Chicken, {Rx} 237

Barracuda, a fish, {Rx} 158

Barley Broth, {Rx} 172, 200, 247

BARRICA, {Rx} 173

Barthelemy, J. J., writer, translator of Anacharsis, p. 8

Baseggio, G., editor, Apiciana, No. 13, p. 270

BASILICUM, basil

Bavarian Cabbage, {Rx} 87

Beans, {Rx} 96, 189, 194-8, 247; Green —— {Rx} 247; —— saute, {Rx} 203; —— in mustard, {Rx} 204 —— Baian style, {Rx} 202 —— "Egyptian," see COLOCASIUM

Beauvilliers, A., French cook; cf. Styrio

Beef, p. 30; shortage of —— diet, p. 30 —— "Beef Eaters," p. 30 —— dishes, {Rx} 351, seq.

Beets, {Rx} 70, 97, 98, 183 —— named for Varro, {Rx} 70, 97, 98

Bernardinus, of Venice, printer, p. 258

Bernhold, J. M., editor, Apiciana, Nos. 2-3, 12-14, pp. 258, seq.

BETA, beet, which see BETACEOS VARRONES, {Rx} 70

Bibliographers of Apicius, see Apiciana

Birds, Book VI, {Rx} 210-227; treatment of strong-smelling —— {Rx} 229, 230

BLITUM, a pot herb, the arrack or orage, also spinach, according to some interpreters

Boar, wild, {Rx} 329-38, p. 314

Boiled Dinners, {Rx} 125

BOLETAR, a dish for mushrooms, {Rx} 183

BOLETUS, mushroom, {Rx} 309-14

Bordelaise, {Rx} 351

Borrichius, Olaus, p. 268

BOTELLUS, (dim. of BOTULUS) small sausage, {Rx} 60. BOTULUS, a sausage, meat pudding, black pudding, {Rx} 60, 61, 172

BOUILLABAISSE, a fish stew of Marseilles, {Rx} 431, 481

Bouquet garni, {Rx} 138

BOVES, Beef cattle; cf. BUBULA

Bowls for mixing wine, etc., see Crater —— for fruit or dessert, illustration, p. 61

Brain Sausage, {Rx} 45 —— Custard, {Rx} 128 —— and bacon, {Rx} 148 —— and chicken with peas, {Rx} 198

Brandt, Edward, Editor, Commentator, {Rx} 29, 170, p. 273

BRASSICA, cabbage, kale; —— CAMPESTRA, turnip; —— OLERACEA, cabbage and kale; —— MARINA, sea kale (?)

Bread, Alexandrine, {Rx} 126; Picentian ——, {Rx} 125. The methods of grinding flour and baking is illustrated with our illustrations of the Casa di Forno of Pompeii and the Slaves grinding flour, which see, pp. 142, 149. Apicius has no directions for baking, an art that was as highly developed in his days as was cookery

BREVIS PIMENTORUM, facsimile, p. 234

Brissonius, writer, quoting Lambecius, {Rx} 376

Broiler and Stove, illustration, p. 182

Broth, see LIQUAMEN; Barley ——, {Rx} 172, 200, 201 —— How to redeem a spoiled, {Rx} 9

BUBULA, Beef, flesh of oxen, p. 30, {Rx} 351, 352

BUBULUS CASEUS, cow's cheese

BUCCA, BUCCEA, mouth, cheek; also a bite, a morsel, a mouth-full; Fr. BOUCHEE; BUCELLA (dim.) a small bite, a dainty bit, delicate morsel; hence probably, Ger. "Buss'l" a little kiss and "busseln," to spoon, to kiss, in the Southern German dialect

BUCCELLATUM, a biscuit, Zwieback, soldier's bread, hard tack

BULBUS, a bulbous root, a bulb, onion, {Rx} 285, 304-8

BULBI FRICTI, {Rx} 308

BULLIRE, to boil; Fr. BOUILLIR

BUTYRUM, butter. Was little used in ancient households, except for cosmetics. Cows were expensive, climate and sanitary conditions interfered with its use in the Southern kitchen. The Latin butyrum is said to derive from the German Butter

C

CABBAGE, {Rx} 87-92, 103; p. 188 Bavarian, {Rx} 87 Ingenious way of cooking, {Rx} 88 Chartreuse, {Rx} 469

CACABUS, CACCABUS, a cook pot, marmite; see OLLA. Illustrations, pp. 183, 209, 223, 235. Hence: CACCABINA, dish cooked in a caccabus. See also SALACACCABIA, {Rx} 468. I Exc. 470

CAELIUS, see Coelius

CAEPA, CEPA, onion; —— ARIDA, fresh onion; —— ROTUNDA, round onion; —— SICCA, dry o.; —— ASCALONICA, young o. "scallion;" —— PALLACANA or PALLICANA, a shallot, a special Roman variety

Calamary, cuttlefish, {Rx} 405, p. 343

CALAMENTHUM, cress, watercress

CALLUM, CALLUS (—— PORCINUM) tough skin, bacon skin, cracklings. {Rx} 9, 251, 255

CAMERINUM, town in Umbria, {Rx} 3, where Vermouth was made

CAMMARUS MARINUS, a kind of crab-fish, {Rx} 43

CANABINUM, CANNABINUM, hemp, hempen

CANCER, crab

Canning, {Rx} 23-24

CANTHARUS, illustrations, p. 231; p. 274

CAPON, {Rx} 166, 249; CAPONUM TESTICULI, {Rx} 166

CAPPAR, caper

CAPPARA, purslane, portulaca

CAPPARUS, CARABUS, {Rx} 397

CAPRA, she-goat, also mountain goat, chamois; Ger. GEMSE; {Rx} 346-8

Caramel coloring, {Rx} 55, 73, 119, 124, 146

CARDAMOMUM, cardamom, aromatic seed

CARDAMUM, nasturtium, cress

Cardoons, {Rx} 112-4

CARDUS, CARDUUS, cardoon, edible thistle, {Rx} 112-3

Careme, Antonin, The most talented French cook of the post-revolution period; his chartreuses compared, {Rx} 186, p. 35

CARENUM, CAROENUM, wine or must boiled down one third of its volume to keep it. {Rx} 35

CAREUM, CARUM, Carraway

CARICA (—— FICUS) a dried fig from Caria, a reduction made of the fig wine was used for coloring sauce, similar to our caramel color, which see

CARIOTA, CARYOTA, a kind of large date, figdate; also a wine, a date wine; {Rx} 35

CARO, flesh of animals, {Rx} 10; —— SALSA, pickled meat

CAROTA, CAROETA, carrot; {Rx} 121-3

Carthusian monks, inventors of the CHARTREUSE, {Rx} 68, see also Careme

CARTILAGO, gristle, tendon, cartilage

CARYOPHYLLUS, clove

Casa di Forno, Pompeii, "House of the Oven," illustration, p. 2

CASEUS, cheese; {Rx} 125, 303; —— BUBULUS, cow's cheese; —— VESTINUS, {Rx} 126

CASTANEA, chestnut, {Rx} 183 seq.

Catesby, writer, {Rx} 322

Catfish, {Rx} 426

CATTABIA, see Salacaccabia

Caul Sausage, Kromeski, {Rx} 45

CAULICULOS, {Rx} 87-92; also Col— cul— and coliclus

Cauliflower, {Rx} 87

Caviare, see STYRIO

Celery, {Rx} 104

Celsinus, a Roman, {Rx} 376-7

CENA, COENA, a meal, a repast; CENULA, a light luncheon; —— RECTA, a "regular" meal, a formal dinner, usually consisting of GUSTUS, appetizers and light ENTREES, the CENA proper which is the PIECE DE RESISTANCE and the MENSAE SECUNDAE, or desserts. The main dish was the CAPUT CENAE; the desserts were also called BELLARIA or MENSAE POMORUM, because they usually finished with fruit. Hence Horace's saying "AB OVO USQUE AD MALA" which freely translated and modernized means, "Everything from soup to nuts."

—— AUGURALIS, —— PONTIFICALIS, —— CAPITOLINA, —— PERSICA, ——SYBARITICA, —— CAMPANAE, —— CEREALIS, —— SALIARIS, ——TRIUMPHALIS, —— POLINCTURA are all names for state dinners, official banquets, refined private parties each with its special significance which is hard to render properly into our language except by making a long story of it

—— PHILOSOPHICA, —— PLATONICA, —— LACONICA, —— RUSTICA, ——CYNICA are all more or less skimpy affairs, while the —— ICCI is that of a downright miser. —— HECATES is a hectic meal, ——TERRESTRIS a vegetarian dinner, —— DEUM, a home-cooked meal, and a —— SATURNIA is one without imported dishes or delicacies, a national dinner

—— NOVENDIALIS is the feast given on the ninth day after the burial of a dead man when his ashes were scattered while yet warm and fresh. —— DUBIA, {Rx} 139, is the "doubtful meal" which causes the conscientious physician Lister so much worry

The CENA, to be sure, was an evening meal, the PRANDIUM, a noon-day meal, a luncheon, any kind of meal; the JENTACULUM, a breakfast, an early luncheon; the MERENDA was a snack in the afternoon between the meals for those who had "earned" a bite

There are further CENAE, such as —— DAPSILIS, —— PELLOCIBILIS, —— UNCTA, —— EPULARIS, —— REGALIS, all more or less generous affairs, and our list of classical and sonorous dinner names is by no means exhausted herewith. The variety of these names is the best proof of how seriously a meal was considered by the ancients, how much thought was devoted to its character and arrangements

CEPA, same as CAEPA, onion

CEPAEA, purslane, sea-purslane, portulaca

CEPUROS, Gr., gardener; title of Book III

CERASUM, cherry, Fr. CERISE; Cerasus is a city of Pontus (Black Sea) whence Lucullus imported the cherry to Rome

CEREBRUM, CEREBELLUM, brains, {Rx} 46

CEREFOLIUM, CAEREFOLIUM, chervil, Ger. KERBEL, Fr. CERFEUILLE

Cereto de Tridino, printer, see Tacuinus

CERVUS, stag, venison, {Rx} 339-45

Cesena, a town in Italy where there is an Apicius Ms.; Apiciana XII

CHAMAE, cockles

Chamois, {Rx} 346 seq.

Charcoal used for filtering, {Rx} 1

CHARTREUSE, {Rx} 68, 131, 145a, 186, 469-70; also see Carthusian monks and Careme

"Chasseur," {Rx} 263

Cheese, cottage, {Rx} 303; also see CASEUS

Cheltenham codex, Apiciana I

Cherries, {Rx} 22, see CERASUS

Chestnuts, {Rx} 183-84a

Chicken, PULLUS —— forcemeat, {Rx} 50; —— broth, 51; —— fricasse, 56; —— boiled, 235, 236, 242; —— and dasheens, 244; —— creamed, with paste, 247; —— stuffed, 248, 199, 213-17, 235; —— in cream, 250; —— disjointed, 139, note 1; —— Bantam, 237; —— cold, in its own gravy, 237; —— fried or saute, 236; —— Guinea hen, 239; —— Fricasse Varius, 245; —— a la Fronto, 246; —— Parthian style, 237; —— and leeks, 238; —— with laser, 240; —— roast, 241; —— and pumpkin, 243; —— galantine, 249; —— fried with cream sauce, 250; —— Maryland, Wiener Backhaehndl, 250

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